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Acknowledgement

It is a pleasure to have the opportunity to convey my gratitude to people who have helped me in completing this research. First of all I want thank for our dear teacher Mrs. Marasinghe who made a great effort in helping to me to find information in this report and gave us the challenge of conducting this type of research rather than stuffing all the information related to training period to a report. Secondly I want express my thanks to our site senior quantity surveyor Miss. Thilani for helping me by providing information about the interrogations I have discussed in this report. Finally I want to thank to my dear parents, my friends, and ICBT staff who always encouraged me to complete this report successfully.

Abstract

The research title is Conflict situations when applying SLS 573 standards methods of measurement into real world . This research is about the present conflict situations that the quantity surveyor face when trying to apply the standard rules of SLS 573 which is recommended by the ICTAD ( Institute of construction training and development). This is a major problem that the todays quantity surveyors face when they practically work in the construction industry. At the commencing stage this report discusses about the quantity surveyor, and quantity surveyor role, background etc. This is an approach to the main objective of this report. Because it is required to have some knowledge about who is a quantity surveyor? What things a quantity surveyor do? What are the responsibilities? And what are the skills needed to be a quantity surveyor? Etc. I wanted to include this chapter because I prepared this report to read and understand to anyone who doesnt have knowledge about the construction field or quantity surveying field. Then in the next chapter again I wanted to give some knowledge about the SLS 573 which I am about to discuss through the whole research. This chapter gives information about SLS 573 and about the standards. The requirement of having a standard in also important to understand what could cause if the standards are not properly followed. In the next chapter, this research explains about the present construction industry and the place of the standards and whether the industry in following the standards properly and if not, what are the reasons for not following? What are the parties caused to this problem etc. It describes about that the contractor or subcontractors have been the main reason having the conflict situation because they disagree with the quantity surveyors measurements.

In the chapter 3 I explain about the major point of this report. They are the situations from the practical world which I found out during my research. Each situation is explained with the examples. To prove the fact, I have also attached the SLS 573 reference regarding each of the item that I take account of. Each of the interrogations are collected by practical field. And practical situations I faced as a trainee quantity surveyor in the Sierra constructions Pvt. Ltd. And explained each and every interrogation under several sub topics as the explanation, the problem, the analysis and my solution to this problem. Under The explanation, it explains the item or the material that I want to take account of in the interrogation. And in the sub topic The problem it explains about the quantity surveyors situation when he faced to problem. And in the analysis it explains about the reasons caused into the problem and the reasons of the party caused the problem. Finally there is a sub topic about My solution to this problem In this topic I discuss my own solution in my point of view to this problem and recommend what are the things must be applied to solve the problem. In the chapter 5 described about the conclusion including information of what are the problems that I have faced during the research. And also facts that I found, and finally what are the things I have learned from this research. So I concluded it with my research information. In the chapter 6 described about the recommendations that must be applied in order to solve the problem of conflict situation in the construction field. So I recommended that the SLS 573 must be modified according to todays work environment. Thats is the recommendation in order to solve the problems of the standard rules. So that quantity surveyor also will not have to face problems in taking off quantities.

Table of contents

Introduction to report . ..01 1. The Quantity surveyor .....03 1.1 Key skills needed to be a quantity surveyor .03 1.2 Responsibilities and duties of a quantity surveyor ...04 1.2.1 Responsibilities of a quantity surveyor ......................................04 1.2.2 Duties of a quantity surveyor .05 1.3 Standard and documental references related to quantity surveyors work environment .06 2. Conflict situations when applying SLS 573 standard methods of measurement into real world .07 2.1 The SLS 573 .07 2.1.1 What is SLS 573? ...07 2.1.2 Requirement of a standard in measuring quantities08 2.2 Quantity surveyor and the SLS 573 .10 2.3 Present situation of standards of SLS 573 in the construction industry11 2.3.1 Is the present construction industry following the standard methods of measurement according to the SLS 573? .11 2.3.2 Analysis of reasons for not following the standards according to SLS 573 ..12

