Table of Contents

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1-ê 1.2 3ysler Perlorrarce ard Fealures
1-1 1.1 3ysler 0verv|eW
1-1 C|apler 1 Ar lrlroducl|or lo V900/V1800 83C
Table of Contents
Technical Manual
M900/M1800

Base Station Controller
i
1-2Z 1.1.2 Po lrlerlace Varagererl
1-25 1.1.1 8r|el lrlroducl|or lo l|e Po lrlerlace
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2-ê0 2.5.1 3lruclure ol 3ysler lardWare
2-ê0 2.5 Cerlra| 0alaoase (C08)
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5-2ê 5.ê.5 8T3 A|arr Varagererl
5-2ê 5.ê.1 8T3 Tesl Varagererl
5-21 5.ê.3 8T3 Equ|prerl 0peral|or ard Varagererl
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5-1 5.1 3erv|ce F|oW
5-1 C|apler 5 Furcl|or 0escr|pl|or
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Base Station Controller
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Apperd|x F-1 Apperd|x F 0PR3 V3 C|asses
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5-29 5.ê.Z 3upporl ol 0PR3 3erv|ce
5-2Z 5.ê.ê TRX Vulua|-ass|slarce Varagererl
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Technical Manual
M900/M1800

Base Station Controller
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Chapter 1 An Introduction to M900/M1800 BSC
1.1 System Overview
The new century is witnessing the information wave sweeping throughout the world.
People are becoming more and more willing to communicate with others or get
necessary information at any time and any place. Telecom operation services and
equipment manufacturing industries are facing the severe challenge of these kinds of
user's requirement.
With the rapid development of mobile communications systems especially the GSM
systems, geographical distances are disappearing. At the same time, data
communications technology, especially Internet technology, also sees rapid
development. Internet services are incessantly introduced, which are profoundly
impacting and changing people's lifestyle and thought. Then the integration of data
communications and mobile communications is becoming inevitable.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) system is an important milestone for wireless
data transmission (as shown in Figure 1-1). It provides high-speed IP packet and data
services. Based on the GSM system, it introduces the radio packet-based switching
function by adding a packet-based air interface to the existing circuit-based switching
mode in the GSM system. It provides a radio access rate of up to 170kbps and is
capable of transmitting voice and data so that people can get the information they need
at any time no matter where they are without the limitation of space and locations, like
receiving and sending e-mail, fax, and access to the Internet.
As the necessary part of GPRS/GSM system, Huawei's M900/M1800 Base Station
Controller (BSC) integrates the technologies of switching, opto-electronics,
micro-electronics, computer, wireless. It boosts the mobile communications network
towards the digital, integrated, intelligent, and personal trend. Incorporating
leading-edge technologies in such fields as switching, transmission, radio
management, it has an open network platform and fully supports the services provided
by the GPRS/GSM900 and GPRS/GSM1800, satisfying people's rapidly increasing
demand for mobile communications.
In the near future, people can browse the Internet, send/receive e-mail, and work on
the move. People will get information or communicate with each other more and more
easily and flexibly.
Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
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M900/M1800 BSC supports both GSM and GPRS services. As the central control
entity of Base Station Subystem (BSS), BSC plays the important role in the whole
GPRS/GSM system. It is mainly responsible for radio resources management, Base
Transceiver System (BTS) management, power control, handover control, and traffic
statistics. It is very important in wireless access, network optimization, etc.
The GPRS network implements the packet data function by adding a series of
functional entities to the existing GSM network. These new functional entities along
with the old entities form the GPRS/GSM network. The new entities performs bypass
on the GPRS data and complete GPRS services, thus minimizing the modification to
the existing GSM network.
Figure 1-2 and Figure 1-3 shows the making of the GPRS/GSM network from different
perspectives. Comparing with GSM network, The GPRS/GSM network has such new
functional entities as the service GPRS support node (SGSN), gateway GPRS support
node (GGSN), point-to-multipoint data service center (PTM-SC). And it updates the
software and hardware functions of a series of old GSM functional entities.
Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
1-2
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Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
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Base Station Controller
1-3
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The GPRS network shares the BSS with the GSM network, but it is necessary to
update the corresponding software and hardware of the BSS. Besides the enhanced
entities of the GSM BSS, Packet Control Unit (PCU) is added in the Huawei's GPRS
BSS system. Figure 1-4 shows a functional protocol plane that the GPRS network's
BSS adds to the existing BSS.
Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
1-4

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Huawei's GPRS/GSM BSS system can be divided into three functional entities: Base
Transceiver System (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), and Packet Control Unit
(PCU), as shown in Figure 1-5. The GPRS protocol functions, shown in Figure 1-4 are
mostly implemented in the newly added PCU.
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The M900/M1800 BSC provides three types of external interfaces including standard
A-interface between BSC & MSC, non-standard Abis interface between BSC and BTS,
and non-standard Pb interface between BSC and PCU. These interfaces comply with
ETSI GSM/GPRS 08.08, ETSI GSM/GPRS 04.08, ETSI GSM 08.58 standard
protocols, and Huawei's Abis interface and Pb interface also use their own propriety
protocols.
M900/M1800 BSC can be expanded flexibly from 1 to 8 Basic Modules (BM) easily and
can support up to 1024 TRXs (i.e. Total of 1024*8 subscribers simultaneously). A BM
can form an independent office in small capacity BSC configuration, capable of
managing up to 128 TRXs (i.e. Total of 128*8 subscribers simultaneously). In large
Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
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Base Station Controller
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capacity BSC configuration, BMs are connected with AM/CM through optical fiber. The
AM/CM is responsible for the centralized control of BMs.
1.2 System Performance and Features
The performance and features of the M900/M1800 BSC are:
Provides the standard A interface so as to be interconnected and intercommunicated
with equipment of different vendors.
M900/M1800 BSC can be expanded smoothly from 1 BM module to 8 BMs.
Each BM can provide 8 A-sub interfaces or Pb interfaces, 64 Abis interfaces, 8 SS7
signaling ports and 192 LAPD ports simultaneously at the most.
A BM can control 128 cells or 128 TRXs (transceiver) at most, the switching matrix is
4K 4K.
M900/M1800 BSC can control up to 1024 cells or 1024 TRXs at most.
SMUX (sub-multiplexer) enables the multiplexing of terrestrial lines between MSC and
BSC, and saves the investments on terrestrial lines. Each SMUX enables the 4:1 line
multiplexing.
Base station Interface Equipment (BIE) enables the 12:1 line multiplexing and supports
the star, chain and tree networking topologies with the BTS.
Transmission at the Abis interface can be: terrestrial or satellite in accordance to
customers requirements.
Powerful processing capability and support of high traffic load.
Max. traffic load supported: 6400 erl
Max. BHCA: 800k
An extended cell of 70km or larger can be supported.
High reliability due to its redundant configurations
Two central processors work in a redundant mode, to ensure the smooth system
running.
The switching network and BIE use the 1+1 backup mode.
SMUX uses the N+1 backup mode, where N is the total number of SMUX cards in the
system.
LAPD uses the N+1 backup mode.
Traffic adjustment: the optimized channel allocation mode enables the adaptive
adjustment of the network along with the changes of cell service loads and wireless
environment.
Priority queuing function: the queuing of multiple priority levels for paging and channel
allocation satisfies the requirements of multiple levels subscribers.
Handover function supports synchronous, asynchronous and dual-band handovers.
The traffic control mechanisms of multiple levels are provided on A and Abis interfaces.
Resources check and carrier frequency reciprocal mechanism.
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An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
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Centralized network management is responsible for realtime management and control
of the BSC & BTS, and provides detailed tracing, radio resources configuration, and
traffic statistics.
Support M900 BTS and M1800 BTS as well as M900/M1800 integrated BTS and
dual-band MS access.
Synchronization mode uses master/slave synchronization mode.
Clock indication.
Clock precision: 4.6×10

Hz
Pull-in range: -4.6 ×10

to 4.6 ×10

Hz
Max. frequency offset: 2 ×10

Hz/day
Initial max. frequency offset: 1 ×10

Hz
1.3 Networking
The M900/M1800 BSC system provides a flexible networking because of its convenient
configuration. It supports star, chain and tree networking topologies for BTS networks,
as illustrated in Figure 1-6.
Chapter 1
An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
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Base Station Controller
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1.4 Physical Features
1.4.1 Mechanical Structure
The mechanical structure of M900/M1800 BSC follows the "building block¨ designing
concept, and satisfies the requirements for modular design and flexible networking.
The cabinet, plug-in boxes, boards and handle bars support general services and are
convenient in "permutations and combinations".
M900/M1800 BSC adopts the advanced mechanical techniques and surface treatment
measures, which make the equipment highly reliable and highly environment
adaptable. It also satisfies the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility and
passed relevant tests.
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An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
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The outline dimensions of a single-cabinet M900/M1800 BSC system are (2100H
800W 550D) mm, which is shown in Figure 1-7. The width of independent cabinet
(with side doors) is 880mm and the width of a single combined cabinet is 800mm.
A|arr |rd|calor
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The static net weight of a single cabinet in full configuration is 200kg.
To satisfy the requirements for anti-vibration and to provide earthquake-resistance, the
frames are designed to provide enough strength. For special earthquake-resistance
requirements, two rows of cabinets can be connected and reinforced, or the cabinets
can be connected with the walls for reinforcing.
1.4.2 Power Consumption
The power consumption of M900/M1800 BSC AM/CM module in full configuration (1
cabinet) is 500W, the power consumption of each BM in full configuration is 350W (1
cabinet can be configured with 2 BM modules), and the power consumption of each
TCSM unit is 220W (1 cabinet can be configured with 6 TCSM).
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An lntroduction to M900/M1800 BSC
Technical Manual
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Chapter 2 OveraII Architecture of BSC
2.1 System's Hardware
The hardware system of the M900/M1800 base station controller adopts a modular
structure, and can be divided into four modular levels, as shown in Figure 2-1.
The lowest level is composed of various circuit boards. Various circuit boards are
combined together to form frame units. Each frame unit accomplishes the specific
functions.
Frame units with various functions are combined together to form a module, and
respective modules can implement specific functions independently.
Different modules are combined together to form the base station controller.
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The modular design makes the installation and expansion of BSC convenient and
flexible i.e., new functions and technologies can be introduced by just addition/removal
of functional frames.
Application of very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) in circuit designing gives a
compact and highly reliable system with low power consumption.
Hardware design is simplified due to the application of microprocessors and
programmable logic chips. To enhance functions, it is only required to add
corresponding hardware and software.
According to its hardware structure, the M900/M1800 BSC can be divided into the
administration module and communication module (AM/CM), basic module (BM) and
central database (CDB).
For 128TRX or less only one BM is required and AM/CM cabinet is not needed. When
there are more than 128TRXs, then AM/CM is needed, and the number of BMs is
determined by the specific capacity (maximum 8 BMs can be configured).
Chapter 2
Overall Architecture of BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
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Base Station Controller
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In terms of functions, the M900/M1800 BSC can be divided into the control system,
switching system, TCSM (TransCoder&Sub-Multiplexer) unit, BIE (Base station
Interface Equipment), clock synchronization system, alarm system, back administration
module (BAM), and central database (CDB).
2.1.1 System Configuration
M900/M1800 BSC can be configured in two different ways, i.e. large capacity
configuration and small capacity configuration, as shown in figures 2-2 & 2-3
respectively. In large capacity configuration we need at least one AM/CM along multiple
BMs, as illustrated in the diagram. Where as in small capacity configuration only one
BM can control several BTSs.
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Chapter 2
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According to the hardware structure, BSC can be divided into administration and
communication module (AM/CM), basic module (BM) and central database (CDB).

The AM/CM is used for the large-capacity BSC. It is a center for voice channel
switching and information exchange in the BSC, it implements the communication
between various BMs.
AM/CM is mainly composed of the communications control unit, central switching
network, transmission interface unit, clock synchronization system, alarm system, and
the BAM.
To be specific, it is consisted of GCTN, GMCCS, GMCCM, GSNT, GALM, GFBI and
GCKS boards. The only difference between GMCCS and GMCCM is the software
downloaded.

The BM is mainly composed of the main control unit, switching network, BIE, and alarm
system.
It is consisted of GMPU, GEMA, GNOD, GMC2, GNET, GOPT, and GLAP boards.
Among these boards, GMC2 and GOPT are used for the communication with the
AM/CM, which are applied only in the large-capacity BSC.
The BM's main control unit has a hierarchical structure. It's key components are
protected by providing redundancy which ensures the system reliability. This module is
mainly responsible for call processing, signaling processing, radio resources
management, radio link management, and circuit maintenance, etc.
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Base Station Controller
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ÌÌÌ. CDB
Central database (CDB) is a service processing center, responsible for providing the
interface between the short message center (SMC) and BSC, and supporting short
message broadcast service. Its server communicates with the GMEM boards of the
modules through the Ethernet interface.
2.1.2 Functional Structure
According to the functions, the BSC can be divided into control system, switching
network, TCSM unit, base station interface equipment, clock synchronization system,
alarm system, back administration module and central database. A functional structure
of the BSC system is shown in Figure 2-4.
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Ì. Control system
Centralized control and distributed processing technique is applied in the designing of
M900/M1800 BSC control system. The main function of the control system includes
inter module and intra module signaling. Since small-capacity BSC has only one BM,
there is no need to have inter-module communication part.
ÌÌ. Switching network
The central switching network board and inter-module switching network board
constitute the T-T-T switching network for the large-capacity BSC, and jointly
accomplish the switching of voice information.
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The central switching network board is a 16K 16K T network, and the switching
network within the module is a single 4K 4K T switching network.
The small-capacity BSC's switching network has only 4K 4K T switching network in
the BM.
ÌÌÌ. Transcoder and sub-multiplexer (TCSM) unit
The TCSM unit accomplishes the function of transcoding/rate adaptation and
sub-multiplexing.
A TCSM unit contains transcoder/rate adapter unit (TRAU) and sub-multiplexer
(SMUX).
Although the Transcoder and sub-multiplexer (SMUX) is logically part of the BSC, it
can be also located at the MSC end, which enhances the transmission capacity
between BSC and MSC i.e. insofar the Asub interface carries traffic channels at 16
kbit/s, therefore each TRAU module can handle up to 120 16 kbit/s channels instead of
30 voice channels.
A-interface is physically a standard E1 interface between MSC and BSC defined by
ETSI, through which M900/M1800 BSC can be interconnected with MSCs of other
manufacturers.
ÌV. Base station interface equipment (BÌE)
M900/M1800 BSC provides BIE board to provide Abis interfaces for BTS connectivity.
It provides E1 standard external interface. Each E1 interface can provide maximum
transmission capacity of 15 TRX (each TRX with 7.2TCH).
V. Clock synchronization system
The clock synchronization system is mainly composed of the clock frame.
It uses the digits to phase-lock higher-level MSC or BITS clock reference source, so
that the clock of the whole system can follow a standard one.
The BSC clock is an international standard stratum 3 clock, its performance indices are
equal to or better than the defined international standard.
VÌ. Alarm system
The alarm system of the BSC collects distributed alarms and performs centralized
processing. It sends various alarm messages to alarm box, and OMC alarm console
respectively, and sends out corresponding audible and visible alarms through alarm
box. In addition, alarms history can be inquired through OMC.
VÌÌ. BAM
The BAM serves as the bridge for the communication between BSC and OMC.
Through it OMC can perform maintenance of the BSC .
The BAM communicates with the control system via HDLC link and communicates with
the OMC server through LAN or WAN. 8. CDB
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The CDB provides the interface for the BSC and short message center (SMC). It
receives the message sent by the SMC to the BSC, and controls the BSC to send short
message broadcast in a specific cell. CDB and SMC are connected through Ethernet
interface.
VÌÌÌ. E1 interface
The interface between the BSC & PCU (Packet Control Unit) and between the BSC &
MSC (through TCSM) is a standard E1 interface. E3M board is used for large capacity
BSC and for small-capacity BSC SMI board (when multiplexed on the Pb interface and
A interface) or FTC (not multiplexed only on A interface) is used.
2.1.3 System Cabinet Configuration
A BSC can be installed either in large capacity configuration or in small capacity
configuration.
Ì. Small-capacity BSC
For small-capacity BSC, only BM is needed, and it is not necessary to configure the
AM/CM. Clock frame, BAM, and alarm box are installed in the BM.
In case of small-capacity BSC (without SMUX), the cabinets are divided into basic and
extension cabinets, as shown in Figure 2-5.
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For the small-capacity BSC with SMUX, only one basic cabinet is required, as shown in
Figure 2-6.
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The two BIE frames are for placing the base station interface equipment and SMUX.
The MSC side is configured with a TCSM unit, which takes up one cabinet.
ÌÌ. Large-capacity BSC
A large-capacity BSC must be configured with AM/CM and BM. Eight BM can be
configured at the most.
The clock frame, BAM and alarm box are configured in the AM/CM.
The large-capacity BSC cabinet can be divided into the AM/CM cabinet and BM
cabinets, as shown in Figure 2-7.
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Chapter 2
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Technical Manual
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Base Station Controller
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2.2 Overall Architecture
Overall structure of the BSC system is introduced briefly as follows, with respect to its
functions. For details, please refer to Section 2.3 and Section 2.4 in this Manual.
For the block diagram of system functional structure, please refer to Figure 2-3.
2.2.1 Control System
The M900/M1800 BSC works on distributed processing and centralized control
principles.
In terms of structure and control system, the small-capacity BSC is a subset of a
large-capacity BSC so we will focus on the large-capacity BSC. A small-capacity BSC
has only one BM and no AM/CM, GOPT or inter-module communications function.
Ì. System structure
The control system is mainly composed of processor circuit, inter-module
communication circuit, intra-module communication circuit, signaling switching circuit
and signaling processing circuit, etc.
a. Main control boards
The main control board of AM/CM is GMCCM and the main control board of BM is
GMPU.
b. Inter-module communication circuit
The inter-module communication circuit mainly includes the GMCCS in AM/CM module
and the GMC2 in BM module.
c. Intra-module communication circuit
The communication within the AM/CM module is accomplished by GMCCS, and the
communication within BM module is mainly accomplished by GNOD board.
d. Signaling switching circuit
Signaling switching circuit is mainly responsible for signaling switching control, here
signaling refers to various control and status information.
In the AM/CM module, the signaling switching function is accomplished by GSNT
board, and in the BM module, it is accomplished by GNET board.
e. Signaling processing circuit
Signaling processing circuit mainly refers to SS7 processing board (LPN7) and LAPD
protocol processing board (GLAP) in the BM.
Chapter 2
Overall Architecture of BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
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ÌÌ. Communication principle
The data channels for the communication between modules of the large capacity BSC
are composed of the GMCCM and GMCCS boards in the AM/CM module, and GMPU
& GMC2 in the BM, as shown in Figure 2-9.
The communication messages among modules mainly include management data, call
processing messages, maintenance & testing messages, loaded programs & data,
alarms, traffic statistics etc.
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M900/M1800
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As illustrated in Figure 2-9, GMPU is the main control board of BM module, GMCCM is
the main control board of the AM/CM module, GMC2 is a two-channel HDLC
communication board responsible for inter-module communication in each BM, and
GMCCS is a multiple channel HDLC communication board responsible for
inter-module communication in the AM/CM module.
The inter-module communication routes are shown in Figure 2-10.
Chapter 2
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Technical Manual
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Communication between GMPU and GMC2 in the BM and the communication between
GMCCM and GMCCS in the AM/CM module are conducted through dual-port RAM
(mail box), while the communication between GMC2 and GMCCS is through the HDLC
link.
GMC2 and GMCCS communicates through optical fiber and GOPT and GFBI are their
respective optical fiber interfaces.
Each BM houses two GMC2 boards which communicate with two GMCCS boards
respectively, thus improving reliability. The two GMCCS boards communicate with
corresponding GMC2 boards of BM in load sharing mode. On the failure of one link the
second link will take over the full load automatically, which ensures the system
reliability.
The physical layer of inter-module communication is achieved by optical fibers and
HSCX (High_level Serial Communication Controller with extended feature and
functionality). The data link layer is fully compliant with X.25 LAPD protocol.
The transfer layer is realized by GMCCS, and the transmission layer and application
layer are accomplished by GMCCM board and GMPU software.
Chapter 2
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2.2.2 Switching Network
The central switching network board (GCTN) and intra-module switching network
board (GNET) provide a large capacity T-T-T switching network and jointly accomplish
the switching of voice information, as shown in Figure 2-11.
A GCTN board provides 16K 16K T switching network and GNET board is a single
4K 4K T switching network.
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The switching network of the small-capacity BSC is much simpler, as shown in Figure
2-12. It only has a 4K 4K T switching network boards (GNET) in BM, which
independently implements the switching of voice information, etc.
Chapter 2
Overall Architecture of BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
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2.2.3 Base Station lnterface Equipment (BlE)
The interface between BTS and BSC is called BIE. It provides a standard E1 interface,
and mainly accomplishes functions like BTS accessing, channel multiplexing on Abis
interface, etc.
The position of the base station interface equipment in system is shown in Figure 2-13.
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For normal speech Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is used in PLMN, with a rate of
64kbit/s. In GSM system, the voice coding mode RPE-LTP or CELP coding with much
lower rate (16kbit/s) is used due to the limitation of radio channel resources. If a
subscriber of fixed network wants to access a GSM subscriber, then there is a need of
code translation. This code translation is done by TRAU.
Since the rate of each channel in existing terrestrial lines is 64kbit/s, it is a waste if one
channel is used to carry one 16kbit/s GSM channel. To save terrestrial line resources,
sub-multiplexer (SMUX) is generally used between MSC and BSC to multiplex 4
16kbit/s channels to get one 64kbit/s channel for transmission.
Chapter 2
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Generally, TRAU and SMUX are integrated in one unit called TCSM, its position is
shown in Figure 2-14.
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2.2.5 Clock Synchronization System
The BSC clock synchronization system phase-locks the upper-level MSC or BITS clock
as reference source, and provides a stable clock source for the AM/CM and BM.
Ì. System features
The BSC clock synchronization system has the following features:
The clock can be synchronized by Phase Lock Loop (PLL) and by software, so that the
clock of the system can follow the MSC or BITS clock reliably.
Powerful software function: Clock system is equipped with perfect display, alarm,
maintenance and operation system, and internal parameters of the clock can be set
through OMC directly.
ÌÌ. System structure
Both small and large capacity BSCs extract, "purify¨, and synthesize the clock
synchronization signals from the MSC/BITS reference sources, but having quite
different clock synchronization system structures, as shown in Figure 2-15 and Figure
2-16.
Chapter 2
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Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
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In a large-capacity BSC, the synthesized clock synchronization signals are sent to
GCTN and GSNT, from these units to other units/parts of the AM/CM. The BM's GOPT
extracts clock signals from optical signals and generates required clock
synchronization signals. These signals are sent to GNET, which are then forwarded to
other parts of the BM.
Chapter 2
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Technical Manual
M900/M1800
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In a small-capacity BSC, the synthesized clock synchronization signals are directly sent
to GNET, which then sends these signals to other parts of the BM.
ÌÌÌ. Control mode
The clock synchronization system is configured in the clock frame (please refer Figure
2-6) that contains two GCKS boards in hot backup mode.
In a large-capacity BSC, the OMC communicates with GMCC through BAM, and the
GMCCM implements the maintenance and operation over 2 GCKS boards via two
serial ports. In this way, the OMC can operate and maintain the clock synchronization
system.
In small-capacity BSC, the OMC communicates with GMPU through BAM, the GMPU
communicates with GALM through HDLC link, and GALM communicates with GCKS
through serial port. In this way, the OMC can implement the operation and
maintenance of the clock synchronization system.
The clock control methods for the clock synchronization systems in large-capacity and
small-capacity BSCs are shown in Figure 2-17a, and Figure 2-17b.
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2.2.6 Alarm System
The M900/M1800 BSC alarm system collects various alarm messages for the GMPU
for classification and processing, then these alarms are sent to the alarm box and
OMC alarm console respectively.
The whole alarm system is composed of the alarm box, OMC alarm console, alarm
communication board, etc.
There are two alarm boxes connected to the BSC, one is for the BSC and the other is
centralized alarm box for the BTS, responsible for the centralized audible and visible
alarms of all BTSs managed by that BSC.
The alarm system structures of the large-capacity and small-capacity BSC are shown
in Figure 2-18 and Figure 2-19 respectively.
Chapter 2
Overall Architecture of BSC
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
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In a large-capacity BSC, the BM's GMPU and AM/CM's GMCCM collects alarm
information of the system software and hardware, which is sent to the OMC alarm
console and alarm box.
In a small-capacity BSC, the BM's GMPU forms various alarm levels according to the
software and hardware fault information detected by the boards, which are sent to the
OMC alarm console and alarm box.
GALM provides the hardware interfaces for equipment room environmental alarms. It
collects alarms including temperature, humidity, fire, and secondary power supply
alarms. These alarm messages are also sent to the OMC alarm console and alarm
box.
2.2.7 Back Administration Module (BAM)
BAM serves as a communication bridge between BSC and OMC. Via BAM, OMC can
perform operation and maintenance over BSC .
BAM communicates with the control system through HDLC link, and forms local area
network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) together with the OMC system. When BSC
and OMC are in the same premises, BAM and OMC can be connected through LAN,
and in case of distance these can be connected through WAN with the help of network
adapter, router, protocol converter and transmission equipment.
The position of BAM in system is shown in Figure 2-16.
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2.2.8 Central Database (CDB)
In the M900/M1800 BSC, CDB plays significant role. Respective BM communicates
with CDB via Ethernet interface provided by a database interface board, GMEM as
shown in Figure 2-21.
Chapter 2
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Technical Manual
M900/M1800
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2.3 AM/CM Module
Being the center of voice channel switching and message switching of BSC, the
AM/CM module plays an important role in M900/M1800 BSC.
AM/CM module is mainly composed of communication control unit, central switching
network, transmission interface unit, clock synchronization system, alarm system and
back administrative module. The structural diagram is shown in Figure 2-22.
Chapter 2
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Ì. System composition
AM/CM module is mainly composed of communication control unit, central switching
network, transmission interface unit, clock synchronization system, alarm system and
back administration module.
a. Communications control unit
The communication control unit manages and controls the whole system. It is mainly
composed of GMCCM (GMCC0-1), GMCCS (GMCC2-11) and GSNT.
b. Central switching network
The central switching network mainly handles voice channel switching between BM
and MSC. The function of central switching network is accomplished by GCTN board.
c. Transmission interface unit
Transmission interface unit mainly responsible for multiplexing/demultiplexing of
inter-module voice channels and signaling links, optoelectric conversion and E1
interface driving, so that inter-module communication messages can be transmitted
over optical fibers.
Transmission interface unit is mainly composed of optical interface board (GFBI) and
enhanced sub-multiplex board (E3M). GFBI provides the optical interface from AM to
BM module, E3M provides E1 interface from BSC to TCSM unit.
d. Clock synchronization system
Clock synchronization system provides standard stratum 3 clock for the whole BSC
system. Functions of clock synchronization system are mainly accomplished by the
GCKS board in clock frame.
e. Alarm system
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Alarm system collects alarms and drives the alarm box. The alarm system of AM/CM is
mainly composed of the GALM board and the alarm box.
f. Back administration module (BAM)
BAM serves as the bridge for communication between BSC and OMC. OMC can
operate and maintain BSC through BAM.
ÌÌ. Communication modes
Mainly three kinds of communication modes are used in AM/CM: mailbox , serial port,
and HDLC.
a. Mailbox
Mailbox mode is employed for the communication among GMCC boards via the data
bus.
b. Serial port
Each GMCC board (including GMCCM and GMCCS) can provide 2 serial ports.
GMCCM communicates with GCKS, and GMCCS communicates with GFBI board
through these 2 serial ports. GALM board communicates with BSC alarm box through
RS422 serial port.
c. HDLC
GMCCM board communicates with GCTN, GSNT, GALM boards and BAM through
HDLC link. GMCCS board communicates with E3M, GCTN boards and GMC2(BM)
through HDLC link.
2.3.1 Communication Control Unit
The communication control unit is mainly composed of GMCCM (GMCC0 and
GMCC1), GMCCS (GMCC2 - GMCC11) and GSNT.
Ì. GMCCM
GMCCM board processes the maintenance messages of boards in the AM/CM module
and clock frame. It controls GSNT board to provide loading channels for the boards in
the BM and AM/CM, but it is not used for switching control of the whole system.
The position of the GMCCM in the system is shown in Figure 2-23.
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GMCCM board communicates with GCTN, GALM and BAM through GSNT.
A GMCCM board is formed by loading corresponding software in GMCC board. GMCC
board hardware principle is shown in Figure 2-24.
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FLA3l Porl c||p
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GMCCM board is mainly composed of CPU, UART serial port, HDLC controller,
mailbox and FLASH memory, etc.
CPU controls the whole board. The two UART serial ports are used for communication
with two GCKS boards. HDLC controller is used to establish HDLC link with GCTN,
GSNT, GALM and BAM. Mailbox is used for communication with other GMCC boards
through data bus. And FLASH memory is used to store the loaded programs and data
of MCCM.
ÌÌ. GMCCS
GMCCS board provides signaling communication link between BM module and AM/CM
module, forwards control message from BM module to BM module, from BM module to
GMCCM board, from BM module to GCTN board and from BM module to TCSM unit.
The position of GMCCS in the system is shown in Figure 2-25.
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*0&&0 0VCC3
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F|gure 2-25 Pos|l|or ol 0VCC3 |r l|e sysler
GMCCS board communicates with GCTN and BM via HDLC link. GMCCS board
hardware is same as that of GMCCM board (Figure 2-24), the only difference is loaded
software and the setting of toggle switches.
GMCCS board's hardware is mainly composed of CPU, UART serial port, HDLC
controller and mailbox, etc. CPU controls the whole board and internal & external
hardware signaling. The two UART serial ports are used for communication with two
GFBI boards. HDLC controller is used to establish links between GMCCS and GCTN,
E3M (AM/CM), GMC2(BM). Mailbox is used to communicate with other GMCC boards
through data bus. FLASH memory is used to store the loaded programs and data of
the board.
ÌÌÌ. GSNT
GSNT is the signaling switching center of AM/CM module. It is used for signaling
information switching among the boards of AM/CM, and provide physical channels for
software loading of respective BM or for the initialization of AM/CM boards. Signaling
switching is implemented by Huawei special chip which can flexibly allocate
communication links of respective modules through software control, thus achieving
semi-permanent connection of signaling links.
The position and structural diagram of GSNT board are shown in Figure 2-26 and
Figure 2-27 respectively.
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GSNT board is mainly composed of the CPU, switching network, HDLC controller,
clock circuit, etc.
The CPU is responsible for control over the whole board.
The switching network provides the loading channels (physical channels for software
loading) for AM/CM boards (including GCTN, BAM, GALM, GMCC, GFBI and GSNT).
Signaling switching of modules are realized by special chip SD509. Inter-module
cross-connection can be established through flexible configuration of software.
Board status update, reception of control command from GMPU and software loading
is done through HDLC link between GSNT and GMCCM.
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After adjusting the clock sent by clock frame, the GSNT board sends this clock to
GMCCM, GMCCS, GALM, BAM, GSNT, etc. Active /standby switchover logic is used
to control the active /standby switchover of this board.
2.3.2 Central Switching Network (GCTN)
GCTN board is the central switching network board of the BSC. It accomplishes the
function of the middle T in the whole T-T-T switching mode.
It employs pipeline operation mode to realize 16K 16K timeslot non-blocking
switching .It drives the 32MHz, frame synchronization 8kHz and code synchronization
4MHz signals sent by clock frame, and then sends them to GFBI board and E3M
board. In the meantime, it performs time delay adjustment for highway (HW), 32MHz
and 4MHz signals sent by GFBI board and E3M board.
GCTN board is also responsible for the communication with HDLC link of GMCCM and
GMCCS board, as well as part of the call processing functions.
Ì. Working principle of the switching network
The 16K time division switching network adopts time crossing/dividing mode, and can
achieve timeslot switching under specific conditions.
The switching principle of GCTN is shown in Figure 2-28.
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The working principle of the 16K 16K switching network is as follows:
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a. 32 HW (each HW caries 32Mbps) are divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D) for serial to
parallel conversion, with each group having 8 HWs (UHW0 - 7, UHW8 - 15, UHW16 -
23 and UHW24 - 31, as shown in fig.), and the number of timeslots is 8 512 4k. The
conversion should be completed in 8k timeslot, with a clock frequency of 32MHz. The
clock frequency is lowered from 128MHz of a single T network.
b. After serial/parallel conversion, some timeslots of a specific group should be written
into the DM of other groups. The procedure is, divide the serial-parallel converted
timeslots of a specific group into 4 blocks e.g. A0, A1, A2 and A3 blocks for A group.
Each block contains 128 timeslots of each HW of each group (128 timeslots of
HW0~HW7, total 1K timeslots). Time sequence of A0 block is: TS0 of HW0, TS0 of
HW1...TS0 of HW7~TS127 of HW0...TS127 of HW7. Time sequence of A1 block is:
TS128 of HW0, TS128 of HW1~TS255 of HW7. And so on.
c. Divide DM into 4 groups such as groups A, B, C and D. The space of each group is 4k.
So each group of clock has 4k 8k 32M. In the 4K memory space of each group,
there are not only the 8 128 1024 timeslots of this group, but also 3 8 128
3076 timeslots of other three groups. Only in this way the timeslot switching between
HWs of different groups can be accomplished. It is quick switch QS that implements
timeslot crossing. Correspondingly CM is also divided into four groups: CM0, CM1,
CM2 and CM3.
d. To reduce the blocking ratio of network, the data switched from DM should go through
serial-parallel conversion after timeslot switching by QS. The procedure is the same as
for UHW.
e. Free switching can only be performed within the same DM, and switching between DMs
is accomplished by input and output of two Quick Switch. So non-blocking timeslot
switching can be achieved under certain conditions with the support of corresponding
algorithm.
ÌÌ. GCTN
GCTN board is mainly composed of CPU, memory unit, HDLC controller, 16K 16K
switching network, and clock circuit, etc.
The position of GCTN is shown in Figure 2-11, and the principle of GCTN is shown in
Figure 2-29.
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CPU performs call processing function, and has a powerful processing capability. Due
to unique structure of 16K 16K switching network, the dynamic timeslot allocation
algorithm is complicated.
For the working of the CPU and HDLC controller, memory unit provides a storage
space. HDLC controller provides a 64kbit/s HDLC link to accomplish the
communication with GMCCM board. It is an important channel for signaling, loading
and maintenance testing of GCTN board. It also provides a bandwidth-adjustable link
to accomplish the communication with GMCCS Clock circuit is responsible for the
system clock and various time sequence control signals of switching network. It is
equipped with clock detecting circuit which detects the two clocks sent by clock frame
respectively, and selects one of them and sends it to the boards.
Active/standby switchover logic implements the active/standy switchover control.
2.3.3 Transmission lnterface Unit
Transmission interface unit mainly accomplishes the functions of
multiplexing/demultiplexing of inter-module voice channels and signaling links,
optoelectric conversion and E1 interface driving, so that inter-module communication
messages can be transmitted over optical fibers.
Transmission interface unit is mainly composed of optical fiber interface board (GFBI),
optoelectric conversion board (FBC), enhanced sub-multiplex board (E3M) and driving
board (DRC).
Ì. GFBÌ
The position of GFBI in the system is shown in Figure 2-30.
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GFBI is a dual optical interface board. It interworks with FBC board to provide 2
complete optical fiber interfaces. Its operation principle is shown in Figure 2-31.
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F8C
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GFBI board is mainly composed of CPU, multiplexing/demultiplexing logic, RS422
serial port, clock circuit, etc.
CPU mainly provides the control over the whole board.
Multiplexing/demultipleixng of inter-module voice channels and signaling is
accomplished by multiplexing/demultplexing logic, which extracts and isolates voice
channel signals from optical channel signals and send them to the GCTN for switching,
i.e. extracts and isolates 2.048Mbit/s link signals from optical channel signals and send
them to GSNT for processing. It also synthesizes the voice channel signals sent by
GCTN and link signals sent by GSNT board into 40.96M bit/s signals, and send them
to backplate FBC.
Communication with GMCCS board is conducted via RS422 serial port. Clock circuit
provides the required clock synchronization signals for BM module via optical channel.
ÌÌ. FBC
FBC board is interworking with GFBI board to accomplish electro-optical and
optoelectric conversion of 40.96Mbit/s signals. The board is inserted on the backplane
of transmission interface frame.
ÌÌÌ. E3M
E3M board integrates the sub-multiplexing functions. It connects with 32M HW via
GCTN, and provides 4 A-sub interfaces.
BSC forwards the maintenance message to the TCSM unit via E3M.
E3M is capable of receiving, transmitting and switching of 5 E1 signals as well as
HDLC link control and multiplexing & demultiplexing functions.
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The position of E3M in the large-capacity BSC system is shown in Figure 2-32 and its
detailed structure is shown in Figure 2-33.
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32M
2 M
E1 transceiver 1
E 1
E 1

