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8a||ment descrlbes a legal relaLlonshlp ln common law where physlcal possesslon of personal properLyţ or chaLLelţ ls Lransferred from one

person (Lhe ƌballorƌ) Lo anoLher person (Lhe ƌballeeƌ) who subsequenLly has possesslon of Lhe properLyŦ lL arlses when a person glves properLy Lo
someone else for safekeeplngŦ 8allmenL ls dlsLlngulshed from a conLracL of sale or a glfL of properLyţ as lL only lnvolves Lhe Lransfer of
possesslon and noL lLs ownershlpŦ 1o creaLe a ballmenLţ Lhe ballee musL boLh lnLend Lo possessţ and acLually physlcally possessţ Lhe ballable
chaLLelŦ 8allmenL ls a Lyplcal common law concepL alLhough slmllar concepLs exlsLs ln clvll law (SpalnŴ uepóslLo)Ŧln addlLlonţ unllke a lease or
renLalţ where ownershlp remalns wlLh Lhe lessor buL Lhe lessee ls allowed Lo use Lhe properLyţ Lhe ballee ls generally noL enLlLled Lo Lhe use of
Lhe properLy whlle lL ls ln hls possesslonŦMoreoverţ unllke a securlLy agreemenL or pawn aL a pawnbrokerţ where Lhe secured parLy ls enLlLled
Lo Lhe possesslon and use of Lhe properLy only on defaulL of paymenLţ a ballor can demand Lhe reLurn of Lhe properLy aL any reasonable Llmeţ
wlLhouL prlor noLlceŦA common example of ballmenL ls leavlng your car wlLh a valeLŦ Leavlng your car ln a parklng garage ls Lyplcally a llcenseţ as
Lhe car parkƌs lnLenL Lo possess your car cannoL be shownŦ Poweverţ lL arlses ln many oLher slLuaLlonsţ lncludlng LermlnaLed leases of properLyţ
warehouslng (lncludlng sLoreŴlLŴyourself) or ln carrlage of goods
Þurposesŧ1here are Lhree Lypes of ballmenLsť (1) for Lhe beneflL of Lhe ballor and balleeŤ (2) for Lhe sole beneflL of Lhe ballorŤ and (3) for Lhe
sole beneflL of Lhe balleeŦ
A ballmenL for Lhe muLual beneflL of Lhe parLles ls creaLed when Lhere ls an exchange of performances beLween Lhe parLles (eŦgŦ a ballmenL for
Lhe repalr of an lLem)Ŧ
A ballor recelves Lhe sole beneflL from a ballmenL when a ballee acLs graLulLously (eŦgŦ a resLauranLţ a balleeţ provldes an aLLended coaLroom
free of charge Lo lLs cusLomersţ Lhe ballors)Ŧ
A ballmenL ls creaLed for Lhe sole beneflL of Lhe ballee when a ballor acLs graLulLously (eŦgŦţ Lhe loan of a book from a llbrary)
1nL INDIAN CCN1kAC1 AC1ţ1872 1|t|e ť 1nL INDIAN CCN1kAC1 AC1ţ1872 ¥ear ť 1872 Act ť CPAÞ1L8 lx Cl 8AlLMLn1
148Ŧƍ8allmenLƍ ƍballorƍţand ƍballeeƍ deflnedŦ A ƍ ballmenL ƍ ls Lhe dellvery of goods by one person Lo anoLher for some purposeţ upon a
conLracL LhaL Lhey shallţ when Lhe purpose ls accompllshedţ be reLurned or oLherwlse dlsposed of accordlng Lo Lhe dlrecLlons of Lhe person
dellverlng LhemŦ 1he person dellverlng Lhe goods ls called LheƍballorƍŦ 1he person Lo whom Lhey are dellvered ls calledţ Lhe ƍballee ƍŦ
LxplanaLlonŦŴlf a person already ln possesslon of Lhe goods of anoLher conLracLs Lo hold Lhem as a balleeţ he Lhereby becomes Lhe balleeţ and
Lhe owner becomes Lhe ballor of such goodsţ alLhough Lhey may noL have been dellvered by way of ballmenLŦ
8allmenL legal deflnlLlon (1)the providing oI bail Ior an arrested person (2)the delivering oI goods by one party to another to be held in trust Ior a
speciIic purpose and returned when that purpose is endedŧŦ8all ls money used Lo geL Lemporary release of an arresLed person before Lhelr case
goes Lo LrlalŦ 1he money glven Lo a bondsman Lo geL a relaLlve ouL of [all ls an example of ballŦ 8all means Lo help ouL of a flnanclal or anoLher