3. Quantity surveyor facing problems and conflict situations when applying theoretical rules of SLS 573 into real world ...15 3.1 Interrogation no (01) Reveal measurements in the plastering ...16 3.1.1 Explanation of the reveal 16 3.1.2 The problem ...17 3.1.3 The analysis 18 3.1.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion ...18 3.2 Interrogation no (02) Measurements in the rubble wall/Foundations ...19 3.2.1 Explanation of the rubble wall/ Rubble foundations .19 3.2.2 The problem ...19 3.2.3 The analysis 20 3.2.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion ...21 3.3 Interrogation no (03) Measurements in formwork and water proofing ..21 3.3.1 The explanation for formwork and water proofing 21 3.3.2 The problem ...21 3.3.3 The analysis 24 3.3.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion ...25 4. Conclusion ..26 5. Recommendation .28 6. Reference list ..29

Introduction to report Conflict situations when applying SLS 573 standards methods of measurement into real world

The modern construction field is vastly developing, and the personnel related to the construction field is also developing their technical skills, features, technological knowledge and etc to their utmost capability. But some important factors might not be developing and then cause many conflicts situations in this field, majorly the quantity surveyor. That is the SMM 573 booklet which is powerful tool to the quantity surveyor. And my topic in this report is Conflicts situations when applying SMM 573 standards methods of measurement into real world In this report I am about to trot out the contradictory issues caused conflict situation to the quantity surveyor when applying the theoretical knowledge and standard rules and regulations according to SMM 573 into practical field or the real world. Because in my personal life as a quantity surveyor I have faced such conflict situations when trying to apply the rules and regulations of SMM 573 into real world. So it will be a good source of information to make understand the situation to people who only relies in documented theories. I choose this topic because it is a common issue that many people are facing in the present situation. Personally I have faced this situation during my training period at Sierra constructions pvt. Ltd. Every person always tries to apply their own theoretical knowledge to this practical field and then face these type of situations and disputes. So I thought that final research will be a good opportunity to bring out my ideas and arguments about these conflict issues in the construction field. In this report the arrangement of the topics describes about the information and concept that the reader or who refer this report to understand important facts before reading my argument. For an example before analyzing my topic Conflicts situations when applying SMM 573 standards methods of measurement into real world I want to explain what the SLS 573? And what is the relationship between the quantity surveyor and the SLS 573, etc.

To prove this concept It is requisite to have examples which describes about the situation. So that the referrer of this report can understand the integrity of the report and the final outcome which I wanted to understand to the reader. In this report it is important to mention about the background of the quantity surveyor and the quantity surveyors work environment before getting into the main point of this report. So there is a small topic describing the quantity surveyors background and career environment.

1. The quantity surveyor


Quantity surveyors, who may also be known as commercial managers or construction cost consultants, construction economist are specialists and professional advisers in the financial and contractual aspects of construction projects. The quantity surveyor is a major icon in the construction industry nowadays because of the demand to quality of the construction and the contractors wants to minimize the large waste in the construction and procure the profit to maximize.

1.1 Key skills needed to be a quantity surveyor


Not like the other individuals but the quantity surveyor requires vast and various kinds of knowledge and skills to be a professional in the construction field. Because the quantity surveyor must have to deal with different kinds of people, different types of works, and different types of activities. So this makes a quantity surveyor a very important person. Example :- The Site engineers task is to carry out the construction works in the site and provide the necessary advice and guidance to minor staff. But the quantity surveyor have to take over legal obligations, site works, prepare documents such as BOQ, Variations, etc, Deal with contractors issues and overall construction cost controlling. To provide these crucial services the quantity surveyor needs the following skills and qualifications, Quantity surveyor need to be a practical person with a logical and methodical approach to problem solving.
The quantity surveyor must have a good IT skills, language skills and

numeracy skills.
Quantity surveyor must have the ability to analyze the content of complicated

documents.

The quantity surveyor must have a clear knowledge of both construction

techniques and technology. The quantity surveyor must have the knowledge of the relevant laws and health and essential safety requirements.
The quantity surveyor must have a good knowledge about standards of

measurements and preparation of construction related documents. The quantity surveyor must have good communications skills as required to express opinions both verbally and on paper. Quantity surveyor are also likely to be involved in negotiating with a wide variety of people, which means that quantity surveyor would have to listen to the points of view of others as well as giving his/her opinion. In addition the quantity surveyor must have the ability to be working as a member of a team, which may require motivating and leading people on site.