S R A M
HDLC


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Figure 2-33 Detailed structure of E3M
The board is mainly composed of the following parts: E1 transceivers, CPU, HDLC
controller, switching chip, logic control part, backplane interface part,
multiplex/demultiplex part, frequency upconverter and downconverter circuit, etc.
Functions of the E1 transceiver include recovering clock signals and data from analog
signals, signal extraction and insertion, and self-testing, etc. This board uses a total of
5 E1s. The first 4 E1s are connected to the MSMs or PCUs in the 4 TCSM units. The
fifth E1 carries the SS7 signaling and Pb interface signaling of the first 4 E1s and
transfers them to the BIE board. The switching and frequency conversion part is
responsible for multiplexing and de-multiplexing of E1, performs the conversion
between 16kbps and 64kbps signals.
HDLC controller is responsible for processing of HDLC link transceiving and logic
control.
Logic control part function read/write control signals, and other control signals as
required by the modules.
IV. E1 driving board DRC
The DRC board interworks with E3M to provide E1 interface. DRC board is inserted in
the backplane of the frame.
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2.3.4 Clock Synchronization System
Clock synchronization system is responsible for the system clock. A GCKS is inserted
in clock frame. The principle of clock board GCKS is introduced in details as follows:
One clock frame is configured with two GCKS boards to provide redundancy, and
output (two sets of active/standby) clock is sent to GCTN and GSNT boards. GCKS
board of single module BSC communicates with GMPU via GALM board, and GCKS
board of multiple modules BSC communicates with GMCCM directly. Operational
principle of GCKS board is shown in Figure 2-34.
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The circuit of GCKS board includes CPU, E1 and 2Mbps clock interface, DDS circuit,
frequency doubling circuit, time chip, logic control circuit, serial port communication and
power supply unit.
The basic operation principle of GCKS board is described as follows:
8kHz differential clock signal sent from E3M board, or 2MHz signal extracted from E1
line or 2MHz signal sent by other equipment is divided to 8kHz that is each reference
source has two channels of signals to select from. In M900/M1800 BSC, 8kHz
differential clock signals sent from E3M board are usually used as reference clock.
The main function of GCKS board is to trace and synchronize the reference source so
that the clock signals sent by GCKS board have the same frequency and phase
features as the reference source has.
EPLD logic selects one from six for reference sources, then compares its phase with
the divided 8kHz signals output from DDS (4096 times per second). Phase
demodulation adopts 65.536MHz, and the measuring accuracy can be up to 16ns.
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The CPU collects and analyzes phase messages, controls the output of DDS and
implements software lock-phase.
2.3.5 Alarm System
For the structure of the alarm system, please refer to the Section 2.2.6 in this Manual.
The principle of the GALM and alarm box will be introduced in detail as follows.
Ì. GALM
The main function of GALM board is to transfer messages between the GMPU and the
alarm box.
GALM provides hardware interface to the equipment room environmental alarms like.
temperature, humidity and fire alarms, etc. GALM board communicates with GMCCM
board via two HDLC links.
GALM board provides 8 asynchronous serial ports, among which 4 RS422 serial ports
are used to connect alarm boxes and clock frame. It provides two 64kbit/s HDLC
synchronous serial ports to connect with GNET boards, occupying two timeslots of HW .
Software of the board can be loaded through any serial port or mailbox from OMC
easily. Board program carrier in the flash memory.
GALM board operation principle is shown in Figure 2-35.
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ÌÌ. Alarm box
The structures of the BSC alarm box and BTS centralized alarm box are the same both
in outlook and internal hardware structures, but are different in external films which
indicate different alarm items.
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The alarm box is connected with GALM board through the serial port, and the GALM
board is responsible for the transmission of alarm messages.
The position of alarm box in AM/CM module is shown in Figure 2-36.
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Normally, the GALM board of the BM is not connected with the alarm box.
The alarm box is mainly composed of the box body, panel film, ALMS display panel,
ALMM main board, power supply and relative cables.
The dimension of alarm box is (530L 470W 100H) mm. External cable is connected
to the box body through the sheath at the bottom of box body.
The door of the box body can be dismounted for the convenience of installation and
maintenance. Proper door lock allows only authorized persons to open it.
Š Film (two kinds of alarm boxes have different films)
The film is glued on the door of the box body to form alarm box panel.
The transparent part corresponds to the alarm indicators on ALMS display penal and is
divided into five message areas: digital message display area, power supply alarm
display area, function alarm display area, alarm box alarms display area, and keyboard
area.
Š ALMS alarm display panel
It is composed of nixie tube, planar LEDs, buzzer, driving circuit and control interface. It
employs the control mode of memory bit mapping to achieve all sound/light control and
keyboard input.
Š Main board
ALMM main board is mainly composed of CPU, RAM, FLASH memory, two serial
communication chips each with 2 serial ports, RS422 interface, RS232 interface, alarm
driving output interface, keyboard and external input interfaces, etc. It is the core of
alarm box and accomplishes signal collection, forwarding and processing, etc.
ALMM main board operation principle is shown in Figure 2-37.
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P1 and P2 are input interfaces of two groups of external alarms and can receive 16
kinds of external alarms inputs. J3 and J4, 422 ports communicate with GALM board
via signal cable of the alarm box.
Š Power supply
Dual system of power supplies is employed, that is, local 220V AC and -48V DC.
These two types of power supplies can be provided at the same time or separately. -
48VDC power supply is recommended for the BSC.
2.3.6 Back Administration Module (BAM)
Ì. Functions
BAM is responsible for the system maintenance and operation through OMC. It
forwards the maintenance and operation commands from OMC to the foreground and
sends back the system response to the corresponding OMC terminal. It also stores
and forwards alarm messages and traffic statistics data, etc.
BAM keeps normal communication with GMPU during operation. In case of any BAM
software abnormality, it can be self restarted according to preset time.
BAM communicates with control system through HDLC link, and communicates with
OMC directly or indirectly via network adapter. When BSC and OMC are in the same
premises, then BSC can communicate with OMC directly through network adapter.
When BSC and OMC are not in the same premises, then communication can be done
through network adapter, router, protocol converter and transmission equipment.
BAM location in the system is shown in Figure 2-20.
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ÌÌ. System structure
BAM is connected with the BSC through 2Mbps HDLC link and with the O&M terminal
via the LAN or WAN. A structural diagram is shown in figure 2-38.
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The BAM is composed of four major parts, which are:
a. Peripheral interface (PI)
Peripheral Interface (PI) can handle various peripherals such as dual CD-ROMs, hard
disk array, printer and tape drive used to store data, dump-in or dump-out and hard
copy.
b. Remote/Centralized maintenance and operation interface (RI/CI)
Remote/Centralized maintenance and operation interface (RI/CI) provides various
physical interfaces such as V.35, V.24, X.25, RS232, RS422, RS449, and LAPD.
Besides, it provides 1.2kbps to 2Mbps transmission channels by means of PSTN,
DDN, and private line, in accordance to the physical connection between the
remote/centralized maintenance system and BAM.
c. Terminal network interface (NI)
With terminal network interface component (NI), terminal systems (maintenance, test,
traffic statistics and data setting systems) can form into a LAN.
NI can be attached to the network server to provide 10Mbps to 100Mbps transmission
links, and to extend the network through devices such as network bridge/router,
achieving data sharing in a larger scope. In M900/M1800 BSC, this interface is directly
or indirectly connected to OMC.
d. MCP
MCP is the PC card for the communication between BAM and GMPU. Each card
provides two 2Mbit/s HDLC links to connect with BSC GMPU, serving as the message
paths between BSC GMPU and BAM.
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ÌÌÌ. Structure features
a. When BAM software is abnormal, BAM will reset and restart automatically, thanks to
BAM self-restoring capability.
b. The used parts have passed the electromagnetism compatibility test, free from
interference and radiation to the environment.
c. -48V standard industrial power supply is used, in consideration that BAM is installed on
the cabinet in actual application. -48V power supply is highly reliable, stable and
secure. The power supply has passed the electromagnetism compatibility
authentication, so that there will be no interference to the boards in BAM and
peripherals (such as hard disk and floppy disk drive).
d. BAM can be installed in the frame of the cabinet. The outer surface of the cabinet is
painted, while the inner surface is not to make sure the proper grounding. Power
supply is firmly fixed, with reliable grounding. There are ventilation openings at the front
of the cabinet, together with various indicators, buttons and keyboard and monitor port.
2.4 BM
BM is the fundamental part of a BSC. It handles most of the functions of call
processing, signaling processing, radio resources management, radio link
management and circuit maintenance.
The BM system is shown in Figure 2-39.
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Ì. System structure
The BM is mainly composed of main control unit, switching network, base station
interface equipment and alarm system.
a. Main control unit
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The main control unit mainly accomplishes the management and control over BM
module, communication with AM/CM module and signaling processing. It is mainly
composed of GMPU, GNOD, GMEM, GMC2, GOPT, GALM, LPN7 and GLAP.
b. Switching network
The switching network accomplishes the switching of timeslots in the module.
Switching is handled by GNET board.
The connection of the switching network to the AM/CM is illustrated in Figure 2-39
applied to the large-capacity BSC. (Small capacity BSC has no AM/CM).
c. Base station interface equipment
This equipment can multiplex/de-multiplex the transmitted signals.
d. TCSM unit
The TCSM unit is responsible for signal code conversion, rate adaptation and signal
multiplexing and sub-multiplexing.
ÌÌ. Communication modes
There are three major communication modes within the BM, which are mailbox, serial
ports and HDLC.
a. Mailbox
The mailbox mode is employed for communication between GMPU board and other
boards in main control frame via the bus.
b. Serial ports
The GMPU board communicates with GNOD board through mailbox, while each
GNOD board provides 4 serial ports for the communication with non main control
frame devices such as BIE board. GMPU also communicates with non main control
frame devices and GMPU through these ports.
c. HDLC
GMC2 board communicates with GMCCS board in AM/CM module via HDLC link.
Note: This mode applies to the large-capacity BSC only, a small-capacity BSC has no
AM/CM.
2.4.1 Main Control Unit
The main control unit is mainly composed of the processor circuits, signaling
processing circuits, inter-module communication circuits and database interface
circuits, as illustrated in Figure 2-40.
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lnler-rodu|e
corrun|cal|on
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Three level distributed control is adopted in the BM, with GMPU, GNOD and
sub-control point (CPU) ranging in a top-down order.
In each BM the control center is composed of tens of processors using memory
mapping technology.
The mailbox mode is employed between the first level and the second level CPUs,
while the main node/sub-node high-speed serial communication mode of point-to-point
or point-to-multipoint is employed between the second level CPU and the third level
CPU. GMPU is the central processor in the main control unit of the BM. to improve
system reliability, it uses the dual GMPU hot backup mode.
The GEMA is used to help GMPU data backup and to control the GMPU switchover.
Active/standby GMPU is recognized by GEMA, forming the first level control system.
GMPU directly controls GNET via the bus, and exchanges messages with GNOD,
LPN7, GMEM and GLAP via mailbox communication mode. These boards in the main
control unit constitute the second level control system. GMPU sets up the connection
with respective functional sub-nodes CPU via GNOD. Here, sub-node (CPU) refers to
the microprocessor on functional circuit board such as BIE board. GNOD
communicates with CPU on related circuit boards via serial ports in difference mode,
and controls respective CPUs in main/sub-node communication mode.
The CPUs accommodated in respective control interface components in the BM share
the workload and cooperate with each other, forming a functional multi-processor
control system. The inter-processor communication is conducted through the mailbox
by using memory mapping technology, which greatly reducing the overhead for
internal communication.
a. Processor circuit
The processor circuit mainly consists of GMPU, GEMA and GNOD. Among them,
GMPUs are the central processing units in the module, whose active/standby state is
changed by the GEMA, they work in redundant mode and communicate with
sub-nodes via GNOD.
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b. Signaling processing circuit
The processing of SS7 on A interface is implemented by LPN7. GLAP is responsible
for signaling on Abis interface and Pb interface.
c. Inter-module communications circuit:
Inter-module communication circuit mainly consists of inter-module communication
board GMC2 and GOPT.
There is no inter-module communications circuit in the small-capacity BSC.
d. Database interface circuit
The BSC is connected with CDB through the database interface board (GMEM) .
Ì. GMPU
A GMPU board employs high-quality CPU to process the traffic, it control the
operations of sub-nodes and performs the following switching functions:
Š Receive the trunk status on Abis interface direction via GNOD and send
corresponding command to the trunk.
Š Control LPN7 board and GLAP board to receive and send signaling according to
trunk status.
Š Control GNET board for connection.
Š Communicate with other modules via communication board (GMC2 and GMCC) in
mailbox mode.
Š Communicate with the BAM directly or indirectly via HDLC synchronization serial
port, and load GMPU software.
Š Execute active/standby switchover with the help of GEMA and GMPU data backup.
Š Implements the signaling, maintenance, traffic statistics, alarming functions etc.
The principle of the GMPU is shown in Figure 2-41.
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The GMPU board circuit is composed of the minimal PC system and peripheral
exchange interface circuit (the part below AT Bus in Figure 2-41). The GMPU board
communicates with the other boards (GNOD, GEMA, GMC2, GOPT, GMEM, LPN7,
GLAP, GALM, etc.) in the main control unit.
ÌÌ. GEMA
GEMA board monitors the operation of two GMPUs (A and B). It controls GMPU
switchover and accomplishes hot backup function of the module. A principle diagram of
GEMA is shown in Figure 2-42 (in the gred-line frame).
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The high performance CPU on GEMA board exchanges messages with active/standby
GMPUs (GMPU A and GMPU B) via mailboxes, and monitors the GMPU software
execution.
After the BSC is powered on, GMPU A serves as an active GMPU and GMPU B as
standby. In case of any failure in the active GMPU during its operation, GEMA
switchover its state and activate the GMPU B.
8kbit RAM is used for GMPU data backup.
Board self-check, display, alarm circuit and hardware Watch-Dog circuit are equipped
in GEMA board.
ÌÌÌ. GNOD
GNOD serves as the bridge for the communication between GMPU and respective
functional sub-nodes, it forwards the commands from GMPU to respective sub-nodes
and reports the response and status of sub-nodes to GMPU.
The principle of GNOD is as shown in Figure 2-43.
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There are 4 main nodes (CPUs) on each GNOD board, with 2 main nodes sharing one
ASIC control unit.
GNOD communicates with GMPU through mailbox, and communicates with sub-nodes
through RS422 serial port
The numbers of main nodes required by different interface units of BM module are
different, with respect to base station interface equipment, every 2 BIEs
(active/standby) require one main node.
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ÌV. LPN7 and GLAP
The position of LPN7 and GLAP boards in the system is illustrated in Figure 2-44.
SS7 signaling from MSC is isolated from E3M board, and directly sent to BM module,
then to the HW within BM through BIE board, and switched to LPN7 board via
switching network.
LPN7 board is connected to active GMPU through the mailbox of this board.
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LPN7 is located in the main control frame of BM module, accomplishing the first and
second layers functions of the message transfer part of SS7 signaling system.
The hardware part of LPN7 is in the GLAP board. The GLAP board receives the data
of some time slots from HW, and send the data to GMPU via mailbox after processing.
In the mean time, it converts the signaling from GMPU to a specific format and sent
them to some time slots of HW, and guarantees that the data of link layer are sent and
received without any error. The structural diagram of LAP board is illustrated in Figure
2-45.
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The communication processing module contains 4 independent serial communication
controllers (SCC). The data processed by each SCC are specified by the time slot
allocation interface. Each SCC can accomplish multiple types of link layer protocols,
such as HDLC, HDLC BUS, Synchronous start/stop, UART, Apple Talk, SS7 and so
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on. For example, when SCC works in the HDLC mode, the transmit circuit
automatically inserts "0" in the data frame to generate CRC , and add flags (01111110)
at frame head and tail, while the receiving circuit automatically detects the flag, deleting
"0" and performing CRC .
High performance 32-bit CPU and 32-bit RAM are used in LAP board to compose a 32
bits processing system. Most of the data link layer tasks are accomplished by SCC and
the rest is accomplished by CPU.
The GLAP is a multi-functional board, which can serve as different boards when
running different software. When the LAPD software is executed, the board can
complete data link layer protocol processing. GLAP board is designed with dual CPUs
as the core. It has a 16-bit external data bus, provides two 8kbits mailboxes for the
communication between boards, two Ethernet 10Base-T interfaces for debugging, two
2Mbps HWs, and can support up to sixty four 64kbps HDLC links, it also provides a
RS422 serial port and a RS232 serial port. In addition, the memory unit provides
16Mbit RAM, which is used for 32 bit data storage method. A structural diagram is
shown in figure 2-46. It can be divided into five modules, including CPU, FPGA logic
control, differential interface, mailbox circuit, and clock input.
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In addition to two CPUs, each CPU module contains its own memory, Ethernet
interface for debugging etc.
FPGA logic control logic function includes mailbox address decoding, control of alarm
indicators and power indicators, synthesization and allocation of HWs, allocation of
clock signals, control of flash, and the control of the mailbox.
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The mailbox circuit is mainly responsible for the communication between CPU and
GMPU.
The clock system provides two clock input modes. In the BM, there are 8 protocol
processor unit slots, two of them are for LPN7s, providing 8 SS7 links, other 6 slots are
for GLAPs, providing 192 LAPD links.
V. GMC2
GMC2 is the port for inter-module communication in BM module, and applies to the
large-capacity BSC only.
As illustrated in Figure 2-47, GMC2 communicates with the GMPU of BM module
through the mailbox (RAM capacity of 4k bytes), and communicates with GMCCS
board in AM/CM module through HDLC link.
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GMC2 is provided with two HDLC channels, with the rate of each channel ranges from
8 to 2 kbit/s.
The CPU of GMC2 board control the circuit to work at 20 MHz. The bus controller uses
interrupt mode to inform the CPU receiving and sending data.
GMC2 employs WDT (WatchDog) technology, improving the self-recovery capability of
the board.
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VÌ. GOPT
GOPT in BM is used for data communication through optical fiber with GCTN. It
applies to the large-capacity BSC only.
The main functions of GOPT are:
Š Through GNET board, transmitting the HW from BM to AM/CM (GCTN).
Š Provide GMC2 with a 2.048Mbit/s inter-module communication link.
Š Provide various clock synchronization signals for GNET board.
Š Implement the loop-test of the whole switching network.
Š Implement load sharing.
The principle of GOPT is shown in Figure 2-48.
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Working principIe of GOPT
a. Transmitting and receiving
Transmit side: The information flow and 1 channel of testing signal sent from GNET
board HW line become 4.096Mbit/s 8-bit parallel code flow after serial/parallel
conversion, with GMC2 communication data, bit error detection, the peer end alarm,
remote alarm and frame synchronization signals. The 40.96MHz clock synchronized by
phase-lock loop (PLL) serves as the emitting end and converts the trigger clock, and
the 40.96Mbit/s signal formed in the end is sent to driving circuit after level adjustment,
and transmitted to optical fiber through LED, the other end of the optical fiber link is
GFBI optic interface circuit.
Receive side: Optical signals are sent over optical fiber link by GFBI (AM/CM) are
received by GOPT receiver. After signals amplification, the clock signals are separated.
With the signal code triggered by judgment circuit; then the signal enters
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demultiplexing circuit and HW signals are sent to GNET after serial/parallel conversion.
In demultiplexing circuit, there are processes such as synchronous code detection,
forward and backward protection, and detecting of loss of frame, remote alarm, and bit
error. Various clocks needed by T network board are generated by PLL in the receiving
circuit.
b. Transmission format
Š Multiplex mode: Byte multiplexing mode is adopted, 8 bits in 1 timeslot of each HW
are transmitted together, without breaking the order of signal codes.
Š Code error detection: Reverse-code detection method is used to detect code errors
in line transmission.
Š Frame synchronization code: Frames are inserted at different times to shorten frame
length and frame capture time with the reliability of frame synchronization remains
unchanged. Meanwhile, four levels of forward and backward protection measures
are added to ensure frame synchronization and to minimize the undetected rate of
frame synchronization and code error rate caused by line bit error. That is, the frame
synchronization is acknowledged only when the frame synchronous signals of
consecutive four frames are received, and loss of frame synchronization is
acknowledged only when frame synchronization signals are not received for four
times consecutively.
Š Remote alarm: If loss of synchronization occurs on remote GFBI board, GOPT
board indicates a remote alarm.
Š Signal code processing: Since optical transmission will separate clock signals from
signal codes and recover signal codes, scrambling is needed for the transmitted
40.96Mbit/s signal codes so that the probability of "0" and "1" in signal codes are
equal. At the receiving end, the 40.96Mbit/s signal codes should be descrambled
and recovered.
c. Clock synthesization
There are two PLL circuits on this board, used to generate 40.96MHz and 32.768MHz
clock signals.
d. Active/standby mode:
The active and standby GOPT boards are operating at the same time, but the HW
signals of downlink and the synchronous clock are detected by the fault detecting
circuit, and are determined by GMPU whether to transmit to GNET, which not only
ensures the timeliness of active/standby boards switchover, but also allows each board
to determine the operation condition on a timely basis. The switchover of active and
standby boards is controlled by GMPU. When GMPU releases the control over active
and standby board switchover, the active and standby boards can automatically initiate
switchover according to operation status. When the active board is abnormal while the
standby board is normal, the signals transmitted from the standby board is used; in
other cases, the signals are transmitted to T network by the active board. GMPU can
learn through inquiring the conditions of switchover, loss of synchronization, error bit,
remote alarm, or no light condition.
e. Testing
Testing of the GOPT board involves surface switchover, loss of synchronization, error
bit, remote alarm, no light, etc. besides a HW signal is used to test the whole switching
network during the operation. The HW signals pass through GOPT, GNET, GFBI,
GCTN links. By detecting the transmitting and receiving of remote HW information,
whether the whole switching network works properly or not can be determined .
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VÌÌ. GMEM
GMEM is located in the main control unit of BM module, mainly used for network
communication.
The network communication controller on GMEM board supports a LAN network
platform, providing a powerful support for the services (such as roaming) in need of
large data volume transmission. In M900/M1800 BSC the interconnection between
BSC and CDB is established by using the network communication function of GMEM
board.
GMEM board principles is as shown in Figure 2-49.