dlfflculLyŧŦ1he dellvery of personal properLy from one person (Lhe ballor) Lo anoLher (Lhe ballee) ln LrusL for some speclal purposeţ as accordlng
Lo an express or lmplled conLracLŦ Cnly Lhe lawful possesslon of Lhe properLyţ and noL ownershlpţ ls LransferredŦ 1he rlghLs and duLles of Lhe
parLles as Lo Lhe properLy depend on Lhe purpose of Lhe ballmenL and Lhe Lerms of Lhe conLracL
acLual ballmenLŧŦA ballmenL creaLed by Lhe acLual or consLrucLlve dellvery of personal properLy Lo a ballee or hls agenLsŦ
ballmenL for hlre
A ballmenL ln whlch Lhe ballor merely Lakes possesslon of personal properLy ln exchange for compensaLlonŦ
ballmenL for muLual beneflL
A ballmenL ln whlch Lhe balleeţ ln exchange for compensaLlonţ provldes Lhe ballor wlLh some addlLlonal beneflL as Lo Lhe ballorÂ's personal
properLyţ such as cleanlng or repalr workŦ

consLrucLlve ballmenL
Ŧ A ballmenL ln whlchţ due Lo Lhe parLlcular clrcumsLancesţ Lhe ballee has a legal obllgaLlon Lo reLurn Lhe personal properLy Lo lLs ownerţ even lf
Lhe owner ls noL Lhe ballor or lf Lhe ballee dld noL volunLarlly Lake possesslon of Lhe properLyŦ
graLulLous ballmenL
A ballmenL ln whlch Lhe ballee accepLs personal properLy wlLhouL expecLlng compensaLlonŦ lor exampleţ a graLulLous ballmenL ls creaLed when
a ballee borrows Lhe ballorÂ's properLyŦ ln graLulLous ballmenLsţ Lhe ballee ls llable Lo Lhe ballor for Lhe loss of or damage Lo Lhe properLy only lf
lL was caused by Lhe balleeÂ's gross negllgenceŦ
lnvolunLary ballmenL
A ballmenL ln whlch Lhe ballorţ wlLhouL any negllgenceţ unavoldably or accldenLally leaves personal properLy on Lhe balleeÂ's person or landŦ lf
Lhe ballee refuses Lo reLurn Lhe properLy upon Lhe ballorÂ's demand or refuses Lo permlL Lhe ballor Lo remove Lhe properLyţ he can be llable for
converslonŦ See also properLyŦ

1be tempototy plocemeot of coottol ovetţ ot possessloo of Þersonal ÞroperLy by ooe petsooţ tbe bollotţ loto tbe booJs of oootbetţ tbe bolleeţ fot
o JeslqooteJ potpose opoo wblcb tbe pottles bove oqteeJŦ
1he Lerm bollmeot ls derlved from Lhe lrench bollotţ ƍLo dellverŦƍ lL ls generally consldered Lo be a conLracLual relaLlonshlp slnce Lhe ballor and
balleeţ elLher expressly or lmplledlyţ blnd Lhemselves Lo acL accordlng Lo parLlcular LermsŦ 1he ballee recelves only conLrol or possesslon of Lhe
properLy whlle Lhe ballor reLalns Lhe ownershlp lnLeresLs ln lLŦ uurlng Lhe speclflc perlod a ballmenL exlsLsţ Lhe balleeƌs lnLeresL ln Lhe properLy ls
superlor Lo LhaL of all oLhersţ lncludlng Lhe ballorţ unless Lhe ballee vlolaLes some Lerm of Lhe agreemenLŦ Cnce Lhe purpose for whlch Lhe
properLy has been dellvered has been accompllshedţ Lhe properLy wlll be reLurned Lo Lhe ballor or oLherwlse dlsposed of pursuanL Lo Lhe
ballorƌs dlrecLlonsŦ
A ballmenL ls noL Lhe same as a saleţ whlch ls an lnLenLlonal Lransfer of ownershlp of personal properLy ln exchange for someLhlng of valueŦ A
ballmenL lnvolves only a Lransfer of possesslon or cusLodyţ noL of ownershlpŦ A renLal or lease of personal properLy mlghL be a ballmenLţ
dependlng upon Lhe agreemenL of Lhe parLlesŦ A ballmenL ls creaLed when a parklng garage aLLendanLţ Lhe balleeţ ls glven Lhe keys Lo a moLor
vehlcle by lLs ownerţ Lhe ballorŦ 1he ownerţ ln addlLlon Lo renLlng Lhe spaceţ has Lransferred possesslon and conLrol of Lhe vehlcle by
rellnqulshlng lLs keys Lo Lhe aLLendanLŦ lf Lhe keys were noL made avallable and Lhe vehlcle was lockedţ Lhe arrangemenL would be sLrlcLly a