1.2 Responsibilities and duties of a quantity surveyor


The quantity surveyor holds great responsibilities according to his nature of the work. As the duties and tasks become vital the value of the responsibility increases. Responsibilities of a quantity surveyor can be listed below. 1.2.1 Responsibilities of a quantity surveyor
Quantity surveyor have the responsibility to control the cost of the project any

means necessary over the whole period of time until the project is finished. This can be the most important responsibility of a quantity surveyor. Quantity surveyor have the responsibility to maintain the correctness of the documents that he or she prepares for different purposes. Also the quantity surveyor has the responsibility to obtain and furnish the people with required information, deal with different parties and provide necessary guidance and advice to people who requires.

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The quantity surveyor have the responsibility to response and keep the construction without having any commercial risks, and when a commercial risk has come out then quantity surveyor is responsible for facing and deal with the commercial risks.

1.2.2 Duties of a quantity surveyor


The quantity surveyor has the duty to prepare contract documents and other

documents during the construction progress such as progress reports. And other than that the quantity surveyor have the duty of procuring claims and to prepare intermediate documents such as variations if a variation is to be claimed. The quantity surveyor has the duty to deal with different parties such as legal parties, contractors, sub contractors and other individuals etc.
The quantity surveyor also have the duties of Identifying, analyzing and

developing responses to commercial risks.


Checking bills and checking progress of the site according to the construction

schedule and report any delays to the authorized individuals. Taking joint measurements

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1.3 Standards and documental references related to quantity surveyors work environment
The quantity surveyor is a person who always working with documental work. And according to the nature of the career the quantity surveyor is required to refer standard methods in all the works such as taking off quantities and preparing bills. Some major references can be listed below,
SLS 573 (Sri Lanka standard method of measurement SLS 573)

BSR (Building schedule of rates) CESMM3 (Civil engineering standard method of measurement) Conditions of contract (FIDDIC)
SBD Procurement of work (Standard bidding document) ICTAD - Bulletin of construction statistics

ICTAD Minor contract

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2. Conflict situations when applying SLS 573 standards methods of measurement into real world
This section is the main objective of this research. It explains about the present situation of standards and quantity surveyor facing problems in the construction field when he/she tried to apply the theoretical standards of the SLS 573.

2.1 The SLS 573 (Standard methods of measurements)

2.1.1 What is the SLS 573? Sri Lanka did not have a standards method of measurement of building works prior to the 1968, though there was an attempt in 1950 which could be termed as a form of the method of measurement in Sri Lanka. However in 1968 the first Sri Lankan standard method of measurement was developed. The institute of quantity surveyors Sri Lanka along with ICTAD felt the need, for a complete up-to-date standard method of measurement. Accordingly, ICTAD initiated action to provide this revision. ICTAD ( Institute for construction training and development ) is being the authority for releasing the SLS 573. The SLS 573 first revision 1994, itself is a comprehensive complete document. It contains twenty two work sections.

2.1.2 Requirement of a standard in measuring quantities

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In Sri Lanka, the construction industry is distributed all over the country. And everyday every hour and every minute there is a construction processing in this country. And that means there are numerous amount of quantity surveyors measuring the quantities of a construction. If these different quantity surveyors in different locations in the country took off the quantities in their own way without using or referring any standard method it will cause severe problems to many individuals, internal parties and external parties involved in the construction. These problems can be listed below,
Not having a standard could cause loss and even bankrupting the contractor or

the client. Not having a standard could cause some quantity surveyors to take off quantities being partial to a certain party. Not having a standard could cause lowering the quality and demand of the construction.

Thus, a standard method of taking off quantities is introduced by the ICTAD (Institute of construction training and development) for all the people who are involving in a construction. So these standards must be followed specially by the quantity surveyors in the work environment. And by having these standard methods of measurements the following benefits can be gained,

All the quantity surveyors will have the same quantity of a certain estimate if the standards methods of measurements are followed and correctly measured.

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Ex :- When the contractors quantity surveyor prepares the BOQ according to the standard methods of measurements (SLS 573) the consultants quantity surveyors amount will also have the same quantity if they both are correct and followed the standards. Anyone can refer to SLS 573 and using the standards they can argue or prove any error in the quantities or measurements.
There is a quality and demand in the construction when there is a standard in

the measuring process.

So it is clearly that the requirement of standard method of measurements is vital to the construction industry in any country.

