HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES
CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA
ROCKETLAB cannot assume responsibility, in any manner whatsoever, for the use readers make of the information presented herein or the devices resulting therefrom.
Comments regarding this booklet should be sent to:
Note: The following address has not been verified and may not be current, since it was the address listed in the original text from 1967.
ROCKETLAB Post Office Box 1139 Florence, Oregon 97439
Exhaust plume from small 75-lb thrust water cooled liquidfuel rocket engine. Propellants are gaseous oxygen and methyl alcohol. Official U. S. Navy photograph.
Note: Photograph mentioned was not included in this PDF version due to it’s poor quality (my copy of the book is pretty ragged) and it appears to be the quality of a Xerox copy to start.
Copyright „ 1967 by Leroy J. Krzycki Printed in the United States of America First printing: March 1967
Second printing: March 1971 ISBN 9600-1980-4 PDF version created by Tim Patterson, http://www.rocketry.org/~tim/
HOW to DESIGN, BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKET ENGINES CONTENTS
5 7 12 13 13 17 18 19 20 21 23 26 33 34 39 39 39 48 51 53 55 60 61 63 70 71
INTRODUCTION PROPELLANT CHOICE PROPELLANT PROPERTIES DESIGN EQUATIONS Nozzle Combustion Chamber Chamber Wall Thickness Engine Cooling Heat Transfer Materials Injectors EXAMPLE DESIGN CALCULATION Design FABRICATION TESTING EQUIPMENT Feed System Feed System Components TEST STAND SAFETY EQUIPMENT ENGINE CHECK-OUT AND CALIBRATION IGNITION AND OPERATION THE LAW BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF SUPPLIERS CONVERSION FACTORS ADDITIONAL ONLINE RESOURCES (Added 03/2003)
. and good test equipment operating in a safe manner. test equipment requirements. His normal every day life is. careful workmanship. Gas pressurized propellant tanks and simple propellant flow controls make operation of a small liquid-fuel rocket engine about as simple as operating an automobile engine. is that the amateur is not accustomed to high pressure devices operating near material temperature limits. and safe operating procedures for small liquid-fuel rocket engines.FOREWORD
The rocket engine is a relatively simple device in which the propellants are burned and the resulting high pressure gases are expanded through a specially shaped nozzle to produce thrust. usually and simply. instead. The purpose of this publication is to provide the serious amateur builder with design information. the amateur can build small liquid-fuel rocket engines which will have hours of safe operating life. filled with devices and gadgets operating at low pressures and at low thermal energy levels. When then do so many amateur rocket engines fail or cause injury? The reason. With proper design. fabrication procedures.
HOW to DESIGN. In the combustion chamber the propellants chemically react (burn) to form hot gases which are then accelerated and ejected at high velocity through a nozzle. The propellants usually consist of a liquid oxidizer and a liquid fuel. as shown in Figure 1. The thrust force of a rocket motor is the reaction experienced by the motor structure due to the ejection of the high velocity matter. This is the same phenomenon which pushes a garden hose backward as water squirts from the nozzle or makes a gun recoil when fired. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity.
Figure 1 Typical Rocket Motor
. The combustion chamber is where the burning of propellants takes place at high pressure. and the injector. BUILD and TEST SMALL LIQUID-FUEL ROCKTET ENGINES
A liquid rocket engine employs liquid propellants which are fed under pressure from tanks into a combustion chamber. thereby imparting momentum to the engine. the nozzle. A typical rocket motor consists of the combustion chamber.
a very high gas velocity is desirable. high temperature gas in the combustion chamber into high velocity gas of lower pressure and temperature. The chamber must also be of sufficient length to ensure complete combustion before the gases enter the nozzle. the combustion process. The function of the nozzle is to convert the chemicalthermal energy generated in the combustion chamber into kinetic energy. Since thrust is the product of mass (the amount of gas flowing through the nozzle) and velocity.000 feet per second) can be obtained in rocket nozzles. the chamber and nozzle are usually cooled. The minimum flow area between the convergent and divergent section is called the nozzle throat.
Figure 2 DeLeval Nozzle
. and the high temperature resulting from.The chamber must be strong enough to contain the high pressure generated by. Because of the high temperature and heat transfer. high pressure.000 to 12. Nozzles which perform this seemingly amazing feat are called DeLaval nozzles (after their inventor) and consist of a convergent and divergent section. as shown in Figure 2. Gas velocities from on to two miles per second (5. The nozzle converts the slow moving.
000° – 6. toxic. The drop in temperature of the combustion gases flowing through the nozzle is high and can be as much as 2. The amateur builder of rocket engines on the other hand. Based on experience.The flow area at the end of the divergent section is called the nozzle exit area.000° – 3. reasonably safe and easy to handle. liquid rather than gaseous oxygen is used as the oxidizer. If the rocket engine is being fired at sea level this pressure is about 14. Gaseous oxygen can be readily and inexpensively obtained in pressurized cylinders in almost any community because of its use in oxy-acetylene welding.000° F. They give good performance. and their combustion temperature presents an adequate design challenge to the amateur builder.
. Since the gases in the combustion chamber may be at 5.7 pounds per square inch (psi). Most of the propellant combinations listed are dangerous. however. If the engine is designed for operation at high altitude the exit pressure is less than 14.000° F.
Liquid rocket engines can burn a variety of oxidizer and fuel combinations. the gas (and cylinder) is safe to handle for test stand use. the combustion flame is readily visible. With reasonable precautions. some of which are tabulated in Table I. ROCKETLAB recommends the use of gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer and a hydrocarbon liquid as the fuel. requires propellants that are readily available. In these systems. to be detailed later. The nozzle is usually made long enough (or the exit area is great enough) such that the pressure in the combustion chamber is reduced at the nozzle exit to the pressure existing outside the nozzle. The propellants are used in the Atlas missile and the Saturn space booster.7 psi. and inexpensive. the gas temperature at the nozzle exit is still about 3.000° F. and expensive. Gas pressures are easily regulated with commercial regulators and gas flow rate is easily controlled with commercially available valves.
Safety precautions are already known by most responsible individuals due to wide use of the fuels in internal combustion engines for automobiles and power equipment. and assume. or
.Hydrocarbon fuels. Mixture ratio is defined as the weight flow of oxidizer divider by the weight flow of fuel. All subsequent sections of this publication will refer to. that the propellants to be used in amateur liquid-fuel rocket engines are gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel. are readily available in any community. such as gasoline and alcohol. The flame temperature of hydrocarbon fuels burned in gaseous oxygen at various combustion chamber pressures is shown in Figure 3 for the stoichiometric mixture ratio.
the highest flame temperature is achieved under these conditions.” This condition is less severe on the rocket engine than burning at stoichiometric oxygen-rich conditions.Figure 3 Flame temperature versus chamber pressure at stoichiometric mixture ratio When a stoichiometric ratio is achieved just enough oxygen is present to chemically react with all of the fuel. Figure 4 indicates how the flame temperature varies when combustion chamber pressure is held at a constant value and the mixture ratio is allowed to vary. If a lower flame temperature is desired it is usually better to have more fuel present than oxidizer. this is known as burning “off-ratio” or “fuel rich.
. This graph may be used to determine the propellant flow rate required to produce a certain thrust. is 244 lb of thrust per 1 lb or propellant burned per second. At these conditions the propellant performance. from figure 5.Figure 4 Flame temperature versus mixture ratio at a constant chamber pressure of 300 psi The thrust developed per pound of total propellant burned per second is known as specific impulse and is defined as:
Figure 5 indicates the maximum performance possible from hydrocarbon fuels burned with gaseous oxygen at various chamber pressures with the gas expanded to atmospheric pressure. Suppose you wish to design a rocket engine using gaseous oxygen and gasoline propellants to be burned at a chamber pressure of 200 psi with a thrust of 100 lbs.
5.Figure 5 Isp performance of hydrocarbon fuels with gaseous oxygen.
Since the minimum Isp mixture ratio (r) for oxygen and gasoline is 2. we have
. methyl alcohol.PROPELLANT PROPERTIES
The chemical and physical properties of gaseous oxygen. and gasoline are given in Table II.
and M is the molecular weight of the gas. The nomenclature for the motor design is shown in Figure 6. g. The molecular weight of the hot gaseous products of combustion of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel is about 24.