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GMEM consists of All-in-one industrial control card, network card, HDLC controller and
a dual-port RAM (mailbox).
All-in-one card works as the controller of GMEM board, which is implemented by the
main board of a industrial computer.
HDLC controller is used for the communication between two or more GMEM boards. In
communication, the GNET provides a semi-permanent or switching-mode link.
GMEM boards work in active/standby configuration.
Dual-port RAM is ideal for transmission of large data volume, with a volume of 16
4Kbit which can be expanded up to 16 8Kbit to communicate with GMPU board.
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2.4.2 GNET
The GNET of BM module is a 4K 4K T network.
Ì. Working Principle of GNET
In BSC GNET uses writing into in sequence and controlled reading out mode.
T switching network consists of voice memory, control memory, serial/parallel and
parallel/serial circuits. Voice memory is used to store PCM word, for each PCM
multiplex line (HW) a frame of PCM words is stored temporarily each time and written
in turn. Control memory is used to store control information of voice memory.
The network capacity of T switching networks can be determined by the total number
of timeslots that can be simultaneously exchanged. For example, a system has 32 HW
and each HW has 32 timeslots, so the overall system capacity is 32 32 1024
timeslots, called 1K switch. Hence for 1K switch there is A need to store 1024 PCM
words temporarily at each time.
The process of writing in sequence and controlled read out is illustrated in Figure 2-50.
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The voice memory unit word length and timeslot are the same, i.e., 8bit. The word
length per memory unit of control memory depends on switching network capacity. For
example, if network capacity is 210 1024 timeslots, 10bit should be used to specify
timeslot address; under the control of clock pulse CP, the parallel PCM code words
following serial/parallel conversion and multiplexing, are filled into 1024 voice memory
units in order. If the input timeslot i is to be exchanged to output timeslot j, the address
of timeslot i will be entered under control of processor and written in the memory units
in control memory that is equivalent to output timeslot j. Under the control of clock
pulse, when the timeslot j memory unit of control memory is accessed, the content of
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this unit is read out as voice memory address, and with which the content of the
timeslot needed in voice memory is read out and exported to parallel/serial conversion
circuit. In Figure 2-50, 8 is written to control memory j unit, i.e., the content of input
timeslot 8 is exchanged to output timeslot 512.
II. Principle of GNET
The functional diagram of switching network board GNET is illustrated in Figure 2-51.
Figure 2-51 Principle of GNET
GNET board mainly consists of 4K 4K T network, bus interface, clock
phase-lock/driving and HW input/output driving circuits.
a. 4K 4K T network
The 4K 4K T network consists of four 2K 2K T network boards ASIC SD509
(Huawei-developed ASIC product serial number), as illustrated in Figure 2-52, with time
division exchange accomplished based on 2.048Mbit/s HW line.
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b. Output/input driving
Output/input driving provides HW bus interface for BIE board.
c. Bus interface
The bus interface provides interface for main control unit GMPU.
d. Clock lock phase and output circuit
Clock lock phase and output circuit are synchronous with clock source, and offer the
phase locked clock circuit to the rest of the entire basic module.
ÌÌÌ. Features of GNET
a. The switching network of BM is a 4K 4K T network, which consists of four 2K 2K T
network boards having the following features: 2048 2048 non-blocking timeslot
exchanging single T network.
Inserting/extracting function and controlling memory read-back function for each
timeslot, and supporting online test and self-loop test of the network.
Integrated serial/parallel and parallel/serial conversion circuit, no need for peripheral
circuit.
Sequential writing and controlled reading mode.
Support broadcasting mode, i.e., switching an input timeslot to any number of output
timeslots.
b. In addition to the above mentioned basic switching functions, the BM GNET also has
such functions as clock source selection and software/hardware switchover, clock
phase lock and driving, HW driving, in order to provide a synchronous clock for various
parts of BM.
c. To make sure that the switching network is stable and reliable, the GNET of the BM is
in two-set configuration mode, with the following features:
Shared writing and separate reading modes are optional for active/standby switching
network .
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When active switching network is offline, hardware swap can be performed
automatically without software control
When active network fault is found, GMPU can instruct the switching network to
perform mutual assistant swap of active and standby networks.
Swap can be controlled through man-machine command.
2.4.3 Base Station lnterface Equipment (BlE)
Voice and data signals are transmitted between BSC and BTS at the rate of 16 kbit/s. If
the distance between BSC and BTS is very long, to save transmission media BIE can
be used to perform multiplexing/de-multiplexing for the transmitted signals.
BIE is required both at BSC side and BTS side.
In M900/M1800 BSC, the function of base station equipment is accomplished in BIE
board.
Ì. BÌE functions
Base station interface equipment is provided with the following basic function:
a. Code pattern translation
In the external digital trunk line, the signal code pattern is HDB3, while the internal
signal of the system is NRZ code. With the help of BIE the translation between these
two types of codes can be accomplished.
b. Re-timing
Inside the BTS interface equipment, a clock signal can be generated and syncrhonized
with the signal frequency on the trunk. It is used for extracting trunk channel
information. The BIE can coordinate the external and internal clock signals of different
frequencies so as to eliminate the difference between external and internal clock
frequencies.
c. Control function
The base station interface equipment can also implement the functions such as frame
synchronization monitoring, self-loop test.
d. Hot backup function
The operational mode of the base station interface equipment is dual-GMPU
hot-backup. If any fault occurs to one of the boards, the system will switch over to
another board and the switchover process does not affect the communication.
e. Multiplex function
BIE acts as a multiplexer on the Abis interface, i.e. four 16kbps channels can be
multiplexed and transmitted through one 64kbps channel. 12 TRXs can be transmitted
through one E1 at the most.
ÌÌ. BÌE board
The principle of BIE is shown in Figure 2-53.
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BIE is mainly composed of the following parts:
a. Trunk interface
Trunk interface part includes protective devices, self-loop relay circuit, matched resistor
and voltage transformer, mainly accomplishing the protective function, self-loop testing
function and impedance matching function.
b. Signal processing
The signal processing part is a dedicated large scale integrated circuit chip, which can
fulfill the majority of the signal-processing related functions under the control of CPU.
Line driving
Š HDB3 code/NRZ conversion
Š Re-timing
Š Frame synchronization monitoring
Š CRC4 check
Š Alarm
c. Control part
Control part includes microprocessor, RAM, ROM and serial port chip, which fulfill
board self-controlling and communicating with main node GNOD board's functions.
d. Bus driving part
Bus driving part is composed of line signal driving chip, which mainly fulfills the
selection for active/standby switching networks, the selection for active/standby main
node boards and level translating.
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e. Multiplexer part
In one programmable logical unit, multiplexing function part is accomplished in modes
such as star, link, tree and combined networking. At most, the 15TRX/E1 multiplexing
mode can be implemented.
2.4.4 TCSM Unit
Transcoder/rate adapter unit (TRAU) and sub-multiplexer are usually called TCSM unit
together.
In M900/M1800 large capacity BSC, functions of TRAU are accomplished by FTC
board, functions of SMUX are accomplished by MSM and E3M board together. The
frame to insert FTC board and MSM board is called TCSM frame. 4 MSM boards and
16 FTC boards can be inserted in 1 TCSM box. In real application, the configuration of
TRAU is necessary while SMUX is optional.
Ì. TRAU
The position of the TRAU in the GSM system is shown in Figure 2-54..
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The transmission rate of the voice signal of the PSTN subscriber on the A interface is
64kbit/s, adopting A-law for coding, the transmission rate of the voice signal of GSM
subscriber on air interface is 13kbit/s, adopting RPE-LTP coding mode (Enhanced Full
Rate voice (EFR) service adopts CELP coding mode and the transmission rate can be
up to 12.2kbit/s). The transmission rate between BTS and BSC is 16kbit/s, the extra
bits are synchronous/detecting bits added to ensure transmission quality and identify
voice signals.
The main functions of TRAU are, to perform encoding and decoding processing on
voice signal as well as rate adaptation processing to realize the communication
between GSM subscribers and PSTN subscribers. In addition, TRAU unit can also
accomplish the rate adaptation of digital signal and transparent transmission of A
interface SS7.
In M900/M1800 BSC, the functions of TRAU are accomplished by FTC board. The
functions of TRAU and principle of FTC board is introduced in detail here.
ÌÌ. Functions of TRAU
a. Voice service
Š Voice encoding and decoding: The most fundamental function of TRAU is to encode
and decode voice. Regular pulse excitation long term predict plan (RPE-LTP)
algorithm is used. TRAU framing the voice signals received from MSC direction in
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one frame per 20 ms. One frame of voice data includes 160 PCM sampling points,
1280 bits in total, the encoded output parameters are 260 bits altogether (EFR
service adopts CELP algorithm, the encoded parameters are 244 bits altogether).
After the addition of synchronous bits and command words, TRAU frame has 320
bits. The reverse process of coding is called decoding. After receiving TRAU frame
from BSC direction, TRAU will restore it to voice data by decoding algorithm and
send to the MSC.
Š Voice activity detection and comfortable noise
Voice activity detection (VAD) is used together with SID (Silence Descriptor) technique
in the discontinuous transmission (DTX) mode of GSM. If TRAU detected that there is
no voice information in the data received from MSC through VAD functional module, it
will clear voice flag in the encoded TRAU frame. After BTS identifies this flag bit,
transmitting of downlinks will be disconnected till the flag resets. In the same way,
TRAU will also identify SID flag at the reception of uplink frame. When SID flag is
positioned, it indicates that MS is in the interval of emission. To make the receiving
handset feel that GSM network is still in service, TRAU adopts the substitution
technology to insert comfortable noise in up link to avoid the impression of
communication interrupted. TRAU adopts discontinuous transmission (DTX)
technology to minimize the power consumption of BTS and MS, reduce the co-channel
interference of wireless interface, as well as weakening the sensitivity of GSM system
voice signal with regard to wireless interface abnormal error.
b. Data service
GSM system provides various services for subscribers, which are defined and
classified into telephony and data services. For telephony services, the transferred
information is voice signals within audio range, for data services, signals other than
voice are transferred, e.g. text, image, fax, various messages and computer files etc.
TRAU specifies current service operation type by the command word in TRAU frame
format sent from detection base station.
During data service communication, TRAU accomplishes the format converting of data
frame and rate adaptation without transcoding for transferred data.
Whether in full rate or half rate, the transmission rate of data information on wireless
interface adapted by TRAU is 16kbps and 8kbps. The maximum data rate from a
mobile terminal is 12.7kbit/s. For half rate data channel information, code block is filled
in TRAU to make them become 16kbit/s, then reformatted.
c. Signaling timeslot
In TRAU, each FTC board is responsible for one PCM stream (32 timeslots each PCM
stream), where timeslot 0 is for transferring frame synchronization. Signaling timeslot
may be assigned via the background randomly. FTC board will only forward the content
of signaling timeslot without any processing
ÌÌÌ. Principle of FTC board
a. Basic principle for FTC board
A structural diagram of FTC board is shown in Figure 2-55.
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The core of FTC board is high speed digital signal processor DSP which accomplishes
voice encoding/decoding and rate adaptation function. CPU controls DSP loading and
interface chip initialization. FTC board communicates through serial port with MSM
board on MSC side (FTC board is configured in TCSM unit) to realize BSC GMPU's
management and maintenance of FTC board. In a large-capacity BSC, FTC can only
be configured in TCSM unit instead of connecting to BSC through internal interface.
b. FTC operation instructions
In a high-capacity BSC, FTC board can only be configured in TCSM unit, MSM board is
inserted in TCSM frame, and internal HW interface is between FTC board and MSM
board. The interface between TCSM unit and MSC is E1 interface, TCSM and BSC are
also connected through E1 interface and E3M board of BSC, as illustrated in
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In a single module BSC, a FTC board can be configured in two ways i.e. either it can
be configured at BSC side or at MSC side. Selection of two methods can be chosen
through the toggle switch on the FTC board. The FTC board is plugged in the TCSM
frame.
When the FTC board is configured at the BSC side, no MSM board is plugged in the
TCSM frame, FTC board is connected with GNET via HW and with GNOD via the
NOD. An E1 interface is between the FTC board and the MSC, which is shown in
Figure 2-57.
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When the FTC board is configured at the MSC side, the MSM board must be plugged
in the TCSM frame, with an HW interface between the FTC and MSM board. The
interfaces between TCSM and MSC, and those between TCSM and BSC are E1
interfaces. The MSM board at the BSC side is plugged in the BIE slot, as shown in
Figure 2-58.
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ÌV. Sub-multiplexer
No matter whether it is voice signals or data, they are transferred with a rate of 16kbit/s
between the BSC and TRAU. When MSC and BSC are far from each other, to save
the transmission lines, sub-multiplexer equipment SMUX may be used to multiplex 4
30 120 voice channels on a standard E1 link. The location of sub-multiplexer SMUX
in the system is illustrated in Figure 2-59, where TCSM consists of MSM and FTC
boards. In M900/M1800 high-capacity BSC, the functions of sub-multiplexer SMUX are
accomplished by MSM board and E3M board. For application in a single module BSC,
the function of the sub-multiplexer is implemented in the MSM board plugged in the
TCSM frame and the SMI board plugged in the BIE slot.
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V. Functions of the sub-multiplexer
a. Multiplexing/demultiplexing speech channel
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SMUX can multiplex 4 30 120 voice channels to 1 standard E1 link and demultiplex
120 4 30 voice channels from 1 standard E1 link.
b. Transparent transmission of signaling
SMUX can transparently transfer 1 channel of signaling.
c. Providing link for operation and maintenance
MSM board and E3M can communicate with each other through HDLC link, which
occupies the last two BITs of 31st timeslot on E1 link. BSC can operate and maintain
the remote TCSM units through this HDLC link.
VÌ. Principle of MSM board
The main functions of MSM board are to multiplex/demultiplex speech channel signals
between MSC and BSC. Please refer to Section 2.3.3 for functions of E3M board
The MSM board principle is illustrated in Figure 2-60.
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The multiplexing/demultiplexing function can be completed in the programming logic
unit.
In a multi-module large-capacity BSC, the interface between the MSM board and FTC
board is an internal HW interface, and the two boards communicate with each other
through serial port. The E1 interface is used between MSM board and the E3M board.
In a single module BSC, the interface between the SMI1 board at the BSC side and the
BM GNET board is an HW interface. The communication with GMPU is carried out by
the serial port on the GNOD board. The interface between the SMI board and the
TCSM at the BSC side is an E1, and the interfaces between the TCSM unit (which is
put at the MSC side) and MSC, and those between TCSM and the BSC are standard
E1 links as well .An HW interface is between MSM and FTC boards, which
communicate with each other through serial port.
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2.4.5 Alarm System
Ì. Alarm system structure
BSC's alarm system is consisted of two parts, which are alarm system in AM/CM and
BM modules. For BM module alarm system, please refer to section 2.26 in the same
manual.
ÌÌ. Alarm communications board GALM
For the principles of GALM board, please refer to 2.3.5 Alarm system in this manual.
Generally the alarm communication board GALM in BM module doesn't connect to
alarm box.
2.5 Central Database (CDB)
Central database (CDB) is a service processing center, responsible for providing the
interface between the short message center (SMC) and BSC, and supporting short
message broadcast service. Its server communicates with the GMEM boards of the
modules through the Ethernet interface.
Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) allows short message to be
broadcast to all mobile stations in certain areas. These areas may be one or several
cells, even the entire PLMN area. Broadcast short message from cell broadcast center
(CBC) is sent to BSC which manages the message and sends the received message
to BTS with necessary requirements, while BTS can make load control.
The functions of cell broadcast system is briefly described as follows:
Š Able to explain and response to the message primitives from CBC.
Š Able to report to CBC about CBCH channel status and the conditions of message
sending.
Š Report error information to CBC when received message primitives can't be
understood or executed.
Š Able to report cell fault to CBC.
Š BSC sends overload indication of related cell to CBC when the frequency of
message CBC asks to send is beyond the load of BSC.
Š Store and manage cell broadcast short message.
Š Support the method of DRX message dispatch, saving more power of mobile
station.
Š Arrange cell broadcast short message in CBCH chaQQHOand send it to BTS.
2.5.1 Structure of System Hardware
For CDB system hardware structure, we have detail description at the beginning of this
chapter, please refer to Section 2.2.8.
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2.5.2 Database Structure
CDB contains three parts, which are message library, cell data table and general
control table.
Message library: Mainly store the cell broadcast short message sent from CBC and
currently being broadcast in BSC, including message flag, message serial number,
message coding method, transmitting frequency, message sending request, pages of
messages, message contents and so on.
Cell data table: Mainly stores broadcast channel configuration message and message
related to broadcast short message for each cell of current BSC, including status of
cell, status and configuration of CBCH channel, storage arrays of broadcast short
message, sending queue of broadcast short message and so on.
General control table: Mainly store, control and record related information about cell
broadcast of current BSC, including connection information with BM module,
connection information with CBC, parameters of BSC cell broadcast and so on.
2.5.3 Features and Performance of the System
Š CDB supports the storage and management of 300 broadcast short message.
Š Each cell can hold 60 broadcast short message.
Š CDB supports the flow control of broadcast short message between CBC and itself.
Š CDB supports message flow control between BTS and itself.
Š Support DRX message dispatch method, saving more power of the mobile station
and lengthen the battery life.
Š CDB support the forwarding of broadcast short message among several modules,
when the GMEM board of BM module has the problems of connection, CDB can be
sent to other BM modules using the normal connections with other GMEM boards,
then realize the normal sending of cell broadcast short message by transmitting
through AM module.
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Chapter 3 System Software
M900/M1800 BSC'S system software includes such module: Operating System (OS),
Date Base Management System (DBMS), Radio Resource (RR) management, Base
Transceiver Station Management (BTSM), Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP),
Link Access Protocol on D Channel (LAPD), and Message Transfer Part (MTP).
The overall architecture of the M900/M1800 BSC's system software is shown in Figure
3-1.
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3.1 Features of the System Software
The software system of the M900/M1800 BSC is modularly designed, having
distributed control structure and centralized database. It enables channel management,
handover decision and power control functions by using dynamic control algorithm. In
this way, the software system is ensured to be advanced and intelligent.
The M900/M1800 BSC's software system has excellent expandability. Functions
including handover decision and power control are performed by GLAP board.
Software optimization helps to enhance the processing capability of the host, which
ensures a reliable functioning of large capacity BSC. The software system of the
M900/M1800 BSC has strong protections against errors. Functions like LAPD mutual
assistance and carrier frequency mutual assistance are developed and implemented to
enhance the error tolerance of the BSC system software. Fully backup protection, flow
control, and resources screening ensure the system reliability.
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The software system of M900/M1800 BSC provides rich O&M functions, which are
enabled via the interaction between the OMC and the M900/M1800 BSC system
software.
The system also provides visual graphic interfaces through OMC, which helps to
monitor the network and incase of any abnormality take spontaneous actions. It
provides dynamic data configuration through which maintenance staff can block a
device without any effect on the current subscriber's call. The host software in the
software system can be loaded from the BAM into the memory of the GMPU boards
and backup software can be stored in the Flash Memory of GMPU. The running
software of the boards is stationed in the respective CPUs. During system upgrading,
the related software can be loaded through OMC without affecting the normal
operations of other parts. This ensures rapid and easy upgrading of software version.
3.2 Classification of System Software Modules
3.2.1 Operating System (OS)
Ì. Task management
A task can be defined as the program unit that can be dispatched by the operating
system and executed by the CPU. A task is also called a process. Task management
is designed on the basis of tasks' dynamic, concurrent and asynchronously correlative.
This definition can be used to clearly describe the logic of relative programs
corresponding to the functions of M900/M1800 BSC.
The system software tasks of M900/M1800 BSC can be classified as communication
tasks, resources management tasks, call processing tasks, database management
tasks and maintenance tasks. These tasks are running under the coordination and
management of the M900/M1800 operating system.
a. Task state
As an "executable program unit¨, each task has its dynamic states. There are four
states for tasks in M900/M1800 BSC, which are executing, ready, suspended and
dormant.
Executing a task means that resources of the CPU are currently occupied and its
program logic is being executed. At any moment, the CPU can execute only one task
and only one task is in the executing state.
When the task for execution is well prepared, it is in the "ready¨ state.
When a task is waiting for the dispatch of the system i.e. in queue (before the
occurrence of an event), it is in the suspended state.
Dormant tasks refer to those that are not initialized or have been deleted by the
system.
The principle of the task state transition in the M900/M1800 BSC is shown in Figure
3-2.
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b. Task dispatch
Task dispatch strategy used in the M900/M1800 BSC operating system is "seizure
dispatch¨ and is based on the priority levels of tasks and events. Ready tasks of higher
priority levels occupy the resources of the CPU for execution, and tasks of the same
priority levels are dispatched according to the sequence of their readiness. In the
M900/M1800 BSC system, when a task is generated, it is provided with a priority value
with a range of 0-255. The smaller priority value shows higher priority level, i.e., 0
represents the highest priority level of the system.
When a task T1 of higher priority is suspended due to its waiting for a resource and the
resource is being occupied and not released by task T2 of lower priority, a priority
inversion occurs, which means that a task of higher priority is delayed by a lower
priority task. In the system that is driven by the priority dispatch strategy, T1 can only
wait for the slow dispatch and executions of T2 (slow due to its low priority) and can not
be activated until the occupied resource is released. In this case, execution time of the
higher-priority T1 can not be guaranteed. To solve this problem, the M900/M1800 BSC
operating system adopts the priority inheritance technology. Once a task of higher
priority is blocked by a task with lower priority, the task of lower priority can be
upgraded to a proper level so that it can be quickly executed and hence release the
common resources urgently needed by the task of higher priority.
When a task of lower priority is executed and a task of higher priority is ready due to
the occurrence of an event, the task of higher priority in the ready state can interrupt
and suspend the task of lower priority and therefore seize the control over CPU.
c. Task structure and execution process
In M900/M1800 BSC software system, when a task is created, it is identified with a
unique ID, which is called the task number and this task number is used to recognize
this task.
Each task comprises two parts: the first is the "initialization¨ part, and the second is the
"message processing¨ part, as shown in the following Figure 3-3.
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3-3
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All tasks in the M900/M1800 BSC system are structured in the way as shown in the
above figure. The shadowed part indicates the special implementation details of a task.
According to the structure, the execution process of a task can be described as follows
(Sourse code is in C language):
{
Initialization ; /* Initialization*/
While TRUE
{
Suspended ; /*suspended, CPU resources not occupied*/
MessageProcess ; /*executing, CPU resources occupied*/
}
}
After being created, a task first executes the internal initialization and then is
suspended for the occurrence of events. When an event occurs, the operating system
sets the task as ready and dispatches it into the executing state for the processing of
the event. After the processing is finished, the task is suspended again to wait for the
occurrence of next event. This process is repeated in a cyclic way.
Events in the M900/M1800 BSC system mainly include message events, timing events
and interruption events.
d. Mutex and synchronization of tasks
In M900/M1800 BSC operating system, some tasks are dispatched simultaneously and
executed asynchronously, these tasks are not wholly isolated from one another. Due to
such limitations as common resources (e.g. message queue), the operating system
must manage the task conditions & restrictions so that the whole system can be
operated in a coordinated way.
In M900/M1800 BSC system, the relation among tasks is of two types: resource mutual
exclusion and logic synchronization. The first type means that tasks share some
resources while the resources can only be occupied by one task at one moment. Logic
synchronization means that there is a certain sequential relation among the tasks and
therefore only when a task is executed up to a degree then other tasks can continue.
In M900/M1800 BSC system, semaphore or the on/off interruption mode can be used
to coordinate the mutual exclusion of tasks. Synchronization is guaranteed with the
event driving method. When a task is executed up to a degree, messages shall be sent
to activate the execution of other tasks.
Interruption service routines (ISR) mainly include:
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Clock interruption, which provides the system with real-time clock and timer services.
Interruption of communication interfaces to receive frames or other contact signals
from interfaces.
Abnormal interruption for the execution of abnormal process in the system. All the ISRs
can send messages or sets semaphore to other tasks.
ÌÌ. Message management
Apart from timing events and interruption events, communications among tasks in
M900/M1800 BSC are mainly driven and executed by message events. Each message
can provide two functions:
To activate other tasks into the ready or executing states
To transfer data between tasks.
a. Description of messages
The message mechanism means to transmit a message of a BM to another task of
another BM. Messages can also be transmitted between two tasks in the same BM or
even in the same module. The M900/M1800 BSC operating system provides
application programs with three types of system packets related to message
management:
Application message
Transmission message
Release message
The contents of messages in M900/M1800 BSC can be more deeply understood if
combined with the descriptions of flows of the above three types of messages and
message bodies. When task T1 applies for message block M and fills in contents, it
sends the contents to task T2. This indicates that packet event M is going to occur, i.e.
task T2 will move from the suspended state to the ready state to execute the task. On
the other hand, it also means that T1 has transmitted data (included in the data domain
of M, or M. data) to T2.
b. Management of message queues
In M900/M1800 BSC, message blocks are managed in the queue mode. There are
three types of queues: idle queue, application queue and ready queue. Each queue is
enabled in the relation mode, which is shown in Figure 3-4.
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F|gure 3-4 Vessage queues
In the whole system, there is one idle queue and one application queue. For ready
queues, however, each task corresponds to a ready queue and ready queues
corresponding to one task are organized according to priority levels and the sequence
of Send_message_block. Messages of the same priority level are processed according
to the sequence of the transmitted time.
To save space and improve efficiency, M900/M1800 BSC provides a common buffer
area for all messages. Queue operations are only changes of queue pointers while the
contents of the message block need not to be copied or moved. The process of the
change can be seen in Figure 3-5.
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F|gure 3-5 Vessage queue raragererl
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ÌÌÌ. Memory management
Memory management is an important content of the operating system, includes
memory allocation and recovery, sharing and protection of memory messages,
address conversion, and memory expansion.
a. Memory organization
A feature of the M900/M1800 BSC is the embedded application, i.e. there will not be
frequent memory application/recovery activities. Link mode is used to organize memory
blocks and the "Best_Fit¨ algorithm is used to allocate memory.
b. Memory check and memory protection
The software system of M900/M1800 BSC adopts the plane mode. All data and
program codes are stored in a section of memory area. Therefore, memory protection
is required to prevent the overriding of memory. In the memory control block there is a
"memory block flag¨ (domain flag), which contains 2 bytes. Two special characters, for
example 'M' and 'Z' are stored to indicate that the memory block is normal
(undamaged). If the contents in the flag of the memory control block are not 'M' and 'Z',
the contents of the corresponding memory are damaged.
The M900/M1800 BSC operating system routinely check the validity of each memory
control block on the memory link, including the check of the contents in the flag to see
if they are 'M' and 'Z' or whether contents in the other domains are within the valid
range or not. Once a fault is found, the fault recovery mode shall be used for
processing. It is also possible that the task containing the damaged memory shall be
interrupted and a new task shall be generated.
c. Conversion of memory address
Address conversion is a process of address reallocation. In programming,
programmers use logic addresses independent of the equipment. The address space
composed is called the logic address space, which corresponds to the physical
address of the memory and the physical address space. Once a program written with
logic addresses is stored into memory, and its address and the physical address of the
memory set up a relation. To run it correctly, address conversion should be executed
according to the relation, that is, to map the program address into the physical address
of the memory.
d. Memory expansion
Memory expansion, also called virtual storage, means that the programmer is not
limited in programming by the structure and capacity of a memory that the program can
directly access. The system creates a storage space for the user, which is much bigger
in capacity than the memory. This need-oriented storage space is called the virtual
memory or memory expansion. The expansion of memory is implemented in the
following two ways:
Š Division of program address space and memory physical address space.
Š Relocation of program address to physical address, the model is as shown in Figure
3-6.
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When the memory address of 'a' can not be found via the mapping relation, some
information in the program space must be on the external memory. Therefore, the
external contents must be first introduced into the memory, and then the address
mapping relation is to be modified before the address conversion is continued. The
expansion of memory is in fact enabled by occupying CPU time for the switching of
internal and external memories and by occupying the external space.
ÌV. Time limit management
The M900/M1800 BSC executes timer management according to the real-time
processing requirements:
Š Cyclic dispatch: This refers to the clock-level tasks. Clock-level tasks in the
M900/M1800 BSC operating system are of three types, 10ms cycle tasks, 1s cycle
tasks and 1m cycle tasks.
Š Timeout dispatch: When the time designated by the user is due or over, timeout
messages will be sent to the user to activate the task to timeout processing. Timeout
dispatch services provided by the M900/M1800 BSC operating system include
absolute time limit and relative time limit. Absolute time limit requires the operating
system to process tasks at an absolute moment defined beforehand. Timeout
messages will be transmitted at this absolute moment. For the definition of the
absolute time, there are two cases:
Without cyclic repetition: The system is required to monitor a future moment. When the
task is over at due time the procedure will also ended, i.e., it will not be repeated again.
With cyclic repetition: A user can set certain time after which a function/procedure can
be repeated so that regular results can be obtained.
For example in call charging there is need for call bills (call data). A process can be set
on 02:00 with the cycle of 24 hours so after every 24 hours the call bill process will start
at 02:00 and will provide the required data. Relative time limit means that timeout
processing shall be executed some time after the user puts forward the timeout
requirement:
The M900/M1800 BSC operating system provides the following system invocations
related to timer services:
start_devtimer start relative time limit services with the basic unit as second.
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start_100ms_devtimer start relative time limit services with the basic unit as
100ms.
stop_devtimer stop relative time limit services.
register_sys_timer register unrepeatable absolute time limit services.
register_day_timer register repeatable absolute time limit services with
the cycle of 24 hours.
cancel_sys_timer cancel absolute time limit services.
V. Ìnitialization and system recovery
To improve the system reliability and self-recovery, the M900/M1800 BSC system
provides two important system recovery levels which are restart, and forced loading.
Restart mainly executes initialization operations and then decides whether to start
forced loading according to the restart level. In this way the control and state variables
of the system can be recovered as defined initially.
Forced loading is the recovery of a higher level. Programs and data will be
reconfigured in the memory through OMC.
a. Restart
The M900/M1800 BSC system provides four levels of restart in accordance to different
operational environments and terminal maintenance facilities. Detailed functions and
system restart effects are given below:
Restart of Level-1:
Š New calls will not be entertained.
Š Connected calls will not be affected.
Š Data and programs will not to be loaded.
Restart of Level-2:
Control and state variables of all modules are initialized.
Š New calls will not be entertained.
Š Connected calls will be affected.
Š Data and programs will not to be loaded
Restart of Level-3:
Reinitialize the whole system. Data is loaded through BAM/OMC. No program is to be
loaded.
Restart of Level-4:
Reinitialize the whole system. Both data and programs are loaded through BAM/OMC.
b. Booting and loading
The system booting program and the system loading program of the M900/M1800 BSC
are altogether 64K bytes and are hardened in ROM. The basic input and output system
(BIOS) occupies 512 bytes, and the rest is the loading program.
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After powered on, the system first enters ROM BIOS and executes the initialization of
GMPU memory, clock and interruption. After this, the system will start the loading
program.
The execution process is as follows:
Š Initialize the global address table, interruption descriptor table and partial descriptor
table to enter the protection mode.
Š Timer interruption initialization.
Š Read the setting of hardware switch to decide whether reload from the background
or from the Flash memory. To load from the background, either data only, or
program only, or both data and program can be loaded. The parts that are not
loaded from the background are loaded from the Flash memory. When the GMPU
board is designed, the sizes of program and data Flash memories can be set by
jumper setting to meet different operational requirements. When re-loading from the
Flash memory, the loading program shall check the programs and data in the Flash
memory. If errors are found in the check, the loading program shall request
automatically to be loaded from the background.
Š Selection of the loading channel. Different loading channels shall be used for
different configuration requirements of modules.
Š If program or data is to be loaded from the background, then do this step, otherwise
omit this.
Š Load according to the loading protocol. Put the GMPU program or data into the
designated position.
Š Check after loading. If the loading is not correct, re-load the data or program.
Š If the check proves the loading is correct and completed read the hardware switch
status to duplicate the loadable program into the Flash memory as a backup.
For further detail please read the operation manual of M900/M1800 BSC.
3.2.2 Data Structure and Database
Ì. Data structure
Functions of the M900/M1800 BSC are executed by program control while the
introduction and deletion of these functions are enabled in a coordinated manner by
data in the BSC. In general, the data is stored and managed in a centralized mode, and
the collection of the data is called database. The management of database is executed
by the DBMS (database management system) module in the GMPU system software
of the M900/M1800 BSC.
According to its organization, the DBMS can be classified into hierarchical, meshed
and relational databases. DBMS can be classified into distributed and centralized
databases according to the data storage mode.
Data in the BSC is distributed into multiple modules, but in logic they belong to the
same database. For BSC with small-capacity, its module number is fixed to 1 and all
data of DBMS are distributed in a single module. The relation of data is described in a
bivariate table, which is called relational table. One dimension of the table is called
tuple, and the other is called domain or field. Tuple composes one logic record of
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relational table, while domain defines the relevant data item of the relational table. The
number of domains reflect the complexity of relational table.
a. Data dictionary
Data definitions in DBMS are described by the data dictionary. Two types of description
lists, relational description lists and domain description lists, are generated. The former
type describes the structures of relations and the latter type describes the domains in
relations.
b. Data type
Data used in the database of M900/M1800 BSC is basically of the following types:
Unsigned character integers within the range of 0 255.
Unsigned integer within the range of 0 65535.
Unsigned long integer within the range of 0 4294967295.
BCD character string, the valid values of characters are within 0 9.
ASCII character string, valid ASCII characters.
c. List types and retrieval methods
Descriptions of relation types are in the relation description list of the data dictionary.
Database of M900/M1800 BSC uses the following three types of relations.
Š Direct index list
The lists are directly accessed by using tuple numbers. The tuple number is not a part
of the relation, and the insertion and deletion of the tuple shall not affect the sort of the
list.
Š Sequential search list
All tuples in the list are stored according to the sequence. The search starts from the
first tuple and continues in sequence. The newly added tuples are put at the end of the
list.
Š Sorting list
Tuples in the relation are sorted according to values of key words. Two tuples can not
be stored in one list if values in their sorting fields (key domain) are same. In case
there are multiple key domains, each key domain can be assigned with the sorting
mode (ascending sequence or descending sequence) and sorting serial number. The
domain with the smallest serial number is in the first priority. The retrieve of the
sequencing list is enabled through dichotomy. The insertion and deletion of a tuple
shall cause the movement of the subsequent tuples.
ÌÌ. Database structure
The database of the M900/M1800 BSC has the distributed structure. Data is distributed
in multiple modules. Each module is responsible for maintaining the local database on
the module and hence is relatively independent. At the same time, each local database
is a part of the global database and multiple local databases cooperate to provide the
functions of the global database. The structure of the database on each module is
shown in Figure 3-7. Note that there is only one BM for a BSC with small-capacity,
hence AM/CM is not required.
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a. Database
A database, composed of multiple relational tables, is loaded into the memory of
GMPU through BAM from OMC. The access of DBMS to the database is made in RAM
and no disk file operations are needed, hence high speed retrieving is achieved.
Via the control of the GMPU toggle switch, data can be stored in the FLASH memory,
and the modification of data can be duplicated into FLASH MEMORY of GMPU, which
shall not be lost in case of power failure. On system restart, GMPU can read the
originally stored data from FLASH MEMORY and store it to the memory of GMPU, and
it is not necessary to load it again.
b. Functions of database management system (DBMS)
Functions of the DBMS in the M900/M1800 BSC include the following:
Š Data definition (defining the structures of relations, field types, distribution places of
data, access modes, etc.)
Š Provide application programs with interfaces for retrieving, storing and modifying
data.
Š Ensuring the consistency and safety of data.
Š Data backup.
c. Application program interface (API)
The API of the database is the interface between the database module of the
M900/M1800 BSC and other modules. It makes use of functions provided by the
DBMS and provides database access interfaces for such modules as radio resource
management, base station management, operation and maintenance, performance
management, alarm management and BAM. Functions of API are given below:
Š Radio resource data management, provides data configuration of the following
functions: call process, system message, channel management, power control,
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handover decision, short message, timer management, frequency hopping (FH)
management and flow control.
Š The BTS data management, provides the BTS configuration data for the base
station management module.
Š SS7 signaling data management, provides the configuration & management of MTP
and SCCP.
Š Circuit data management, executes management of A-interface and Abis interface
circuits according to the configuration of circuit data so as to guarantee that the
assigned circuits in the call process are configured and valid.
Š Data support for operations and maintenance, provides hardware configuration data
for the operation and maintenance module.
Š Data support for alarms, provides alarm configuration data to alarm modules.
Š Data maintenance, cooperates with BAM to enable maintenance of the database,
including the storage, roll-in and roll-out of the database and the addition, deletion
and modification of tuples in the relational table.
ÌÌÌ. Features of M900/M1800 BSC database
a. Distributed database
Data is distributed in multiple modules. Each module stores its own data. All data
requests are sent to the local database, and the user does not care about the storage
places of the data. Due to this distribution of data, a fault within a module will not affect
the working of other modules. As for a small capacity BSC, all data is stored in a single
module. And a large amount of query is done locally and this helps improve query
efficiency.
b. Flexible and reliable expansion
The structure of the relation and definitions of fields are wholly based on descriptions
of the data dictionary. Modification of the list structure or the introduction of relations
will not cause the change of program code. Therefore, DBMS is provided with fine
expandability.
c. Flexible data setting
M900/M1800 BSC must satisfy multiple networking modes and requirements for
multiple services. Its flexible designing makes it restrictions free.
3.2.3 Software and Data Maintenance
Ì. System software and data protection
The M900/M1800 BSC adopts the distributed control structure. Its system software and
data are distributed on the GMPU, intelligent boards, BAM, and OMC servers,
switching and relative assistant services are enabled via the coordination and
management of the operating system, unified dispatches and drive from events and
data.
The system software of M900/M1800 BSC is classified into three types: GMPU
software, board software and terminal maintenance software. Board software of FTC,
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BIE, MSM, LPN7 and GLAP enable multiple interface functions and processing of
protocols in the data link layer and network layer. GMPU software refers to the
software running on the active CPU. GMPU software and board software execute
communications and exchange information via the mailbox mode and IPC
(inter-process communication) protocol, in which the memory mapping technology is
the main part. The three types of software are designated with different tasks while
coordinating with one another, ensuring the high reliability and processing capability of
the system. The terminal maintenance software is installed on the OMC maintenance
console, which sends O&M commands to a certain maintenance module in the main
processor unit via BAM, and it implements real time monitoring and control by
requesting the current running states from the host or request the host to execute
some operation. On receiving the O&M command, the maintenance module in the
main processor unit will directly retrieve some current running states of the main
processor unit and return to the user interface of the OMC maintenance console, or
