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Group R1: Xiong Guangyu Nik A. Salleh
To understand GPRS system architecture it is helpful to first understand the architecture of GSM system. GPRS is an enhancement over the GSM and adds some nodes in the network to provide the packet switched services. These network nodes are called GSNs (GPRS Support Nodes) and are responsible for the routing and delivery of the data packets to and from the MS and external packet data networks (PDN).
Network Architecture Addition of two network elements: Serving GPRS Support Node(SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node(GGSN) BSC SGSN GGSN Fig. 3-1 The SGSN and GGSN additions .
Network Architecture GPRS subscriber terminals Only GPRS terminals (TEs) can access GPRS servers GPRS enabled phones. PC cards for laptops These terminals will be backward compatible with GSM for voice calls. because existing GSM phones: cannot handle the enhanced air interface cannot packetize data directly . PDAs with embedded GSM.
and the installation of a new piece of hardware called a packet control unit (PCU).Network Architecture GPRS BSS A software upgrade is required in the existing Base Transceiver Site (BTS). . The Base Station Controller (BSC) also requires a software upgrade. The PCU directs the data traffic to the GPRS network and can be a separate hardware element associated with BSC. The PCU provides a physical and logical data interface out of BSS for packet data traffic.
Network Architecture GPRS Network Add new core network elements Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) GGSN SGSN Fig 3.2 The overlay network interworks between public and private network .
Multiple users can share the same air-interface resources. plus new network elements.Network Architecture GPRS can be thought of as an overlay network onto the GSM network. and protocols for building a packet-based mobile cellular network. The data overlay network provides packet data transport from 9.6 to 171 Kbps. interface. . GPRS uses most of existing GSM network elements.
The home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR) especially require upgrades to functionally service GPRS. HLR VLR SGSN Fig 3-3 The network reference model for GSM .Network Architecture Databases (VLR and HLR) All the databases involved in the network requires software upgrades to handle the new call models and functions introduced by GPRS.
which is divided into two areas: Data packet routing Mobility management .Data Routing A main issues in the GPRS network is the routing of data packets to/from a mobile user.
Three different routing schemes are possible: 1) 2) 3) Mobile-originated message. Network-initiated messages when the MS has roamed to another BPRS operator’s network. 3-5). .Data Packet Routing Data Packet Routing GGSN handles interaction with the external data network.Data Routing -. routes external data packets to the SGSN There are the use of the various tools in a GPRS network (Fig. Network-initiated messages when the MS is in its home network.
Data Routing -.Data Packet Routing Fig. 3-5 The various components for data routing .
.Data Packet Routing GPRS operators will allow roaming through an interoperator backbone network GPRS operators connect to the interoperator network by a border Gateway (BG) The main benefits of the architecture are its flexibility. interoperability and roaming The GPRS network encapsulates all data network protocols into its own encapsulation protocol. called the GPRS Tunning Procotocol (GTP).Data Routing -. scalablity.
A mobile station has three states in the GPRS system: Idle Standby Active .some procedures share the network elements with current GSM functions.Data Routing -. However.GPRS Mobility Management The operation of GPRS is partly independent of the GSM network.
3-6 The GPRS traffic protocol stack .GPRS Mobility Management Fig.
the location of the station is known only as to which routing area it is in. In the active state. In the idle state. . In the standby state. the mobile station does not have a logical GPRS context activated or any Packet-Switched Public Data Network (PSPDZ) addresses allocated.GPRS Mobility Management Data is transmitted between a mobile station and the GPRS network only when the mobile station is in the active state. The MS can receive only those multicast messages that can be received by any GPRS mobile station. the SGSN knows the cell location of the mobile station.
3-7 The new interfaces in GPRS .Network Architecture-New Interfaces Fig.
Between GGSN and HLR.Between SGSN and GGSN. using Frame Relay.Network Architecture-New Interfaces Gb --Between the PCUSN and SGSN.Delivers SMS messages via GPRS (same as MAP from GSM).Between SGSN and HLR.Between GGSN and PDNs (X.Between SGSN and MSC/VLR. Gi -. extension of the Mobile Application Part (MAP). Gc -. .25 and Internet Protocol [IP]). Gs -. Gd -. Gr -. Gn -. using the GTP(tunneling) protocol. for some simultaneous GPRS and GSM operations.
The Different Backbone Used SGSN Fig. 3-8 The different backbones used .
GPRS will support interworking of mobile stations with IP first and X. GPRS tunnels the protocol data unit (PDU) using the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP). Further.25 Capable of supporting data rates upto 2 Mbps The SGSN and GGSN are linked together within the GPRS backbone based on IP routing. .25 later. with ETSI specifications Simpler than X. it will transmit the corresponding PDU transparently by encapsulation and decapsulation.The Different Backbone Used Each SGSN is linked to Packet Control Unit Switching Nodes (PCUSN) with a Frame Relay network: The only protocol possible.
Domain Name Server (DNS) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) .Initial Implementations The first releases of GPRS products must support IP and interworking with the Internet and intranets.
The GPRS traffic load in a given cell varies as a function of time. Fig.TDMA-GPRS Physical Channel Capacity The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA frame structure for GPRS is the same as for GSM (Fig. 3-10). GPRS provides flexible allocation of physical channels to GPRS service. 3-10 Physical Channel Capacity .
Logical channels are carried within the physical channels. Fig. 3-11 GPRS Logical Channels .GPRS Logical Channels a logical channel refers to a flow of information between entities for a particular purpose.
GPRS Logical Channels Packet Broadcast Control Channel(PBCCH) A downlink function used for broadcast of system information to the mobile station in a cell Packet Common Control Channel(PCCCH) A control channel service for signaling for the packet data: Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH) Packet Paging Channel (PPCH) Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH) Packet Notification Channel (PNCH) .
PDTCH is temporarily dedicated to a user or group of users.GPRS Logical Channels Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) The traffic channel is an up and downlink function used for user data traffic transfer. PDTCH for uplink and PDTCH for downlink are unidirectional and assigned separately to support asymmetric user traffic flow. .
GPRS Logical Channels Packet-Dedicated Control Channel (PDCCH) Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) An uplink and downlink function used to carry signaling information to and from the mobile station Packet Timing Advance Control Channel/Uplink (PTCCH/UL) Used for estimation of timing advance of one mobile station Packet Timing Advance Control Channel/Downlink (PTCCH/DL) Used to transmit timing advance information to several mobile stations .
Fig. 3-12 Mapping Logical Channels onto Physical Channels .Mapping Logical Channels onto Physical Channels Multiple logical channels are mapped onto the same physical channel in a timesharing manner.