2.2 The quantity surveyor and the SLS 573

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The SLS 573 is previously described in the The SLS 573 section. It is mostly like the quantity surveyors handbook in the work field. The SLS 573 must be always referred for any circumstance regarding taking off measurements. For that the quantity surveyor must have a good understanding of the SLS 573. The understandings can be listed below,

The quantity surveyor must know how to refer for a specific section in the SLS 573 Example :- If the quantity surveyor wants to know how the formwork of a beam must be measured then he must know in the which section and which sub section the formwork of a beam is located. Other than that quantity surveyor must be able to located the correct unit for the formwork of the beam in the tabulated list of the SLS 573. Also It is required to refer to supplementary rules of a specific location in the book. The quantity surveyor must have a good understanding of measurement units in the SLS 573. Example :- It is crucial to know what is a ITEM? And why it is called an ITEM, what is NR?

2.3 Present situation of standards of SLS 573 in the construction industry

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This section takes account of the standards and explains about the standards relating to present situation. It creates arguments and questioning if the current construction industry is following these SLS 573 standards properly? And according to the answer tries to find out what are the reasons for not following the standards and who caused this situations, and what are the parties affecting to negligence of the standard methods of measurements.

2.3.1 Is the present construction industry following the standard methods of measurement according to the SLS 573? It is a doubt that the present construction industry is following all the standard methods of measurement according to the SLS 573. But the answer is NO. The construction industry nowadays is not following all the standards methods of measurement according to the SLS 573. There are many reasons that I found out why the construction industry is not following, why the quantity surveyors in the most biggest construction sites are not following all the standards recognized by the SLS 573. These reasons are explain in the next chapter. Most of the standards are being followed. But some standards have been abandoned and alternatively other standards are replaced for them. But the question is why? Who caused this ? Who is responsible for this? According to my research in few construction sites I found out that most of them are not applying the measurement methods according to the SLS 573. In my practical period I have also experienced myself with this matter.

2.3.2 Analysis of reasons for not following the standards according to SLS 573

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The above chapter described about the problem about not following the standard methods of measurement in the construction industry. This chapter tries to find the reasons or parties or individuals effecting to this matter. According to my research facts that I found in the construction site the main contractor and subcontractors are the main parties cause effects to this matter. Mostly subcontractors are minor contractors. Usually involve many subcontractors in a large project. And their profit from a subcontract is not much. So they disagree to some standards which will reduce their profit. Sub contractors dislike to follow some standards which can cause less profit. Subcontractor always tries to have the maximum profit from a single contract so they declare their disagreement to the main contractor and suggest the main contractor to follow some measurement rules according to their own benefit. Even the main contractor wants to carry the construction according to all the standards methods of measurements, the subcontractors affect and disagree to take sub contracts from the main contractor according to the standards rules of measurements. So the main contractor become helpless when all the subcontractors stand against this situation so the main contractor have to agree with the rules of measurements of the sub contractors in the construction project. The main contractor is unable to disagree with the subcontractors and disband the subcontractors in the project due to following reason that I found out during my research. Reason,
The main contractors incapability to complete the project to the due date

without the subcontractors. So that main contractor always tries to keep the sub contractors in the project. Because the main contractor dont like to lose any sub contractors which will cause construction delays and problems.

Main contractor pay more attention to completing the project with as quickly as possible with the contribution of subcontractors to satisfy the client so the

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main contractor agree with the rule that the sub contractors suggest. In this case it is not a big deal for the main contractor to pay little more sum of money for the subcontractors because main contractor is always powerful in financial status.

This is the major reason of breaking and over going beyond the standard measurement rules declared by the SLS 573. A practical example for the above explained situation :In SLS 573, it is stated that when taking off quantities of a formwork of sides of a slab, it is stated if the thickness of the slab is less than 300 mm (<300) the unit for the formwork must be linear meters (m). But not square meters (m2). I have attached the table of the SLS 573 related to above case as follows,

7. Edges of floor and roof slabs 8.Edges of landings

1. Height < 300 mm 2. Height > 300 mm

m m2

Referenced by SLS 573 Formwork (F2)

So if the slab is 175 mm height, the quantity must be measured in linear meters according to the standard rules of measurements. But it is never measured in that way in construction of major projects. It is measured in square meters (m2). The reason for this matter is that the subcontractors affects. This problems has happened in my practical period of training at Sierra construction pvt. Ltd and also I have researched on some other major projects going on in Sri Lanka and I found out that the same thing is happening in those projects also.