inform other modules of the O&M commands and return the operation results to the
user interface of the OMC maintenance console after completing the O&M tasks. The
M900/M1800 BSC organizes and manages the various data, required for the system
running through distributed relational database. This guarantees the organizational
flexibility, consistency, and expandability of data, eliminates the bottleneck effect
caused by the centralized database, and enhances effectiveness and reliability.
The system software and data of the M900/M1800 BSC are stored as files in multiple
storage media. The BAM in the BSC has two 1G hard disks mirror to each other,
carrying the software and data of BSC. The software and data can also be duplicated
on optical disks or tapes for backup.
GMPU board on each BM of the M900/M1800 BSC has one 4Mbyte (for program) and
one 3.5Mbyte (for data) Flash memories. Also, It has 32M byte RAM, in which the
program and data in actual operations are stored. The intelligent boards also have
flash memories of different capacities to store the software and static data of local
modules or boards. Flash memory provides such functions as power-failure protection,
high access speed, and repeated erasing and writing. The relation of the BAM hard
disk, flash memory and the software and data of memory is as follows:
The hard disk of BAM has a loading description file, which describes the file names
and directories to be loaded on different modules and intelligent boards of different
types. When there is a request for loading from GMPU or intelligent boards, BAM shall
transmit the needed software and data to assigned GMPU or boards via corresponding
loading channels according to the descriptions in the loading description file. At the
same time, BAM shall decide whether to write the software and data to be loaded into
the corresponding flash memory according to the loading switches on GMPU and
boards (program available, program writable, data available, data writable, etc.).
According to the settings of switches on GMPU or boards, when the system or boards
restart, either the software and data from the flash memory should be used or software
and data shall be loaded from the hard disk of BAM. Data modified dynamically in the
memory (such as the online settings of data in some tables made by the maintenance
staff) shall be written routinely into the flash memory and the hard disk of BAM so as to
ensure that the modified data is valid in system restarting.
Each module has two GMPU boards in active & standby configuration. These boards
are mutually updated through GEMA (dual-system switchover board) to ensure the
smooth transition of system during dual-system switchover without any disturbance to
the subscriber services.
In general, the system software is a kind of data itself, which is recorded, stored and
used in the form of file for the purpose of centralized management. So the
management of software and data is just management of data in the final analysis.
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ÌÌ. Data and database
a. Data
Service and functions of the M900/M1800 BSC are implemented by programs, and the
description, import, addition, deletion and control of the application range and
environment are enabled by specific data. Programs and data are separate. Programs
respond to events according to the settings of data and implement the services and
functions of the BSC. Data driving enhances the flexibility of the system. These
operations, such as planning,optimization, and adjustment data, are transformed to
modify data.
In the traditional file system, each program defines its data files, "redundancy¨ and
"inconsistency¨ are always caused. "Redundancy¨ is caused as the same data is used
by different programs and, it is dumped for many times. "Inconsistency¨ always occurs
when a program modifies its own data files while not modifying the same data obtained
in the data files of other programs. As most data must be used and owned by multiple
software modules, the issue of data sharing must be solved.
Various data are usually stored in a centralized way. And the set of the data is called
database, which is managed by DBMS. If the user needs some data, he or she can
make request to DBMS, which will provide the user with the data needed.
To make full use of the system structure of M900/M1800 BSC, which is the
multi-module distributed group control structure, distributed relation database
management system (DRDBMS) can be used to organize, manage, describe and
access the data of M900/M1800 BSC.
In addition, another advantage of adopting DBMS is the safety, i.e. the protected data
can not be accessed or modified by unauthorized users and can not be damaged by
disastrous events.
The database in the M900/M1800 BSC is described in the distributed relational data
mode. It is distributed because each BM stores part of the data, including global data,
global link table data and private data. Data on one module is stored according to the
relation mode and managed by the relation database sub-system in a unified mode.
Relation database sub-systems on different modules are independent of and
consistent with one another. Therefore, the relation database sub-systems of switching
modules are physically separated and compose a part of the whole database system.
Logically these relation database sub-systems are an organic integrity and compose
the distributed relational DBMS.
In the relational database of the M900/M1800 BSC, the data is made up by
two-dimensional lists, which are called relations and are a set of relative data, as
shown in Figure 3-8.
A row in the relation is called a tuple (or record) and a column is called a domain (field).
Each tuple constitutes a logic record. For example, in a relation that describes
equipment, the amount of tuples is determined by the amount of equipment, and the
amount of domains is decided by the degree of complexity of the logic. The use of this
relation facilitates programming and application
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` 7XSOH
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F|gure 3-8 Ar exarp|e ol re|al|or
Data in the relations of M900/M1800 BSC includes, Unsigned integers with 1 4
bytes, BCD codes, tuple numbers of 2 bytes and block types with uncertain bytes.
Data in M900/M1800 BSC is of the following types:
System data: Intrinsic data of the software, such as software parameters, timer and
event descriptions.
Configuration data: Data of the BSC cabinet, frame configuration, slot configuration,
mailbox, transmission HW configuration, clock configuration, etc.
Local office data: This data describes the network parameters of the local BSC and
represents some information for example signaling point information of BSC, phases of
the interfaces, mobile country code, mobile network number, basic data for subordinate
cells, configuration data for carrier frequency, TRAU configuration data, radio channel
configuration data, BIE configuration data for BSC side and site side, LAPD
configuration data, signaling channel configuration data, traffic channel configuration
data, etc.
Site data: It describes the configuration data of subordinate sites of the BSC, including
site frame slot data, board software configuration data, configuration data for frequency
points of the cell carrier frequency.
Cell data: It describes the properties (data) of the subordinate cells of the BSC,
including system message data of the cell, cell frequency allocation data, frequency
points of neighboring cells, switches and parameter data for intra-cell call control, other
properties of the cell, etc.
Handover data: It describes the parameter and switching data required for handover
control.
Power control data: It includes parameters and switching data needed by the BSC in
power control, including power control selection data, cell power control data, the BTS
power control data and MS power control data.
Channel management data: It describes data required by BSC during the management
and allocation of radio channels, including radio channel management and control data
and bad channel management and control data.
Trunk data: It describes circuit data of A-interface and Pb-interface, and data of their
signaling coordination as well as Abis-interface circuit data.
SS7 data: It describes data for MTP and SCCP of SS7.
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Alarm data: It describes the alarm parameter data of BSC and BTS.
b. Database
The M900/M1800 BSC organizes data by using the relation mode, which describes the
relation between entity set properties and entity sets via the two-dimensional lists that
enable relational algebraic operations. The relation mode induces the logic structure of
data to a two-dimensional list that satisfies certain conditions, and the list is called a
"Relation¨. The major characteristic of relation is that not only data, but also the relation
between data is represented by the two-dimensional list.
The M900/M1800 BSC database is a set of data relations, made up by various
two-dimensional lists, which are called relations. One dimension is called tuple (row),
and the other is called domain (column). Each tuple is equivalent to a logic record, and
each domain corresponds to a certain property and is equivalent to a data item in logic
records. Hence the amount of domains is determined by the logic complexity of the
relation. In a relation, key domain instead of pointer is used to query data. And a key
domain can include one or multiple domains. Each search domain also includes one or
several domains and is used to store a certain tuple in the record.
To obtain the data of some tuples, a user program must inform DBMS of the relation
and also the tuple in the relation to be stored. This can be done by defining the search
domain.
In the database of M900/M1800 BSC, relations are of two types:
Š Real relation
Š Virtual relation
Real relations refer to the relations that are defined by software, stored in the database
and found in the GMPU memory.
Virtual relations, on the other hand, are not stored in the database and memory, but are
created by reconstructing the real relation so as to speed up the search for data and
meet different requirements of users. Virtual relations mainly include redefined relation,
multitarget relation and procedure relation.
A redefined relation is actually a sub-set of the real relation. That is, the existing real
relation is re-defined. Some domains in the real relation are extracted and the sub-sets
are given a redefined relation.
Name and address Personal file
(Redefined relation) (Real relation)
1ê0002Z000001 03V900 0
3c|erce-oased
|rduslr|a| par|
0
3c|erce-oased
|rduslr|a| par|
Cell id Cell type
Cell
number
Cell name
Cell
number
Cell name
F|gure 3-9 Exarp|e ol a redel|red re|al|or (l|e lWo re|al|ors |ave l|e sare |ey dora|rs)
It can be seen from Figure 3-10 that the name and address list is actually created by
reconstructing two domains extracted from the personal file list. Therefore this list is
not stored in the memory and database. For a redefined relation, the key domain
should be the same as that in the real relation. In the operations of BSC, if a user (or
the software that uses data) needs to use the data of a tuple in the redefined relation, a
request should be put forward to DBMS, which will extract the domains related with
program operations from the relative real relation and construct them into a newly
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defined tuple to send to the software requesting. The structure of the redefined relation,
obviously, is not same as that of the real relation it is based on. And no modification is
allowed on the redefined relation.
Multitarget means that it is composed by domains extracted from at least 2 real
relations by using the designated link algorithm.
Name and ID table (real relation) ID and address (real relation)
V.4600027000001 IV.0 I II.0
I. Science-based
industrial park
V.Cell CGl
IV.Cell
number
I
II.Cell
number
I.Cell name
Key domain |_______________________| key domain
Link domain
Name and address list (virtual relation)
II.4600027000001
I. Science-based
industrial cell
II.Cell CGl I.Cell name
Key domain Key domain
F|gure 3-10 Exarp|e ol a ru|l|largel re|al|or
It can be seen in Figure 3-10 that in constructing the "Name and address list¨ of the
multi-target relation, one of the two real relations shall provide the base point for
constructing the virtual relation. Therefore, the key domain in the multitarget relation
should be the key domain of the real relation. In addition, the link domain plays a vital
role in constructing the multitarget relation, because the data in the next real relation
can only be found by using the link domain. Hence the value of the link key domain in
the first real relation should be the same as that in the key domain of the second real
relation in the multitarget relation. This induction shall go on until all domains involved
in a multi-target relations are completely linked.
The application program of the M900/M1800 BSC does not care whether a multitarget
relation exists in the memory but how to obtain the required data in program operations
quickly and conveniently from the multitarget relation.
The procedure relation is a type of virtual relation. It is reconstructed by one or multiple
real relations. A procedure relation is a section of small program (called "procedure¨)
that dispatches the data in the corresponding real relationship according to the process
for specific functions execution and follow a certain sequence or algorithm. In the
procedure relation, some domains are dispatching entrance parameters. Some other
domains use algorithm to execute the calculation results or output parameters. If the
procedure relation can not find the real relation needed from the local GMPU memory,
the real relation will either in the memory of other modules or stored in the system disk.
The M900/M1800 BSC system adopts the modular distributed control mode. Each
module is equipped with data according to the required functions. Hence the database
of the M900/M1800 BSC system is actually a sum of the data in all modules. Its
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physical arrangement in the database must be determined by actual needs. For
small-capacity BSC, there is no distribution of data in multiple modules.
A common relation can be found in a certain module, and its tuples are not distributed
in other modules. In some cases, a module needs only part of the data in a relation
while other modules shall need the other data of the relation. To avoid repetition, the
relation can be divided into different blocks. Each block shall only store the tuples for
access. In this case, a relation is thereby distributed into different modules.
Another case is that a group of modules need the same data of a same relation. If
there is only one relation for such data, it will take a long time to access the relation as
all data requests will be sent to the module that contains the relation. To avoid such an
event, data copies of the relation should be kept in all modules that shall use the
relation. That is, the relation shall be copied into different modules. For the repeated
use of a relation, the key point is to keep the data copies consistent with one another.
In a word, a module can contain an independent data relation or related data relations,
that is, distributed relation and replicated relation.
1
2
3
1
5
08V3
Vodu|e 1
ê
Z
8
9
10
08V3
11
12
13
11
15
08V3
Vodu|e 2 Vodu|e 3
Re|a||or A Re|a||or A
Re|a||or 8 Re|a||or 8 Re|a||or 8
Re|a||or A
user
sol|Ware
F|gure 3-11 A d|slr|ouled re|al|or
It can be seen from Figure 3-11 that the data distributed into three modules belong to
the same relation A, whose 15 tuples are distributed to different modules. Module 1
contains tuples 1 5 of the relation, module 2 contains tuples 6 10 of the relation, and
module 3 contains tuples 11 15 of the relation. If the user software of module 1 needs
to access the data in tuples 1 5, it can find the data in the local module.
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1
2
3
1
5
08V3
Vodu|e 1
1
2
3
1
5
08V3
1
2
3
1
5
08V3
F|gure 3-12 A rep||caled re|al|or
It can be seen from Figure 3-12 that data in the three modules of relation B is same
and contains all tuples (1 5) of the relation. In the event that a module needs the data
of the relation, it need not search in other modules. But when the data in the relation is
to be modified, data in all these three modules must be modified. It can be retrieved
from the data dictionary as for which modules contain copies of the replicated relation.
Some relations in the database of the M900/M1800 BSC can either be separated or
replicated.
The database system of M900/M1800 BSC can be divided into two layers. The bottom
layer is the relation management layer used to provide such functions as:
Š Storage, query, modification and duplication of expansion relation-based data
modes.
Š Control of the integrity, processing-based safety and consistency of data.
Š Dual-system backup of database.
The upper layer comprises service level interface modules and the data maintenance
modules. Service level interface modules support the query and search of database in
service modules. And the data maintenance and the terminal data management
console enables the modification and query of online data as well as other
maintenance management operations in the database.
There are three ways of retrievals in the of M900/M1800 BSC database, which can be
found by checking the data dictionary.
Š Sequential retrieval
All tuples are stored according to the sequence. And each access shall start from the
first tuple, then goes on with the second until the needed tuple is found. The newly
added tuple is put at the end of the relation list and the constantly read tuples are put at
the beginning.
Š Index access
This means the access to a relation list via the index domain of an index list. Index
access is applicable to direct index lists. The index domain is implicated and not a part
of the tuple to be accessed.
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In general, the values of the key domain compose the index according to the
sequence. If the contents for index are too many, they can be divided into blocks and
set into the indexes of multiple levels.
Š Dichotomy retrieval
The dichotomy retrieval starts from the middle of the relation. If the value of the limited
condition (composed by multiple key domains) is greater than that of the entered value,
it shall compare with the mean value at the bottom half (key domains are arranged
from small to big into the dictionary sequence). Continue the binary comparisons until
the required tuple is founded.
Dichotomy is a quick search algorithm. Its shortcoming is that the addition or deletion
of a tuple is very complicated by reorganizing and rearranging the relation.
ÌÌÌ. Data maintenance and operation terminal system
The data maintenance and operation terminal system follows the client/server
structure. The data management server is an object-oriented server set up on the
description-based database system. It not only enables the data access request of the
client terminal, but also provides data storage and access ability for other application
sub-systems. The client terminal of data management provides a convenient and
friendly man-machine interface and provides functions for the BSC as addition, deletion
and modification of both single-piece and batch data as well as sequencing, querying,
setting, printing and backup of data. To ensure the safety of data, three levels of
operation authorities are set for operational staff which are operation authority, setting
authority and management authority. Each authority can operate according to its
permission. The operation authority has the lowest level, setting authority has higher
level and management authority has the highest level of authority.
a. Data management
The distributions of data arise from requirements of specific application systems. For
large-scale database management systems, distributed management can improve
system performance and reliability and reduce system costs. For M900/M1800 BSC,
the introduction of the distribution concept increases the flexibility in system
configuration and curtails cost.
The configuration structure of the small-capacity BSC is shown in Figure 3-13.
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8V
8AV
C||erl C||erl
0ATA8A3E
0ATA8A3E
Foregrourd
8ac|grourd
V900/V1800
83C
F|gure 3-13 Corl|gured slruclure ol a sra||-capac|ly 83C
The configured structure of a large-capacity BSC is shown in Figure 3-14.
8V
8AV
C||er| C||er|
0ATA8A3E
0ATA8A3E
Fcreçrcurc
8ac|çrcurc
AV/CV
0ATA8A3E
8V
0ATA8A3E
V900/V1800
83C
F|gure 3-14 Corl|gured slruclure ol a |arge-capac|ly 83C
Data is first distributed on the BAM server. Then it is transmitted and stored in the BMs
of the foreground and the database of AM/CM after conversion and loading. BMs and
AM/CM only need to access the data in the local module when reading data instead of
paying remote access via inter-module links, which improves the system performance.
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Data of each BM is different from that of AM/CM.: Only related data of each module is
stored in it so that distributed data management is realized.
The M900/M1800 BSC can be configured with multiple terminal systems. Each
maintenance system can maintain the data of the BSC. Via the management of user
authorities, illegal access or operations can be controlled.
b. Data conversion
According to the features of data operations, the foreground database adopts the
self-designed special database system, whose data management mode based on the
specific characteristics of the GMPU, is different from normal database systems in
storage format, relation mode and index mode. The database of the background
maintenance terminal system adopts the standard database mode to enable the
storage format, relation mode and index mode. Hence the difference between the data
formats of the background and the foreground comes into being. The background
maintenance terminal system adopts the format conversion mode to keep the
consistency of foreground and background data as well as validity of data. The
conversion process converts the data required by different modules into different files
according to the configurations of modules. In the loading process, relative data files
shall then be loaded into relative modules.
c. Data management server under the client/server system structure
The client/server system structure is a very popular database management system.
DBMS is designed on the bases of ORACLE and SYBASE. The advantage of the
structure is that according to the division of functions, data operations and data usage
are separated. Functions are shared and the performance of the system is greatly
improved. The security of the database system is further guaranteed and provides
multiple and flexible operation methods and modes for large-scale data applications.
Figure 3-15 shows the service access mechanism under the client/server system
structure.
Figure 3-15 Service access mechanism
d. Contents of data maintenance
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Message processing
Background message processing
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Data management of the M900/M1800 BSC includes configuration data management,
local office data management, site data management, cell data management,
handover data management, transmitted power data management, channel data
management, trunk data management, SS7 data management, alarm data
management and data operation management.
Š Configuration data management
Configuration data describes the hardware configuration of the BSC, common
parameters and data in the AM. Hardware configuration includes frame description,
slot description, board description, NOD description and module description. Common
parameters include module parameter, maximum common tuple number and
semi-permanent connections. AM data includes AM frame description, AM board
position description, AM board active/standby group, AM module description, AM clock
description and AM alarm switch description. Once the configuration data is set, it need
not be modified unless in system expansion.
Š Local office data management
Local office data management includes operations of addition, modification, deletion,
query, browse, setting and GMPU status query, on such objects as local office
parameter data, mobile country code list, mobile network number conversion list, BSC
cell list, frequency hopping data list, TRX configuration list, radio channel configuration
list, LAPD semi-permanent connection list, LAPD signaling connection list, TRAU
configuration list, BSC BIE board description list, the BSC BIE board active/standby
group description list, the site BIE trunk mode description list, the site BIE configuration
list, signaling channel connection list, SM No.7 timeslot table, the corresponding
relation between MSM and FTC, GMEM board configuration table.
Š Site data management
Site data includes site description list, TRX configuration list, frame description list, slot
description list, software configuration description list, BS environment alarm
configuration data list and TRX handover control list.
Š Cell data management
Cell data mainly includes system message data, cell configuration data, cell frequency
point data, BCCH data of neighboring cell, SACCH data of neighboring cell, cell
attributes data, cell alarm threshold data, cell call control data, and cell call processing
parameter data.
Š Handover data management
Handover data includes handover control data, cell description data for handover,
outside cell description data, cell adjacent relation data, filter data, punishment data,
emergency handover data, load handover data, normal handover data, fast-moving
handover data and intra-cell connection control data.
Š Power control data management
Power control data mainly includes power control selection data, ordinary cell power
control data, BS power control data, MS power control data, and HWII power control
data.
Š Channel data management
Channel data mainly includes radio channel management control data and damaged
channel management control data.
Š Trunk data management
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Trunk data includes office direction data, trunk group data, trunk group SS7 data, A
interface trunk circuit data, and Pb interface trunk circuit data.
Š SS7 data management
M900/M1800 BSC provides SS7 mode, which is 14/24-digit compatible. The 14-digit
mode is used in BSC. SS7 data management includes the addition, deletion,
modification query and browse of DPC data, SS7 link set data, SS7 router data, SS7
link data, CIC data, PCIC data, SCCP destination signaling point data, SCCP
sub-system data, GT code conversion data and new GT code conversion data.
Š Alarm data management
Alarm data mainly includes such data in the BSC and BTS as alarm parameter
configuration data, alarm environment variable configuration data, alarm information
parameter data and alarm information detailed explanation data.
Š Miscellaneous
In addition to the above-described data, there are still many system parameter data
such as software parameters and clock parameters to be modified by the maintenance
staff.
e. Functions of data operation management
To guarantee the safety of data, the data maintenance operating system of
M900/M1800 BSC provides a series of tools, which mainly include index
reconstruction, data format conversion, data printing, data backup, LOAD and DUMP
function, auditing trace etc.
Š Index maintenance function
This function is used to reconstruct database index, permanently clear the deleted data
& records, clear database fragments & garbage so as to improve the operational
efficiency of the database.
Š Data format conversion
This function is used to convert the data format of operation and maintenance data for
the BSC service processing. Three conversion modes are provided, which are convert
all, refresh all and convert list. Data after conversion is used for GMPU loading.
Š Data print function
To have a hard copy of data as a backup, a printer can be attached.
Š Data backup function
This function is used to backup the BSC/BAM data on the storage media which can be
an optical disk, magnetic tape, floppy disks, network server or hard disk so that in case
of system failure the data can be restored.
Š Auditing trace function
Whenever the operation staff enter or exit the data setting system and execute such
operations as addition, deletion and modification of each piece or batch data in the
terminal and GMPU, operation records will be kept in the system. Contents of each
record include work number, operation date, operation time, data type, operation type
and key word and value of operation. Operation records can be checked by auditing
trace so that tasks can be clearly designated.
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3.2.4 Radio Resource Management
Ì. Call connection process
A critical difference between PLMN and PSTN lies in their resource management. For
PSTN, there is a private communication medium which can be applied to use
whenever a call needs to be established. While for wireless cellular system like GSM,
the dedicated channels of the radio interface is allocated to the MS (a requirement of
the network). When MS drops the call the radio channels will be released and wait for
another call request.
Specifications of the GSM signaling part comprise three functional parts, which are
radio resource management (RR), mobility management (MM) and communication
management (CM).
The key contents of Radio resources management is to manage the transmission
route of the radio interface, and responsible for the setup, hold on and release of radio
resources.
RR connection is used to connect two peer entities and provide support to the
exchange of information in the upper level, and as a result, point to point conversation
between MS and network can be implemented. Additionally, RR management is
responsible for receiving information from BCCH (PBCCH) and CCCH (PCCCH)
channels.
Radio resource management is distributed in four entities in the GSM system
architecture, which are MS, BTS, BSC and MSC. MS and BSC are responsible for the
process completion.
Mobility management is responsible for the MS location/route data, and updates it
continuously. It is mainly accomplished by MSC (SGSN).
Communication management is responsible for controlling the interaction between the
GSM network and other networks and for the setup and release of the end-end
transmission path to support communications between users. Connection
management depends on the functions for handling the user's mobility and security in
mobility management
During the radio channel management, various messages are exchanged between
different equipment of the network and MS.
The BSC accomplishes signaling processing of various interfaces in a call process and
consequently implements radio resources management.
The whole call process starts from access. Access can be triggered either by MS e.g.
MS activation request or location update information, or by network e.g. requirement of
paging for GSM subscribers. The access of mobile station is made by the random
access channel (RACH) or packet random access channel (PRACH). In MS access
request only an information of 8 bits is provided, which can not give the specific
identification of the MS, so that mistaken access requests due to frequent interference.
In addition, the access in RACH is irregular. It is possible when two mobile stations
initiate request for access at the same time, it will result in the failure. In the
M900/M1800 BSC system, the BTS can be set threshold values to effectively prevent
mistaken reports and to distinguish random access collisions.
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GSM phase2+ supports two kind of services i.e. It can offer data services and voice
service to the mobile users. The processes of voice and data calls are described
below.
Circuit-based call In this process BSC initiated a dedicated channel allocation process
after receiving an access request from MS. The BTS decodes the request correctly
and indicates the BSC to allocate a dedicated channel and activates it in BTS via
channel request information. Then the BTS informs the mobile station to accept the
dedicated channel via AGCH (access grant channel).
In special cases, if the network facilities responses so late to the access request that
the mobile station re-sends access request, multiple channels will be activated in the
BTS but only one will be used effectively (the information carried on the 8-bit access
requests is not sufficient for distinguishing mobile stations), as a result, the limited
radio resources will be seriously wasted. In the M900/M1800 BSC, a mechanism is
designed to prevent such cases effectively and improve the utility of the radio resource.
Thanks to this mechanism, dedicated channels can be established quickly even in big
traffic situation, which consequently accelerates the process of signaling connection
and shortens the time the users need to spends on it.
In the specially established channel, signaling interaction is executed between the
mobile station and the network facilities. After the interaction, the network facilities
obtain the necessary information and allocates a terrestrial link for calls from the MS.
Then it informs MS via radio interface to access and begin the communication process.
Channel release process begins after the communication is finished, where radio links
and terrestrial links will be released successively.
Packet-based call
When no PCCCH is configured in the serving cell, the channel request message from
the MS is transferred to the BTS via RACH of the CCCH and then reported to the
BSC. The BSC forwards this message to PCU and receives the packet immediate
assignment message from PCU and then sends it to the MS, after all these activities,
the process of packet-based call access completes. The BSC will not handle the
packet channel request, but sends it directly to the PCU.
If a MS access the packet services for Paging Response, the BSC can not judge the
service type of the access, it then allocates DCCHs first and enters dedicated mode.
After receiving the message EST_IND of RR_INITIALITION_REQ of layer 3, it
transfers the message to PCU and then enters packet call.
If the MS access packet service via the PCCCH of the cell, then the packet call
process is transparent to the BSC.
ÌÌ. System information
System information are information about network technical attributes broadcast
incessantly in the BCCH (broadcast control channel) and SACCH (slow associated
control channel), including frequency configuration of cells, configuration of common
channels, whether or not to allow emergency calls, whether or not to allow call
re-establishment, etc.
Mobile station in idle mode constantly receives system information to keep contact with
the network facilities. In addition, many parameters in system information control the
activities of the mobile station, including by what means the mobile station selects cells,
by what means the mobile station starts access applications, whether the mobile
station adopts the voice-activated discontinuous transmission technology, etc.
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At present, the M900/M1800 BSC system has enabled the 12 types of system
information demanded in GSM Phase 2+. The system can support the coding of 1024
frequency channels and the free usage of dual-band mobile stations in the networks of
GSM 900 and GSM 1800. In the coding of frequency channels, the limited resource of
system can be most effectively used by selecting automatic encoding formats
according to the range of the input frequency channel. Frequency point encoding
formats currently supported by the system are Bit map 0 format, Range 1024 format,
Range 512 format, Range 256 format, Range 128 format, and Variable bit map format.
Besides, frequency point encoding of the above formats are also enabled in the
descriptions of neighboring cells in system information, and as a result, the handover of
dual-band mobile stations is implemented between GSM 900 and GSM 1800 networks.
In system messages, some data shall be decided by service provider. The
M900/M1800 BSC system provides friendly interfaces, which are easy to upgrade the
information.
In addition, system information in the M900/M1800 BSC system also support GSM
1800 MS of class 3, and provide necessary parameters for class 3 GSM 1800 MS to
enable the functions of power control, handover and cell selection.
The 12 system messages supported by the M900/M1800 BSC system including
SI1/2/2bis/2ter/3/4/7/13 and SI5/5bis/5ter/6. 5/5bis/5ter/6 are transmitted on the
SACCH and the other 8 messages are transmitted on the BCCH. Only in case of
packet service support, cell transmits the system information 13. Whether the
transmission of 2bis/2ter/5bis/5ter is permitted is up to the BCCH frequency point
configuration of its neighboring cell. For detail information, please consult GSM 04.08
protocol. The PCU is responsible for the packet system information transmitted on the
PBCCH.
ÌÌÌ. Channel management
Channel management includes two aspects. The channel set for each cell must be
determined, and certain equipment should be configured. This is a "long-term¨ cell
channel configuration management. On the other hand, channels shall be
allocated/released periodically according to the communication requirements of mobile
stations. This "short-term¨ management is called the dedicated channel allocation
management. Channel configuration management and channel allocation are all
charged by the BSC. The MSC only indicates the types of channels for each specified
communication while the BTS executes relevant tasks controlled by BSC. Both types of
management activities have great effects on the signaling handling processes on radio
interfaces and Abis interfaces.
The BSC is not responsible for the allocation of the PDCH (packet data channel), it
only records the state of the packet data channel. When there is change to the state of
the PDCH at the BSC side, the BSC needs to notify the latest state of the PDCH of the
PCU.
Channel management in the M900/M1800 BSC system provides friendly user
operation interfaces to the channel configuration management of cells. Data of
broadcast channels, dedicated channels, traffic channels and radio frequency points
can be conveniently configured and modified..
Allocation of dedicated channels
Dedicated channel allocation management of the M900/M1800 BSC system follow the
combined strategies of VEA (very early allocation) and EA (early allocation). The
former strategy is used for some special calls while the latter is for ordinary calls. The
combined modes can effectively improve the usage of channels. Besides, if the local
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cell has no idle channel to assign, the system will initiate the directional retry
mechanism, and requests radio channels from its neighboring cells to establish that
call so the success ratio of accessing call is improved.
Channel management in M900/M1800 BSC system divides the idle channels into
different groups according to interference conditions and traffic is allocated accordingly.
The packet channel resources ensure the reasonability of the load sharing of the
channels, based on a specially designed algorithm of Huawei. In addition, channel
management in the M900/M1800 BSC system supports the allocation of access
applications of different priorities and the queuing of access applications.
The allocation of dedicated channels can be executed according to the pre-set priority
levels. In some cases, access requests of higher priority can forcibly occupy the
channels being used by lower priority users. When the channels are busy, access
requests can be queued. Under the protection of the pre-set timer, private channels
can be allocated for new access requests within a period acceptable to the users to
reduce the waiting time of users.
In many cases it is difficult to predict and calculate the demand of a cell for SDCCH.
The SDCCH dynamic allocation mechanism employed by M900/M1800 BSC system
enables the channel configuration to be consistent with the current actual traffic model
(features) so as to reduce call loss and maximize the system capacity.
Its key idea is, if SDCCHs are insufficient in a certain cell according to certain situation,
TCHs will act as SDCCHs; if SDCCHs become idle in later, the TCHs will be restored.
Š Timeslot frequency hopping
The BSC supports frequency hopping at timeslot level of the radio channel. The
frequency hopping parameters of all the timeslots are configured and maintained at the
GMPU of the BSC, including MAIO, HSN, TSC, and MA table.
Frequency hopping parameters of different timeslots can vary when they meet certain
restrictions, that is to say, timeslot hopping parameters are of diversity.
During the process of initializing of BTS and the processes of sending downward
configurations, cell call and handover when the BTS has already in normal operating
state, the BSC implements the control and support of the frequency hopping by issuing
channel frequency hopping parameters in the message to the BTS according to
relevant protocols.
Timeslot frequency hopping can be divided into radio frequency timeslot frequency
hopping and baseband timeslot frequency hopping. Timeslot frequency hopping
improves effectively the rate of multi-use of radio frequencies and enhances the
anti-interference capability of the radio channel, which makes it of great importance in
cell planning.
Š Issuing configurations to the PCU
To ensure the consistency between the BSC data and PCU data, the data shared by
the two entities is configured at the data management console at the BSC side. The
configurations are issued to PCU via the BSC during the process of running.
These data mainly include two parts: cell attributes and channel attributes. Cell
attributes include cell state, CA list, cell features and attributes, which are closely
related to the system information. Channel attributes include channel state and
frequency hopping attributes, etc. And the BSC issues configuration with the cell as the
unit.
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The processes of configuration issuing between the cells can happen in parallel, but
the processes inside the cell is in series.
Š Dynamic PDCH control
It is difficult to predict the packet traffic of the cell. To improve the usage of channels,
dynamic PDCH is introduced. Dynamic PDCH is initialized as a TCH and controlled by
BSC. When the static PDCHs are not sufficient, the PCU will apply for dynamic PDCHs
from the BSC. When the PCU is granted with the control authority, dynamic PDCHs
are used in packet service. On the contrary, if TCHs are insufficient, the BSC can
request dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. When the BSC is in control, the dynamic
PDCHs serve as TCHs. It is not the BSC but the PCU that is responsible for packet
data channel allocation.
3.2.5 Handover and Power Control
The MS keeps on moving during communication, which causes a continuos change in
its relative location. To ensure the channel quality during communication, the MS
incessantly measures the quality of the radio channels of its surrounding cells, and
reports the measurement results (MR) to the BSC via the BTS in the serving cell. The
BSC performs radio link control according to messages e.g. level intensity and quality
level of the serving cell and its neighboring cells contained in the MR, to make sure the
channel quality during the whole communications process. When the MS moves from
one cell to another, then for better voice quality MS should connect the newer cell.
In order to meet the increasing requirement for capacity and functionality in the GSM
system, the BSC improved its main processing unit capability by introducing the idea of
distributed processing, that is, distributes MR preprocessing, handover decision, and
power control to LAPD boards and BTS system.
The structure of handover decision and power control in the M900/M1800 BSC system
are shown in Figure 3-16.
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The handover decision and power control of the M900/M1800 BSC system provides
the following features:
a. Distributed processing system. Radio link control functions such as handover decision
and power control are distributed to LAPD boards and BTS, which not only results in
making full use of the power processing capabilities of the subsystems but also
improve the system security.
b. Reduced workload of the GMPU. In case of full traffic load, the CPU occupancy ratio of
GMPU remains at 20% or below. This ensures the reliability of the system and
reserves sufficient processing redundancy for future function and capacity upgrading.
c. Support dynamic configuration of parameters.
d. Handover decision functions include:
Š Basic cell sorting.
Š Rescue handover (under conditions of TA, bad quality, rapid drop of power level, or
interference, etc.).
Š Margin handover.
Š Layered and hierarchical handover.
Š Speed sensitivity handover.
Š Traffic load handover (including LOAD INDICATION).
Š Directed retry.
Š Forced handover.
Š Handover candidate query.
e. Power control functions include:
Š MS (uplink) power control, and BTS (downlink) power control.
Š Initial power control.
Š Dynamic power control.
Power and handover controls are discussed in detail in the following text:
Š Power control
Power control means that BSC adjusts the output power of the mobile station or BTS
(or both) within a certain range.
The purpose of power control is to improve the usage of frequency spectrum and to
extend the life of MS batteries.
For calls which has been established between mobile station and BTS, if the signal
quality of the receiving end is of high quality i.e. high transmission power, the output
power of the transmitting end can be decreased without any affect on the quality of the
established call, so that any interference can be avoided due to this high power signals
on the other calls in the surroundings. The M900/M1800 BSC system implements
dynamic power control over every MS and BTS.
Multiple kinds of algorithms can be used for power control, including the ETSI
GSM05.08 algorithm and Huawei dynamic power control algorithm. Huawei dynamic
power control algorithm sets up a reasonable model according to the actual usage
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environment of mobile stations, and under the premise of keeping a high voice quality,
accomplish the task of minimum power output by modifying transmission power
gradually. In addition, the model is a statistical model among the MSs of a cell, which
takes into considering of the interference between respective MSs and the changes of
circumstances. Therefore, it resumes even more reasonable state after being used
many times, i.e. it can do better in representing the actual conditions of MSs.
Handover decision
A MS may leave its serving cell, and the transmission quality of calls may degraded to
a level even under the specified lower threshold power level due to interference or
weak signals. In this case, the calls in progress can be switched from one cell to
another cell automatically to prevent the degradation of the communication quality or
the failure of the established calls this switch over is called handover. The important
thing is during handover the smoothness of call should be maintained. Huawei
handover algorithm is implemented in M900/M1800 BSC. This algorithm is developed,
on the basis of the power control algorithm, making use of the coverage of a certain
cell and the boundaries conditions of special cells. The Huawei handover algorithm
improves the network capacity and service quality effectively.
Short message service support by GSM, does not require an end-to-end path
establishment. The communication of a short message is for one message only. That
is, the transmission of one message forms a communication. Short messages is
transferred transparent to BSC.
Multiple timers are involved in the whole call process. The value of some timers will
influence the performance when interconnecting with equipment of different vendors,
or even the interconnections.
Timers in the M900/M1800 BSC software system adopts the dynamic management
mode. During the call, the processing of timers almost does not occupy the processing
time of GMPU, and hence the GMPU in the BSC software system is able to handle
more calls.
Additionally, the timer management in the BSC system is very flexible, that means, the
timers can be configured dynamically at the OMC, and with the help of the measuring
tools provided by the M900/M1800 BSC system, the system's interconnection with the
equipment of various vendors can be achieved conveniently and effectively. By this
facilities, the servers are provided with much more freedom.
3.2.6 BTS Management
As one of the functional modules of BSC, the position of BTS management module in
the whole BSC model is shown in Figure 3-17.
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The BTS management module of M900/M1800 BSC is responsible for handling the
following activities, maintenance for all the BTS controlled by BSC, data configurations
for BTS equipment, dynamic modification of BTS data, software download of BTS
boards, routine maintenance in normal operation, BTS equipment test, real time alarm
for operating status of BTS equipment, forward various background OMC maintenance
and test commands to BTS, and forward the maintenance and test results from the
BTS to background OMC.
The BTS management module communicates with the BTS via the OML (Operation
and Maintenance Link) of the Abis interface and realize the maintenance and
management of the BTS.
The OMC completes the remote and near-end maintenance of the BSS.
The functional structure of the software system of the M900/M1800 BSC BTS
management is shown in Figure 3-18.