. Gamma is about 1.32 ft-lb/lb° R. given by R = R / M. R is the universal gas constant equal to 1545.2 for the products of combustion of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel. Gamma. Assuming perfect gas law theory:
where R = gas constant.
Figure 6 Motor Design Configuration
The nozzle throat cross-sectional area may be computed if the total propellant flow rate is known and the propellants and operating conditions have been chosen.DESIGN EQUATIONS
The following section will detail simplified equations for the design of small liquid-fuel rocket motors. is the ratio of gas specific heats and is a thermodynamic variable which the reader is encouraged to read about elsewhere (see Bibliography). so that R is about 65 ft-lb/lb° R.
2 ft/sec/sec. Therefore
Tc is the combustion chamber flame temperature in degrees Rankine (°R). given by
.gc is a constant relating to the earth’s gravitation and is equal to 32. For further calculations the reader may consider the following as constants whenever gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbon fuel propellants are used:
Tt is the temperature of the gases at the nozzle throat. The gas temperature at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to loss of thermal energy in accelerating the gas to local speed of sound (Mach number = 1) at the throat.
This area will then be the nozzle exit area. The pressure of these gases will decrease as energy is used to accelerate the gas and we must now find that area of the nozzle where the gas pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. The pressure at the nozzle throat is less than in the combustion chamber due to acceleration of the gas to the local speed of sound (Mach number =1) at the throat. The mach number at the nozzle exit is given by a perfect gas law expansion expression
Pc is the pressure in the combustion chamber and Patm is atmospheric pressure. or 14. Mach number is the ratio of the gas velocity to the local speed of sound.Pt is gas pressure at the nozzle throat.
The hot gases must now be expanded in the diverging section of the nozzle to obtain maximum thrust.7 psi.
The temperature ratio between the chamber gases and those at the nozzle exit is given by
The nozzle throat area diameter is given by
. the results are tabulated in Table III. we can eliminate the parameters for future design use.2 for gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbon propellant products.
Therefore.The nozzle exit area corresponding to the exit Mach number resulting from the choice of chamber pressure is given by
Since g is fixed at 1.
in cubic inches. L*. which is given by
Where Vc is the chamber volume (including the converging section of the nozzle). To reduce losses due to flow velocity of gases within the chamber. and At is the nozzle throat area (in2). The nozzle divergence half-angle. For gaseous oxygen/hydrocarbon fuels. L* is really a substitute for determining the chamber residence time of the reacting propellants. should be no greater than 15° to prevent nozzle internal flow losses. The combustion chamber cross-sectional area is given by
The chamber volume is given by
. a. the combustion chamber cross-sectional area should be at least three time the nozzle throat area. an L* of 50 to 100 inches is appropriate.
A parameter describing the chamber volume required for complete combustion is the characteristic chamber length.and the exit diameter is given by
A good value for the nozzle convergence half-angle b (see Figure 3) is 60°.
therefore. the chamber wall thickness must be sufficient for welding or brazing purposes.
Chamber Wall Thickness
The combustion chamber must be able to withstand the internal pressure of the hot combustion gases.000 psi. The thickness of the chamber wall and nozzle are usually equal. Since the chamber will be a cylindrical shell. The combustion chamber must also be physically attached to the cooling jacket and.
. and stress concentration. and tw is the thickness of the cylinder wall. actually the thickness should be somewhat greater to allow for welding.For small combustion chambers the convergent volume is about 1/10 the volume of the cylindrical portion of the chamber. buckling. A typical material for small water-cooled combustion chambers is copper. The thickness of the combustion chamber wall is therefore given by
This is the minimum thickness. the working stress in the wall is given by
Where P is the pressure in the combustion chamber (neglecting the effect of coolant pressure on the outside of the shell). D is the mean diameter of the cylinder. so that
The chamber diameter for small combustion chambers (thrust levels less than 75 pounds) should be three to five times the nozzle throat diameter so the injector will have useable face area. for which the allowable working stress is about 8.
The nozzle throat region usually has the highest heat transfer intensity and is. dependent on the jacket material chosen.
The amateur should not consider building un-cooled rocket engines since they can operate for only a short time and their design requires a thorough knowledge of heat and mass transfer engineering. The cooling jacket consists of an inner and outer wall. however. which. Some important empirical design guidelines are available. It is apparent. water is the only coolant recommended. The heat transfer rate of a rocket engine is usually 20 to 200 times that of a good boiler. the most difficult to cool. The complete heat transfer design of a rocket engine is extremely complex and is usually beyond the capabilities of most amateur builders. The space between the walls serves as the coolant passage. However. therefore. and are listed below:
. The energy release per unit chamber volume of a rocket engine is very large.) will usually require walls thicker than those indication by the stress equation. for static tests and for amateur operation. the value of tw will be the minimum thickness since welding factors and design considerations (such as O-ring grooves. A cooling jacket permits the circulation of a coolant. and can be 250 times that of a good steam boiler or five times that of a gas turbine combustion chamber. Here again. in the case of flight engines is usually one of the propellants. etc. that the cooling of a rocket engine is a difficult and exacting task. therefore. The combustion chamber and nozzle definitely require cooling. A new allowable stress value must be used in Equation (22). Cooled rocket motors have provision for cooling some or all metal parts coming into contact with the hot combustion gases. The injector is usually self-cooled by the incoming flow of propellants.Equation (22) can also be used to calculate the wall thickness of the water cooling jacket. The combustion chamber forms the inner wall and another concentric but larger cylinder provides the outer wall.
A steady flow of cooling water is essential. melt. 3. Extend the water cooling jacket beyond the face of the injector. The consequent failure is caused because of the sharp temperature rise in the wall caused by excessive heat transfer to the boiling coolant. or damage the wall material or by raising the wall temperature on the liquid coolant side so as to vaporize the liquid next to the wall. Material failure is usually caused by either raising the wall temperature on the gas side so as to weaken.1.
Use water as the coolant. Use copper for the combustion chamber and nozzle walls. 6. 4.
The largest part of the heat transferred from the hot chamber gases to the chamber walls is by convection. Water flow rate should be high enough so that boiling does not occur.
. 2. Water flow velocity in the cooling jacket should be 20 to 50 feet per second. 5. The chamber walls have to be kept at a temperature such that the wall material strength is adequate to prevent failure. The amount of heat transferred by conduction is small and the amount transferred by radiation is usually less than 25% of the total.
Btu/sec average heat transfer rate of chamber. Btu/in2-sec heat transfer area. The wall material must be capable of high heat transfer rates (which means good thermal conductivity) yet. °F
The use of this equation will be illustrated in the section Example Design Calculation. Material requirements are critical only in those parts which come into direct contact with propellant gases. lb/sec specific heat of coolant. have adequate strength to withstand the chamber combustion pressure. chemical erosion. Btu/lb°F temperature of coolant leaving jacket. Other motor components can be made of conventional materials. The total heat transferred from the chamber to the cooling water is given by
where Q q A ww cp T Ti = = = = = = = total heat transferred.In water-cooled chambers the transferred heat is absorbed by the water. and high stress. °F temperature of coolant entering jacket. high gas velocity.
. The water must have an adequate heat capacity to prevent boiling of the water at any point in the cooling jacket.
The combustion chamber and nozzle walls have to withstand relatively high temperature. at the same time. in2 coolant flow rate.
Experience with a wide variety of rocket engine designs leads to the following recommendations for amateur rocket engines: 1. the use of more commonplace (and much less expensive!) metals and fabrication techniques is quite possible.
4. Even a small pinhole in the chamber wall will almost immediately (within one second) open into a large hole because of the hot chamber gases (4000-6000°F) will oxidize or melt the adjacent metal. 3. should be fabricated from brass or stainless steel. can easily cause engine failure. from copper. However. this is not a severe restriction to the amateur builder. Exotic metals and difficult fabrication techniques are used in today’s space and missile rocket engines. Expert machine and welding work is essential to produce a safe and useable rocket engine. except that a flight weight engine will not result. providing a lightweight structure absolutely required for efficient launch and flight vehicles. final burn-through and engine destruction are extremely rapid. Shoddy or careless workmanship. Since almost all amateur rocket firing should be conducted on a static test stand. which is then blown away exposing new metal to the hot gases. Those injector parts in contact with the hot chamber gases should also be machined from copper. or poor welds.