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The subcontractors disagree to take off their quantities in linear meters for this type of case. They only agree to take off quantities of the edges of the slab formwork for square meters because the rate for linear meter is lower than square meter. And they argue that it will cause a big loss. So this is a perfect example for this situation that I previously described. In the next chapter I want to explain how the quantity surveyor is affected by these situations and conflicts. Further analysis :There are many situations like the above mentioned example. They are saved to explain with the next chapter with examples from the real world. In this analysis it is clear that the subcontractors are the major party cause this problem of not following the standards. And the main contractor is also unable to compromise, so the main contractor have to agree with the new rules of taking off quantities. When further considering about this situation from the point of view of the sub contractor, it is true that the sub contractor cannot take losses like that. Because if the formwork is taken according to the linear meter then it is true that the sub contractor will have to face the loss. Because the subcontractor is buying or importing the wood planks from a wood exporting company. So the buying rate will be higher than the rate for the linear meter rate. Because there wil be no standards followed such as linear meters in the wood cutting and exporting companies. They sell wood planks as per plank, or as per square meter. And that price is high. So the subcontractor have to buy it their price. This is a problem that must be resolved either by changing the standard rules or either by establishing strict rules not to break the standard rules. But that could incrementally cause subcontractor to abandon sites and the even affect the whole construction industry in Sri Lanka.

3. Quantity surveyor facing problems and conflict situations when applying theoretical rules of SLS 573 into real world 20

In this chapter, I will discuss about the main point of this research. The by taking account of the above explained theories and research facts I need to prove that the quantity surveyor Is really facing these problems when he is trying to apply the standard rules in the real world situations. The quantity surveyor usually follow a standard academic course in some institute which can be either governmental or private. But both institutes grants the knowledge of the theoretical concepts of quantity surveying practice. And SLS 573 is a major reference In quantity surveyors education. So at the time the quantity surveyor get into the practical field the following disputes arises. Note: - These interrogations are the practical situations which I found in the construction projects during my research. And to prove this problems I have attached the references of SLS 573 in tabulated form.

3.1 Interrogation no (01) Reveal measurements in the plastering


3.1.1 Explanation of the reveal

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The reveal is the edges of the wall when there is an opening in the wall. There are 4 sides of an opening, upper reveal lower reveal and 2 reveals in sides. The problem occurs when the quantity surveyor wants to take the measurements of the reveal for plastering. There are many reveals as there are many openings. Openings can be used for, Doors Windows Canopies Fan lights and other openings on the wall To clearly understand this item the following sketch can be used as an example.

Reveals

Wall

Opening

Figure no1 A wall and a revel in the opening According to SLS 573 the reveal must be considered as a linear meter measurement (m) for plastering. So the quantity surveyor have the knowledge that according to SLS

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573 the quantities of a reveal for plastering must be taken as linear meters. The SLS 573 reference related to this problem can be shown below for proof,

PLASTERED / RENDERED / ROUGH CAST COATINGS, MINERALS COATINGS, SPRAYED OR SPECIAL WORK, PLASTER ROAD, TERRAZZO, GRANO

1. Walls

1. Width < 300 mm

1. Thickness and number of coats stated

Reference SLS 573 Wall and ceiling finishes

3.1.2 The problem The quantity surveyor takes the quantities of this reveal according to SLS 573 following the standard rules of construction. But the contractor or the subcontractors oppose to agree with the measurements of the quantity surveyor. They accuse that if they agree to quantity surveyors measurements according to SLS 573 it will cause loss in their profit. But the quantity surveyor has done nothing wrong when taking off quantities of the reveal in plastering. And the quantity surveyor has to face this problem and quantity surveyor have to deal with this interrogation.