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BTS software loading management is mainly responsible for remote loading and
activation of board software.
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BTS data configuration management is mainly responsible for the normal running of
the BTS, including sites and cells initiation.
Dynamic data configuration management supports the online data configuration of the
BTS running in the network.
GPRS service flow management supports the packet-based service flow, that is,
re-sends channel attributes to BTSs when dynamic channel type changing
(TCH<--->PDCH) occurs, and re-establish channel connection and forwards direct
message between PCU and BTS when the channel coding method of air interface
changes (CS1/2<--->CS3/4).
BTS equipment running management is responsible for daily maintenance and
management of the BTS equipment during normal operations including maintenance
and management of running state of every object level, real time monitoring of BTS
boards and real time query of BTS attributes, etc.
The BTS maintenance module provides a powerful test and diagnosis function which
helps to accomplish the task of BTS equipment testing and measurement, which
ensure a long-term, reliable running of the system. It can execute or implement the
following activities: maintenance message tracing (including BTSM-Abis interface
message tracing, BTSM-RR interface message tracing, and BTSM-HTMAIL interface
message tracing) and maintenance information traffic controlling, transparent transfer
of information between it and BTS, and handling BTS log information.
BTS alarm management is responsible for handling the fault alarms.
The BTS management of M900/M1800 BSC is equipped with highly effective, reliable
and powerful management and maintenance functions, having the following features:
Powerful maintenance function
BTS management module provides all the functions described in the GSM
Recommendations. Besides that, it also provides abundant self-defined functions,
which guarantees an effective, stable, and reliable running of the BTS, and at the same
time, reduce operating costs and improves the quality of communication services.
Easy operation
It adopts the friendly visual GUI, making the operations easy and convenient.
Openness
It provides the completely object-oriented BTS maintenance platform, supports
maintenance and management for all level objects of BTS. The system can be easily
expanded and upgraded.
3.2.7 Operation, Maintenance and Management
The operations and maintenance of GMPU in M900/M1800 BSC adopt the
client/server system architecture.
Operation and maintenance commands are sent to a certain maintenance module in
GMPU by the maintenance console of OMC through BAM. The commands either
inquire GMPU running states or execute some operations for real-time monitoring and
control. After it receives the operation and maintenance commands, the maintenance
module in GMPU directly fetches the present relative running states, and then returns
the states to the OMC. Or it transfers the commands to other modules, after the
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commands being executed and the result returned by those modules, transfers the
results back to OMC.
In hardware structure, operation and maintenance management comprises mainly the
following parts, GMPU, BAM, the workstation with M900/M1800 OMC installed
software, and communication links between these parts. (Communications between
GMPU and BAM are realized by MCP through maintenance link. And communications
between BAM and the workstation is via the TCP/IP protocol in the network cable or
other communication links)
In the software structure, operation and maintenance management are realized by
GMPU program, BAM service program, M900/M1800 OMC SHELL, and M900/M1800
OMC maintenance console. To do operation and maintenance, first open the
maintenance OMC SHELL on workstation. The OMC SHELL will setup connection with
BAM service program. After the user issue a command from the OMC workstation, the
command is first transmitted to the BAM service program, in turn BAM sends the
command to the host GMPU O&M module via the MCP HDLC link. The O&M module
analyzes the received command. If the command can be directly executed by the
maintenance module, the maintenance module will commit the command and return
the results to the OMC maintenance console. If the command must be executed by
other modules, the maintenance module just transfer the command to respective
modules for processing.
The architecture of the BSC maintenance part is shown in Figure 3-19.
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Main characteristics of maintenance operations in M900/M1800 BSC are:
Š High reliability
The M900/M1800 BSC is designed with full redundancy and fault tolerance
technologies by applying dual MPU systems, multi-level distributed control,
multi-channels, mutual assistance and system reconstruction ability.
Š High efficiency and ease in operation
In software designing of M900/M1800 BSC, many advanced technologies are used,
such as object-oriented programming (OOP), client/server architecture, computers
network and visual multi-window. It is convenient to conduct operation.
Š Remote/centralized maintenance function
Remote/centralized maintenance can be realized through BAM. Connection with the
remote/centralized maintenance system can be implemented through DDN, packet
switched network, private line, or PSTN.
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Š Openness
The M900/M1800 BSC incorporates the network and distributed database technology,
complying with the ISO/OSI (open system interconnection) standard. And the BSC can
be equipped with such peripherals as the CD-ROM device, tape device, and printer.
Terminals can be expanded.
Š Client/server System Architecture
The BAM integrates the communication server and database server. Various
maintenance and operation tasks are all executed in the client/server mode.
Simultaneous maintenance and operations of multiple remote and near-end points are
supported.
Š Powerful tracing and monitoring function
The M900/M1800 BSC system provides powerful tracing and maintenance functions
for GSM network interfaces and links. It can trace GSM interfaces standard e.g. Abis,
Um, and A-interfaces, and provide explanation and display for traced information. It
also enables flexible maintenance and management for LAPD and A interface SS7
signaling links.
Š GLAP software loading function
Dynamic loading method is used for the GLAP software upgrading without affecting the
services processing during the loading. When loading is completed, the system will
automatically switch to the new GLAP software version.
3.2.8 Performance Management
Performance management of the M900/M1800 BSC includes performance
measurement, flow control, and resources check, all driven by events (time events).
Flow control includes the flow control inside the system and that at the Abis interface,
resources check includes the audits activated by timer and that by the maintenance
console.
Ì. Performance measurement
The BSSOMAP module accepts performance measurement tasks started by the OMC
traffic statistics console and schedules them centrally. It notifies the relative modules to
start/stop measurement, eventually collects and processes measurement results, and
send the result to the OMC statistics console.
Performance measurement tasks have absolute time life cycle and statistic cycle
attributes. For example, a performance measurement task on a cell starts on July 6,
1998. The statistics life is 60 days. The measurement is conducted between 9:00 am
to 14:00 pm with 5 minutes cycles. The task scheduling is hence driven by the
absolute timer in the system.
Results of the measurements are sent to the OMC traffic statistics console once a
second with the resending acknowledgment message. Through OMC traffic statistics
console a user can perform the following tasks.
Š Setup a measurement task
The task number and parameter will be checked for validity. If these are illegal then
error will be sent to the OMC traffic statistics console. If these are valid then the
absolute timer is reserved for registered task.
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Š Delete the measurement task
The task number is checked. If it is not valid, error will be sent to the OMC traffic
statistics console, if it is valid, the task should be deleted.
Š Query the task state
The task number is checked. If it is correct, fill in with the corresponding state,
otherwise fill in indication of "No such task¨.
Š Acknowledgment of received results
The acknowledgment is made in the form of expecting the next frame. When the
message is acknowledged, the received measurement result is deleted.
ÌÌ. System's flow control
Flow control of the M900/M1800 BSC includes flow control inside the system and on
the Abis interface.
Internal flow control conducts flow control over the whole BSC based on the GMPU
loading software and its processing capacity. The internal flow control monitors key
system resources including CPU loading, message queues and evaluates system flow
level. Internal flow control monitors the system resources once a second, and updates
the internal flow level once every 30 seconds.
The flow control on the Abis interface is exercised specifically over the loading of radio
resources, based on the cell so as to reduce traffic volume at the source. The flow
control on the Abis interface handles the overload messages from the Abis interface,
calculates the flow level in the cell, and provides appropriate control over the access of
the MS in the cell.
Š Design of internal flow control
Traffic flow is classified into 12 levels. The higher the flow level is, the lower the service
level.
Level 0 is a normal running level; levels 1-11 are flow levels for the whole BSM. At
different levels, this module provides different levels of service. When flow control
exists in the BSC system (flow control level is higher than 0), packet service access is
prohibited
Š Design of traffic control on the Abis interface
Traffic is classified into 12 levels, with cell as the smallest control unit. The higher
traffic level means lower service level.
Level 0 is a normal running level, levels 1-11 are the flow level for certain cell. At
different flow level, the cell provides different service level. When there is flow control
(traffic control level is greater than 0) in a cell, new packet service access is prohibited.
Š Reference configurations of corresponding parameters for traffic control at the Abis
interface and internal traffic control.
Reference configurations of corresponding parameters for traffic control at the Abis
interface and internal traffic control are shown in Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, and 3-4.
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ÌÌÌ. Resources check
The resources check function of the M900/M1800 BSC ensures reliable system
running by providing powerful self-test for faults and recovery functions. This function
automatically corrects the running errors that can take place in various abnormalities,
check the usage of system resources, and ensures correct allocation, use, and release
of various resources. To prevent the accumulation of errors generated during the
long-term running of the system that can lead to deterioration of system processing
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capability, the function corrects various faults so as to ensure the reliable running
system.
a. Resources check initiated by the BSC
This function is dispatched by the CHECK module, and conducted in the various
modules. It can be performed in two ways i.e. checking initiated at the maintenance
console and timed resources check every day. It mainly involves:
Check the occupation of the memory resources, for example, allocation and release of
the call control block.
Check the occupation of A interface circuit resources.
Check the consistence between radio resources occupation and state.
Check the occupation of GNET board resources.
Check the consistence between the signaling link occupation and state.
Miscellaneous, check the consistency of the system control parameters.
b. Resources check initiated by the PCU
To eliminate the inconsistency between the PCU and BSC due to certain abnormalities,
it is necessary to check resources periodically between the BSC and PCU. The check
is initiated by PCU, and BSC is responsible for correcting the inconsistency between
the two entities. The check mainly involves:
Check the type and state of PDCH channels.
Check the PCIC states.
Check the cell states.
3.2.9 Alarm Management
Ì. BSC alarm management
M900/M1800 BSC alarm management is responsible for collecting and handling host
alarm messages, and sending these alarms to the alarm console and alarm box at the
background. When an abnormality is detected in the host software or BTS equipment,
the host sends alarm message to the visual or audible interface through OMC to inform
the maintenance staff about the abnormality. It also recommends solution for the
consideration of maintenance staff.
The system structure of alarm management is shown in Figure 3-20.
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Alarm management of M900/M1800 BSC features the following characteristics:
Š Real time alarm indication
When an alarm is generated in the main system, the system can process the alarm
immediately and send it to the user interface. With the message, the maintenance staff
are informed timely so that they can take necessary actions and fix the problem quickly
and correctly.
Š Hierarchical control
In M900/M1800 BSC main system, the generated alarms are of four levels according to
the assigned priorities..Critical alarms have the highest priority. Some special alarms
are used for system running analysis and during the debugging of the faults by
Huawei's customer support office. Each debugging alarm file is of 2Mbits, and 5
debugging alarm files can be generated at the most, which are stored in the directory
OMC\BSC by default. The debugging files can be opened with common browsing tools
(like Edit and Word view).
Š Convenient and flexible display and operations
Alarm messages in the system can either be inquired from the OMC alarm console or
from the alarm box. The alarm box is connected with host, when an alarm is
generated, the host sends the alarm message to the alarm box, which can produce
audible and visual alarms indications.
For different levels and different types of alarm, alarm box can produce different alarm
sounds and light. A maintenance person can inquire the host alarm data and read the
detailed alarm information on OMC alarm console as well. For example, if a board is
faulty, the frame and slot position of the faulty board can be located by reading the
detailed information in alarm console. In the alarm console, the probable cause and its
solution is also suggested.
After the collection of alarms messages from different modules, it processes the alarm
information and then sends it to the user interface. Following are the processing modes
of the alarms.
a. For alarms to be sent to BAM, those of higher priorities will be sent first.
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b. For alarms to be sent to BAM, host uses the acknowledge mode to send alarms parts
by parts. That is, after it has sent an alarm message, it shall wait for the response from
BAM before next.
c. Alarms to be sent immediately to the alarm box and rack.
Š Easy remote alarm box operation
Through the alarm box maintenance interface at the alarm console, various operations
on the alarm box can be easily conducted, for example, alarm sound control and the
alarm indicator of a certain subsystem, or alarm box resetting.
Š Alarm filtration
The alarms can be filtered according to the user's requirements. Alarm filtration is
enabled by adding alarm in filter/mask lists in the data management console. User can
set alarm conditions based on actual needs, and make them effectuated by setting the
table to host. Host will analyze the conditions in the table and carry out the filtered
alarms. Recovery alarms can not be filtered. A user can inquire alarm's filter conditions
at any time from the filter table.
ÌÌ. BTS alarm management
The BTS alarm management is one of the functions of the BTS maintenance
management, which provides detailed information for maintenance and control of the
BTS equipment.
Alarm information about boards in BTS are collected by OMU (or TMU) and sent to
BSC through the maintenance link.
The processing of BTS alarms is first executed by the OMU (or TMU), which will take
different fault recovery measures according to the alarm such as resetting of board or
data reconfiguring etc. If the BTS can not process the alarm messages, it will inform
BSC. When BSC receives the alarms from BTS, it saves alarm messages in the alarm
buffer and transfers them to the OMC alarm console for display. At the same time,
BSC can drive the BTS alarm box to provide audible and visual alarms.
The alarm filtration function of BTS alarm management allows a user to get filtered
alarms according to his requirements. After the maintenance console issues alarm
filtration messages via the BSC, the alarms are filtered and the BTS will no longer
reports them to the BSC. Likewise the BSC can issue alarm de-filtration message.
After the BTS receives such alarm de-filtration commands, it releases the masking on
the alarms, thereby those alarms can be reported to the BSC normally.
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Chapter 4 ExternaI Interfaces
4.1 Abis lnterface Management
4.1.1 A Brief lntroduction to the Abis lnterface Functions
The Abis module in the GMPU system software of the M900/M1800 BSC is an
interface between BSC and BTS. It mainly implements the following functions:
Transfer management.
LAPD link management.
Performance measurement of the LAPD link.
Tracing management.
The division of the Abis interface functional module is shown in Figure 4-1.
08 RR 8T3V 8330VAP
Ao|s
LAPVAlL
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F|gure 4-1 Re|al|or oelWeer l|e ao|s |rlerlace ard ol|er rodu|es
4.1.2 Abis lnterface Protocol Model
The Abis module directly communicates with the LAPD board via the mailbox
communications. It is responsible for the receiving and distribution of Abis interface
messages (RR and BTSM). Abis module distinguishes the two modules according to
their differences in SAPI (service access point). The SAPI of RR message is 0, and the
SAPI of BTSM message is 62.
For the RR module, Abis module forwards two types of messages i.e. transparent
messages and non-transparent messages. For downlink transparent messages, Abis
module transmits the converted transparent messages to the corresponding LAPD
board. For the up-link transparent messages, Abis module converts the messages
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from Abis interface format to A-interface format and transmits to A-interface directly. In
the forwarding process, the correspondence between connection flags and radio
channel numbers can be obtained by checking the mapping list of Abis functional
block. For the non-transparent messages, there are two types of messages:
1) Non-transparent messages that are received from RLM (RR radio link management
part) and transmitted to RLM, including all transmitted messages in connections.
2) Non-transparent messages that are received and transmitted from the RR static
process, including random access channel requests and issues of system
information. This type of non-transparent messages can be transmitted only
according to the correspondence between BTS and TRX and links. The model of
radio signaling Abis interface protocol is as shown in Figure 4-2.
RR RR
LAP0V LAP0
Layer1 Layer1 Layer1
LAP0
3CCP
833AP
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ur
Ao|s
VTP
F|gure 4-2 Rad|o s|gra||rg ao|s |rlerlace rode|
For the BTSM module, Abis interface forwards the downlink and up-link messages
according to the mapping list of SITE and LAPD links. The BTS management Abis
interface model is shown in Figure 4-3.
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LAP0
Layer
3T8H
LAP0 X.25
Layer1 Layer1
0HC
X.25
Layer1
Ao|s
F|gure 4-3 8T3 raragererl ao|s |rlerlace proloco| rode|
4.1.3 Transmission through Abis lnterface
Abis interface has three types of channels, which are traffic channels, radio signaling
link (RSL) and operation&maintenance link (OML).
Each site corresponds to an OML, each TRX corresponds to an RSL, and a radio
traffic channel corresponds to the traffic channel at the Abis interface.
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According to the number of TRXs carried by an E1 at the Abis interface, there can be
three transmission i.e. 10:1, 12:1, and 15:1.
Ì. Timeslot distribution of E1 in 10:1 mode
0VL 31
R3L9
T9.Z T9.ê T9.5 T9.1
T9.3 T9.2 T9.1 T9.0
R3L8
T8.Z T8.ê T8.5 T8.1
T8.3 T8.2 T8.1 T8.0
R3LZ
TZ.Z TZ.ê TZ.5 TZ.1
TZ.3 TZ.2 TZ.1 TZ.0
R3Lê
Tê.Z Tê.ê Tê.5 Tê.1
Tê.3 Tê.2 Tê.1 Tê.0
R3L5
T5.Z T5.ê T5.5 T5.1
T5.3 T5.2 T5.1 T5.0
R3L1
T1.Z T1.ê T1.5 T1.1
T1.3 T1.2 T1.1 T1.0
R3L3
T3.Z T3.ê T3.5 T3.1
T3.3 T3.2 T3.1 T3.0
R3L2
T2.Z T2.ê T2.5 T2.1
T2.3 T2.2 T2.1 T2.0
R3L1
T1.Z T1.ê T1.5 T1.1
T1.3 T1.2 T1.1 T1.0
R3L0
T0.Z T0.ê T0.5 T0.1
T0.3 T0.2 T0.1 T0.0
3yrcrrorous 0
ê Z 1 5 2 3 0 1
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In 10:1 mode, each E1 carries 10 TRXs. Ti.j means the jth timesot of the ith TRX,
which occupies a 16kbps sub-timeslot on an E1. And each signaling link occupies a
64kbps timeslot on the E1 line. If all cascaded sides have similar configuration (10:1) ,
then single E1 can carry 4 sites with 9 TRXs or 7 sites with 8 TRXs.
ÌÌ. Timeslot distribution of E1 in 12:1 mode
0VL 31
T11.Z T11.ê T11.5 T11.1
T11.3 T11.2 T11.1 T11.0
R3L10, R3L11
T10.Z T10.ê T10.5 T10.1
T10.3 T10.2 T10.1 T10.0
T9.Z T9.ê T9.5 T9.1
T9.3 T9.2 T9.1 T9.0
R3L8, R3L9
T8.Z T8.ê T8.5 T8.1
T8.3 T8.2 T8.1 T8.0
TZ.Z TZ.ê TZ.5 TZ.1
TZ.3 TZ.2 TZ.1 TZ.0
R3Lê, R3LZ
Tê.Z Tê.ê Tê.5 Tê.1
Tê.3 Tê.2 Tê.1 Tê.0
T5.Z T5.ê T5.5 T5.1
T5.3 T5.2 T5.1 T5.0
R3L1, R3L5
T1.Z T1.ê T1.5 T1.1
T1.3 T1.2 T1.1 T1.0
T3.Z T3.ê T3.5 T3.1
T3.3 T3.2 T3.1 T3.0
R3L2, R3L3
T2.Z T2.ê T2.5 T2.1
T2.3 T2.2 T2.1 T2.0
T1.Z T1.ê T1.5 T1.1
T1.3 T1.2 T1.1 T1.0
R3L0, R3L1
T0.Z T0.ê T0.5 T0.1
T0.3 T0.2 T0.1 T0.0
3yrcrrorous 0
ê Z 1 5 2 3 0 1
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In 12:1 mode, each E1 carries 12 TRXs, and every two RSLs share a 64kbps timeslot
on the E1 line. If all cascaded sides are configured as 12:1 mode then, the single E1
can carry 3 sites with 11 TRXs or 6 sites with 10 TRXs.
ÌÌÌ. Timeslot distribution of E1 in 15:1 mode
0VL÷R3L0, 1, 2 31
R3L3, 1, 5, ê
R3LZ, 8, 9, 10
R3L11, 12, 13, 11
v108 v10Z v10ê v105
v101 v103 v102 v101
v100 v99 v98 v9Z
v9ê v95 v91 v93
v92 v91 v90 v89
v88 v8Z v8ê v85
v81 v83 v82 v81
v80 vZ9 vZ8 vZZ
vZê vZ5 vZ1 vZ3
vZ2 vZ1 vZ0 vê9
vê8 vêZ vêê vê5
vê1 vê3 vê2 vê1
vê0 v59 v58 v5Z
v5ê v55 v51 v53
v52 v51 v50 v19
v18 v1Z v1ê v15
v11 v13 v12 v11
v10 v39 v38 v3Z
v3ê v35 v31 v33
v32 v31 v30 v29
v28 v2Z v2ê v25
v21 v23 v22 v21
v20 v19 v18 v1Z
v1ê v15 v11 v13
v12 v11 v10 v9
v8 vZ vê v5
v1 v3 v2 v1 1
3yrcrrorous 0
ê Z 1 5 2 3 0 1
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In 15:1 mode, each E1 carries 15 TRXs, and timeslots 1 to 27 contain 108 16kbps
sub-timeslots for the use by traffic channels of 15 TRXs. Vi means the ith traffic
channel of the site. The E1 line can be configured with 16 signaling links, every 4 of
which share a 64kbps timeslot. If all cascaded sides have the same 15:1 configuration ,
then single E1 can carry 2 sites with 14 TRXs or 4 sites with 12 TRXs.
4.1.4 Transmission Mode on the Abis lnterface
The transmission mode on the Abis interface can be either terrestrial transmission or
transmission through satellite. One of these two modes can be configured and selected
at the data management console. In thinly populated and scattered areas, ordinary
transmission technology and BTS will be expensive and difficult to implement. To
facilitate such areas. satellite transmission is used. Figure 4-4 shows the networking of
transmission in the GSM system:
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F|gure 4-4 NelWor||rg lor lrarsr|ss|or v|a sale|||le
The networking implementation for satellite transmission is different from the land
transmission mainly because of long transmission delay intrinsic with transmission via
satellite.
The differences between these two transmission modes are:
Š LAPD protocol is modified to overcome the impact of delay.
Š The adjustment algorithm of the TRAU frame is changed from fixed cycle
adjustment to self-adaptive adjustment.
Š The BTS clock works in internal clock mode.
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4.1.5 LAPD Link Management
The LAPD link management function includes the centralized management and
maintenance of the OML link and RSL link on the Abis interface and the PBSL link on
the Pb interface. One of its main functions is the mutual-assistance function of the
LAPD link. In case of any abnormality in the active link, through mutual-assistance
function, the system occupy the idle physical links and low-priority links of the normal
GLAP board to ensure the signaling connectivity. When the GLAP board is restored to
normal state, the signaling links are restored according to the initial configuration.
The configuration of the LAPD link can be implemented at the data management
console through the data configurations of the LAPD semi-permanent connection table
and LAPD signaling connection table, as shown in Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5.
F|gure 4-5 LAP0 ser|-perrarerl lao|e
The value range and meaning of the mutual-assistance priority level in the LAPD
semi-permanent table is,
0: highest priority level, usually applicable to the OML.
1: second highest, usually applicable to the RSL link of TRX of the main BCCHs of the
cell.
2 : lowest, only applicable to the other RSLs at the Abis interface and PbSL at the Pb
interface.
And 3-255 are undefined.
If the mutual assistance priority levels of all the links in a module have not been
defined, then the mutual-assistance function of the LAPD link of this module will be
ended otherwise the LAPD link mutual assistance function of this module will be
opened.
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F|gure 4-6 LAP0 s|gra||rg correcl|v|ly lao|e
As for TRX, it is necessary to fill a corresponding LAPD RSL signaling connection
number in the TRX configuration table. In their actual applications, the LAPD RSL
signaling of two TRXs can be concentrated on a 64kbit/s link. The configuration table
of TRX is as shown in Figure 4-7.
F|gure 4-7 TRX corl|gural|or lao|e
For the maintenance links required by the site, it is necessary to fill a corresponding
LAPD OML signaling connection number in site description table, as shown in Figure
4-8.
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3|le descr|pl|or lao|e
4.1.6 Performance Measurement of LAPD Link
In addition to link management, the Abis interface also provides the statistics about the
frame types of LAPD links, including the transmitted LAPD information frame, received
LAPD information frame, received bad information frame, protocol error frame, link
failure and link overload. According to the statistical information, both the traffic of the
TRX and operations in the link layer can be known, as shown in Figure 4-9.
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F|gure 4-7 8
F|gure 4-9 Perlorrarce reasurererl ol LAP0 ||r|
4.1.7 lnterface Tracing
Abis module implements the tracing function on Abis and Um interfaces.
The tracing of Um interface is enabled on the Abis interface, which classifies the
messages according to their types and identifies Um interface messages and forwards
to the maintenance console.
The tracing of these two types of interfaces can be filtered according to BTS number,
TRX number and channel number in accordance to the following message types:
measurement reports, radio link layer management messages, dedicated channel
management messages, public channel management messages, and TRX
management messages.
The tracing and filtering function of the Abis module is shown in Figure 4-10.
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F|gure 4-10 Ao|s |rlerlace lrac|rg
4.2 A lnterface Management
4.2.1 lntroduction to the A lnterface
A-interface is the interface between BSS and MSC. In a mobile network that equipment
of same vender is to be used, it is not necessary. Thanks to A-interface
interconnections of equipment from multiple vendors is possible. It is a standard GSM
specified interface to achieve the following targets.
Enabling interoperability between BSSs of different vendors and the MSC of one
vendor
Enabling interoperability between MSCs of different vendors and BSS of one vendor
Using the same BSS in any PLMN
Using the same MSC in any PLMN
Ensuring the independent developments of MSC and BSS technologies
Ensuring the independent development of O&M functions
Developing the voice coding rate to the direction of lower rates
Supporting all services in Phase 2+ of GSM
Physically, A-interface is the trunk circuit and trunk interface between BSS and MSC.
The reference model of A-interface signaling protocol in M900/M1800 BSC is shown in
Figure 4-11, which describes the hierarchical structure of A-interface:
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4.2.2 Contents of A lnterface Management
A-interface management in M900/M1800 BSC includes ground channel management
(or A-interface circuit resource management), management of part of the radio
resources, and so on.
Ì. A-interface circuit resource management
The purpose of the terrestrial channel management between BSS and MSC is to keep
the states of terrestrial circuits at both ends of the BSS and MSC consistent. So that
an idle circuit can be found when the MSC "assigns circuit¨ in calling and MS assigns
the terrestrial circuit during handover to make sure a successful call/handover attempt.
Processes included in the A-interface circuit resource management are; circuit
blocking/unblocking, group circuit blocking/unblocking, circuit unequipped, and circuit
resetting.
General principles of the circuit control includes:
The circuit management messages, except circuit resetting, are initiated by BSC in a
unified manner.
The MSC can only block/unblock the local circuits without affecting the circuit state of
the BSS.
The BSS can not change the circuit state that has been changed at the local end of the
MSC. That is, for blocked circuits on the maintenance console at MSC side, the BSS
has no authority to unblock the circuit or reset the circuit.
The process of circuit blocking is shown in Figure 4-12.
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F|gure 4-12 Process ol o|oc||rg c|rcu|l
Circuit blocking process means the circuits corresponding to the BSS and the MSC
blocked simultaneously. This process can be initiated by the maintenance console of
the BSC or by the allocation of circuit during call process or during handover request.
This process can be used in phase 2 and phase 1.
If BSC does not receive "block ACK¨ and time is out, "blocking message¨ will be sent
repeatedly. The repetition times can be set. Even if BSC does not receive the message
of "blocking ACK¨, the circuit at BSC side is still in the blocking state. During the
process of unblocking, the BSC will give alarms.
The purpose of unblocking-circuit is to unblock the circuit blocked by the BSC and
make it idle. The unblocking-circuit process can be originated by maintenance console
or originated in the case of equipment fault recovery. The unblocking process is
generally started by the maintenance console and can be used by phase 2 and phase
1.
The process of unblocking circuit is shown in Figure 4-13.
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F|gure 4-13 T|e process ol uro|oc||rg c|rcu|l
If BSC does not receive "unblocking ACK¨ and time is out, "unblocking message¨ will
be sent repeatedly. The repetition times can be set through software from OMC. Even
if BSC does not receive the "unblocking ACK¨ message, the circuit at BSC side is still
in idle state. After successful unblocking the alarm will be cleared. The process of
group blocking is shown in Figure 4-14.
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F|gure 4-14 0roup o|oc||rg c|rcu|l process
The purpose of the group blocking is to block multiple A-interface circuits at one time.
The process can be started by the maintenance console or by trunk equipment itself
automatically, and is used for phase 2 only.
If BSC does not receive "group block ACK" and time is out, "group block message" will
be sent repeatedly. The repetition times can be set through software. The repetition
times are set by the program. Even if BSC does not receive the message of "group
block ACK", the circuit at the BSC side is still in the blocking state.
During the process of group blocking, the BSC will initiate alarms. The blocking circuit
will not affect the communicating circuit, that is, for the circuit will not be blocked until
the communication is completed.
The purpose of the group unblocking circuit is to unblock multiple A-interface circuits at
one time. The process is normally started by the maintenance console or by trunk
equipment itselfautomatically, and is used for phase 2 only.
The process of group circuit unblocking is shown in Figure 4-15.
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F|gure 4-15 T|e process ol group c|rcu|l uro|oc||rg
If BSC does not receive "group unblocking ACK¨ and time is out, "group unblocking
message" will be sent repeatedly. The repetition times can be set through software.
Even if BSC does not receive the "group unblocking ACK" message, the circuit at BSC
side is still in the idle state.
During the process, the OMC will display the unblocking alarms of BSC and the alarms
will be cleared after unblocking.
The process of circuit uninstallation is used by BSC or MSC to inform the remote end
that the circuit does not exist and can not be used. This process can be initiated during
any process related to circuits. Alarms will be generated on BSS or MSC when
transmitting the "circuit uninstalled" message.
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The process of circuit uninstalled is shown in Figure 4-16.
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F|gure 4-16 T|e process ol c|rcu|l ur|rsla||ed
The purpose of circuit resetting is to recover the system resource information of the
MSC and BSC when the fault (e.g. abnormal release of SCCP) affects only a small part
of the equipment.
The process of circuit resetting is shown in Figure 4-17.
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F|gure 4-17 T|e process ol resell|rg c|rcu|l
Figure 4-17 shows the circuit resetting process initiated by the BSC. When the MSC
receives the "reset circuit" message, it clears the possible calls on the circuit and sets
the circuit in idle state. Then it returns to the "reset circuit ACK" message. The circuit
resetting process is started from the MSC side and is similar to the above figure, the
only difference is the direction of the message.
If a BSC does not receive "reset circuit ACK" message and time is out, "reset circuit
message" will be sent repeatedly. The repetition times can be set through software.
Even if the BSC does not receive the "reset circuit ACK" message, the circuit at the
BSC side is still in the idle state.
During the circuit resetting process, the BSC shall start alarms. Similar process is
adopted by the MSC side. At present, the circuit resetting can also be started by the
maintenance console to be used in maintenance and test.
ÌÌ. A-interface radio resources management
A Process of A-interface radio resource management mainly includes resource
indication and circuit clearing process. The process of resource indication is shown in
Figure 4-18.
The purpose of the resource indication process is to inform MSC about the amount of
idle radio resources in BSS which can be used as traffic channels as well as the
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amount of all available radio resources (resources being able to provide services or
designated resources). The MSC may consider the relevant information when
identifying the external handover.
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F|gure 4-18 A-|rlerlace rad|o raragererl l|oW
There are four types of resource indications: automatic indication, single indication,
periodic indication and non-indication. The non-indication is the default mode.
In the automatic indication mode, the cell corresponding to the BSS will continuously
send "resource indication" messages to MSC according to the cycle set in the
"resource indication request" message when resource of the cell satisfies the
conditions set from OMC.
In the single indication mode, the BSS instantly return a "resource indication" message
about the corresponding cell to MSC.
In the periodic indication mode, the BSS continuously sends "resource indication
request" message according to the cycle set in "resource indication request" until it
receives the new "resource request" message or "reset" message about the
corresponding cell. The time period shall be set by the MSC, and the actual period is
100ms multiply the original value. In the non-indication mode, the BSS immediately
returns a single "resource indication" message without any resource information, and
the process is finished.
For each idle channel, the BSS calculate the average value of the interference level
within a period. And the average result shall divide the idle channel into 5 interference
sections according to the interference level.
The resource indication unit includes two kinds of information for each of the
interference sections: amount of available half-rate traffic channels in the interference
section and amount of available full-rate traffic channels in the interference section.
The purpose of the clearing process is to release all relative ground circuit resources
and radio resources. This process includes two cases: release started by MSC that
indicates the completion of the process and release of resources caused by BSS.
The release process initiated by the MSC and BSS are shown in the Figure 4-19 and
4-20 respectively.
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F|gure 4-19 T|e re|ease process |r|l|aled oy l|e V3C l|al |rd|cales l|e corp|el|or ol process|rg
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ÌÌÌ. Other management processes of A-interface
There are some other management processes of A-interface, which are level updating,
resetting, flow control, queuing, error message processing, SCCP link control and load
indication.
The purpose of the level updating process is to inform MSC about the level information
received from MS. This process is used when the power level of a special resource
occupied by MS is changed. The process is shown in Figure 4-21.
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F|gure 4-21 Leve| updal|rg process
The purpose of the resetting process is to initialize the failed BSS and MSC so that all
resources can be released.
BSS resetting: BSS releases all resources and sends the "reset" message to the MSC,
which will release all calls and connection resources and set all circuits related to BSS
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as idle. After the T2 guard period, the MSC returns the "reset ACK" message to the
BSS, indicating that the resetting is successful. The process is shown in Figure 4-22.
Rese|
Rese| ACK
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V3C
F|gure 4-22 Process ol 833 resell|rg
MSC resetting: MSC releases all resources and sends the "reset" message to the
BSC, which shall release all calls and connection resources upon the receipt of the
message. After the T13 guard period, the MSC returns the "reset ACK" message to the
BSS, indicating that the resetting is successful. The process is as shown in Figure
4-23.
Rese|
Rese| ACK
83C
V3C
F|gure 4-23 Process ol V3C resell|rg
Traffic control process is as follows:
The purpose of flow control at the BSC side is, when the MSC is overloaded, the BSC
can control the flows from MS. System function faults or congestion will not be caused,
and the flow of calls can be controlled within a reasonable range.
When the MSC is overloaded, A-interface at the MSC side will generate the "overload"
message to inform BSC to control the traffic flow.
The control algorithm used is the flow control algorithm stipulated by the GSM
specifications, which is executed by using the specific design developed by Huawei.
That is, a dynamic sliding window is adopted, which is started in overloading, and the
size of the window can be modified according to the size of the traffic so as to control
the traffic. The window is invalid when the MSC is no longer overloaded.
The process is shown in Figure 4-24.
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0ver|oad
0ver|oad
83C V3C
0ver|oad
F|gure 4-24 V3C over|oad ressages
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w|er l|e 83C |s over|oaded, |l W||| serd l|e ¨over|oad¨ ressage lo l|e V3C, W||c| W||| corlro| l|e lrall|c.
Cerla|r lrall|c corlro| |s a|so erao|ed al l|e 83C s|de.
Š Overload indication.
The purpose of the overload indication process is to inform the service condition of a
cell to all neighboring BSS. This process is used to control the handovers.
After the MSC receives the "overload indication" message, it forwards the information
to the BSS which contains this cell, according to the cell list attached to the message.
Š SCCP link control.
In case of the abnormal disconnection on the SS7 link, A-interface shall stop sending
control messages through software. When the SS7 link recovers, A-interface continues
sending control messages. Due to the long-time disconnection, A-interface shall start
clearing the resources as soon as the link is recovered to prevent the hang-up of
resources.
Š Errors processing.
As errors are always generated on the transmission links, messages can be easily
mistaken. Therefore, A-interface shall omit the error messages and send selectively
"confusion" messages (these messages are used in GSM phase 2+).
4.2.3 A-lnterface Message Coding
A-interface message coding is in full conformity with relative specifications for
A-interface.
A-interface message format.
A-interface messages comprise DTAP and BSSMAP messages. DTAP messages are
L3 messages transmitted directly and transparently between MS and MSC or between
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MSC and MS. BSS shall not analyze the contents of DTAP messages. BSSMAP
messages shall be processed by the BSS
Each DTAP message comprises the "discrimination parameter" (1 byte), "digital link
connection identification (DLCI)" (1 byte), "message length indication" (1 byte) and
message contents (multiple bytes). DLCI is used to indicate the types of digital links
used in radio interfaces.
BSSMAP message comprises "authentication parameter" (1 byte), "message length
indication" (1 byte) and message contents (multiple bytes).
The specific format of a message is shown in Figure 4-25.
0TAP ressage lorral
388HAP ressage lorral
0|scr|r|ral|or
parareler
0LCl
Lergl| |rd|cal|or