. The cooling jacket and those injector parts not in contact with the hot propellant gases.Once the wall material of an operating rocket engine begins to fail. These are advanced metals and fabrication techniques are far outside the reach of the serious amateur builder. 2. The combustion chamber and nozzle should be machined in one piece.
ft2 pressure drop across orifice. There are two types of injectors which the amateur builder can consider for small engine design. causing good mixing and efficient combustion. However. especially in soft copper. A disadvantage of this type of injector is that extremely small holes are required for small engine flow rates and the hydraulic characteristics and equations normally used to predict injector parameters do not give good results for small orifices. for example)
where w A DP r g Cd = = = = = = propellant flow rate. the impingement of the liquid stream with the high velocity gas stream results in diffusion and vaporization. One of these is the impinging stream injector in which the oxidizer and fuel are injected through a number of separate holes so that the resulting streams intersect with each other. The fuel stream will impinge with the oxidizer stream and both will break up into small droplets.Injectors
The function of the injector is to introduce the propellants into the combustion chamber in such a way that efficient combustion can occur. lb/sec area of orifice. and a liquid hydrocarbon is used as the fuel. to provide a complete picture of the equations used in rocket engine design. lb/ft3 gravitational constant. we present below the equation for the low of liquid through a simple orifice (a round drilled hole. When gaseous oxygen is used as the oxidizer. 32.2 ft/sec2 orifice discharge coefficient
. The small holes are also difficult to drill. lb/ft2 density of propellant.
The discharge coefficient for a well-shaped simple orifice will usually have a value between 0. Spray nozzles are especially attractive for the amateur builder since several companies manufacture them commercially for oil burners and other applications. solid cone. are usually used in small liquid-fuel rocket engines. The injection pressure drop must be high enough to eliminate combustion instability inside the combustion chamber but must not be so high that the tankage and pressurization system used to supply fuel to the engine is penalized.7. The injection velocity. The amateur need only determine the size and spray characteristics required for his engine design and the correct spray nozzle can then be purchased at a low cost. hollow cone.
. is given by
Injection pressure drops of 70 to 150 psi. or other type of spray sheet can be obtained. A second type of injector is the spray nozzle in which conical. or velocity of the liquid stream issuing from the orifice. When a liquid hydrocarbon fuel is forced through a spray nozzle (similar to those used in home oil burners) the resulting fuel droplets are easily mixed with gaseous oxygen and the resulting mixture readily vaporized and burned. Figure 7 illustrates the two types of injectors.5 and 0. or injection velocities of 50 to 100 ft/sec.
Figure 7 Fuel Injectors for Amateur Rocket Engines.The use of commercial spray nozzles for amateur-built rocket engines is highly recommended.
5. tables. and 5 we determine that the optimum O/F ratio is about 2.
. The total propellant flow rate is given by Equation (3)
Since the mixture ratio. Step 1 From Table I and Figures 3. 4.5 and that the ideal specific impulse will be about 260 seconds. we find from Equation (5)
From Equation (6) the oxygen flow rate is
As a check. and concepts presented in the previous sections. is 2. r. A small water-cooled liquid-fuel rocket engine is to be designed for a chamber pressure of 300 psi and a thrust of 20 pounds. as it should be. The engine is to operate at sea level using gaseous oxygen and gasoline propellants.EXAMPLE DESIGN CALCULATION
The following example illustrates the use of the equations.5. we divide the oxygen flow rate by the fuel flow rate and the result is 2.
7 psi (sea level)
. From Equation (9) the gas temperature at the nozzle throat is
Step 3 From Equation (12) the pressure at the nozzle throat is
Step 4 The nozzle throat area is given by Equation (7)
Step 5 The nozzle throat diameter is given by Equation (17)
Step 6 From Table III we find that for a chamber pressure of 300 psi and a nozzle exit pressure of 14.Step 2 From Table I we note that the chamber gas temperature is 5 7 4 2 °F. or about 6202°R.
We do this by assuming that the chamber diameter is five times the nozzle throat diameter or Dc = 5Dt. we must first determine the chamber area. from Equation (17)
Step 8 For this propellant combination we will assume a combustion chamber L* of 60 inches. or Ac.
Therefore. The combustion chamber volume is given by Equation (19)
Step 9 The chamber length is found from Equation (21)
However.so that the nozzle exit area is. from Equation (15)
Step 7 The nozzle exit diameter is.
Step 10 Copper will be used for the combustion chamber and nozzle wall. The heat transfer area of the combustion chamber is the outer surface area of the chamber and nozzle.09375 inch and will assume that the nozzle wall has this thickness also. Step 11 Previous experience with small water-cooled rocket engines has shown that we can expect the copper combustion chamber and nozzle to experience an average heat transfer rate. q. The chamber wall thickness is given by Equation (23)
To allow for additional stress and welding factors we shall set the wall thickness equal to 3/32 or 0. of about 3 Btu/in2-sec. The surface area is given by
The area of the nozzle cone up to the throat can be assumed to be about 10% of the chamber surface area so that
The total heat transferred into the coolant is given by Equation (24)
If this is 40°F then. r = 62.4 lb/ft3. ww = 0.Step 12 The cooling water flow rate can be calculated by assuming a desired temperature rise of the water. This velocity is obtained when the flow passage has dimensions as determined below:
where vw = 30 ft/sec. given by
where D2 is the inner diameter of the outer jacket and D1 is the outer diameter of the combustion chamber. from Equation (24)
Step 13 The annular flow passage between the combustion chamber wall and the outer jacket must be sized so that the flow velocity of the cooling water is at least 30 ft/sec. and A is the area of the annular flow passage.775 lb/sec. given by
Substituting in the above equations
5 lb/ft3. nozzle material should be brass to ensure adequate injector heat transfer to the incoming propellant. The required capacity of the nozzle is determined by the fuel flow rate
Since there are six pounds of gasoline per gallon.The water flow gap is 0.22 gallons per minute (gpm). Step 14 The fuel injector for this small rocket engine will be a commercial spray nozzle with a 75° spray angle.0425 inch. If an impinging jet injector had been chosen. The spray nozzle can now be ordered from any of several suppliers (see List of Suppliers). so that
. The density of gasoline is about 44. the spray nozzle flow requirement is 0. the determination of the required injector hole number and size would have been as follows: The flow area for fuel injection is given by Equation (25)
We will assume that Cd = 0.7 with a fuel injection pressure drop of 100 psi.
If only one injection hole is used (a poor practice which can lead to combustion instability) its diameter would be
A number 69 drill could be used for this hole. If two fuel injection holes are used. If we assume an injection pressure drop of 100 psi then the oxygen gas pressure at the entrance to the injection ports will be 400 psi (the chamber pressure plus the injection pressure drop). The density of gaseous oxygen at 400 psi and a temperature of 68°F is given by the perfect gas law (see Table II)
. The size of these orifices should be such that a gas stream velocity of about 200 ft/sec is obtained at design oxygen flow rate. Step 15 The injection holes for the gaseous oxygen will be simple drilled orifices. If a spray nozzle fuel injector is used we will assume the use of four equally spaced oxygen injection ports parallel to the combustion chamber centerline around this nozzle. The holes must not be so small that sonic velocity is achieved in the orifice passages since this would result in a high upstream pressure requirement to drive the required amount of oxygen through the orifices. their diameter would be
A number 75 drill could be used for these holes.
A scale of 2/1 (or twice actual size) is about right for these small engines and will enable the designer to better visualize the entire assembly. welding.
.004375 in2 and the diameter of each hole is
A number 48 drill could be used for these holes. and operational factors since these interact to determine the final configuration of the engine and its components. requires engineering judgment and knowledge of machining. however. we can easily find the total injection area
Since there are to be four holes. The actual design of the rocket engine. should be drilled at an angle of 45° with respect to the injector face with the intersection point of the streams about 1/4 inch inside the combustion chamber. thicknesses. the injection flow area is given by
Since we know the oxygen flow rate and the desired injection velocity. and orifice sizes for the major components of our rocket engine. Perhaps the best way to accomplish the final design is to sit down with appropriate drafting materials and begin to draft a cross-section view of the engine. each hole has an area of 0. oxygen and fuels. These same size oxygen jets could also be used with two fuel jets in the impinging stream injector.