3.1.3 The analysis

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By means of the SLS 573 it clearly describes that if the width of the wall is less that 300 mm. The measurements must be taken as linear meters (m). But the contractor or sub contractor takes a loss of the reveal is considered as linear meters because the rate for the plaster in linear meter is low. But For the square meter is much reasonable for the contractor. The real value of the reveal is square meters when the contractor is doing the work. When this problem is considered in the point of view of the contractors it is true that they will have a loss. 3.1.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion In my opinion, this is a problem of the standard rules. It means the SLS 573 rule of plastering the walls of reveal is not a reasonable rule. By having this standard rule, specially the quantity surveyor face the problems. And there can be misjudgments with different parties involving in the construction. And also, it may cause arguments between different parties. Majorly it may cause demand of the rule to decrease. And this is not a good environment for the standard rules of the measurement, if the whole construction industry gets the same opinion about the SLS 573 then it will cause severe problems. So, in my opinion the rules of the SLS 573 rule for plastering in the reveal must be changed to have square meters (m2) when taking off quantities for plastering.

3.2 Interrogation no (02) Measurements in the rubble wall/Foundations

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3.2.1 Explanation of the rubble wall/ Rubble foundations The rubble works relates to the stonework in the SLS 573. I this case I take both rubble walls foundations into a one item because the rules of the SLS 573 applying similarly to both rubble wall and rubble foundations. Generally these rubble works are commonly used in the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Mostly the rubble wall or foundation consist of granite rocks which is not much cheaper.

3.2.2 The problem The problem occurs when the quantity surveyor takes the quantities of the rubble work according to the SLS 573 standard methods. According to the references of the SLS 573 it describes that the rubble work in a wall or a foundation must be considered as square meters (m2) when taking off quantities. And the quantity surveyor as it is mentioned prepares the amounts and quantities according to the square meters. But as previously mentioned, the contractor or the sub contractors disagree to accept the bills with the quantities of the rubble work which has been prepared by square meters. The same problem occurs in this case. Because it is true argument that the contractors will face loss in their profits if the unit of the rubble work is taken as square meters if the thickness is much bigger. In this case, the quantity surveyor again become helpless and confused. Because the quantity surveyor has not taken the quantities in the wrong way, but the correct way by using and referencing the SLS 573. But the construction industry refuse to accept those standard measurements. This is a major problem in this industry. Not stating the thickness and according to the thickness the unit for the measurement must be given in the SLS 573, so that quantity surveyor will not face the problem. In this research I only take account of the quantity surveyor point of view to discuss about the problems that the quantity surveyor facing.

The reference to the SLS 573 regarding the rubble work is displayed below.

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1. Walls

1. Thickness stated 2. Building against other work, thickness stated

1. Vertical 2. Battering

m2

1. Rubble stone work 2. Dressed stone

3. Tapering one side

work

Reference SLS 573 Stone work (G2) 3.2.3 The analysis It is blameless that the contractors disagree to follow the standard rules according to the SLS 573. Because it will cause losses in large amounts and even cause bankrupting the small contractors with this standard rules. According to the above given table the thickness of the wall is not considered much. A specific thickness is not given to quantity surveyor. So the quantity surveyor have the ability to consider the units of all the rubble walls as square meters. But that is not fair, and also that not a mistake of the quantity surveyor. As a matter of fact It is caused by incompatible and impracticable rules of the SLS 573. Example :- Lets say, the contractors buy the stones from a stone quarry for the price of x for a sing unit of cubic meter. So the contractors buying unit is cubic meters (m3). And at the time the contractor carries the stone work of the wall with the imported rubbles the contractor gets the payment of -x. Which is less than the buying rate. So the contractor have to bear the big loss from it. Because due to the unit problem. The rate of a linear meter of a rubble wall is less than the unit of a cubic meter of the rubble wall.

3.2.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion

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As a solution to this matter I think the measurement unit of SLS 573 (stone work ) rubble wall must be modified to have a thickness given and according to the thickness the units must be categorized from m2 to m3 to fairly treat both contractor and client.

3.3 Interrogation no (03) Measurements in formwork and water proofing


3.3.1 The explanation for formwork and water proofing In this last chapter of the main point of this research I aspire to discuss and explain about the further faults of the SLS 573 and quantity surveyor facing problems. In this case I have taken more than single disputes under this chapter. Because they all have the same problem persisting under it. The main disputes the I am willing to take account of can be listed below,
Measurements in formwork of a ground beam

Measurements in formwork of the edges of a slab Measurements in water proofing in tanks Measurements in water proofing in Skirtings These both topics are discussed in a single point of view. 3.3.2 The problem Formwork in a ground beam, formwork in an edge of a slab are covered by the wood planks which the contactor or subcontractors import. And they pay for the price of single plank or in square meters (m2). So these imported wood planks are then cut into required shapes to cover up the formwork area. And also the waterproofing paint for tanks and skirtings is bought by the contractors in the unit area covered in square meters. So they pay the price for square meters for a single unit used in the construction.