Hessage corlerls


0|scr|r|ral|or
parareler
Lergl| |rd|cal|or
Hessage corlerls
F|gure 4-25 Vessage lorrals ol 0TAP ard 833VAP
The "discrimination parameter" for the DTAP message is 0x01 and is 0x00 for the
BSSMAP message.
4.3 OMC lnterface Management
OMC interface provides data management, equipment maintenance, traffic statistics
and alarm processing of the M900/M1800 BSC system.
The operation and maintenance management part of M900/M1800 BSC integrates the
following subsystems:
Š BSC data management subsystem.
Š BSC maintenance subsystem.
Š BSC traffic statistics subsystem.
Š BSC alarm subsystem.
Š BSC data configuration subsystem.
4.3.1 Data Management Subsystem
Being a part of the GSM OMC database management system, the BSC data
management sub-system is used to manage the data needed in the operations of the
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M900/M1800 BSC system through OMC, including hardware configuration data, BSC
data, BTS data, cell management data, handover management data, power control
data, channel data, trunk data, SS7 data and alarm parameters etc..
The data input interface of the BSC data management system adopts a visual
2-dimensional table, which corresponds to the database relations one by one. This
data management subsystem is responsible for initial data configuration, dynamic
configuration of data tables, and query of GMPU data.
Through dynamic configuration of the command words in the command word
parameters table, the data management console can implement some functions of
dynamic data configuration and provide a flexible data management means.
4.3.2 Maintenance Subsystem
The purpose of the maintenance sub-system is to monitor and query the operational
state of the system and provides equipment in the system with operation and
maintenance functions. The maintenance sub-system has the following functions:
Ì. Routine maintenance function
Routine maintenance functions include:
Š Check the GMPU software version.
Š View module state.
ÌÌ. Control start function
Control start functions include:
Š Monitor the board states and states of manually reset boards in the switch.
Š LAPD link maintenance.
Š Check, block, unblock and reset circuits.
Š Query, acknowledge and operate semi-permanent connection.
Š Switchover of active and standby boards.
Š Hierarchical restart setup.
Š View HDLC link state.
Š BSC overall resetting.
Š Resources check.
Š Board loading.
ÌÌÌ. Tracing and monitoring function
Tracing and monitoring functions includes:
Š Handover observation.
Š Signaling tracing.
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Š GSM interface tracing.
Š Monitoring of CPU occupancy rates by the modules.
Š Monitoring of management module GCNT network control and storage.
Š Monitoring of CPU occupancy rate by the boards in the AM.
Š Optical path switching.
Š Resetting E1 port on the E3M board.
Š Querying the state of the E1 port on the E3M board.
Š Querying clock output on the E3M board.
Š Querying the state of the 2K network on the E3M.
ÌV. Control & parameters settings
Control & parameters settings include:
Š Memory operations.
Š Clock setting.
Š Backup speed setting.
Š Settings of module overload and congestion threshold on the modules.
Š GCKS clock board control.
V. SS7 maintenance function
SS7 maintenance functions includes:
Š SS7 signaling message tracing.
Š SS7 message tracing review.
Š SS7 Link management.
Š Dummy message operation.
Š State query.
Š SCCP maintenance.
4.3.3 Traffic Statistics Subsystem
The traffic statistics subsystem is responsible for the traffic statistics management. It
provides traffic statistics task management, view and print of different statistical results.
These results are used by network planners to improve the network.
Its specific functions include:
Š BSC performance observation.
Š Cell performance observation.
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Š Observe the intra-cell handover by browsing the intra-cell handover performance
measurement task.
Š Observe the performance of power control by browsing the power control
performance task.
Š Observe the performance and use of the LAPD link by browsing the LAPD protocol
performance measurement task.
Š Observe the performance and use of the SCCP by browsing the SCCP performance
measurement task.
Š Observe the state of the MTP link by browsing the MTP performance measurement
task.
Š Observe the performance and use of cell broadcasting by browsing the cell
broadcasting performance measurement.
Š Observe the performance and use of the A interface by browsing the A interface
performance measurement task.
Š Observe the completion condition of the initialization process by browsing the site
and cell initialization performance measurement.
Š Observe the frequencies of the adjacent cells by browsing the neighbor cell
performance measurement task.
Š Observe the current signal quality of service of the cell by browsing the cell service
quality measurement task.
Š Observe the running of the CPU by browsing the CPU running statistics task.
Specific traffic statistics operations involve:
Š Task table management, to register new statistical tasks, delete statistical tasks,
refresh the task lists and exit the traffic statistics system.
Š Task management is used to modify the task name, modify permanent task cycle,
activate the task, suspend task, query detailed task information, task statistical result
and task running state.
Š Template management: For operating the time template, index template, object
template and the user-defined index.
Š Traffic counter management: For real-time query of the current value of the counter.
Š Traffic statistic attributes configuration: Setting the switch value to "data access
prompt¨ and making the printing configuration and configuration for the user's
routine options.
Š Boxes: for performing various operations on the boxes in the traffic statistics system.
It can also either display or hide the running task table.
Š Help: On line help is provided.
4.3.4 Alarm Subsystem
Alarm sub-system stores all types of alarms in the system and provides browsing,
querying, printing and clearing of alarms. Specific operations includes:
Š Event alarm browsing.
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Š Fault alarm browsing.
Š Real-time alarms indication including the browsing of real-time alarms (Note: alarms
can be browsed conditionally according to user selection).
Š Query of event alarms.
Š Query of fault alarms.
Š Query of history alarms.
Š Real-time alarms printing.
Š Alarm messages clearance (including event alarms and history alarms).
4.3.5 Data Configuration Subsystem
Ì. Main functions of the data configuration subsystem
a. Data configuration prior to system turn-on.
Through the visual and friendly user interface, the user is guided to complete the data
configurations prior to the BSC system turn-on. The system will automatically generate
all the data with multiple data tables as the media in the BAM. And the system also
implements data reformatting and provides the data files to be loaded to the GMPU.
All the data configurations required to run a BSC are configured through data
configuration subsystem. During the initialization of BSC, hardware configuration
information (mainly frame, slot, board, and HW configurations), local office information,
cell information, handover function control information are required.
b. Dynamic data configuration
Modifications of system data and attributes without resetting BSC or BTS is called
dynamic data configuration, it is also called as data configuration in service. This
configuration is combined with the OS of the GMPU (mainly the dynamic data
configuration module) so as to meet all the requirements of dynamic data configuration
functions in the BSC system. It helps the user in network expansion without any
interruption in the existing network. .
The GMPU of BSC starts operation after loading program and relevant data. The data
stored in the memory of the GMPU side should be consistent with data stored in BAM.
When a user needs to have dynamic modification in the data configuration of the
GMPU, first change in the background the configured data above and then set data
dynamically to GMPU (foreground) to ensure the data consistency at both background
and foreground. Meanwhile, background (BAM) needs to update the foreground about
the dynamic data changes.
Dynamic data configuration is a means for operator to flexibly modify network
configurations and carrying out site equipment maintenance and network parameters
optimization effectively.
ÌÌ. Working modes supported by the data configuration subsystem:
a. Initial data configuration and ready to reload data.
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b. Dynamic data configuration, but not ready to reload data.
c. Viewing data configurations.
The first working mode corresponds to the data configuration in the above functions,
and provides a data configuration means for the initialization of the BSC GMPU.
The second working mode corresponds to the dynamic data configuration function. It is
used for dynamic data configuration during the system running.
The third working mode provides an interface to view only the system data
configurations of the BSC.
The above three working modes can be granted to users with specific operational
authorities.
ÌÌÌ. Contents of data configurations
The data configuration subsystem can list the BSC node, SITE node, and cell node by
object on OMC or can be viewed through workstations. And the objects are shown
hierarchically in a tree diagram according to the physical network connection. A BSC is
the root node, and the next level includes all the SITE nodes under this BSC and then
cell nodes are shown.
The data configuration subsystem provides the following data configurations:
a. Configuration of the BSC hardware including
Configurations of modules, frames and boards according to the physical hardware
condition of the switching system, Configurations of AIE trunk connection cables,
Configuration of SS7, Configuration of BIE trunk and port and Configuration of
parameters of different modules.
b. Configuration of local office parameters.
c. Configuration of the SITE hardware condition, including frame information, board
software, site environment alarms, equipment set configurations, and BIE
configurations
d. Configuration of cell data, including basic data of the cell and default data.
e. Configurations of TRX and channel frequency assignment.
f. Configuration of data tables including the mobile national code and mobile network
number conversion table.
g. Configuration of the traffic control list.
4.4 Pb lnterface Management
4.4.1 Brief lntroduction to the Pb lnterface
Pb interface is an interface between the BSC and PCU (packet control unit). It is not a
standard GSM interface.
According to the GSM protocol, the PCU can be positioned in the following 3 ways as
illustrated in Figure 4-26. Huawei's GPRS system selects scheme B in Figure 4-26.
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Ao|s
8T3 83C s||e 03N s||e
83C s||e 03N s||e
83C s||e 03N s||e
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The Pb interface module of the M900/M1800 BSC's GMPU system software is an
interface module between the BSC and PCU. It is mainly used for implementing the
following functions:
Š Pb interface trunk circuit management.
Š Packet radio resources management.
Š Packet service access support.
Š Transmission management.
Š PbSL link management.
The position of the Pb interface module in the BSC system is shown in Figure 4-27.
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Po |rlerlace
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038
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F|gure 4-27 Pos|l|or ol Po |rlerlace |r l|e 83C
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4.4.2 Pb lnterface Management
The M900/M1800 BSC's Pb interface management includes: management of the trunk
circuits between the BSC and PCU, management of packet radio resources, packet
service access support, transmission management, PbSL link management etc.
Ì. Management of the trunk circuits at the Pb interface
Management of the trunk circuits at the Pb interface helps to monitor the trunk circuits
between BSC and PCU for smooth system running, so that the PCU can be assigned
with an idle circuit when requesting the PDCH or dynamically modifying channel coding
to ensure the data services.
The processes of Pb interface circuit resources management includes: circuit
blocking/unblocking, circuit installation/uninstallation, and circuit reset. The causes that
initiate the processes include the background maintenance or change to the Pb
interface equipment state.
To simplify the design, the following rules are respected for Pb interface circuit
management:
A BSC only logs the maintenance state of the circuit, not the usage of the circuit.
Circuit management messages are activated by the BSC.
The PCU can carry out blocking and unblocking at the local end, and circuit resetting
without affecting the circuit state at the BSC side.
The BSC can not change the state of the circuit of the maintenance console at the
PCU side, i.e. BSC has no authority to unblock a circuit that is blocked at the
maintenance console (PCU side).
The processes of blocking &unblocking circuit, install & uninstall circuit, and resetting
circuit are completely the same as those on the A interface, with the exception that the
MSC is changed to the PCU and the trunk CIC (circuit identification code) at the A
interface is changed to the trunk circuit PCIC at the Pb interface. For example, the
circuit blocking process at the Pb interface is shown in Figure 4-28.
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F|gure 4-28 Process ol o|oc||rg c|rcu|l al l|e Po |rlerlace
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ÌÌ. Packet radio resources management
Radio resources management at the Pb interface refers to the management of radio
resources related to packet service, mainly including the following:
a. All the radio resources information is configured at the data management console. The
radio resources information of PCU is obtained from the BSC. The cell initialization
process at the Pb interface corresponds to this rule. The whole process includes three
parts: cell resetting at both BSC and PCU sides, the BSC notifying the PCU of the
packet radio resources configuration of the cell, and starting broadcasting packet
system messages.
b. Circuit service and packet service share the radio resources, which are allocated on
demand basis. The circuit-based service will have the priority to be allocated.
On demand dynamic allocation of resources requires that the BSC should allocate the
radio resources in real-time to the circuit-based service and packet-based service
according to the current application. This means a dynamic conversion between the
TCH and PDCH:
Š When there is more data traffic demanding for more channel resources, PCU
requests BSC to convert TCH into the PDCH. BSC decides whether it can be
allowed or not in accedence to the available resources. If there are many TCHs idle
then BSC will allow to convert TCHs into PDCH and send the related information to
the BTS. When the BSC discovers TCHs are insufficient, it requires the PCU to
hand over some PDCHs, which will be converted into TCHs. This requirement is
mandatory according to the rule of circuit-based service being in priority.
Š When the PCU discovers there are too many requested PDCHs, it will automatically
hand back some PDCHs, which will be converted into TCHs again. This is the rule of
circuit-based service being in priority.
c. The BSC is responsible for assigning the TCH, and the PCU for the PDCH. When the
PCU requests and have obtained the PDCH, the allocation and release of this PDCH
will be decided by the PCU and BSC is responsible for the allocation and release of the
TCH.
d. The states of the radio resources at the BSC and PCU sides must be kept consistent.
To achieve the consistency between the states at both sides, the BSC need to notify
the PCU of the impact of the change on the BTS and background operations on the
radio resources. For example when the background blocks a certain packet channel,
the BSC needs to notify the PCU to update the channel state.
ÌÌÌ. Packet service access
To support GPRS, it is necessary to broadcast SI13 system messages on the BCCH,
and at the same time modify SI3 and SI7 to include GPRS messages as GPRS
Indicator. On the basis of these messages, the MS decides whether it should access
the current service cell for data services or not.
When no PCCCH is configured in the local cell, the MS will get access to the packet
service through the CCCH. This mainly involves three processes: packet call access
initiated by the MS, packet call access terminated by the MS, packet service
suspension and recovery for the Class B MS.
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ÌV. Other management processes on the Pb interface
a. Transmission management
In the TCH to PDCH conversion, the BSC needs to connect the trunk circuit on the
Abis interface and that on the Pb interface. During the process of packet data
transmission, the BSC needs to forward packet datagrams among BTS-BSC-PCU. In
the PDCH to TCH conversion, the BSC needs to release the original connection.
In general, each PDCH corresponds to a 16kbps data channel. But if the transmission
quality proves to be satisfactory by PCU, it can activate a more efficient channel coding
method, like CS3 or CS4. At this time, the BSC needs to dynamically allocate one more
16kbps timeslot to the PDCH, that is, the 32kbps data channel corresponds to the
PDCH.
b. PbSL management
The Pb interface signaling link (PbSL) is a LAPD link. And PbSL management involves
the transmitting and receiving of Pb interface message packets, link load sharing, link
fault mutual-assistance function, etc.
If there is no PCCCH in a certain cell, the disconnection of all the PbSLs or the
subsequent recovery of any of them will lead to the clearing of the resources of the cell
at both sides of the Pb interface.
c. Error message processing
There may be errors during the process of transmission, so the Pb interface has the
error message processing function. By this function, error messages will be omitted
and some "confusion" messages will be transmitted selectively.
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Chapter 5 Function Description
5.1 Service Flow
5.1.1 GSM Signaling Protocol Model
The signaling protocol model of the circuit-based service is shown in Figure 5-1.
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3|gr.
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F|gure 5-1 03V s|gra||rg proloco| rode|
On Um interface, the BSC processes the messages at the RR sublayer. And on the A
interface, the BSC processes the messages at the BSSMAP sublayer. (BSSMAP and
DTAP are the two parts of BSSAP). The CM and MM sublayers messages are
transferred transparently inside the BSC (as the DTAP message) and will not be
processed.
For the packet service signaling protocol model, please refer to Figure 1-4 in Chapter
1.
5.1.2 Network Access by MS
A MS can be either in "active" state or in "idle" state. In the "idle¨ mode, the MS is not
allowed to execute the transmission. In the "dedicated/active¨ mode, the MS executes
effective transmission to the network through an allocated channel.
In the access application, the MS provides the access cause via the 8 information bits
and obtains the channel that satisfies access requirement via channel allocation. If the
type of channel can not be decided via limited cause analysis, an SDCCH is allocated
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by default. If there is no channel left in channel allocation, an "immediate assignment
rejected" command will be issued immediately to inform the MS to re-try access after
some time. Once a channel is activated on the Abis interface, an immediate
assignment command is sent to the MS. If the MS receives the immediate assignment,
it will enter the "dedicated¨ state by setting up dedicated channels with network. After
receiving the setup indication reported by the MS, BSC analyzes the contents of the
setup indication, including the processing of MS class mark, power control record, and
encryption information. Then BSC transmits the setup indication reported by the MS to
MSC.
5.1.3 Circuit-based Service Paging
When a call reaches the MSC where the subscriber is located, the MSC determines
the MS location area and sends a paging message to all BSCs in that location area.
The paging message includes information that helps to identify the subscriber. When
flow control is allowed, the BSC can automatically adjust the configuration of PAGCH.
M900/M1800 BSC system supports all the three paging modes i.e. ordinary paging
mode, complete paging mode and interval paging mode. Therefore, in PAGCH channel
adjustment due to traffic flow, subscribers in the service cell shall not lose the paging
message.
Once a paging message is received by MS then the access allocation and allocation
initialization process is started.
If an MS has GPRS attached in network operation mode 1, the circuits corresponding
to it will go by the Gs interface, Gb interface, and Pb interface, and reach the BSC
through MSC-SGSN-PCU. Then, there are three possibilities that the paging message
will be transmitted to the MS, which are described here:
Š If the MS has been allocated with a PDCH, transmitted on the PDCH.
Š If the serving cell has been allocated with a PCCCH, transmitted on the PPCH.
Š If the serving cell is not configured with the PCCCH, transmitted on the PCH.
5.1.4 Transmission Mode and Encryption Mode Management
In the GSM phase 2+ protocol, 12 transmission modes are provided. Other contents in
the protocol related to transmission modes are the encryption and DTX.
After the access and allocation initialization process, the MS enters in the transmission
mode and encryption mode management process. The transmission mode is selected
by MSC and is determined by the requirements of communications. MSC informs BSC
about the required transmission mode via the assignment message (SS7 message)
and asks BSC to complete relative circuit switching. After receiving the assignment
message, BSC executes certain activities according to the comparison between the
current transmission mode and the transmission mode required by MSC. If the modes
are same, the BSC sends an assignment completion message to MSC. If the modes
on the radio link are same while the types of transmitted messages are different, the
modes should be modified, and BSC sends the assignment completion message to
MSC afterwards. If the mode required by MSC is different from that being used on the
radio link, BSC will first finish an initialization allocation process before it sends the
assignment completion message to MSC. In the assignment process, if the
assignment fails, BSC will send an assignment failure message to the MSC.
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5.1.5 Handover Execution Process
Handover execution process differs from the above-mentioned access and initialization
allocation process and the transmission mode and encryption mode management
process because it enables the management of timing advance. The accuracy of
timing advance estimated determines whether the communications in MS will continue
in the handover execution process. As there is no difficulty in estimating its timing
advance, the intra-BSC handover execution process is almost the same as the
initialization allocation process. For inter-BSC handover, the source BSC must inform
MSC, who will set up terrestrial link with the target BSC and inform the source BSC
about the new radio channel. The source BSC shall provide such information to the
target BSC via MSC as transmission mode, encryption mode, synchronous mode and
MS class mark. The target BSC shall allocate new channels according to the
information and generate the handover command message required by the source
BSC to send to the source BSC via MSC. The source BSC informs the received
handover command message to MS, which will be handed over to target BSC. After
the target BSC checks the handover of MS, it shall inform the source BSC to enter the
channel release process via the MSC.
5.1.6 Circuit-based Service Call Re-establishment Process
In the radio environment, a connection might be interrupted suddenly, which might be
caused by the serious transmission loss due to obstructions or fading .
Call re-establishment comprises two parts: the first part is that MS uses the access and
initialization allocation process; the second part is that the network infrastructure
recovers the contextual environment of calls.
Speed is very important in the call re-establishment process because if the timer of
MSC is time-out, all information related to the call will be cleared. MS reports to BSC
the subscriber identity and class mark via the access and initialization process. BSC
will send the information to MSC, which will execute the call re-establishment according
to the information.
5.1.7 Circuit-based Service Call Release Process
On the completion of the call process, the MSC will usually start the call release
process. The MSC issues a clearing command to BSC. On receipt of this command,
the BSC will send back a call release message, and at the same time release the
terrestrial circuit resources, GNET resources and radio channel resources.
Radio channel release can be classified into common release and local release. In
common release, the BSC will issue a channel release message to the MS and at the
same time inform BTS to stop sending SACCH message to MS. When the BTS
detects the MS link clear message, it will notify the BSC, which then allow the BTS to
release its RF channel so that this channel can be used again.
In local release, the BSC will send the deactivated SACCH, release request, and RF
channel release messages to the BTS.
5.1.8 Load Management Process
The whole load management process is completed by BTS, BSC and MSC together.
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A BTS is responsible for loads on RACH, PCH and PAGCH and informing BSC by load
indication messages.
BSC is responsible for dedicated channel load and informing MSC via resource
indications.
In addition, overload indication messages can be transmitted between BSC and MSC
to provide information about service load.
5.1.9 BCCH Messages Handling Process
When MS is in the idle mode, it needs to know some information about network
infrastructure like broadcasting information including cell selection information,
neighboring cell information, access control information, dedicated channel control
information, cell identification code, location area, etc.
BSC sends the general broadcast information to the BTS, which will broadcast on the
BCCH channel. BCCH channel is a low-capacity channel and can send a 23-byte
message every 0.235 second.
5.1.10 SACCH Message Handling Process
When MS is in the dedicated mode, a SACCH channel is allocated to it, with limited
capacity in addition to a traffic channel.
SACCH channel is used to provide information like link monitoring, transmission power
control, timing advance control and measurement reports. In addition, SACCH sends
to the MS system messages and even short messages (if possible).
5.1.11 Packet Service Access Process
When no PCCCH is configured in the serving cell, packet service is accessed on the
CCCH. The BSC transfers the packet paging messages coming from the PCU to the
MS on the PCH of the CCCH. The channel request message issued from the MS is
transferred to the BTS via the RACH of the CCCH and then is reported to the BSC. If
the channel request message is for packet access (corresponding to the MS calling),
the BSC will not process it and will transfer it to the PCU. At the same time, the BSC
receives the packet immediate assignment message from the PCU, transfers it to the
MS and completes the packet call access. If mobile channel request message is for
PagingResponse (corresponding to the called MS ), the BSC will first assign the DCCH
and enter in the dedicated mode. On the reception of EST_IND of
RR_INITIALITION_REQ message, the BSC will transfer it to the PCU. And it will
receive the PDCH message of the PCU, and transfer it to the MS, completing packet
call access.
If the MS accesses packet service via the PCCCH, then the packet call process is
transparent to the BSC.
5.1.12 Cell lnitialization
The cell initialization process includes cell resetting, configuration, and transfer of the
packet system message.
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When the M900/M1800 BSC is powered on, the BSC and the PCU will enter the GPRS
cell, resetting process automatically, transferring the cell resetting message to the
remote end, locally releasing cell resources, and sending the cell resetting response to
the remote (if the cell resetting message of the remote end has been received).
Upon the completion of cell resetting, the PCU transfers to the BSC a configuration
request message and starts the configuration process. On receiving the configuration
request message from the PCU, the BSC will start to configure cell radio resources for
the PCU.
The configuration data the BSC transfers to the PCU includes two parts: cell attributes
and channel attributes. Cell attributes include the state of the cell, CA list, and cell
feature data, which are mainly related with system information. Channel attributes
include the state of the channel, frequency hopping attributes, etc.
The configuration process between cells can be in parallel, but the configuration
process within the cell is in serial.
When the configuration processing is completed, the PCU will notify the BSC to
transmit parameters related with GPRS service in the system information.
In the process of cell configuration, if the cell resetting message is received, then the
configuration process is terminated; if the blocking/unblocking messages in the cell are
received, this will not affect the configuration process. After the configuration process is
completed, the system enters the cell blocking/unblocking process.
5.1.13 Packet Service Suspend/Resume Process
The class B MS can not work in dedicated mode and packet mode simultaneously.
When it requests to enter in circuit switching mode from packet switching, it needs to
activate GRPS suspend request to the BSC via the dedicated channel DCCH. The
BSC transfers the suspend request message to the PCU for processing, and then
enter the circuit-based services. On receiving CLEAR COMMAND from the MSC, the
BSC will issue to the PCU a packet service resume command RESUME_REQ, and
notify the MS to resume packet service in CHAN_REL. In the case of switching of the
circuit-based service during packet service suspend, the BSC guarantees the normal
proceeding of the packet resume process. If the resume process fails, the MS will
enter the route area updating process.
5.1.14 Selection of Channel Coding
The air interface of GPRS service supports multiple coding modes and there are CS1,
CS2, CS3, and CS4 for the time being. The CS1/CS2 coding method only needs single
16kbps slot, and the CS3/CS4 coding method needs two 16kbps slots.
The PCU decides which coding mode to be used based on the MR. When deciding to
use CS3/CS4 coding mode, the PCU will make a request to the BSC, and the request
message carries two Pb interfaces of 16k (PCIC) are selected by the PCU. On
receiving the message, the BSC allocates Abis interface idle timeslots, and notifies the
BTS to interwork. When both the BSC and BTS are ready (with their circuits
interconnected), they will notify the PCU of the success in coding scheme change. On
receiving the ACK message, the PCU notifies the mobile phone to use the CS3/CS4
coding scheme via the TRAU frame.
When the PCU detects channel quality deterioration and decides to switch from
CS3/CS4 to CS1/CS2, it will make a request to the BSC. The request message carries
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a Pb interface 16K timeslot (PCIC) selected by the PCU. On receiving the message,
the BSC resume the idle timeslots on the Abis interface, notifies the BTS to remove the
network, and sends the ACK message to the PCU. On the reception of the ACK
message, the PCU notifies the mobile station to use the CS1/CS2 scheme through the
TRAU frame.
5.2 Radio Channel Management
5.2.1 Configuration of Radio Channel
The OMC of the M900/M1800 BSC system provides a user friendly operational
interface, which eases up the configuration and modification of the radio channel.
According to the GSM specifications, the radio channel is classified into the traffic
channel and control channel.
Traffic channels can be classified into the full-rate traffic channel (TCH/F), half-rate
traffic channel (TCH/H) and packet data traffic channel (PDTCH).
Control channels can be classified into the broadcast channel (BCH), common control
channel (CCCH), and dedicated control channel (DCCH). The cell broadcast channel
(CBCH) is used to broadcast short messages in the service area. The CBCH and
SDCCH use the same physical channels. A brief introduction of these channels is
given below.
Ì. BCH
A downlink channel, used for broadcast messages transmission to the MS, including
the following three channels:
Frequency correction channel (FCCH): This channel is responsible for transferring the
frequency correction signals to the MS so that the MS can be adjusted to the
corresponding frequency.
Synchronization channel (SCH): This channel is responsible for transmission of the
frame synchronization number (TDMA frame number) and the BTS ID code (BSIC) to
the MS.
Broadcast control channel (BCCH): This channel transmits the information like location
area ID (LAI), cell maximum allowable output power, BCCH carriers of the neighbor
cells, and packet service system parameters.
Packet broadcast control channel (PBCCH): This channel transfers the messages
related with packet services.
ÌÌ. Common control channel (CCCH)
It can be classified into the following six channels:
Paging channel (PCH): MS receives the information to check if there is any call or not
after certain interval of time.
Random access channel (RACH): Through which a MS makes request to access the
network.
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Access grant channel (AGCH): Through which the network notifies the MS about the
allocation of the dedicated channel.
Packet paging channel (PPCH): MS receives the information to check if there is any
data messages for it or not after certain interval of time.
Packet random access channel (PRACH): Through which a MS makes request to
access the network.
Packet access grant channel (PAGCH): Through which the AGCH notifies the MS
about the allocation of the packet data service channels.
ÌÌÌ. Dedicated control channel (DCCH)
It can be classified into the following channels:
Standalone dedicated control channel (SDCCH): Which is used to transfer messages
between the MS and the network before the call setup.
Slow associated control channel (SACCH): Which is related with the SDCCH and TCH
and is used to transfer the MS control messages and signal strength of the neighboring
BTSs to the network. At the same time it receives the system information, including
transmitted power and timing advance.
Fast associated control channel (FACCH): Works in "embezzlement¨ mode, occupying
a segment of TCH for transmission, and mainly responsible for transferring handover
commands to the MS.
ÌV. Packet associated control channel (PACCH):
It is used for signaling transmission to the MS. The signaling messages include ACK
messages and power control messages. It is also used for transferring resources
assignment and re-assignment commands. PACCH and the PDTCH assigned to the
mobile phone share resources. When the MS is in the transmission mode, it can page
the mobile phone via the PACCH and request to have circuit-based services.
V. Packet timing control channel (PTCCH):
It includes both downlink and uplink PTCCHs. PTCCH/U is used for calculating TA via
the random access pulse when the MS is in the transmission mode. PTCCH/D is used
for transmitting TA to more mobile phones. A PTCCH/D corresponds to multiple
PTCCH/Us.
According to the logic channel types as listed above, the M900/M1800 can carry out
channel configurations in the following mode:
TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF
SDCCH/8+SACCH/C8
FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH
FCCH+SCCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/C4
BCCH+CCCH
BCCH+CBCH
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SDCCH+CBCH
PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
5.2.2 Radio Channel Allocation
Ì. Radio channel allocation requirements
Radio channel allocation requires the following processes:
Š Channel allocation initialization: An idle MS enters communication state during
mobile phone calling, paging response, and location updating.
Š Connection allocation: The channels initially allocated can not necessarily meet the
requirements for voice or data.
Š Handover: Due to the subscriber mobility or the change to the interference level, it is
necessary to handover the MS to another channel.
ÌÌ. Radio channel allocation
For the dedicated channel allocation management of the M900/M1800 BSC system,
VEA (very early allocation) and EA (early allocation) are used in a combined manner as
an allocation strategy.
VEA refers to the allocation of channels at the initial allocation. Once the call is
established, TCH is allocated after the initial call handling by SDCCH, it is called EA. .
During channel allocation in the M900/M1800 BSC, the VEA strategy is used for some
specific calls according to the request causes. For common calls, the EA strategy is
used, which can effectively improve channel utilization ratio of the channel.
ÌÌÌ. Radio channel allocation algorithm
The channel allocation algorithm in the M900/M1800 BSC selects the channel for
allocation, considering channel interference, configuration, history record, load
distribution, MS transmitted power, etc. and based on the specific call event and
environment.
Channel interference directly decides on such critical indices of traffic statistics as the
quality of communication, completion rate and call dropout rate on the channel, which
is the most important factor during the channel allocation. The measurable interference
includes uplink interference of the idle channel and the uplink/downlink interference of
the occupied channels.
The rule for the interference-based channel allocation algorithm is to select the channel
of low interference for allocation. But there are two situations deserving special
consideration. The first is the high-level call or user, the MSC may need to limit the
interference for channel allocation. The channel whose interference band is lower than
this limit can not be allocated. The second is the specific call environment. Here it is
necessary to take into account the max. transmitted power capacity and path loss so
that the call with a better receiving level can be appropriately allocated on a channel
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having lower interference level. The channel with a better interference level is reserved
for the call of poorer receiving level which improves the call completion rate and
communication quality.
The channel configuration-based channel allocation algorithm carries out channel
allocation comprehensively considering such elements as: if the TRX is of BCCH , the
frequency reuse distance of the TRX, if the channel frequency hops, and the hopping
sequence. Proper frequency allocation to the TRXs helps to achieve the
interference-free network, which means more clear communication and smooth
network. The channel allocation algorithm based on channel history record enables the
algorithm to have the memory function. The history record includes the success, and
failure of channel occupation, call dropout when occupied, and it needs to verify if the
causes for failure of occupation and call dropout when occupied are due to the radio
channel itself. Such a history record can provide reliable facts for the current channel
allocation.
The channel allocation algorithm based on load balance, which enables the channel
occupation to be evenly distributed in the aspects of the TRX, timeslot and
sub-timeslot. It can alleviate to avoid the adjacent- channel and co-channel frequency
interference. On the other hand, it can also avoid the risk caused by calls being
concentrated on a few TRXs by the way of intra-cell handover, concentric-circle
handover, and dedicated channel allocation strategy. For example, intra-cell handover
is mainly caused by the quality problem of the voice channel, so this indicates that the
TRX where the original channel is located having disturbance. If the original channel
frequency hops, then the frequency hopping set of the original channel may be
severely interfered with. In case of intra-cell handover, the allocation and preferred
selection of the new channel involve different TRXs and hopping sets from those of the
original channel.
ÌV. Queuing
Channel allocation algorithm used in the M900/M1800 BSC supports queuing. In case
of initial allocation, no queuing takes place for the mobile phone retransmits the
channel request. Queuing is mainly applied to connection allocation and handover,
where the MSC decides if queuing is allowed in the assignment request or handover
request. If no allocable radio channels are available and queuing is allowed, then the
M900/M1800 BSC system will queue the allocation request so that waiting time of the
user will be reduced.
V. Allocation by Priority
The channel allocation algorithm in the M900/M1800 BSC system supports the strategy
of allocation at different priority levels, that is, channel allocation can be carried out
according to the preset priority levels. In some cases, the request of higher priority can
be forcibly implemented and it can occupy the channel which is being used by a user of
lower priority.
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5.2.3 Dynamic Allocation of SDCCH
Ì. Ìntroduction
The aim of SDCCH dynamic allocation is to optimize the usage of traffic channels and
signaling channels, reduce the occurrence of congestion on the SDCCH, and lower the
impact of the initial configuration of the SDCCH on the performance of the system.
The number of SDCCHs required is based on the traffic model, that is, the current
traffic distribution and statistical data about handover. An increase of short message
service will lead to the increase of requirement for the SDCCHs, which makes the
prediction of the SDCCHs requirement very difficult.
In case of any abnormal traffic flow the number of users will increase, and many users
can not access the network just because they fail to request the SDCCH. In this case,
TCHs have to be converted into SDCCHs so as to ensure most of the users can
access the network and communication can be implemented through directed retry
function, which improves the call success rate of users.
ÌÌ. Advantages
The use of the SDCCH dynamic allocation can work out the exact number of SDCCH
channels in the network. SDCCH dynamic allocation can increase the system capacity
and improve call completion ratio so as to increase the revenue of the operator.
Note: the negative impact of using SDCCH dynamic allocation is to increase the traffic
of some intra-cell handover. This impact can be overlooked as far as its advantages
are concerned.
ÌÌÌ. Ìmplementation
SDCCHs are allocated with the cell as a unit. The following items will be added to the
data management console: dynamic/static allocation of SDCCH, idle SDCCH
threshold, the maximum number of cell SDCCHs, minimum time for TCH recovery, etc.
If the SDCCH allows dynamic allocation, the number of idle SDCCHs is less than or
equal to the idle SDCCH threshold, and the number of available SDCCHs in the cell is
less than the max. number of the allowed SDCCHs, then a TCH is selected and
converted into the SDCCH. If a TCH has been selected, then it is necessary to issue a
configuration command to the BTS, convert the TCH into the SDCCH, and update the
channel list in the BSC.
When there are many idle SDCCHs, the SDCCH channels are dynamically converted
into TCHs.
5.2.4 Dynamic Control of PDCH
Ì. Ìntroduction
To support GPRS service, two types of radio channels are introduced: static PDCHs
and dynamic PDCHs. Static PDCHs are used for packet service only. Dynamic
channels are initialized as TCHs and are controlled by the BSC. When the PCU does
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not have enough static PDCH, it requests PDCHs from the BSC. When the PCU
controls the system, dynamic PDCHs are used for packet service. On the contrary,
when the BSC does not have enough TCHs, it can request dynamic PDCHs from the
PCU. When the BSC controls the system, the dynamic PDCHs are used as TCHs.
According to the protocol, static PDCHs are classified into 4 types:
PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
PBCCH+PCCCH
BSC supports the all above combinations and PCU supports the first three.
ÌÌ. Ìmplementation
Dynamic PDCH controls cell as a unit.
The following two items are added to the data management console: idle TCH
threshold N1, TCH request cycle T-minutes.
Each cell is configured with a counter initialized as 0. The value range of Count is -T
T. And Count is adjusted every minute. If the number of the current channels is greater
than N1, then 1 is added to Count, if the number of the current idle TCHs is less than
or equal to N1, then 1 is subtracted from the counter value, if Count less than -T/2 after
adjustment, then the BSC requests dynamic PDCHs from the PCU.
When the BSC is in control, dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. If any change takes
place to the current type of a dynamic PDCH, it is necessary to issue a configuration
command to the BTS so as to configure this channel as the current type and update
the channel list in the BSC.
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Channel allocation follows the principle that circuit switching service being preferred to
packet switching service. The PCU will automatically release the dynamic PDCH.
5.3 Handover
Handover is a very important function in a cellular mobile communication network. As a
way in radio link control, handover enables the continuous communications of
subscribers when moving among different cells. Handover also enables to adjust the
traffic in certain cells.
In a GSM digital cellular mobile communication system, the implementation of
handover is related with MS, BSS and MSC.
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MS and BTS in the communication state obtains via measurement the conditions of
current radio links and combines the measurement results (Measurement Result, MR)
of both uplink and downlink into a MR message to send to the BSC.
The handover algorithm module of BSC determines whether should be handed over or
not and what handover mode shall be used according to MR and the actual conditions
of the radio network. The specific signaling process of the handover is completed
jointly by MSC, BSC, BTS, and MS.
In the above handover process, handover algorithm is the most important part because
it determines the service quality and frequency efficiency. The function of handover
judgment is normally enabled in BSC.
In this chapter, contents related to handover are described, including the handover
purpose, handover measurement and handover parameter, and the execution of the
handover decisive algorithm.
5.3.1 Purpose of Handover
According to its purposes, handover is of three types: retrieval handover, better
handover and traffic handover.
The emergency handover is used to avoid the interruption of communication due to
unbearable communication quality when the MS is leaving the coverage of the cell.
Causes for the retrieval handover include too much timing advance, bad receiving
quality (RxQual) at the up/downlink, and rapid drop of the receiving level at the
up/downlink, sufficient receiving level but poor receiving quality poor, or too low
receiving level at the uplink/downlink. In case of an extended cell, the causes include
TA too low.
In some cases, even there are no conditions that can trigger the retrieval handover,
handover can be started if the handover of the MS to another cell can improve the
quality of voice or the quality of network (or improved signal level & decreased
interference level). This type of handover, which is executed because of a better cell, is
called the better handover. What triggers this kind of handover includes inter-layer
handover and PBGT handover as well as fast mobility. Better handover is based on
statistical result of multiple measurements.
The third type of handover is called the traffic handover. It normally occurs when a cell
is congested due to high traffic load while the neighboring cell has idle channels. This
handover is usually seen when special events (such as sports meetings or exhibitions)
cause the service peak in an area within a short time. As the actual neighboring cell is
overlapped in coverage range, some calls can be handed over to the cell with high
traffic to another neighboring idle cell to improve the congested situation.
5.3.2 Measurement Results and lts Preprocessing
Ì. Collection of measurement results
The measurement results (MR) reported to the BSC provides BSC with all the basic
parameters necessary for the handover selection. MR is obtained by the following
procedure:
The MS in communications, measures the receiving quality (RxQual) and receiving
level (RxLev) of the downlink of the service cell as well as the downlink RxLev of the
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BCCH carrier frequency of neighboring cells (six neighboring cells at the most). Then
MS sends the measurement results to BTS in the form of messages through SACCH
(slow associated control channel) once every 480ms. If SACCH is used for transmitting
other signals, MS sends the measurement results once every 960ms. BTS measures
the MR that receives the RxQual and RxLev of the corresponding uplink. BTS
combines the uplink measurement value and the downlink measurement value to form
an MR message and reports it to the BSC, regularly. And then according to the MR and
configurations of other network parameters BSC performs the handover decision.
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ÌÌ. MR preprocessing
To make the MR present the condition of the radio link more precisely, it is necessary
to preprocess the MR. The preprocessing of the MR includes the following three
processes:
a. MR insertion processing
When the MRs received by the BSC are discontinuous, the BSC must insert the
missing MR to ensure the continuity of the whole MR handling process. This process is
also called MR insertion processing. If the number of missing MRs exceeds a certain
limit, then the BSC considers the previous MRs as useless, and it is necessary to
recollect MRs.
b. MR filtering processing
To eliminate the chanciness in handover decision, it is necessary to perform
smoothness processing over the MRs, or filtering. A simple and practical algorithm is
weighted filtering. Different filter lengths can be respectively defined for different types
of measurement values like the receiving level, receiving quality and TA, or different
channel types like signaling channels, voice and data channels.
The receiving level (RxLev) and receiving quality (RxQual) use corresponding
assumed value in case of measurement values calculations, as shown in Tables 5-1,
and 5-2.
Tab|e 5-1 Assured va|ues lor ca|cu|al|or ol rece|ved |eve|
-1Zd8r > -18d8r ê3
-18d8r -19d8r -18d8r ê2
-108d8r -109d8r -108d8r 2
-109d8r -110d8r 109d8r 1
-110d8r < -110d8r 0
Assumed values Meaning RxLev number
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Tab|e 5-2 Assured va|ues lor l|e ca|cu|al|or ol rece|v|rg qua||ly
Z0 18. 10º > 12. 8º Z
ê0 9. 05º ê. 1º 12. 8º ê
50 1. 53º 3. 2º ê. 1º 5
10 2. 2êº 1. êº 3. 2º 1
30 1. 13º 0. 8º 1. êº 3
20 0. 5Zº 0. 1º 0. 8º 2
10 0. 28º 0. 2º 0. 1º 1
0 0. 11º < 0. 2º 0
Calculated value Assumed value Actual range of BER
RxQual
number
c. MR prediction
The MR represents the condition of radio channels in the previous measurement cycle,
so it is of hysteresis to some extent. The forecasting algorithm is mainly responsible for
predicting the MR values for the next cycle(s) based on the change to the radio
environment to eliminate the hysteresis. MR preprocessing is a process that can be
selected by operator.
5.3.3 Handover Decision Algorithm
Handover decision algorithm enables the pre-handling of the input MR and decides
whether handover should make and which handover type should be (intra-cell
handover, inter-cell handover in BSC, outgoing BSC handover, etc.) according to the
various conditions.
The handover decision algorithm sends the decided handover results to the call
process module in the form of messages, and the call process module will complete
the signaling process of handover together with BTS, MSC and MS. If the handover
fails due to some reason, the call process module will inform the handover result to the
handover decision algorithm, which will execute the follow-up processing. A flow chart
of the execution of the specific functions during handover decision is shown in Figure
5-2. The following describes the functions enabled by each phase of the handover
decision process.
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Ì. Preprocessing of MR
MR preprocessing is a process prior to the handover decisive algorithm. This process
can be implemented in the BTS when the BSC directly uses the MR preprocessed by
the BTS to do the handover judgment algorithm. Or it can be implemented in the BSC
when the BSC preprocesses the primary MR input, then enters the handover decision.
ÌÌ. Penalty process of cell measurement value
Not all handovers can be successful. In case that the handover in the selected target
cell fails, the MS will stick to the original serving cell. After the cycle of a handover
judgment is finished, the system might try to hand over the MS to the above-mentioned
target cell, which might cause invalid handover attempt and handover failure and even
interruption. Therefore, the handover termination or congestion cell shall be punished,
which is to minus a set punishment value from the receiving power of the
corresponding cell within some time (called the penalty time).
Penalty types include the penalty of the forsaken cell by TA handover leaves, penalty of
the forsaken cell due to bad quality (BQ), penalty of the failed cell due to ordinary
failure, and fast mobility penalty (this is a penalty imposed on the microcell in the
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candidate queue in order to prevent frequent handovers when the fast moving mobile
phone accesses a cell of small coverage).
ÌÌÌ. Basic sorting of cells
After the penalty and adjustment on the signal strength of the neighboring cells, the
handover judgment module will execute general sorting for cells (serving cell and
neighboring cells) according to their receiving power to obtain a candidate cell list
containing cells from the best to the worst.
ÌV. Adjustment according to network features
Considering other complex elements of the network, it is inappropriate to sequence the
handover candidate cells according to signal strengths only. In addition to the basic
sequencing of the cells, it is necessary to consider such elements as the layer and
priority level where the cell is located, the load of the cell, handover target cell, and
physical network connection in the serving cell. In addition, it is necessary to adjust the
candidate cell list and get the final handover candidate cell list.
V. Handover decision
The BSC will make handover decision after the candidate cell list is obtained via
network feature adjustment. In multi-layer cell mode, Huawei' GSM equipment provides
nine 9 handover algorithms. In addition, it provides such functions as directed retry,
forced handover, and handover candidate query. The following section will focus on
these nine handover algorithms.
a. Timing advance (TA) handover
When the distance between the MS and the BTS is over than TA handover threshold,
TA handover is started so that the MS can maintain communication quality at a certain
level. If the service cell is an extended cell, TA handover includes the handover
between the ordinary cell and the extended cell.
b. Bad quality (BQ) handover
When the receiving quality of the service cell is lower than the BQ handover threshold,
BQ handover will be started so that the MS can maintain transmission quality at the
certain level.
c. Interference handover
When the receiving level in the serving cell is high, but the receiving quality
deteriorates to a certain extent, interference handover is started so that the MS can
maintain transmission quality at the certain level.
When interference handover is triggered, it will affect the quality of the using channel
in the serving cell, but it still can sustain the ongoing communication. At the same time,
the receiving level in the serving cell is higher, so now there is possibly less
interference with the other channels in the service cell, so intra-cell handover can be
carried out.
To avoid repetitive handovers caused by interference handover, it is necessary to
control the successive handovers in the cell.
d. Receiving level rapidly dropped handover
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During a call, receiving level of a signal can be dropped due to some obstructions. To
maintain the call, a handover become necessary so that the MS is handed over to a
neighboring cell of better receiving level.
e. Load handover
In places of heavy traffic like the marketplace or gathering, limited system resources
may give rise to traffic congestion in a certain area and there is redundancy in the
system capacity of the neighboring cell. In this case the load handover can be started
so that other cells may share the traffic load of the congested area to implement
dynamic adjustment of traffic load.
f. Margin handover
When the subscriber moves to the margin of the cell and the receiving level in the
service cell is lower than the margin handover threshold for a period of time, the
network side will start a handover decision so that the MS can maintain communication
quality at a certain level. This is called margin handover. This is a level-based
handover and is a kind of retrieval handover.
g. Inter-layer handover
At the early stage of the building of the dual-band network, it is a principle to absorb
dual-band subscribers through the 1800 cell. To win as many dual-band subscribers as
possible to the 1800M network, inter-layer handover is used during communication to
handover the call set up in the GSM900 network to the GSM1800 network by priority.
At the same time when such elements as level and quality give rise to handover in the
GSM1800 cell, it is necessary to try to keep the subscribers in the GSM1800 cell. This
handover is called inter-layer handover.
h. PBGT handover When path loss of the neighboring cell is lower than in the serving cell
for a period of time, PBGT handover is started. PBGT is also called better cell
handover, a handover based on path loss. On the one hand, the type of handover
helps alleviate radio interference in the system. On the other hand, it can implement
the definition of the handover boundary between two cells so as to achieve the purpose
of controlling traffic flexibly.
i. Fast mobile microcell handover
This handover is carried out with reference to the speed of the MS to reduce the
number of handovers and therefore call drop ratio reduction. The fast mobile MS in the
handover algorithm follows the following two principles:
One is if a fast mobile MS establishes a call in the macrocell, and when it enters a
certain microcell, the handover should not be started instantly. Instead, the time penalty
strategy is used to avoid its being handed over to the microcell
The other is, if a MS establishes a call in the microcell and moves fast in it, then
consecutive microcell fast mobile decision strategy is used to hand it over to the
macrocell at the upper layer.
The common purpose of these two strategies is to reduce the number of handovers so
as to reduce the call dropout rate and system signaling load of the system.
VÌ. Ìssuing handover commands to the call processing module
Through the stage described above, this sub-module collects the information needed
for implementing the handovers, and finally decides if a handover is carried out and
what type of handover is to be carried out. Then handover messages are issued to call
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process handling module via the interface defined by the handover judgment module
and call process handling module so that the call process handling module implements
the process of signaling handover.
VÌÌ. Signaling flow for the call process executing handovers
During this process, the call process module completes the signaling flow of the
handover process together with the MSC, BSC, BTS and MS according to the
handover type (intra-cell handover, inter-cell handover in the BSC, outgoing BSC
inter-cell handover, etc.) and the handover candidate cell as decided by the handover
judgment module.
VÌÌÌ. Handover processing results
After the call module has processed handover signaling, it returns the result to the
handover decision module. If the handover fails, the handover decision module will
start penalty to the cell responsible for the failure. If the handover is successful, the
module will set a new handover interval timer to avoid frequent handovers.
5.3.4 MR Preprocessing and Handover Decision on the Abis lnterface in the
Case of 15:1 Networking
When the multiplexing on the Abis interface is 15:1, every 4 signaling links multiplex a
64kbps timeslots statistically. As the MR is transferred via the radio signaling link
(RSL), it is required the preprocessed MR be transferred instead of the original values
in 15:1 multiplexing mode. And the MR report can be reported by interval, which is
implemented by modifying data configurations (in the data management console,
handover management data, and handover control data table, the options of modifying
MS preprocessing option, transferring original values, and MR reporting).
Accordingly, the handover decisions with regard to fast level dropping emergency
handover is done by the BTS. And the BSC will announce the decision. Other handover
decisions and processing are still carried out in the BSC.
5.4 RF Power Control
5.4.1 Overview
Power control is an important means for radio link control. It helps to adjust the
transmitted power of the MS and BTS on the basis of the expected values set on the
data management console and the MR about the receiving level and the signal quality
at the uplink/downlink from the BTS so as to improve the communications quality of the
MS and effectively reduce the interference with the radio system.
Basic rules for power control:
1) The RF power level or signal quality that is higher than the expected value, should
be decreased accordingly.
2) The RF power level or signal quality that is lower than the expected value, should be
increased accordingly.
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3) The RF power level or signal quality should be considered comprehensively so as to
improve the accuracy and effectiveness.
There are three algorithms for the implementation of power control, which are GSM
0508 power control algorithm, and Huawei I (HW-I) algorithm and Huawei II (HW II)
algorithm. Any algorithm can be selected among these three algorithms. The Huawei
algorithms are recommended due to their flexible configurations, effectiveness, easy
operations and easy command and also these are compatible nicely with the GSM900
and GSM1800.
HW power control algorithms implementation including the purpose of power control,
power control parameters is described below.
5.4.2 Purpose of Power Control
The purpose of transmitted power control is to have lower transmitted power while the
fine transmission quality can be obtained. This can keep the transmission quality
higher than the defined threshold and lower the average broadcast power of the MS
and BTS, which reduces the co-channel interference and enhance the battery life time.
Power control comprises uplink power control and downlink power control, which are
executed separately. The uplink power control is for the MS while the downlink power
control is for the BTS.
The purpose of MS power control is to adjust the output power of MS and stablize the
receiving signal strength of BTS. This can restrict the interference among subscribers
in co-channel, reduce the saturation degree of the multi-coupler in BTS and reduce the
power consumption of MS. The purpose of controlling BTS power is to adjust the
output power of BTS and stablize the receiving signal strength of MS so as to restrict
the interference in the co-channel and reduce the power consumption of BTS.
5.4.3 Power Control Parameters
Such parameters are used to control and adjust algorithm. They include the control
parameters set at the data management console, the transmission capability of the MS
and BTS, and some information contained in the MR from the BTS to the BSC.
Ì. Control parameters
The power control parameters set at the data management console include expected
uplink power level and expected downlink power level, uplink offsets, and uplink
quality offsets.
ÌÌ. Static data
M900/M1800 BSC supports the following static parameters related to power control:
Š Max. transmitted power at the MS.
The max. allowed transmitted power for the MS in the service cell.
Š Power transmit capability at the BTS.
Max. allowable BTS transmitted power at the data management console.
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ÌÌÌ. Real-time measurement by the MS
A MS checks the signal quality continuously and sends back this information to the
BTS, this process is called real-time measurement.
The current receiving quality at the downlink (RxQualDL) ranges from level 0 to level 7.
The current received level at the downlink (RxLevDL) ranges from 0 to 63.
ÌV . Real-time measurement by the BTS
Current receiving quality at uplink (RxQualUL), ranges from level 0 to level 7.
Current receiving quality at uplink (RxLevUL), ranges from 0 to 63 (levels).
5.4.4 RF Power Control Algorithm
GSM-0508, HW_I and HW_II are the three available power control algorithms in
M900/M1800 BSC.
GSM_0508 power control algorithm is described in the 0508 protocol. For uplink, upper
limit and lower limit thresholds are set for the receiving signal level and the receiving
signal quality. Counters P' and N' are used to count the measurement reports (MR)
and the values of these counters can be set through OMC. When N' MRs in the
consecutively received P' MRs exceed the above threshold, power regulation will be
executed. The power will be lowered if it exceeds the upper limit, or increased if it
crosses the lower limit.
Next we will focus on the HW_1 power control algorithm.
Usually the steps for power control include:
Š MR preprocessing.
Š Power calculation.
Š Power control decision.
a. MS power control
When a connection occurs, MS transmits the nominal power in the serving cell.
(Nominal power refers to the MS maximum transmitted power of the broadcast system
messages in the BCCH channel before receiving the power regulation command
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. If MS does not support this power level, the most similar and
supportable power level can be adopted, for example the maximum output power level
supported by the MS class mark reported by the indication messages). As BTS can
support multiple calls, the receiving signal strength must be quickly reduced in a new
connection, otherwise the quality of other calls supported by BTS might deteriorate due
to the saturation of the multi-coupler of BTS, and the quality of calls in other cells might
be affected due to strong interference. The purpose of power control and regulation,
therefore, is to quickly reduce the MS transmitted power so as to attain good quality by
the lowered transmitted power.
Parameters to be selected in uplink power control, such as the ideal uplink receiving
level and the ideal uplink receiving quality, are all set by the OMC data management
console. Dynamic data configuration can be made according to the actual conditions of
the cell. When a certain amount of uplink MRs have been received, the receiving level
and receiving quality of the actual uplink can be obtained through interpolation and
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filtering. Power control algorithm compare the values with the ideal uplink receiving
level and quality, and calculate the power level that MS should be modulated to. If the
level calculated is different from the present MS output power level and satisfies certain
application conditions (such as the power regulation step length restriction and the MS
output power range restriction), the power regulation command will be sent. The nature
of the uplink power control modulation is to make the receiving level and receiving
quality of the actual uplink closer to the ideal ones set by the OMC.
b. BTS power control
BTS power control is an optional function. BTS power control and MS power control
are almost the same.
BTS power control includes static power control and dynamic power control. Dynamic
power control is a fine modulation on the basis of static power control. BTS static
power regulated by the 0505 protocol and can be divided into 6 levels (2dB/level). The
maximum power that BTS can transmit is 46dB (40W, and the power of the sixth level
is 34dB. Static power levels are defined by the cell property list of the data
management console, and the maximum output power value of the present dynamic
power control, Pn, is regulated. The level amount of the dynamic power control is set
as 0 15, and the range of the dynamic power control is Pn Pn-30dB. When the
dynamic power control reaches the maximum value but still can not satisfy the
requirement, the level of the static power control should be regulated so as to increase
the maximum output power value Pn of the dynamic power control.
The purpose of BTS dynamic power control is to adjust BTS power output so as to
obtain stable receiving signal strength at the MS. Its main advantage is to reduce
co-channel interference and BTS power consumption.
5.5 Traffic Statistics
Traffic statistics is an important part of BSS, which measures and monitors the whole
system and helps to improve and stablize the network.
The traffic statistics module receives the performance measurement tasks from the
OMC traffic statistics console and dispatches them in a unified way. It informs
corresponding module to start/stop measurement and collects the measurement
results to send the OMC traffic statistics consoles.
The traffic statistics module routinely monitors the key resources of the system
including CPU, message queue, Abis interface receive/transmit queue, and CCB list. It
regularly monitors the service levels of cells and system flow levels to provide
appropriate controls over other application modules.
Each performance measurement task includes four attributes: measurement type,
index definition, cycle definition, and object definition. The BSC's traffic statistics
system covers all the statistical items as specified in the ETSI GSM 12. 04 and a lot of
customized statistical items for easy maintenance.
All these statistical items are classified into 22 measurement types,. To collect the
traffic statistics a user can select the required measurement items, arrange them
randomly.
Cycle definition refers to the start and end definition of a statistics task. The cycle
definition of the BSC's traffic statistics system is flexible, three different statistical time
sections are available for each task. Where the statistical time can be month, week,
day or hours.
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Object definition refers to the object of the statistical task, like the cell number in the
cell performance statistics task, the CES (Connection Endpoint Suffix) number in the
LAPD performance statistics tasks. Each task can have multiple objects, registering all
the statistical tasks of certain objects in a module in the BSC makes statistical task
management easy.
The traffic statistical result of each module is transferred to the BSC's traffic statistical
module, which will then send all the results to the BAM for user observation. The
transfer of results between the foreground and background is carried out by the
mechanism of the message window. This ensures the correct transfer and receiving.
Ì. System architecture
The system architecture is shown in Figure 5-4.