The foregoing design calculations provide the dimensions.Assuming incompressibility. The holes.
Since a properly designed engine will have symmetrical parts.
The fabrication and assembly of a small liquid fuel rocket engine is no more difficult than the more serious amateur machine projects. dynamic balance of components is not required. micrometers. calipers. working. homogeneous materials and careful fabrication technique are definitely required to produce a safe. oxy-acetylene torch or small arc welder.
. 2. Mensuration equipment such as calipers. rocket engine. The drill press will be used to drill small diameter holes and should have a true running. and the design technique described above. such as model steam engines. Because the rocket engine has no rotating parts. must be capable of inside and outside diameter measurements. and turbines. 4. micrometers. 6” or 10” metal-turning lathe. high speed chuck. etc.. the use of quality. etc. the rocket engine assembly design shown in Figure 8 is obtained. gasoline engines. The engine design features easy fabrication and assembly. A properly designed small liquid-fuel rocket engine requires the following machine and hand tools: 1. recesses. However. and should be used to locate holes. 3. and other features prior to actual machining. with attachments Precision drill press hand files.001 inch. The metalturning lathe should have a repeatable accuracy of 0. a milling machine or planer will not be required. lengths.Using the dimensions obtained in the example calculation.
The joining of the various engine components is especially critical since the engine will operate at high pressure and high temperature. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) injector assembly O-ring liquid fuel gaseous oxygen engine mount (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) coolant fuel spray nozzle combustion chamber outer shell coolant
Figure 8 Assembly drawing of small liquid-fuel rocket engine.
The use of flare type fittings with metal tapered seats (such as those manufactured by Parker or Weatherhead) is highly recommended. but that is dangerous) prior to actual use with propellants. assembled components should be pressure tested with water (or nitrogen gas. The forces to be considered when designing the shell are not the thrust forces (which are small. with a close fit between parts to ensure adequate weld strength and integrity. Repair of leaks or initially poor welds must be carefully done with subsequent retesting with pressurized water (called hydro-testing or hydrostatic testing). in all probability. and the outside finish of the shell. Machining of the outer shell or jacket is less critical than the combustion chamber-nozzle. As discussed previously. the combustion chamber and nozzle should be built as a one piece unit. these two mounting requirements can be easily combined to simplify the design.The ability of the welder. should reflect the care and concern of the machinist. Thin wall sections are potential failure points and could result in almost immediate catastrophic failure during firing. The shell will also contain the coolant entry and exit ports. this joint would be exposed to the hot combustion gases (5700°F) on one side and would. Typical materials for this part are stainless steel or brass. while more difficult from a machining point of view. Since the coolant (typically water) will probably have an entry pressure of 60 to 100 psi. typically on the order of 20-30
. which will be visible to the world. To the extent possible. This arrangement. these ports and fittings should be constructed with some care. As shown in Figure 8. The inside diameter of the shell should have a smooth finish to reduce cooling pressure drop. The shell will also feature a method of attaching the injector and for mounting the engine to a test or thrust stand. should be as good as those required for aircraft work. fail. and the welding techniques employed. Metal joints must be clean. Care must be exercised during the machining of the copper chamber-nozzle to ensure constant wall thickness and the correct taper in the nozzle region. eliminates the requirement for a joint of some kind between the two parts. Building the combustion chamber and nozzle in one piece eliminates this potential failure point.
. The bolts holding the two components together (and in this case also holding the assembly to the test mount) must withstand this force with an adequate safety factor (typically a factor of two). The force attempting to separate the injector from the shell is slightly over 600 pounds for the design shown in Figure 8 at a combustion pressure of 300 psi. which gives the average load capacity of high strength steel bolts of various sizes. and the bolt tightening procedure used in assembly. the pressure forces attempting to separate the injector from the shell. The strength of these bolts. Which an appropriately configured water-cooled design. the tapped material. see List of Suppliers) will give reliable service if the surrounding metal does not exceed a temperature of 200-300°F. A standard neoprene O-ring (manufactured by a number of companies. The pressure acting on the injector area out to the point of sealing between the injector and the outer shell is the combustion chamber pressure. the use of an elastomeric O-ring is highly desirable. rather. which is typically 100 to 300 psi.
The outer shell must also contain a sealing device to prevent the high pressure combustion chamber gas from flowing back past the injector.pounds) but. Dimensions and design parameters for O-rings and O-ring grooves are given in manufacturers supply catalogs. The number and size of bolts required can be obtained from Table IV. however. depends to some extent on the adequacy of the threads in tapped holes.
Injection holes for the gaseous oxygen (and for the fuel. metal-to-metal kind) should be stainless steel for best results. only larger. stainless steel. The mating surface of the injector should be smooth and flat. However. The drilled hole should have an entry and exit free from burrs or chips. or brass. since the propellant inlet fittings (again these should be the tapered seat. Extreme care should be used in drilling these holes. see List of Suppliers). It is usually a good idea to make the injector outer shell from stainless steel so that the inlet fittings can be attached to the remainder of the injector by silver brazing without weakening the inlet fitting welds. The copper crush gasket in positioned by a V-groove cut in the surface of the outer jacket at the sealing point.Another method of sealing is the use of an asbestos-copper crush gasket (very similar to those used on automobile spark plugs. groove depth should be about 1/3 the thickness of uncrushed gasket. The outer shell of the injector can be made from either copper. The injector should be fabricated from copper to provide maximum heat transfer from the injector face to the incoming propellants. Oring groove dimensions are critical and should be obtained from suppliers handbooks. if impinging jets are used) will usually be made with numbered drills of small diameter. especially in soft copper. It is vitally
. with no machine marks. Figure 9 illustrates the relationship between an O-ring and a copper crush gasket and their mating surfaces.
Figure 9 Detail on O-ring and crush gasket sealing methods. Crush gasket groove dimensions are noncritical.
need be done only once.
. they are usually relatively expensive. the installation of this equipment. After injector welding.
Feed System Components
The components of a rocket engine feed system are precision instruments designed to handle gas and/or liquids at high pressure. A typical pressurized feed system is shown schematically in Figure 10. a regulated supply of high pressure nitrogen gas to force the fuel from the tank into the engine. The use of quality products. The amateur builder should expect the assembly of the feed system to be an expensive project which.
The feed system for amateur rocket engine testing consists of a tank to store the liquid fuel. however. While many of the components suitable for use in amateur rocket feed systems are readily available from welding or automobile parts suppliers. and a control device for regulating the propellant flow rates.
In this section we shall discuss the auxiliary equipment needed to operate the rocket engine. is mandatory for safe operation of amateur rocket engines. hot water should be used to thoroughly clean the injector assembly of brazing flux and residues. and its safe use in engine operation. and the assembly should receive a final rinse in acetone or alcohol. a regulated supply of high pressure gaseous oxygen. made to do the job or very carefully modified and pre-tested.important that injector components be thoroughly cleaned and de-burred prior to assembly.
High Pressure Gas Cylinders Gases stored in cylinders at high pressure (usually about 1800 psi) are readily obtained from any bottled gas supplier or from many welding suppliers. the amateur is encouraged to read and follow these professional instructions. Special fittings with nonstandard threads are used to prevent use of incorrect equipment with the cylinders. Several suppliers of high pressure gases publish instruction books on the care and use of high pressure cylinders (see Bibliography). the best way of securing is to chain or strap the cylinders to an appropriate stand or worktable. Although cylinders can be purchased. High pressure gas cylinders should never he dropped or mishandled. Cylinders should be stored so they cannot fall over or inadvertently roll. When cylinders are not in use the cap should be kept on to protect the cylinder valve. they are usually rented and then returned to the supplier for recharge at a nominal fee.
(3) check valve. (6) relief valve.
. The amateur builder will have little difficulty with materials of construction for nitrogen but must be careful that all components are suitable for high pressure service. (11) fuel filter. (2) pressure regulator. (13) rocket engine. Propellants are a liquid fuel and gaseous oxygen. Gaseous Nitrogen Nitrogen is an inert gas compatible with all normally available materials. (5) gaseous oxygen cylinders. (1) high pressure gaseous nitrogen supply. (9) drain valve. P is pressure gauge. (12) purge valve. (4) fuel tank. Cleanliness of components is important for proper and reliable operation. (10) remotely operated propellant control valve.Figure 10 Schematic diagram of gas pressure feed system. (8) fill port. (7) vent valve.