The problem occurs when the quantity surveyor prepares the amount or value of work done by the contractors. The contractors disagree to the way that the quantity surveyor prepares the measurements for their works. Because it will cause big losses in the

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profit. So again the quantity surveyor face a conflict situation as usual. This must be stopped either by the standard rules the construction industry. In the SLS 573, it clearly described about the measurements of formwork in ground beams, edges of the slab, and water proofing of the tanks and skirtings must be taken as linear meters. But the industry refuse it because its unfairness to the contractors. The following tables extracted from the SLS 573 shows the references to each of these dispute situations.

Reference from SLS 573 regarding the formwork of Ground beams 1. Sides of foundation 1. Screeds 2. Column and pier bases 3. Strip footings 4. Ground beams 5. Kerbs 6. Rafts 7. Basement walls Reference SLS 573 Formwork (F2) 1. Height < 300 mm 2. Height > 300 mm m m2

Reference from SLS 573 regarding the formwork of edges of slab

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7. Edges of floor and roof slabs 8. Edges of landings

1. Height < 300 mm 2. Height > 300 mm

m m2

Reference SLS 573 Formwork (F2)

Reference from SLS 573 regarding the water proofing of tanks and water proofing of skirtings

1. Tanking 2. Damp proofing

1. Width < 300 mm 2. Width > 300 mm 3. Isolated surfaces

1. Horizontal 2. Vetical 3. Curved, radius stated

m m2 nr m m2

3. Skirtings 4. Coves

1. Girth < 300 mm 2. Girth > 300 mm girth stated Reference SLS 573 Water proofing (H)

3.3.3 The analysis The problem of the standard rules distribute over the whole measurement techniques in the construction industry. But the quantity surveyor is always facing and dealing with these disputes as they arise without knowing. In this case it is also similar to the

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above discussed chapters. But there are many amount of disputes related to one section in the SLS 573. The contractors buy the wood planks for the market price as per plank or as per square meter. And also the water proofing paint is equal to that. The paint used for water proofing is used for an area. So the price consist of area for the water proofing. But the above tables from the SLS 573 clearly mention that the formwork of a ground beam less than 300 mm height must be taken as linear meters. But a column which has a width less than 300 mm is taken as square meters. But the point is form work for the column and ground beam in the area is equal. But they both have different measurement units in the SLS 573. The following example illustrates about the fact in this chapter.

For Example :- There is a ground beam length of 3000 mm height of 225 mm. And there is a column height 3000 mm and width 225 mm. If the form work area is calculated according to this situation the following answers can be taken.

Form work for a side of Ground beam

= ( 3.000 x 0.225 ) m = 0.675 m2

Form work for a side of column

= (0.225 x 3.000) m = 0.675 m2

The area is same in the above calculations. But the column is considered as square meters. And the ground beam is considered as linear meters. And the payment for applying the formwork for a side of a column is high but the payment for applying the

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form work in a side of a ground beam is low. So, why a contractor would agree to this kind of situation. So the contractors disagree to calculate the quantity for ground beams as linear meters thoroughly. In this case also the quantity surveyor face a difficulty in measuring the quantities of a formwork of a ground beam contrasting to a column. Also this applies to measuring the quantities of edges of a slab. The contractors doesnt like to have losses so they disagree to take measurements for a slab as linear meters even the slab is lower than 300 mm.

The above tables shows that the damp proofing must be considered as linear meters when applying for water tanks width less than 300 mm. And also for skirtings girth less than 300 mm. According to SLS 573 above reference, they both must be measured by the quantity surveyor by linear meters. But the contractors also refuse to agree with the quantities which are calculated by using linear meters because of the loss in the profit. And the quantity surveyor again face the problem of carrying out his works properly according to the SLS 573.

3.3.4 Solution for this matter in my opinion As all the facts, arguments shows above this has become a serious problem to the whole construction industry of not having a proper standards which is more reliable and more compatible with todays working environment. So in my opinion the measurement standards of the SLS 573 must be modified to become more trust worthy and more reliable with the construction process. Formwork and water proofing must be modified with new standards and new rules which the quantity surveyor can refer and follow it in the work environment.