renLal or leaseţ slnce Lhere was no Lransfer of possesslonŦ
A graLulLous loan and Lhe dellvery of properLy for repalr or safekeeplng are also Lyplcal slLuaLlons ln whlch a ballmenL ls creaLedŦ
CaLegorles
1here are Lhree Lypes of ballmenLsť (1) for Lhe beneflL of Lhe ballor and balleeŤ (2) for Lhe sole beneflL of Lhe ballorŤ and (3) for Lhe sole beneflL
of Lhe balleeŦ
A ballmenL for Lhe muLual beneflL of Lhe parLles ls creaLed when Lhere ls an exchange of performances beLween Lhe parLlesŦ A ballmenL for Lhe
repalr of an lLem ls a ballmenL for muLual beneflL when Lhe ballee recelves a fee ln exchange for hls or her workŦ
A ballor recelves Lhe sole beneflL from a ballmenL when a ballee acLs graLulLouslyŸfor exampleţ lf a resLauranLţ a balleeţ provldes an aLLended
coaLroom free of charge Lo lLs cusLomersţ Lhe ballorsŦ 8y vlrLue of Lhe Lerms of Lhe ballmenLţ Lhe ballee agrees Lo acL wlLhouL any expecLaLlon of
compensaLlonŦ
A ballmenL ls creaLed for Lhe sole beneflL of Lhe ballee when boLh parLles agree Lhe properLy Lemporarlly ln Lhe balleeƌs cusLody ls Lo be used Lo
hls or her own advanLage wlLhouL glvlng anyLhlng Lo Lhe ballor ln reLurnŦ 1he loan of a book from a llbrary ls a ballmenL for Lhe sole beneflL of
Lhe balleeŦ
LlemenLs
1hree elemenLs are generally necessary for Lhe exlsLence of a ballmenLť dellveryţ accepLanceţ and conslderaLlonŦ
AcLual possesslon of or conLrol over properLy musL be dellvered Lo a ballee ln order Lo creaLe a ballmenLŦ 1he dellvery of acLual possesslon of an
lLem allows Lhe ballee Lo accompllsh hls or her duLles Loward Lhe properLy wlLhouL Lhe lnLerference of oLhersŦ ConLrol over properLy ls noL
necessarlly Lhe same as physlcal cusLody of lL buLţ raLherţ ls a Lype of consLrucLlve dellveryŦ 1he ballor glves Lhe ballee Lhe means of access Lo
Laklng cusLody of lLţ wlLhouL lLs acLual dellveryŦ 1he law consLrues such acLlon as Lhe equlvalenL of Lhe physlcal Lransfer of Lhe lLemŦ 1he dellvery
of Lhe keys Lo a safeŴdeposlL box ls consLrucLlve dellvery of lLs conLenLsŦ
A requlslLe Lo Lhe creaLlon of a ballmenL ls Lhe express or lmplled accepLance of possesslon of or conLrol over Lhe properLy by Lhe balleeŦ A
person cannoL unwlLLlngly become a balleeŦ 8ecause a ballmenL ls a conLracLţ knowledge and accepLance of lLs Lerms are essenLlal Lo lLs
enforcemenLŦ
ConslderaLlonţ Lhe exchange of someLhlng of valueţ musL be presenL for a ballmenL Lo exlsLŦ unllke Lhe conslderaLlon requlred for mosL
conLracLsţ as long as one parLy glves up someLhlng of valueţ such acLlon ls regarded as good conslderaLlonŦ lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe ballor suffer
loss of use of Lhe properLy by rellnqulshlng lLs conLrol Lo Lhe balleeŤ Lhe ballor has glven up someLhlng of valueŸLhe lmmedlaLe rlghL Lo conLrol
Lhe properLyŦ
8lghLs and LlablllLles
1he ballmenL conLracL embodylng general prlnclples of Lhe law of ballmenLs governs Lhe rlghLs and duLles of Lhe ballor and balleeŦ 1he duLy of
care LhaL musL be exerclsed by a ballee varlesţ dependlng on Lhe Lype of ballmenLŦ
ln a ballmenL for muLual beneflLţ Lhe ballee musL Lake reasonable care of Lhe balled properLyŦ A ballee who falls Lo do so may be held llable for
any damages lncurred from hls or her negllgenceŦ When a ballor recelves Lhe sole beneflL from Lhe ballmenLţ Lhe ballee has a lesser duLy Lo
care for Lhe properLy and ls flnanclally responslble only lf he or she has been grossly negllgenL or has acLed ln bad falLh ln Laklng care of Lhe