The amateur must be concerned not only with suitability of components for high pressure service but also must use only components that are made from oxygen compatible materials and that are cleaned for oxygen service. or other possible ignition sources. fittings. including lines. Thorough cleaning of all items in solvent. Cleaning should be done outside and away from buildings. and additional outlets or welding to the tank wall could seriously weaken the tank.or stainless steel. fires. and similar contaminants.. even though they will add slightly to the initial cost of the component. are offered to the public from war surplus outlets. They are toxic and easily ignited. Fuel Tank The fuel tank is a closed vessel which contains the liquid fuel at moderate pressure (300-500 psi). valves.Gaseous Oxygen Oxygen will not itself burn but does vigorously support the rapid combustion of almost all other materials. Tanks of various sizes and shapes. followed by a complete rinse in acetone. regulators. The amateur builder should be very careful if he decides to use such a tank. They should not be modified since in nearly all cases they are thin wall pressure vessels made for aircraft service. the amateur builder should observe all rules of safety applying to these chemicals. made from carbon. When cleaning components with solvent or acetone. Many commercial suppliers of valves and regulators offer a special service for cleaning their products for oxygen service. Orders for commercial items should he marked to indicate their intended use with high pressure gaseous oxygen. grease. MUST be absolutely free from oil. These fluids should not be stored indoors but in vented lockers away from main buildings. The amateur should avail himself of these services whenever possible. etc. All items. is an absolute must.
. In all cases the tank should be hydrostatically tested to at least 1 1/2 times desired operating pressure before use in the rocket engine feed system.
If the tank outside diameter is 4.0 inches. one on each end of the tank are required. for this case. and fuel outlet and drain are available. The fuel tank should contain enough ports. a tank minimum wall thickness of 0. that a safety relief valve (either spring loaded or a burst disc). The tank wall thickness is given by Equation (22)
where P is the pressure in the tank (1 1/2 times the desired operating pressure). Seamless tubing or pipe (mild steel or stainless steel) with welded flat end plates makes an excellent tank. The flat end plates for this tank should be at least twice the thickness of the tank wall (i. the allowable stress in the steel is 20. Welding should be done by an expert with several passes for each end plate (see Figure 11). and the size of available seamless tubing. Many of these functions can be incorporated as part of the gas inlet and fuel outlet plumbing so that only two ports. Drilling and tapping should be done prior to welding. to prevent oil and metal chips from falling into the tank. load and vent port.The amateur may build (or have built) a tank especially for his requirements.
. D is the outside diameter of the tank.5 inches. and the operating pressure is 500 psi so that the design pressure is 750 psi. at least 1/2 inch thick). The tank should be thoroughly cleaned and hydrostatically tested prior to use in the rocket engine feed system. A wall thickness of 0. End plate ports should then be re-tapped. The engine discussed in Example Design Calculation had a fuel flow rate of 0. or the tank plumbing should be so arranged.022 lb/sec. Outlet ports are easily tapped in the flat end plates.085 inch is calculated. The tank inside diameter is 4.e.250 inch is chosen to allow for welding factors. stress concentrations.000 psi. gas inlet port. tw is the wall thickness. A tank with a 4inch inside diameter and 12 inches long would hold enough gasoline to run this engine for 175 seconds. The size of the tank is determined by the size of the rocket engine and the desired operating time. and S is the allowable stress.
and at high stress. Gaseous Nitrogen Regulator The purpose of a regulator is to maintain a constant pressure on the downstream side of the regulator as the pressure in the gas cylinder on the upstream side decreases. However. the regulator.Figure 11 Fuel tank end detail. Also. Thus. A good quality regulator will maintain the downstream pressure quite accurately over a range of gas flow rates as long as the upstream cylinder pressure does not decrease so as to become too close to the downstream pressure. not usually available to the amateur builder. the force on the tank end plates increases rapidly with tank diameter. and maintain control of. Tanks made from seamless tubing should not be greater than six inches in diameter. wall stress is a function of diameter. specialized design information. all the gas in the cylinder is not usable since some excess pressure (hence.
. A number of commercial firms (see List of Suppliers) market regulators for non-welding purposes that are admirably suited for fuel tank pressurization. The flow rate of nitrogen gas required for the fuel from the tank is relatively small and could be handled by a regular gaseous oxygen welding regulator equipped with nitrogen cylinder fittings. is required. gas) is required to drive the gas through. Several weld passes should be used to attach the end plates to the seamless tubing. most welding regulators do not permit adjustment to the high downstream pressure required for rocket engine operation.
the valves need not be this large. metalto-metal seats should be used within the regulator. The valve for gaseous oxygen should be larger than the valve for the fuel line. except that the regulator should be especially cleaned for oxygen service and.Especially attractive is the Grove Mity-Mite regulator with internal regulation. Engines of the size discussed in Example Design Calculation should use a 1/4-inch fuel valve (that is. Inexpensive. if possible. and operated remotely by means of valve stem extensions (see discussion on Test Stand). Special fittings for attaching the regulator to the oxygen cylinder are available from the sources supplying nitrogen cylinder fittings. Regulator manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations on seat materials for use with gaseous oxygen in their regulators. Since these valves control the flow of propellants.
. and leaving. but the valves themselves should be as indicated to afford a range of flow control with minimum pressure drop across the valve. special fittings are required to attach these regulators to the gas cylinder. Gaseous Oxygen Regulator The discussion of regulators for gaseous nitrogen service applies to gaseous oxygen also. they should be mounted near the tanks and engine on the test stand. 1/4 National Pipe Thread line size) and a 1/2-inch oxygen valve. Propellant Control Valves The propellant control valves allow the operator to start and then manually remote-control the flow of each propellant in to the rocket engine. Many manufacturers make this kind of valve (see List of Suppliers). These sources can also supply cylinder manifold kits so that two or more oxygen cylinders can be used simultaneously to achieve long engine run durations. These valves should be stainless steel needle valves with Teflon packing or seals. The tubing actually entering. These fittings are available from several sources (see List of Suppliers).
Check Valves Check valves permit fluid flow in one direction only. Brass or stainless steel valve bodies with Teflon seats are acceptable. easy operation with handle indication of on or off. the drain valve. While this is high unlikely.Other Valves Other valves required in the feed system include the fuel tank vent and fill valve. Relief Valves The fuel tank requires a relief device of some type to prevent tank failure in the event of over-pressurization. Check valves should be thoroughly cleaned prior to use and tested to insure that the check is working properly. Inexpensive. An alternate device is the burst disc which ruptures at a preset pressure and relieves the overpressure in the tank. and the nitrogen purge valve. l/4-inch line size is recommended for all functions shown in Figure 10 with the exception Of the gaseous oxygen line check valve which should feature metal-to-metal seats and be at least 3/8inch line size. A different disc must be used for each pressure range desired. Fuel Filter Fuel injection holes on small liquid-fuel rocket engines are easily plugged with contaminants from the fuel tank and control
. and the valves may be line or panel mounted (see List of Suppliers). and because. Burst discs require replacement after actuation and are not pressure adjustable. high quality ball valves are highly recommended for these functions since they offer positive shutoff. it could happen if the gaseous nitrogen regulator failed to function or shut-off properly. They are widely used in the aircraft and hydraulic industry and are manufactured by many companies. and full line opening. does not have to be replaced. An adjustable spring-loaded relief valve is recommended because it may be set to different pressures as feed system uses change. if used.
oxygen. sizes. A fuel filter which can filter out particles down to ten microns in size is highly recommended and will save the amateur builder much grief when actual testing is started. Numerous manufacturers make these gauges in a bewildering variety of styles. These gauges can be obtained from a welding supply shop.system. Small (2 1/2 or 3-inch diameter) high pressure gauges similar to those used on oxygen welding regulators should be used by the amateur builder for measuring pressure in the high pressure gas cylinders or manifolds. oxygen. These gauges are easily panel mounted and make a neat test stand installation. 1/4 and 3/8 inch diameter copper tubing can also be used for the
. Buordon-tube pressure gauges offer accuracy. Gauges for fuel. and prices. low cost. from a distance. and combustion chamber pressure are essential measurements for rocket engine operation. Bronze Bourdon tubes are recommended since they are fully compatible (when cleaned) with gaseous oxygen or hydrocarbon fuel and are so widely used that significant cost savings are possible. Flare fittings with metal to metal seats are also recommended for joining the tubing to other components. water. and availability for this requirement. These 3 1/2 Acaloy gauges of Helicoid (see List of Suppliers) are recommended because of their reliability and low cost. Plumbing Plumbing refers to the flow tubes and fittings used to connect the components discussed previously. Pressure Gauges Fuel. and combustion chamber pressure should be at least 3 1/2 inch diameter for easy reading. Several concerns make small filters suitable for rocket engine feed systems (see List of Suppliers). ruggedness. water. 1/4-inch diameter stainless steel tubing for the fuel and nitrogen systems and 3/8 inch diameter stainless tubing for the oxygen line are recommended.