4. Conclusion

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As still a student into this quantity surveying field, I have learned various concepts, techniques, and knowledge by conducting this final research. And I still believe that I am a beginner of the field of quantity surveying because I have met many difficulties, many consequences, many facts, many ideas which I cannot gain from such a short period of time. So that I have this idea about what could possibly cause the salary of the quantity surveyor. Yet, I have to learn many more out there in the practical field. Because the subject quantity surveying is not just a limited field where we can put limits of knowledge or limits of experience. This subject connect with many different areas, many different people which I have to have the knowledge about to be a professional in this field. At the first time I got into this research, there is no idea about what kind of a research that I must do. But timely I got into a world of information and arguments, facts which I have to balance and put them all in my own words. Firsts I faced the problems of finding good interrogations to discuss in the research but I got help in that by our teacher. In this case, I believe that I just discussed a small topic which is related to the quantity surveyor. But there are still vast amounts of researches left to proceed. And by that means there are many things to learn for anyone, not only me. In this final conclusion by further considering about the research facts that I collected, and proofs that has been discussed in the above chapters illustrates a clear understanding about the main point I wanted discuss in this research. It is how the quantity surveyor is facing difficulties when he or she applies the standard rules of SLS 573 which is recommended by the ICTAD ( Institute of construction training and development ).

The construction industry faces a bigger problem with the standard methods of measurements, because they are not practicable and also inappropriate for both contractor and client. Most of the interrogations has proven that the rules of measurements have treated the contractor unfairly in the industry. So the contractors

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party is accusing for the consequences they faces for the quantity surveyor because the quantity surveyor in this matter is helpless because according to quantity surveyors academic background it force the quantity surveyor to work according to the recommended standards in the SLS 573. There is another issue regarding the SLS 573, that some technologies of the present construction industry is not included in the SLS 573 because current SLS 573 consist of rule which are very old. But the present construction field has been vastly developed by new technologies and new material which needs to be included in the SLS 573, so the quantity surveyor is unable to refer such new materials in the SlS 573 when he wants to take off quantities. It will be a big matter if the contractors denied to accept all the standard rules in the SLS 573 so that it will become useless and the demand of the SLS 573 will be decreased incrementally. The above interrogations clearly reflect that the formwork of the edge of the slab and form work of the ground beams is a bigger issue, so the quantities of these items must be considered in the point of view of both contractor and client. And this applies to the water proofing of the tanks and skirtings. Because the SLS 573 standard rules has only viewed a single prospection. But it has to view more prospection in order to issue such kind of rules for standard measurements because it a matter of Sri Lanka Standards (SLS).

5. Recommendations

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By taking all the information that I have collected and analyzed I thoroughly recommend that the SLS 573 (Standard methods of measurements) must be modified to suit todays construction industry. Because it an old version which is being released many years ago. The rules can be taken, but still needs updating and modification. By doing these solutions and recommendations again the construction industry can be elevates to refer for standards of the SLS 573. The authority of the SLS 573 must reconsider about the rules in the current SLS 573 edition and has to modify where all the parties involving the construction takes a good advantage of it. So this is a responsibility of the ICTAD as the authority of the SLS 573. Specially there need to be a thickness stated in the rubble wall in the stone work because the thickness must be stated otherwise it will cause losses to contractors party. And also the formwork of certain items must be changed stating more reasonable unit to be considered in slabs and ground beams. Because the contractor never wants to have a small loss in this matter according to the standard rules. The rule for reveal in the plastering must be also changed to consider it as square meters. Because the reveal costs square meter amount to the contractor in the plastering. So these modifications must be done in the SLS 573 in order to process a good standard to every individuals involving the construction process. There is also another important recommendation to be applied to this SLS 573 in my opinion. As there are new materials comes, as new technologies comes, as new items added to the construction industry, as new methods applied the SLS 573 must be even yearly updated with the new installments of the above mentioned facts. It means in this next if some new materials added to the construction of Sri lanka such as wall finish imported from foreign country and if that items is vastly used in the construction industry as a trend then there must be a clarification about taking off the quantities of that specific item or material. So that as the construction industry grows every day the standard rules and methods also grows. So that no one can blame against the rules of standard methods of measurements.

6. Reference list
1. Sri Lanka Standard 573 : 1999 (SLS 573)

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