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ÌÌ. Traffic handling process
Messages in the OMC traffic statistics console include the following traffic handling
processes:
Measurement task setup: Check if the task number and parameters are legal. If not,
transmit error indication to the OMC traffic statistics console. If the check is passed,
keep for the task an absolute timer for starting the registration system.
Measurement task deletion: Check the task number. If the check can not be passed,
send the error indication to the OMC traffic statistics console. If the check is passed,
delete the task.
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3
3
Check the task state: Check the task number. If the number is correct, fill in the
corresponding state. Otherwise fill in "no indication for the task¨.
Acceptance confirmation: Confirm in the mode of expecting the next frame. After
receiving the confirmation, delete the measurement result that has been received.
Second-cycle task handling: Monitor the system resources, if the system flow
increases or decreases for a consecutive 10 seconds, a new flow level should be set. If
the flow level is high, inform the corresponding module to execute emergency control
and note the service level of one cell. To equalize the system loads, distribute all noted
values 1 second-cycle within 1 minute. Measurement results are transmitted to the
OMC traffic statistics console per second, and at the most 4 measurement results are
transmitted to the OMC statistics console each time.
5.6 BTS Maintenance
The BTS maintenance module of M900/M1800 BSC provides rich BTS maintenance
functions to the users. Through these operations, users can guarantee the highly
efficient, stable and reliable operations of BTSs. The operation costs will be reduced
and communication service quality will be improved.
5.6.1 BTS Software Loading Management
BTS software loading is one of the most important functions of BTS maintenance.
Since widely distributed BTSs are controlled by single BSC so it is very complicated to
replace the BTS board software at the location. M900/M1800 BSC provides remote
software loading function of BTS so that all software of the BTS can be loaded from the
OMC terminal. BTS software loading is required in two cases.
One is when the BTS maintenance unit is powered on or reset, it requests board
software from the BSC, and BSC will load the BTS software automatically. The version
of the software loaded in BTS can be configured in the slot description list from the
OMC data management console. If the software version stored in the BTS is consistent
with the configured in the data management console, the software will be directly
activated and no need to be loaded.
The other is software version up-gradation. The BTS maintenance unit can keep two
software versions for each board. When the software version is to be updated, forced
loading of the BTS software will be executed in the BTS maintenance console. OMC
maintenance console shall display the whole process and loading time of BTS
software. The OMC can abort the software process if necessary. After the BTS
software is loaded, it need to be activated because the loaded software is stored in the
O&M unit at the BTS side. Activation can be performed independently. Select the
software version to be activated and designate the board to be activated, then force the
BTS to run the new software version. Activation can be performed on multiple
designated boards at the same time. During the activation, there are activation reports
generated. And the OMC BTS maintenance console will display the progress of the
activation and generate activation success report, and prompts which board has been
successfully activated.
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5.6.2 BTS Data Configuration Management
Another important function of BTS management is BTS data configuration. It is
responsible for the initialization of the BTS and ensures the normal working of the BTS.
In addition, it has the functions of BTS data configuration and modification in service.
To be in normal service, boards in BTS need the operation parameters issued by BSC
to BTS. The BTS maintenance module in BSC enables the BTS data configuration
process and configures such information as BTS parameters, cell parameters,
frequency parameter, channel parameters alarm threshold and BTS software &
hardware configurations. In addition, BSC needs to configure the BTS network
structure data to ensure the BTS functioning in different network topologies.
The initialization process of the BTS has two stages: site initialization and cell
initialization.
Ì. Site Ìnitialization
Configuration of the logic object of the BTS. (for example, site, cell, baseband
transceive, carrier frequency and channel)
Configuration of the hardware equipment of the BTS.
Configuration of the parameters of the BTS.
Configuration of the networking of the BTS site.
BTS site initialization commands transmission.
ÌÌ. Cell Ìnitialization
Cell initialization includes:
TEI set up.
Signaling connection setup.
Service connection setup.
Configuration of cell parameters.
Configuration of carrier parameters.
Configuration of channel parameters.
Alarm threshold setting.
Cell initialization commands transmission.
5.6.3 BTS Equipment Operation and Management
The BTS management module of M900/M1800 BSC provides facilitates the users to
check the states of BTS equipment and objects. It also provides necessary
maintenance measures. BTS maintenance is object-oriented. These objects include
BTS sites, cells, basebands, carriers, channels, and BTS boards.
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Ì. Functions provided to the BTS objects
Getting BTS software version, which helps query the information of all software running
in BTS and can display BTS software number, version number, supplementary
description, date of version release and version description.
Getting BTS attributes, including supplier flags, maintenance link property, site input
parameter, site output parameter, terminal equipment flag, clock property, hardware
configuration and software configuration.
BTS hierarchical resetting, when the BTS fails or BSC is restarted, the hierarchical
resetting command will be issued to the BTS. Four levels of resetting commands are
defined for different situations.
Clock Selection, two clock modes are available i.e. free-run mode and locked mode,
which can be selected in the BTS maintenance console.
It provides CPU performance report i.e. CPUs load and occupancy of the different
boards.
Transparent message transmission from OMC to BTS.
ÌÌ. Functions provided to cell objects:
Š Sending the system information about the cell so that the BSC can select to transfer
1, 2, 2bis, 2ter, 3, 4, 5, 5bis, 5ter, or 6.
Š Changing the management state of cell locked/unlocked.
Š Getting cell attributes, including management state, operational state, and BTS data.
ÌÌÌ. Functions provided to baseband objects
Getting baseband attributes.
Changing the management status, which can be changed into LOCKED, UNLOCKED,
or SHUTDOWN.
Querying the channel state.
Forced baseband handover.
TRX hierarchical resetting.
TRX handover.
TRX blocking.
ÌV. Functions provided to TRX objects
Š Getting TRX attributes.
Š Changing the management state, which can be changed into LOCKED, or
UNLOCKED.
Š Shut down the power amplification of TRX.
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V. Functions provided to channel objects
Š Getting channel attributes
Š Changing the management state, which can be changed into BLOCKED,
UNBLOCKED, or SHUTDOWN.
Š Forced channel handover
Š Intra-BSC channel handover
VÌ. Functions provided to BTS equipment management
Š Querying the state of BTS equipment.
Š Resetting the BTS board
Š Querying information about the BTS board
5.6.4 BTS Test Management
To enable the long-term, continuous and stable operations of the system, the use of
test and diagnosis functions are necessary for the maintenance of the whole system.
BTS maintenance module of BSC provides powerful test and diagnosis function.
Boards in BTS are provided with the self-check function. In the operation process,
intelligent boards execute self-check instantly, and generates the alarms automatically
or switchover the boards in case of any fault or abnormality. On the other hand, test
tasks can be initiated in the BTS maintenance console.
BTS test functions provided by the BTS maintenance system of M900/M1800 BSC are:
Š Maintenance link test.
Š Loopback from antenna.
Š Loopback from receiver.
Š Self-test of functional objects.
Š Board self-test.
Š CUIC link self-test.
Š Service connection loop test at the Abis interface.
5.6.5 BTS Alarm Management
BTS alarm management of M900/M1800 BSC is another function of BTS maintenance
management.
During the normal operation of BTS boards will instantly report the faults and
abnormalities and inform the fault processing program to handle the abnormalities. At
the same time, various alarm messages and signals will be generated in the alarm
system.
Whenever the alarm is generated, the alarm processing module shall send the fault
message reported from BTS to the maintenance and operation terminal through the
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man-machine system. The alarm will be sent to the alarm box also through the alarm
box interface board. Visible and audible sound and alarm light indications will be
generated by the alarm box.
The alarm sent to the maintenance and operation terminal will be displayed on the
screen at real-time and stored in the hard disk to be queried, calculated and printed
according to requirements.
The BTS alarm functions provided by the M900/M1800 BSC's BTS maintenance
system:
Š BTS alarms communication system.
Š BTS environmental alarms.
Š Clock system alarms.
Š Antenna system alarms.
Š Carrier system alarms.
Š Baseband system alarms.
Š Power system alarms.
Š Transmission system alarms.
Š Signaling system alarms.
Š Database system alarms.
Š Software running alarms.
5.6.6 TRX Mutual-assistance Management
Faults can be occurred on a running board in the network. If BCCH board becomes
faulty this means an interruption in the service. That is other TRXs of the cell in normal
condition can not work without BCCH. So the mutual-assistance function of the main
BCCH is dedicated to solve this problem and the normal TRX can act as BCCH.
If a certain hopping TRX in a baseband cell gets faulty, all the other basband frequency
hopping TRXs in the cell can not work as a result. This leads to serious deterioration of
the QoS in a cell, even interruption of service. To resolve this issue the baseband
hopping TRX fault processing function ensures a faulty hopping TRX will not affect the
normal work of other hop TRXs.
Ì. BCCH mutual-assistance function during the call
In case of BCCH fault in a cell, another TRX in the cell can be started to provide
service in the place of the TRX where the original BCCH is located. At the same time,
the means of fault recovery is used to restore the original TRX. If the original TRX can
not be restored, service provisioning will be interrupted.
Now, Huawei's BCCH reciprocal function supports the mutual-assistance during the
initialization and running processes respectively. It mainly provides the following
functions:
Š BCCH mutual-assistance during the initialization process
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During cell initialization, if the configurations of the main BCCHs of the BTS or the
TRXs where the main BCCHs are located can not be found, the system will search for
another TRX as a assistant TRX for the main BCCH. Then it will make new
configurations for the cell to ensure the normal working of the cell and support
continuous mutual-assistance during cell initialization.
Š BCCH mutual-assistance during running
In the case of any failure of main BCCH during normal running, the system will submit
a fault state modification report to the BTS management module, which will search
another available TRX as the assistant TRX for the main BCCH. And then it will
reconfigure for the cell to ensure normal service provisioning in the cell.
If the originally faulty BCCH is recovered during the continuous mutual-assistance
process, the system will support the recovery of the original BCCH configuration
according to its assigned priority.
When the BCCH mutual-assistance function makes new configurations in the cell
during running, the handover processes involving calls in the cell will be started first,
and support the current service in the cell to make it sustain.
Š Avoiding close-ended mutual-assistance
To avoid the close-ended mutual-assistance cycle, the reciprocal process will be
delayed when no TRXs available can serve as assistant TRXs. Once a certain TRX in
the cell is recovered at a certain time, the BCCH mutual-assistance process will be
started automatically to ensure instant service provisioning as long as there are TRXs
available.
Š BCCH switchback
When the faulty BCCH is recovered, the user can select main BCCH immediate
switchback or switchback in the case of resources check. If the user selects the
immediate switchback, the cell will restore the configuration of the original BCCH. If the
user selects switchback in the case of resources check, the TRX will serve as an
ordinary TRX to participate in service provisioning in the cell.
Š Supporting BCCH mutual-assistance in different types of cells at the same time
When the BCCH mutual-assistance function supports the baseband hopping cell, radio
hopping cell and non-hopping cell at the same time, and assistant TRX selection takes
place, it is necessary to ensure that the non-hopping TRX is selected first and a
hopping TRX is selected as second option to minimize the affected area.
Š In case of BCCH mutual-assistance or BCCH switchback, alarm messages and log
messages will be transferred to prompt the user through OMC.
Š BCCH mutual-assistance can be enabled or disabled by the user through OMC.
ÌÌ. Baseband Hopping TRX Fault Processing
In case of fault with a certain baseband hopping TRX during the normal running
process in a cell, this BTS will report the fault. The baseband frequency hopping TRX
fault processing function will delete the faulty baseband frequency hopping TRX from
the corresponding frequency hopping set so that the other frequency hopping boards
can work normally. At the same time, this can ensure the faulty board which is
recovered can work as a non-hopping board.
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Baseband frequency hopping TRX fault processing mainly include the following
functions:
Š Processing of baseband frequency hopping TRX faults
In case of a certain baseband hopping TRX fault during the normal running process in
a cell, this BTS will report the fault. On receiving the report, the BTS management
module will automatically adjust frequency hopping parameters, and delete the faulty
baseband frequency hopping TRX from the corresponding hop set. Then it will make
new configurations for the whole cell, the other baseband hop TRXs remain
unchanged.
Š Recovery of the faulty TRXs
When the faulty TRX originally involved in baseband hopping, it can provide service
instantly. Now the user can decide at the maintenance console if the original baseband
frequency hopping configuration should be restored or they should be restored in the
case of resources check. If the user selects not to restore temporarily, this TRX can
provide service as a non-hopping TRX.
Š Maintaining the current communications in the cell
When new configurations are made for the cell in case of fault with the baseband
hopping TRX or the recovery of the faulty TRX, the handover process involving the
ongoing calls will be started to support the current service and make it sustain.
Š In case of baseband hopping TRX fault or the recovery of the faulty TRX, the BTS
will transfer alarm messages to the background to prompt the user of the ongoing
baseband hopping TRX mutual-assistance.
Š The baseband hopping TRX mutual-assistance can be enabled or disabled by user
through OMC.
5.6.7 Support of GPRS Service
The BTS management module's support of GPRS service include:
Ì. Configurations of channel attributes during dynamic PDCH<->TCH conversion
To implement real-time adjustment of the radio resources between packet switching
and circuit switching according to the traffic and actual situation, the M900/M1800 BSC
provides a function of dynamic conversion between PDCH for packet switching and
circuit-based TCH.
For example, when packet traffic exceeds the loading capacity of the current packet
channel, the PCU needs to request packet channels from the BSC. When the
circuit-based traffic load is exceeded , the BSC requests PDCHs from the PCU as the
TCH of the circuit-based service.
During the dynamic conversion between channels, the BTS needs to make
configurations for the BTS, and transmit messages periodically when necessary to
ensure the successful configurations of channel attributes.
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ÌÌ. Re-establishment of channel connection in the case of dynamic change to packet
channel coding
When change takes place to the quality of service of the radio channels, it is necessary
to adjust the rate of the packet channel.
When the QoS of the packet channel is good, high-speed coding (CS3/4) can be used
for the air interface, a packet channel needs multiple 16kbps trunk links at the Abis
interface, and new interworking is necessary between the BTS and BSC.
When the QoS of the packet channel deteriorates, the coding mode for the air interface
is reduced to CS1/2, and the corresponding trunk links at the Abis interface. In these
situations, the BTS needs to reestablish the channel connections and retransmit
messages to the subscriber depending on the needs so as to ensure the success of
channel connection.
ÌÌÌ. Direct message transfer between BTS and PCU
There are some messages processes between BTS and PCU, like BTS reports to the
PCU the supporting capability of GPRS by the TRX and the PCU configuring the cell
GPRS attributes for the BTS. These messages sent by BTSM are transmitted
transparently by BSC.
5.6.8 Other Management Processes
Other management processes mainly include circuit/channel blocking, 18/18/18 TRX
networking, active/standby management of central boards, alarm masking, transfer of
idle BURST, BTS log report, and resources check.
Ì. Blocking of channels/circuits
The maintenance console supports the blocking operation on the cell, TRX, and radio
channel.
The blocking process does not effect the established call. It first handover the existing
call to the other traffic channel and after this handover the blocking action will be
implemented so that there should be no interruption in subscriber's communication. .
The cell of the best quality should be chosen for handover.
ÌÌ. 18/18/18 networking
The BTS supports the 18/18/18 networking mode, that is, a cell can carry 18 TRXs,
and a site can carry 54 TRXs. This will greatly expand service capacity and improve
service quality.
ÌÌÌ. Smooth active/standby switchover of GMPU
GMPU plays a critical role in the system. The dual-system switchover mechanism in
the system is an important measure to improve the reliability and tolerance of the whole
system.
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The fault in GMPU or the abnormality in its software can cause a failure of the whole
system, so active/standby switchover is provided to ensure the system reliability. A
manual active/standby switchover command can be activated from the maintenance
console. That is, the system switched to backup board from the active board rapidly.
The M900/M1800 BSC ensures the smooth mobile user communication during the
switchover i.e. no interruption in the subscribers calls. The various resources will not be
suspended, and the control over the BTS can proceed normally.
ÌV. Alarm filtration
In case any alarm at BTS end, the BTS will report alarm messages to the BSC, which
will report them to the alarm console. Maintenance staff then can view the alarms to fix
it.
If the fault is not eliminated temporarily, the function of alarm filtration can be used to
avoid the repetitive issuing of this alarm. Alarm filtration of certain alarm levels,
categories and boards can be achieved. The filtered alarm can be de-filtered and the
alarm will resume the original reporting mechanism. It provides a flexible control on the
generation and report of alarms to the users.
V. Ìdle BURST transfer
During network optimization, it is sometimes necessary to maximize the interference
within the network to attain the maximum interference level for the network. The
method is to transfer test messages through the maintenance console so that all
timeslots not in the communicating state of the non-BCCH TRXs in the designated
BTS in the test area will transmit the idle BURST (dummy burst).
VÌ. BTS log report
The daily internal running state of the BTS is kept in the form of log. The BSC retrieves
the log information of all the sites every day, and store them in RAM in the form of file.
Or the log information can be retrieved manually, starting at the BTS maintenance
console.
VÌÌ. Resources check
Resources audit can be conducted at a fixed time every day between the BTSM and
BTS to avoid the hang-up of resources due to abnormalities between the BTS and
BSC. This function ensures the self-healing mechanism between the BSC and BTS i.e.
reliable system functioning.
VÌÌÌ. Remote EAC maintenance function
This function is responsible for remote modification of the temperature and humidity
alarm threshold of the EAC, operations on the relay, and resetting of EAC. This
function makes EAC better adapt to the field environment and enables EAC to
automatically monitor its environment, issue alarms in the case of time-out, and drive
relevant executors. In a word, it implements centralized management of the BTS.
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5.7 BSC Maintenance and Operation
The operation and maintenance system of M900/M1800 BSC is mainly used to receive
the OMC maintenance commands, routine maintenance in MPU, control start, tracing
and monitoring of different parameters of the system, control setting and memory
operations. It is also used to return the operation results to OMC.
5.7.1 Daily Maintenance
Ì. Query of software version
In the M900/M1800 BSC system, version numbers to be queried including the main
version number, annexed version number, and description of the version.
ÌÌ. View module state
The state of all BM modules in a BSC can be viewed in M900/M1800BSC system.
Inactive modules are indicated by asterisk "*".
5.7.2 Control Functions
Ì. Circuit control
Circuit control refers to the trunk circuit control used in the system. Maintenance staff
can execute the various operations on the designated trunk circuit through OMC
maintenance console, including state query, circuit blocking, circuit unblocking, circuit
reset and checking the circuit in designated state.
ÌÌ. LAPD link maintenance
The maintenance staff can check and reset the LAPD links of the main system via
maintenance management system.
ÌÌÌ. Ìmmediate switchover
To guarantee the safe and reliable operations of the system, the M900/M1800 BSC
system provides proper redundancy. Active and standby boards are configured in the
system. Active boards provide service functions in normal operations while standby
boards are backups of the active boards. In case of any abnormality in the active board
the system switches to the standby board, so that the system can operate safely and
continuously.
The active/standby switchover of the system has two modes: the first is when the
active board fails, the system performs automatic switchover, and in the other mode
maintenance staff can execute the switchover of the equipment through the
maintenance terminal. After immediate switchover command has been sent to the
main system, the special maintenance module informs the relative module to execute
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the switchover. Equipment that can be switched over includes GMPU board, GNET
board and clock board.
ÌV. Hierarchical reset
Maintenance staff can execute level-2, level-3 or level-4 restarting through the OMC
maintenance console. Different influences will be generated by restarting of different
levels and loading of programs and data.
V. System board's query & control
Through OMC maintenance console, maintenance staff can check the configurations
and states of boards of each module, query and reset designated boards.
Normal/abnormal running of active/standby boards and software versions can be
checked. TS (time slot) occupancy can be seen and real-time update can be enabled
according to the changes of TS occupancy state of the network boards.
When OMC issues the command of check equipment state, the maintenance console
sends the command to the special maintenance module in the GMPU via BAM. The
maintenance module checks the configurations of all boards and sends the results to
the maintenance console in the form of packets. At the same time, it labels the state of
boards in shelves in MPU. If the board states in a shelf are changed, the maintenance
module will send the new board state information of the shelf to the OMC maintenance
console so that the maintenance staff can observe the real-time refreshed information
of boards in main system.
VÌ. HDLC link state
This is to check the states of HDLC links on the GMCC, GSNT, and GCTN boards.
VÌÌ. BSC system reset
Maintenance staff can reset the BSC remotely via OMC maintenance console.
Unlike the hierarchical resetting, BSC overall resetting is an operation on all modules. It
clears the software resources of all BM modules including call and connection and
sends resetting message to MSC. The operation will also refresh fault circuit state of
this BSC to complete overall resetting of BSC.
After the operation of overall resetting, the system will generate alarm.
VÌÌÌ. System resources check
During resources checking, the resources with inconsistent states are released by
force so that the system can run reliably for long time. The resources
allocation/management module is for preventing the suspension of resources. Here
resources include not only radio channels, GNET board timeslot, CIC, etc., but also the
data buffer in the module, for if the data buffer is not released normally after used, this
can result in the lowering of system efficiency or even system collapse.
To avoid any inconsistency between the PCU and BSC due to abnormalities, it is
necessary to carry out periodic check of the resources between the BSC and PCU.
The check is started by the PCU, and the BSC is responsible for correcting the
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inconsistencies between the two. The check involves the types and states of the
PDCH, states of the PCIC and cell, etc.
ÌX. Loading of GLAP board software
This loading is done dynamically to complete the upgrading and replacement of GLAP
board software. The detailed method for the loading of GLAP board software is as
follows:
First, load the software when the GLAP board is running without affecting the current
services through OMC. Just dynamically write the software to be replaced into the
Flash Memory of the GLAP. When the loading is finished, switch to the new version for
running.
5.7.3 Tracing and Monitoring of M900/M1800 BSC Functions
The maintenance management part of the M900/M1800 BSC system provides
powerful tracing and monitoring function, including interface tracing and monitoring
system performance.
Ì. Handover monitoring
When the mobile subscribers move in different areas, different handovers might occur,
including inter-office handover, inter-BSC handover, inter-cell handover, and intra-cell
handover.
With respect to the BSS, handover mainly refers to the last three types. In the
maintenance management system of M900/M1800 BSC, monitoring and observation
can be executed on handover of cells, TRXs and of different types. To establish the
observation of handover, dynamic settings can be made on the types of handover, cell
numbers and TRX numbers.
When the maintenance staff starts the handover observation request in the OMC
maintenance console, the command is sent to the foreground GMPU module through
BAM. The special maintenance module receives the command and set up the
handover observation table to record the handover types, handover cell and TRX that
the maintenance staff needs to observe. When the handover occurs, the handling
module will send sequentially the message contents of the handover process to the
OMC maintenance console that has set up handover observations according to the
filtering conditions and OMC workstation locations set in the handover observation
table.
When the maintenance staff sets new filtering conditions to the established handover
observation, the OMC maintenance console sends the command to the main system
foreground module through the BAM service program. After receiving the command,
the main system maintenance module finds the corresponding item in the handover
observation table and reset the filtering conditions of the handover observation.
Major filtering conditions of the handover includes: observe cell number, TRX number,
target cell number, target TRX number, IMSI and MSISDN.
Observation types include: Incoming cell handover observation, outgoing cell handover
observation, intra-cell handover observation, inter-cell handover observation, incoming
BSC handover observation and outgoing BSC handover observation.
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ÌÌ. Ìnterface tracing
In the GSM system, the contacts and message transfer between entities are all via
standard interfaces, which are: A interface between MSC and BSC, Abis interface
between BSC and BTS and Um interface between the BTS and MS.
The maintenance management of the M900/M1800 BSC's GMPU system can trace
the messages on standard interfaces and provides detailed explanations. For different
interfaces, the setting of filtering condition function is provided to facilitate the user's
observations of different messages on the interfaces.
Š For A-interface messages, filtering conditions are: Connectionless messages, DTAP
messages and BSSMAP messages.
Š For Abis interface messages, filtering conditions are: BTS number, TRX number,
channel number, MR, radio link layer management messages, dedicated channel
management messages, common channel management messages and TRX
management messages.
Š For Um interface messages, filtering conditions are: BTS number, TRX number,
channel number, RR (radio resource) management messages, MM (mobility
management) messages, CC (call control) messages, SS (supplementary service)
messages related to calls, SS messages not related to calls, and SMS (short
messages).
ÌÌÌ. CPU monitoring
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management system can monitor the present
operation performance indices of the main system, including CPU occupation ratio, AM
memory, CPU occupation ratio on boards of AM. The system can display if the CPU
occupation ratio is normal, overloaded or congested, and can be real-time refreshed
dynamically.
Maintenance staff can initiate the CPU load observation by command, which is sent to
the maintenance module through BAM service program. The maintenance module
returns the CPU load and state to the OMC maintenance console and records the
address information of the OMC maintenance console.
When the CPU occupation ratio is changed, the new CPU occupation ratio and state
will be sent to the maintenance console.
The operation states of CPU include normal, overloaded and congested. When the
CPU occupation ratio is higher than the overload start threshold, the state value of
CPU is changed to overloaded. When the occupation ratio of CPU is lower than the
overload end threshold, the state value of CPU is changed from overloaded to normal.
When the occupation ratio of CPU is higher than the congestion start threshold, the
state value of CPU is changed to congested. When the CPU occupation ratio is
decreased to the congestion end threshold, the state value of CPU is changed from
congested to overloaded state.
ÌV. Reset E1 port on E3M
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management system can reset an E1 port in the main
system.
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To reset E1 port, maintenance staff must first decide the E3M board number and E1
port number. This resetting command is sent to the maintenance module in the main
system via BAM service program. After receiving this command, the maintenance
module would interpret and send this command to the corresponding E3M board. Then
the maintenance module would wait for the response of E3M and transfer it to the
maintenance console, which displays the information of successful resetting or timeout.
V. Query clock output on E3M
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management system can monitor the E1 through
which the current clock signal from MSC to BSC is transmitted
When the maintenance staff starts querying the E1 port of E3M board clock output, the
E3M board number should be specified first. This query command is sent to
maintenance module via BAM service program. The maintenance module would
interpret and send the command to corresponding E3M board after receiving this
command. Then the maintenance module would wait and transfer the response of E3M
to the maintenance console. If the query is successful, the maintenance console would
display E3M board number, the E1 port number of reference resource and output
reference resource. If the query fails, timeout is displayed on the maintenance console.
VÌ. Query E1 port on E3M
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management system can monitor E1 performance of
each E3M from BSC unit to TCSM, including E3M board number, E1 configuration and
the working state.
When the maintenance staff starts the query of E1 port, the E3M board number and E1
port number should be specified first. This query command is sent to the maintenance
module via BAM service program. After receiving the command, the maintenance
module would interpret and send the command to the corresponding E3M board. Then
the maintenance module would wait and transfer the response of E3M to maintenance
console. In addition, the maintenance console also displays E1 port state. If E1 is not
configured, the maintenance console would display that the port is not installed, if E1
works normally, the maintenance console would display normal, if E1 line is unplugged
or TCSM fails, the maintenance console will display the fault. If the query fails, the
maintenance console would display timeout.
VÌÌ. Query 2K network state on E3M
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management system can monitor current interworking
state of 2K network of E3M in the MPU.
When maintenance staff starts querying of E1 port, E3M board's number should be
specified first. This query command is sent to the maintenance module via BAM
service program. After receiving this command, the maintenance module would
interpret and send this command to the corresponding E3M board. Then the
maintenance module would wait for the response of E3M and transfer it to the
maintenance console. If the query is successful, the maintenance console would
display 2K network state table, otherwise timeout would be displayed on background.
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5.7.4 Memory Operation
Memory operations by maintenance and management of the M900/M1800 BSC
system includes memory check and memory dump.
Ì. Memory check
M900/M1800 BSC maintenance management enables the checking of operating
memory data of the GMPU. When OMC maintenance console starts the memory
check command, the command will be sent to the maintenance module in the GMPU
through BAM. The maintenance module will then packet the section of memory data
starting from the required memory address and send the packet to the maintenance
console that initiate the command.
ÌÌ. Memory dump
When data is to be stored, the maintenance staff can dump a designated section of
memory data on the external media (MT, optical disk) or OMC hard disk with the help
of dump function.
5.7.5 Threshold Setup of CPU (MPU)
Congestion and overload threshold of main system CPU (MPU) can be set through
OMC maintenance console.
When the CPU occupation ratio exceeds the CPU overload start value, the main
system is congested and will generate alarms. When the CPU occupation ratio is lower
than the CPU overload end value, the system is recovered to the normal state and
generates recovery alarms.
The start and end values of the congestion should both be more than those of the
overload and the start value should be more than the end value. The default values of
CPU congestion and overload threshold in M900/M1800 BSC are: CPU overload start
value 90%, CPU overload end value 70%, CPU congestion start value 95%, and CPU
congestion end value 80%.
5.8 Cell Broadcast
5.8.1 lntroduction
Cell broadcast is a specific service of the GSM system, broadcasting information to all
mobile stations of a specific area periodically. The MS supporting this service can
monitor this broadcasting information continuously and this information can be
displayed. The typical example of cell broadcast is the broadcasting of traffic
information and weather information.
Short message service cell broadcast (SMSCB) allows short messages to be
broadcast to all mobile stations within specific areas which may be one or more cells,
or even a whole PLMN area. The short message from cell broadcast center (CBC) is
sent to base station controller (BSC), and BSC will manage and dispatch the message,
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and send the received message to BTS, which can control the flow of short message
broadcast.
Figure 5-6 shows the architecture of the cell broadcast system.
F|gure 5-6 Arc||leclure ol ce|| oroadcasl
5.8.2 lntroduction to Cell Broadcast Functions
Ì. Receving and storing of short messages
BSC receives and stores the short message from CBC.
There are three kinds of commands for broadcasting short messages sent from the
CBC i.e. to send a new broadcasting short message, to delete an outdated message or
a message met specified requirements, and to replace an old message with a new
one. BSC handles these three cases respectively and updates the memory of short
messages, i. e., adding the new message to the short message database. On the
reception of new command it delete the older one, or delete the older message before
adding a new message after the reception of replacing message. If old message can
not be deleted then the new message will not be added.
ÌÌ. Dispatching and transmitting of short messages
Every short message should be broadcast in specific areas, which correspond to one
or more cells. In the meantime, every message has its own transmit requirements, i. e. ,
the transmit times and frequency of each message are different. BSC should send
each message to the specific area according to its transmit requirements.
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4
4
When a cell requests multiple short message, BSC should calculate the transmitting
time sequence according to specific message dispatch algorithm, and send these
messages to BTS in turn according to the assigned sequence.
ÌÌÌ. Responding to the query of cell broadcast center
While storing and transmitting short messages, BSC will record the completion
message, the number sent by each cell, message load conditions of each cell and the
broadcast channel state of each cell.
CBC can keep track of the current system running state by query and monitor the cell
broadcast system. It can adjust and optimize the system to ensure satisfactory running
of the system. When fault occurs in cell, BSC will report it to CBC, which will stop
sending short messages to this cell.
When CBC identifies that a specific broadcast message is sent, it will send a command
to delete or replace this message from BSC to reduce its load.
When CBC identifies that short messages of a specific cell is too heavy, it will send a
deletion command for some short messages of this cell to reduce the message loads
to this cell.
5.8.3 Cell Broadcast Features
Ì. Support of mobile station DRX mode
DRX refers to that mobile station receives cell broadcast short message
discontinuously.
The mobile station supports DRX mode, can receive only concerned short messages,
which extends the service time of mobile station.
One dispatching message contains the information of the short messages to be sent
one after another in a cell. The cycle occupied by short messages in one dispatching
message is called dispatching cycle.
Dispatching message contains the descriptions of each short message to be broadcast
according to the transmit sequence, and indicates the message position in dispatching
cycle. Mobile subscriber can read concerned short message in less time by reading
dispatching message, thus minimizing power consumption.
ÌÌ. Traffic control of the BTS
The transmit sequence of short messages in each cell is dispatched by BSC and
transmitted by BTS.
Each TRX of BTS maintains one message buffer and sends short message
periodically to mobile station through specific channel. Thus, there will be an
asynchronous state of sending short messages between BSC and BTS. In this case,
BTS will report this asynchronous state to BSC in the form of load indication message.
If a specific TRX receives too many short messages and can not send them in time,
BSC will temporarily stop sending short message of this TRX according to load
indication. If a TRX barely receives short messages, BSC will send out some short
messages so that the time sequence for sending short message in this cell will be met.
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5.9 Extended Cell
There is a 64bit cycle in TA of the GSM system, so the radius of a cell can not be over
35km. In most cases, a radius of 35km is enough, but for special cases, a radius of
more than 35Km may be required, like along the highway/railway, broad plain area and
coast, so cell extension becomes necessary.
A large circle outside the small circle in Figure 5-7 shows an extended cell and a
normal cell (smaller circle).
There can be more extended cells and the difference between the radius of the both
cell can be up to 35 kilometers i.e. a user can achieve the coverage up to 70 kilometer
(radius of cell B).
F|gure 5-7 App||cal|ors ol exlerded ce||
After the synchronization channel has synchronized with the BTS (the downlink is
already far sometimes with a large timeslot offset, but the MS does not know this), the
MS will be notified in the subsequent process of TA values with a range of 0-63). The
MS will process them normally and send signals some time by advance. The
transmission delay is corrected by the BTS , which can align with the timeslot after the
intrinsic delay.
Intrinsic delay bits can be adjusted according to the results of network planning and
path test. Theoretically this delay is equal to the genuine TA (now with the largest
coverage) corresponding to the min. signal transmission distance between the MS and
the BTS less 64 (coverage that can be processed in a normal cell). Mathematically the
domain value is reduced to 0 (kilometers of the inside diameter of the((ring *64/35
kilometers) 1), the unit being bit/cycle. If the max transmission distance between the
MS and the BTS is less than 35km, the fictitious TA can be simply set to 0. Figure 5-7
shows an omni cell. As for the directional cell, the extended cell is a local ring. In actual
applications, the inside/outside ring cells should have overlapped coverage to some
extent. So the fixed delay of neighbor ring cell is set to a value between 60-63bit
cycles.
5.10 Dynamic Data Configuration Management
Dynamic data configuration is also called data configuration in service, that is
modifications of system configuration data and system attribute data without resetting
the BSC. This is very important for smooth expansion of the system capacity and
network replanning.
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If a BSC is in operation and a user wants to modify its data, reset of BSC means
interruption of BSC and its BTS services. Dynamic data configuration facilitates the
implementation of data modification and minimizes the impact on the current service.
Ì. Operation method
A dynamic data configuration service system runs on the OMC server. It is responsible
for implementing the function of dynamic data modifications with guidance and online
help. The service system simultaneously handles data validity, consistency, integrity,
and tolerance check automatically. And the user does not have to worry about the
content and method of the modification, which simplifies the process of dynamic data
configuration, conveniences the user, and greatly improves the efficiency and security
of dynamic data configuration.
ÌÌ. Functions
Sites addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the sites in various networking
modes, and even the cells, TRXs, and BTS boards from the OMC database. This
function does not affect the other working sites and the circuit-based and packet-based
services that have been set up.
Cells addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the GSM900 and GSM1800
cells, and even the TRXs and BTS boards from the OMC database. This function does
not affect the other working sites and the circuit-based and packet-based services that
have been set up.
TRXs addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) the GSM900 and GSM1800
TRXs, and corresponding BTS boards. This function does not affect the other working
sites and the circuit-based and packet-based services that have been set up. And it
can add the anti-collision mechanism specifically to the fault processing function for
main BCCH reciprocity and baseband hop TRX to ensure that there is no negative
impact even if the reciprocal TRXs are deleted.
BTS boards addition/removal: This function can add (or delete) any board at the BTS
side.
Modification of the cell's system messages: This function can modify the system
messages transferred to the cell without affecting the circuit-based service already set
up in the cell, but can affect the established packet-based service.
Modification of handover parameters of the cell: After the modification, handover can
be performed on the basis of the new parameters. This function does not affect the
normal working of the cell and the established circuit-based and packet-based
services.
Modification of cell power control parameters: Power control parameter can be
readjusted according to the system requirements without interfering the circuit-based
services and packet-based services.
Modification of clock parameters: This function can modify the clock mode of the site
and clock parameters 1 and 2 without affecting the normal working of the site and
established the circuit-based and packet-based services.
Modification of BTS and network color code: This function does not affect the normal
working of the other cells and the established circuit-based and packet-based services.