The compressed gas cylinders
. oxygen. with a shrapnel barricade between. Where the fittings screw into fuel tank. and nitrogen supply system but is not as desirable as stainless steel and is more easily flared. This is the safest orientation for a liquid-fuel rocket engine since excess fuel. and a mirror system so that the operator does not directly view the operating rocket engine. The greatest hazard in testing small rocket engines is from shrapnel in the event of engine explosion or disintegration. especially on gaseous oxygen components. The operator's station. should be physically separated from the test stand proper by at least 20 feet. a mounting for the propellant flow control needle valves. Therefore. and the oxygen and nitrogen cylinders with regulators and associated plumbing. the fuel tank and associated plumbing. The engine is mounted high enough from the ground so that no flame chute or other complicated exhaust deflector or fixture is required. The amateur builder should use only good flaring tools and should form or bend tubing only with a tube bender. in the event of an ignition failure. or other components having pipe threads.
The amateur rocket engine test stand is a structure which incorporates a method for firmly mounting the rocket engine (preferably in a nozzle-down attitude). simply drains out of the engine nozzle. the ignition system battery and associated switches. the test stand proper should be suitably barricaded to reduce shrapnel effect in all directions. which is really a part of the test stand.fuel. No other pipe thread compound should be used. Figure 12 shows schematically the proper arrangement of components for a safe rocket engine test stand. the use of Teflon tape on the threads is recommended. The operator's station should contain the control valve extensions. The engine is firmly attached to a section of steel channel in the nozzle down position. valve. The rocket engine is separated from the propellant flow control valves by a 1/8-inch thick steel barricade.
(one nitrogen and two oxygen) are mounted at the rear of the test stand and are separated from the control valves compartment by another barricade made from one-inch thick plywood. The nitrogen and oxygen regulators are mounted on this plywood barricade above the cylinders. In this manner, expended cylinders may he replaced with charged cylinders without disturbing the regulators or plumbing. A formed piece of stainless steel tubing between the oxygen manifold and the oxygen regulator and a similar piece of tubing between the nitrogen cylinder and its regulator are removed during cylinder exchange, and then reconnected. Lines should always be capped when not in use to prevent entry of dirt and other foreign objects. The fuel tank is mounted between the forward steel barricade and the rear plywood barricade on a metal cross-piece attached to both barricades. The tank is mounted in the vertical position with the liquid outlet at the bottom. The propellant flow control valves are mounted one atop the other in a metal bracket which is attached to the forward steel barricade. Panel mounted needle valves are recommended since they facilitate mounting in the manner described, and do not place mounting or operating stresses on the propellant flow tubing. Valve stem extensions, made from 1/4-inch pipe permit operation of the control valves from the operator's remote control station, which is located at least twenty feet from the test stand proper. Pressure gauges for fuel tank pressure, oxygen line pressure, cooling water exit pressure and combustion chamber pressure are mounted in a panel which is attached to the forward and rear barricades and which faces the operator's remote station.
Test stand for a small liquid-fuel rocket engine.
Cooling water for the rocket engine is brought into a hose coupling attached to the stand, with semi-permanent plumbing between the coupling and the rocket engine. Water flowing from the cooling jacket should be directed away from the engine or can be directed downward onto a 3-inch deep layer of coarse stones laid beneath the rocket engine exhaust. These stones will prevent the engine exhaust from picking up dirt and dust; the water will cool the stones and extend their useful life. The jet of
cooling water can be observed by the operator as an indication that cooling water is actually flowing through the engine. The test stand proper should have a framework made from welded or bolted steel angle. The forward steel and rear plywood barricade are bolted to this angle framework providing rigidity and strength. Thee test stand should be firmly attached to the surface of the test area either by bolting to a concrete pad or by weighing down with sand bags or concrete weights.
Because of the physical hazards involved in handling propellants and controlling high pressure combustion proeesses, certain elementary safety precautions must be observed in static testing of rocket engines. During the design, and later, the operation of amateur liquid rocket engines, the following general safety precautions shou1d be observed: 1. The operator should be protected by a suitable barricade located some distance (at least 20 feet) from the test unit. Control of valves during engine ignition and steadystate operation should be by remote means, which for amateur units is best achieved by manual control of needle valves via valve stem extensions. A large chemical fire extinguisher (or, at least, a plentiful supply of water) should always be on hand. The operator should not view the test unit directly, but should use a mirror arrangement (somewhat like a periscope) or use a thick layer of reinforced safety glass attached to the operator's barricade. REMEMBER, the primary danger is from shrapnel in the event of engine explosion.
The test stand unit should be barricaded on several sides to reduce shrapnel effect in event of explosion. Remember vapors from hydrocarbon fuels (such as gasoline) can travel long distances from the test area and can be ignited at a remote point traveling back to the test stand. Personnel should be permitted to work in the test area only if fuel and oxidizer are separated and not pressurized. 7.
6. but should be on the test stand and remotely read. Valves. Warning signals should be given prior to tests (or whenever gas cylinder valves are open) to notify personnel that the area is hazardous.
9. Remember that most fuels are toxic.
10. No smoking is ever permitted anywhere near a test area when propellants are also present. face shields.
Separating of fuel and oxidizer storage reduces the fire and explosion hazard and limits the amount of propellant stowed in any one area. and other components which directly sense fluid properties should not be located in the operator's station. do not breathe fuel vapors for even a short time.
11. A test must NEVER be conducted until the operator has assured himself that all personnel are behind safety barricades or otherwise protected. or rubber aprons. This rule does not apply to electrical instrumentation wherein a transducer is located on the test stand and an electrical readout (such as a meter) is located at the operator's station (this type of instrumentation is very expensive and is beyond the reach of most amateurs). Personnel handling propellants should wear safety equipment such as gloves.
. pressure gauges.
ENGINE CHECK-OUT and CALIBRATION
After the rocket engine has been fabricated. in a container. perform this test by flowing water through the injector. Observe the jacket and engine for leaks. Since the injector face is not easily blanked off. several checkout tests and flow calibrations should be made prior to testing with live propellants. There should be no leaks. Leak Testing Connect the engine cooling jacket to a readily available source of pressurized water (such as lawn or house supply.
A check-off list is helpful when conducting a rocket engine firing and should be made up of both technical events and safety items to be completed prior to the firing. A similar pressure check should be performed on the fuel manifold of the injector. There should be no leaks. Use a pressure gauge attached to the water line as near to the injector fuel entry port as possible. Flow Calibration The water flow rate through the engine cooling jacket should be determined for various inlet pressures. Attach a flexible hose (garden variety will do) to the outlet of the cooling jacket and start water flowing through the jacket at the desired pressure. Attach a pressure gauge to the outlet port of the jacket and open the water valve. allowing water to fill the jacket.12. Use a filter in the water line to avoid plugging the small fuel injection holes. Water pressure can be measured either at the entrance or exit of the cooling jacket. water flowing through the engine over a timed period. pressure should be 50-100 psi with no flow). Once steady flow has been achieved quickly move the hose outlet into the catch container
. Use a bathroom or other available scale to weigh.