properLyŦ ln conLrasLţ a ballee for whose sole beneflL properLy has been balled musL exerclse exLraordlnary care for Lhe properLyŦ 1he ballee can
use Lhe properLy only ln Lhe manner auLhorlzed by Lhe Lerms of Lhe ballmenLŦ 1he ballee ls llable for all ln[urles Lo Lhe properLy from fallure Lo
properly care for or use lLŦ
Cnce Lhe purpose of Lhe ballmenL has been compleLedţ Lhe ballee usually musL reLurn Lhe properLy Lo Lhe ballorţ or accounL for lLţ dependlng
upon Lhe Lerms of Lhe conLracLŦ lfţ Lhrough no faulL of hls or her ownţ Lhe reLurn of Lhe properLy ls delayed or becomes lmposslbleŸfor
exampleţ when lL ls losL durlng Lhe course of Lhe ballmenL or when a hurrlcane blows Lhe properLy lnLo Lhe oceanŸLhe ballee wlll noL be held
llable for nondellvery on demandŦ ln all oLher slLuaLlonsţ howeverţ Lhe ballee wlll be responslble for Lhe 1C81 of converslon for un[usLlflable
fallure Lo redellver Lhe properLy as well as lLs unauLhorlzed useŦ
1he provlslons of Lhe ballmenL conLracL may resLrlcL Lhe llablllLy of a ballee for negllgenL care or unauLhorlzed use of Lhe properLyŦ Such Lerms
may noLţ howeverţ absolve Lhe ballee from all llablllLy for Lhe consequences of hls or her own lraud or negllgenceŦ 1he ballor musL have noLlce
of all such llmlLaLlons on llablllLyŦ 1he resLrlcLlons wlll be enforced ln any acLlon broughL for damages as long as Lhe conLracL does noL vlolaLe
Lhe law or publlc pollcyŦ Slmllarlyţ a ballee may exLend hls or her llablllLy Lo Lhe ballor by conLracL provlslonŦ
1ermlnaLlon
A ballmenL ls ended when lLs purpose has been achlevedţ when Lhe parLles agree LhaL lL ls LermlnaLedţ or when Lhe balled properLy ls
desLroyedŦ A ballmenL creaLed for an lndeflnlLe perlod ls Lermlnable aL wlll by elLher parLyţ as long as Lhe oLher parLy recelves due noLlce of Lhe
lnLended LermlnaLlonŦ Cnce a ballmenL endsţ Lhe ballee musL reLurn Lhe properLy Lo Lhe ballor or posslbly be llable for converslonŦ
lurLher readlngs
Crossţ lrank 8Ŧţ and 8oger Leroy MlllerŦ 1998Ŧ Jestƌs leqol íovltoomeot of 8osloessť 1est cosesţ ítblcol keqolototyţ ooJ lotetootloool lssoesŦ SLŦ
Þaulţ MlnnŦť WesLŦ
Pallţ kermlL LŦ 1991Ŧ A nlstoty of Ametlcoo leqol coltoteť coses ooJ MotetlolsŦ new ?orkť Cxford unlvŦ ÞressŦ
CrossŴreferences
8ad lalLhŤ ConverslonŤ uamagesŤ negllgenceŦ
WesLƌs Lncyclopedla of Amerlcan Lawţ edlLlon 2Ŧ CopyrlghL 2008 1he Cale Croupţ lncŦ All rlghLs reservedŦ

ballmenL nŦ 1) Lhe acL of placlng properLy ln Lhe cusLody and conLrol of anoLherţ usually by agreemenL ln whlch Lhe holder (ballee) ls responslble
for Lhelr safe keeplng and reLurn of Lhe properLyŦ Lxamplesť bonds lefL wlLh Lhe bankţ auLos parked ln a garageţ anlmals lodged wlLh a kennelţ or
a sLorage faclllLy (as long as Lhe goods can be moved and are under Lhe conLrol of Lhe cusLodlan)Ŧ Whlle mosL are ƍballmenLs for hlreƍ ln whlch
Lhe cusLodlan (ballee) ls paldţ Lhere ls also ƍconsLrucLlve ballmenLƍ when Lhe clrcumsLances creaLe an obllgaLlon upon Lhe cusLodlan Lo proLecL
Lhe goodsţ and ƍgraLulLous ballmenLƍ ln whlch Lhere ls no paymenLţ buL Lhe ballee ls sLlll responslbleţ such as when a flnder of a losL dlamond
rlng places lL wlLh a cusLodlan pendlng flndlng Lhe ownerŦ 2) Lhe goods Lhemselves whlch are held by a balleeŦ 1husţ Lhe ƍballorƍ (owner) leaves
Lhe ƍballmenLƍ (goods) wlLh Lhe ƍballeeƍ (cusLodlan)ţ and Lhe enLlre LransacLlon ls a ƍballmenLŦƍ (Seeť balleeţ ballor)

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