Divide the net weight by the time during which water was collected and the result will be water flow rate in lb/sec. a different source of cooling water may be required. Test Stand Checkout After the test stand and operator's area are completed and components installed. If insufficient water pressure is available to achieve the design water flow rate. Fill the tank with clean water. Material should NOT be removed from the combustion chamber/nozzle. using water. although their worth is questionable. Another solution is to disassemble the engine and re-bore the outer shell to open up the water flow passage. tests should the conducted to determine that no gas or liquid leaks will occur when actual propellants are used. Pressurize the system to 100 psi and check for leaks. If these tests show that greater pressure is required to achieve the desired flow rate. Check also the size of the flexible duct hose used. can be performed in a manner similar to the cooling system calibration. The flow characteristics of water and the hydrocarbon fuels are different. check the size of tubing or hose used between the water source and the engine. Use a stop or sweep second watch for the timing and be accurate! Obtain the net weight of collected water by subtracting from the weight of the filled container its empty weight. so that a water calibration is not directly comparable to what will occur when fuel is used. Cap off the fuel and oxygen lines where they would normally attach to the engine. However. an air-pressurized water tank or a motor-driven pump may be required. it may be restricting the water flow rate. Under extreme conditions. the pressure drop required to flow a given quantity of water will provide some indication of how closely design objectives were achieved. This test should be conducted in the same manner as the cooling water calibration test except that the flow time should he long enough to accumulate at least ten pounds of water.for a period of 30 seconds. This operation should be repeated several times at different pressures to obtain the flow characteristics of the coolant jacket. A soap
. then quickly remove the hose from the container. Flow rate tests of the injector.
Even if it were. Attach the rocket engine to its test mount and connect all tubing. Soap bubbles indicate the presence of a gas leak. A small amount of cotton is wrapped around. The propellants used in amateur rocket engines require a separate source for ignition. Pressurize the stand in the normal manner and practice the ignition and operating sequence using water as fuel (gaseous oxygen can safely he used in these tests. Because the engines are small. Propellant timing is extremely important in a bi-propellant liquid rocket engine. the use of an engine-mounted spark plug is not generally feasible. or attached to. An excess of either propellant (if both are liquid) in the combustion chamber can lead to severe over-pressure upon ignition (known as "hard" start) and possible fracture of the combustion chamber. Depressurize the system and refill the fuel tank with clean water. The engine and test stand are now ready for their first hot firing. the ignition of incoming propellants in the combustion chamber by a small spark plug is dangerous and unreliable. empty the fuel tank of water and dry by flushing with nitrogen gas for several seconds. if desired). and drastically reduces hard starts. If no leaks are present. If no leaks develop. The amateur engine using gaseous oxygen is not nearly as sensitive to hard starts as if the oxidizer were a liquid. increase the pressure to 200 psi and repeat the detection procedure.
IGNITION and OPERATION
Discussion of propellant ignition has been reserved until this point since it is really a test stand function and is required only for actual operation of the engine. Continue this procedure until the test stand operating pressure is reached and no leaks are present. thc wires very near the spark
. Hot-source ignition works as follows: two lengths of insulated #16 or #18 solid wire are taped together and their exposed ends are bent to form a spark gap of about 3/32-inch.solution can be used to check around all fittings and seals. Hundreds of tests with small liquid-fuel rocket engines employing gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer have indicated that hot-source ignition provides excellent propellant ignition characteristics.
The operator checks operation of the spark coil and then disconnects the coil from the battery for safety. after the test stand is prepared for firing is:
Figure 13 Hot-source igniter for small liquid fuel rocket engines using gaseous oxygen oxidizer. 2. The ignition procedure. Ignitor is consumed during each use and must be replaced. This ignition assembly is pushed through the nozzle into the combustion chamber of the rocket engine so that the spark gap is in the lower end of the combustion chamber but not blocking the nozzle throat. Figure 13 details this hotsource igniter. The operator ascertains that the area is clear and ready for firing. The ignitor cotton is soaked in gasoline or kerosene. The free ends of the two wires are attached to the spark source (a Ford Model-T spark coil is ideal for this purpose).gap but not obstructing it. The battery should be at the operator's remote station.
3. The wires outside the engine are bent or taped to hold the ignition assembly in position during the ignition phase. 1.
Gas cylinder valves are opened.
12. The fuel control needle valve is now opened very slightly to allow fuel to flow into the combustion chamber. The oxygen flow needle valve is opened very slightly to allow a very small flow of gaseous oxygen to pass over the ignitor and out the combustion chamber.
The ignitor is pushed through the nozzle into the combustion chamber and secured. The firing bell or horn is sounded. The oxygen and fuel flow rates should now be rapidly and simultaneously increased by opening the control needle valves until tie combustion chamber pressure gauge indicates that desired conditions Exist inside the chamber. Cooling water is allowed to flow through the engine at the proper rate. the fuel tank is pressurized. (this is an indication of unburned carbon in the exhaust). The operator may have difficulty ascertaining that the cotton is actually burning although small flaming bits of material may be ejected from the nozzle. The operator will need to judge whether more or less oxygen is required for desired O/F ratio operation. More oxygen is required if the exhaust is bright yellow or smoky.
11. if the exhaust is transparent or bluish the
6. Inside the combustion chamber the cotton igitor should immediately burst into flame in the oxygen atmosphere.
. The spark coil is energized.
10. and all gas pressures adjusted to operating values. 7. 5. 8. The spark coil is reconnected to its battery.
9. A flame should immediately appear at the nozzle exit and a low whistling sound should be heard.4.
but it is a good indicator of engine operation. Water should be allowed to flow through the engine cooling jacket for several minutes after run termination.oxygen flow should he decreased slightly. If the engine is to be stopped prior to fuel depletion the fuel flow control valve should be quickly turned off. also immediately shut-off the flow of gaseous oxygen (metal will burn vigorously in an oxygen environment). The oxygen line is vented by briefly opening the oxygen flow need1e valve. The noise from the engine will he quite high.
14. the cylinder valves are closed. followed by opening of the nitrogen purge valve. The correct mixture ratio is achieved when the exhaust gases are transparent (or nearly so) but the supersonic standing shocks (Mach diamonds) in the exhaust are clearly seen.
15. In the event of engine failure. It is quite safe to simply let the engine run out of liquid fuel. If engine metal parts are burning. 13. The gaseous nitrogen pressurizing the fuel tank then purges the fuel supply system automatically. After the engine has stopped operation (thus assuring that the nitrogen purge has forced all fuel from the engine) the gaseous oxygen valve may be turned off. It may be necessary to wear ear protection because of this high noise level. The engine will abruptly stop operation and the operator can then turn off the flow of gaseous oxygen. Always shutoff the liquid fuel first. and the fuel tank vent valve opened. above. The nitrogen purge valve is closed. should be followed. the shutdown sequence detailed in (14). The operator should have a timer or have someone time the engine run.
. Both of these effects will affect the combustion chamber pressure. Remember that as you vary the fuel and oxidizer flows you are changing not only the amount of material passing through the engine but are also affecting the temperature of the burning gases.
the operator should rapidly increase the chamber pressure after initial introduction of the liquid fuel.
A new ignitor will be required for each ignition attempt or firing.
17. As these additional features are added to the experimental set-up. To avoid this problem. the amateur should always keep safety and safe operating procedures foremost in mind. apparent overheating or hot spots prior to another firing. The ignitor assembly is partially consumed during the ignition process and residue is quickly blown from the combustion chamber upon ignition of the liquid fuel. erratic combustion. Some engine designs may exhibit combustion instability (chugging. The operator will quickly discover and use many procedures to improve engine and test stand operation.
18. Always inspect the engine and other components for damage.) at low chamber pressures or low fuel injection velocities. etc. chuffing.
Ignition and operation of small liquid-fuel rocket engines in the manner described offers the amateur a relatively safe and interesting activity.16.
. the amateur can begin to consider methods of measuring engine thrust. determining the heat transfer to the cooling water. After achieving initial operation of the engine and test stand. Photography of this exhaust is a definite challenge. and noting the characteristics of the rocket engine exhaust.
is an extremely noisy device. Some of the noise can be eliminated by firing the engine into a water-cooled duct. If local ordinances permit testing in a populated area. a remote site may be needed. the amateur should consider the effect of engine operation on his neighbors before the initial firing. certain communities do have laws prohibiting the operation of rocket motors or engines or the free flight of rocket powered vehicles. The noise of a rocket engine comes from the shearing action between the high velocity exhaust jet and the surrounding atmosphere.THE LAW
There are no known laws prohibiting the design or construction of rocket engines. Ample quantities of water must be sprayed into the exhaust duct to rapidly cool the rocket exhaust stream and to protect the duct itself. rocket vehicles or accessories. However. this technique restricts viewing of the rocket exhaust plume and eliminates one of the unique features of rocket engine operation. even a small one. If ordinances prohibit local testing.
. The amateur builder should keep in mind that a rocket engine. Prior to actually firing a rocket engine the amateur builder should make certain that he is not violating established ordinances. However. in the United States.
New York. by M. McAdams. New York.
Rocket Propulsion Elements. V.. by Victor L. by R. California.. Netherlands 1960.
. Elements of Flight Propulsion. Sutton. by Dennis G. NY. Van Wylen. Fluid Mechanics. 1966. Los Angeles 26. by W. ISBN 71-190302. Aerospace Propulsion. Barrere and others. Design of Liquid. Heat Transmission. L. John Wiley & Sons. Solid. Inc. by Gordon J. latest edition. Inc. 1960. Inc. New York 1959. Peters. 1959. by J. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Foa. Elsevier Publishing Co.... 1964. Shepherd. H. New York. McGraw Hill Book Company. Inc. Thermodynamics. Inc. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1972. John Wiley & Sons. 1965. materials. or design. Inc. and Hybrid Rockets. by George P.BIBLIOGRAPHY
The reader is urged to consult any of the following books for further information relating to rocket engines... Rocket Encyclopedia Illustrated. Aero Publishers. Inc. 335 Vanderbilt Avenue. New York. Elsevier Publishing Company. New York. Hayden Book Co.. Rocket Propulsion. Streeter.
John Wiley & Sons.. 1955. F.J. N. Matheson Compressed Gas Data Book. Prentice-Hall. published by Matheson.
. P. published by Aluminum Company of America. Mechanics of Materials. Spotts. 1966. Alcoa Aluminum Handbooks published by Aluminum Company of America.. 1955. Box 85 East Rutherford N.O. Inc. Pittsburgh.Design of Machine Elements.. 1959. Pa.. Englewood Cliffs. published by Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. Stainless Steel Handbook. Pittsburgh. by Laurson & Cox. 1959. New York.J. Pittsburgh 22. Inc.. Alcoa Handbook of Design Stresses for Aluminum. by M.
California 94107 http://www.hoke. have their company’s web site listed under their mailing address information.harrisweldingsupplies.
Regulators Grove Valve and Regulator Co.com/
. California 94608 http://www. The reader is urged to consult his nearest city's telephone book Yellow Pages. 840-854 Folsom Street San Francisco. Illustrated catalogs can be obtained by writing the companies listed below.asp?div=vec The Harris Calorific Co.LIST of SUPPLIERS
The following list of suppliers is not complete since there are literally hundreds of companies in the United States manufacturing items of interest and use to the amateur rocket engine builder. Ohio 44102 http://www.com/ Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill.
Note: Those suppliers listed in the original text.com/vec/index. 6 529 Hollis Street Oakland.grove. who are still around and now have a web site. ask for a current price list and the name of the nearest supplier.thermadyne. New Jersey 07626 http://www.it/ Victor Equipment Co. 5501 Cass Avenue Cleveland.
hoke.circle-seal. California 90650 http://www. 3817 Santa Fe Avenue Vernon.com/ Ball Valves Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill.Needle Valves Dragon Engineering Co.com/
. 15655 Brookpark Road Cleveland Ohio 44142 Robbins Aviation. Inc. Co.com/ Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill. O. Excelsior Drive & Carmenita P. lnc. New Jersey 07626 http://www.hoke. California 91107 http://www. 80x 489 Norwalk. & Craig Street Pasadena. California 90058 Circle Seal Products Co. East Foothill Blvd. New Jersey 07626 http://www.dragonvalves.com/ Republic Manufacturing..
. Inc. 15655 Brookpark Road Cleveland. California 91107 http://www.Jamesbury Corporation 669 Lincoln Street Worcester. 7 Lawrence Street Bloomfield.com/ Hydromatics. Ohio 44142 Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill. New Jersey 07003 http://www.Jamesbury. New Jersey 07626 http://www.hoke. Inc.com/ Republic Manufacturing Co.circle-seal. & Craig Street Pasadena.hydromatics. Massachusetts 01605 http://www. 15655 Brookpark Road Cleveland Ohio 44142 Check Valves Circle Seal Products Co.com/ Republic Manufacturing Co. East Foothill Blvd.
hoke. East Foothill Blvd & Craig Street Pasadena. Box 3666 Anaheim.hoke.com/ Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill.circle-seal. 1000 New Brunswick Avenue Rahway. California 92803 http://www.pureoil. New Jersey 07065 http://www. O. P. New Jersey 07626 http://www.. California 91107 http://www. Inc. Inc. New Jersey 07626 http://www.circle-seal.com/ Relief Valves Circle Seal Products Co.Filters Purolator Products.com/
.com/ Microporous Filter Division Circle Seal Development Corp.com/ Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill.
mnrubber. Culver City. Connecticut 06602 United States Gauge Division American Machine & Metals. 3628 Wooddale Avenue Minneapolis.parker.. Illinois 60076 http://www. Sellersville. Connecticut Avenue & Hewitt Street Bridgeport.marshbellofram. 3501 Howard Street Skokie. 1 Brook Road Newtown.com/
.heise.com/ Heise Bourdon Tube Co. Minnesota 55416 http://www. 10567 Jefferson Blvd. Pennsylvania 18960 Marsh Instrument Co. Connecticut 06470 http://www. California 90230 http://www.com/ Minnesota Rubber Co. Inc.com/ O-Rings Parker Seal Co. Inc.Pressure Gauges Helicoid Gage Division American Chain & Cable Co.
com/ Imperial-Eastman Corp..Crush Gaskets Gasket Manufacturing Co. California 90015 Spray Nozzle Delaval Manufacturing Co. 6300 West Howard Street Chicago. Inc. 319 West 17th Street P. Ohio 44108
.spray. O. Grand Avenue & 4th Street West Des Moines. Illinois 60104 http://www. 320 East 131st Street Cleveland. Box 15438 Los Angeles.com/ Tube Fittings Parker Tube Fittings Division Parker-Hannifin Corp. Illinois 60648 http://www.parker.net/ Featherhead Co. 17327 Euclid Avenue Cleveland. 3265 Randolph Street Bellwood.imperial-eastman. Iowa 50265 Spraying Systems Co. Ohio 44112 http://www.
hoke. O.Gas Cylinder Fittings Western Enterprises. 27360 West Oviatt Road P. Inc. New Jersey 07626 http://www. Ohio 44140 Hoke Incorporated 10 Tenakill Park Cresskill.com/
. Box 9737 Bay Village.
78) Temp (degF + 460) Temp (degF .467 60 16 0. Temp (deg R) Temp (deg C)
.32) by 0.1198 144 1.CONVERSION FACTORS
Multiply Btu/minute Btu/minute Cubic feet Cubic feet Feet Gallons Gallons Gallons water Miles Miles/hour Minute Pounds Pounds water Square feet Temp (degC + 17.57 1728 7.3453 5280 1.02356 17.1337 231 8.48052 12 0.8 1 5/9 To Obtain Horsepower Watts Cubic inches Gallons Inches Cubic feet Cubic inches Pounds water Feet Feet/sec Seconds Ounces Gallons Square inches Temp (deg F) Abs.
rocketry.org/organizations/ Many more current. experimental rocketry and related texts and books are available online: http://www. and model rocketry: http://www.org/books/ Rocketry related software programs for MS DOS.rocketry.rocketry.ADDITIONAL ONLINE RESOURCES
Note: Since this book originally came out in 1967 the following resources are listed for your convenience. Macintosh OS.org/forums/
. They should provide you with more up-to-date information and resources online. test and launch experimental rockets near you: http://www.org/software/ Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) regarding experimental rocketry terminology and other helpful information: http://www. high power rocketry (large solids and hybrids).rocketry. and still in print.rocketry.rocketry. Mac OS X. Linux/UNIX.
For many more equipment suppliers: http://www.org/suppliers/ To find clubs and organizations that build. and Palm PDAs: http://www. MS Windows.org/faq/ Chat and discussion forums for experimental rocketry.