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Modification of the cell state: Through this function a user can change the cell state
from installed to uninstalled state. It is similar to the cell addition/removal function
except that the originally configured data does not need to be configured. This function
does not affect the normal working of the other cells and the established circuit-based
and packet-based services.
Modification of cell attributes: This function can modify the interference band threshold,
saturation threshold, and DC bias voltage threshold without affecting the normal
working of the cell and the established circuit-based and packet based services.
Modification of cell system message: This function can modify the system messages
transferred to the cell without affecting the established circuit-based services , but the
established packet-based service will be effected.
Modification of cell handover parameters: This modification enables handover to
proceed on the basis of new parameters without affecting the normal working of the
cell and the established circuit-based and packet-based services.
Modification of cell power control parameters: Through it a user can change power
control parameter of a cell without affecting the circuit-based and packet-based
services. The modification of handover parameters and power control parameters can
easily optimize the network and improve the communication quality.
Modification of carrier frequencies: This function can modify the frequencies of the
GSM900 and GSM1800 TRX. Modifying the TRX frequencies of non-active BCCH of
non-baseband hopping cell will not affect the calls already set up, but will affects the
packet-based service.
Modification of cell's frequency hopping attributes: The software of the BSC supports
timeslot hopping and can dynamically modify the hopping parameters of various
channels in the cell, including MA table, MAIO, TSC, and HSN. As for the RF hopping
cell, this function can modify the number of frequencies involved in hopping, for the
baseband hopping cell, the function can modify the frequency values involved and
change the cell from a hopping cell to non-hopping one and vice versa. This function
does not affect the normal working of other cells and the established circuit-based and
packet-based services.
Modification of carrier frequency attributes: This function can modify the carrier
frequency's static power level, saturation threshold and DC bias voltage threshold.
Modification of channel types: This function can change any active BCCH to such
ordinary BCCHs as the TCH, SDCCH or PDCH, without affecting the established
circuit-based service. If the modification of channel type involves the PDCH before and
afterwards, this will affect the packet-based service.
ÌÌÌ. Dynamic data configuration checks
In addition to the reliability check mechanisms provided by the OMC the BTSM
provides such mechanisms as timed retransmission, added response, and alarming so
that data can be configured correctly and completely in the BTS. In case of BTS
maintenance link fault, the dynamic data configuration commands to the BTS can not
be sent, this will cause inconsistency between the data at the site and that in the BSC's
GMPU, which will affect the working quality of the system. At this time, the BTSM will
periodically re-issue dynamic data commands to the BTS and issue alarms to the OMC
Chapter 5
Function Description
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
5-42
Chapter 6 Configuration AppIication
6.1 Overview of System Configuration
The M900/M1800 BSC inherits the advantages of hardware design of Huawei C&C08
digital switching system, so it can be configured easily and flexibly. For system
configuration please read the following rules carefully:
a. Large capacity BSC includes AM/CM module and BM modules. Each AM/CM module
can support up to 8 BM modules. And each BM module has a capacity of 1024 voice
channels (128 TRXs), 128 cells. One BSC can support 1024 TRXs, 1024 cells at the
most. The 64kbit/s links between BSC and BTS should satisfy the following
requirements:
Each voice channel occupies 16kbit/s and 8 traffic channels of each TRX are two
64kbit/s links.
In case of 10:1 multiplexing, each RSL or OML link occupies 64kbit/s independently. In
case of 12:1 multiplexing, each RSL link occupies 32kbit/s, and two RSL links occupy
together a 64kbit/s, and each OML link independently occupies a 64kbit/s.
In case of 5:1 multiplexing, each RSL or OML link occupies 16kbit/s, and 4 RSL or
OML links occupy together a 64kbit/s.
If a site is required to support CS3, CS4 or other higher efficient coding method, it is
necessary to reserve some 64kbit/s trunk links since CS3 and CS4 schemes need
more additional time slots. The exact amount to be reserved depends on the network
planning.
b. In the AM/CM structure, since BM module is used to implement BTS access, all 64
HWs available can be allocated to BIE. All voice channels run through the optical fiber
between BM module and AM/CM module. Each BM module has 2 pairs of optical fibers
that work in load sharing mode, so total 1024 voice channels are available.
c. In AM/CM, optical fiber communication boards (FBC) and optical fiber interface boards
(GFBI) are used in pairs. The quantity configured is relevant with the quantity of the BM
modules attached. Assuming that the quantity of BM modules are N, then the quantity
of FBC/GFBIs are [(N+1)/2] 2.
d. The number of E3M boards in AM/CM is calculated as follows: assuming that the BM
modules attached to an AM/CM is N, then the number of E3Ms is N 2. The number
of E1 drive boards (DRC boards) are the same as that of E3M boards.
e. In AM/CM, the quantity of GMCC boards are configured according to the quantity of BM
modules connected. The GMCC boards in slot 15 and 16 are configured fixedly. If
AM/CM has 1-2 modules, just add 2 GMCC boards, if it has 3-4 modules, add 4 GMCC
boards and so on. Assuming that the BM modules attached to AM/CM is N, the
quantity of GMCC boards are calculated by the following formula: [(N+1)/2] 2+2.
f. One BM module provides 192 LAPD links, 8 SS7 links, and 8 PbSLs.
g. BIE (base station interface equipment) between BSC and BTS is configured with
complete 1+1 redundancy. Two units work independently.
Chapter 6
Configuration Application
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
6-1
h. Up to 4 GNOD boards can be plugged in each BM module, 2 GNOD boards are
configured in most cases.
i. One BM module has the resources of 64 HWs (highway) that are available for
allocation.
j. AM/CM should be configured with a clock shelf. Clock board is configured to a stratum
three clock, which is synchronous with the clock of MSC or BITS clock. The switch
module synchronizes with the AM/CM clock via the optic path on the GOPT board, so it
is unnecessary to configure a clock frame.
k. Operations and maintenance activities of the M900/M1800 BSC system are executed
by the OMC (Operation & Maintenance Center). A BSC is configured with one BAM. In
general, the BAM is connected to the SERVER of OMC through network card, router,
protocol conversion equipment and transmission equipment. The OMC terminals
perform centralized maintenance to BSS via SERVER.
l. TCSM units are equipped in an independent cabinet. A TCSM cabinet with full
configuration contains six TCSM frames. Each TCSM frame can be configured up to 4
TCSM units. And each TCSM unit has a full configuration of one MSM board and four
FTC boards.
When a TCSM unit is in full configuration and employs SS7, totally 119 voice channels
can be provided.
When a TCSM unit is in full configuration but does not use SS7, 123 voice channels
can be provided
TCSM unit adopts N 1 backup mode. As there are MSM board and FTC board in
TCSM unit, N 1 backup means that an additional MSM board should be configured
for backup, and up to FTC boards are configured for backup according to the quantity
of voice channels.
m. The quantity of LAPD boards is determined by the quantity of TRXs (T) and Cells (C) of
each BM module. If it is calculated assuming the LAPD link of 64kbit/s or 32kbit/s, the
needed LAPD boards are (T+C)/32. Then, the quantity of LAPD boards will be
available by adding the quantity of LAPD boards of each switch module. In the
meantime, considering allowance, the quantity of actual configuration is the calculated
total sum plus 1, and the minimum quantity of LAPD boards is 2.
n. For large-capacity BSC, the trunk E1s to the PCU is led out via the E3 board, and for
small-capacity BSC, it is led out via the SMI board. The number of E1s are optional.
One E1 line has 128 16kbit/s timeslots, 4 of which are used for synchronization, and 4
for PbSL (suppose this E1 is configured with PbSL). The number of the circuits for data
transmission are 120.
6.2 Typical Configuration
Table 6-1 is a configuration table for large-capacity BSC.
Suppose:
One AM/CM supports 3 BM modules, and each BM module supports 64 TRXs.
TRXs of each switching are allocated as follows: The four cells with 12 TRXs each are
configured in a star network, the four cells with 2 TRXs each in a start network, and the
two cells with 4 TRXs each in a chain network.
Each switching has one E1 leading to the PCU, and E1 is configured with a PbSL link.
Chapter 6
Configuration Application
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
6-2
The structure of the AM/CM structure is shown in Figure 6-1.
TC8H ur|l
AV/CV
E3V
8V 8V 8V
PCu
F|gure 6-1 8lruclure ol AH/CH
As shown in Figure 6-1, AM/CM supports three BM modules and GFBI boards employ
load sharing mode, so four GFBI boards are required.
As each BM module needs 2 E3M boards, totally 6 E3M boards are required.
GMCC board works in link backup mode. For three modules, four sub-GMCC boards
and two main GMCC boards are required. For detailed configuration, refer to Table
6-1.
Tab|e 6-1 88C AH/CH corl|gural|or lao|e
8 3ecordary poWer ooard PwC 13
2 C|oc| ooard 0CK3 12
1 A|arr ooard 0ALV 11
2 3|gra||rg sW||cr|rg re|Wor| ooard ---03NT (32-rodu|e) 10
ê Corrur|ca||or cor|ro| ooard---0VCC (32-rodu|e) 9
ê E1 ooard oac| dr|v|rg ooard--- 0RC 8
ê Large capac||y 83CAV/CVE1 |r|erlace ooard--- E3V Z
1 0p||ca| oac|p|are --- 1X2 F8C ê
1 0p||ca| l|oer corrur|ca||or ooard lor 10,000 suoscr|oer ||res sW||cr|rg sys|er--- 0F8l l 5
2 Cer|ra| sW||cr|rg re|Wor| ooard---0CTN 1
1 Va|r cor|ro| lrare lor 10,000 suoscr|oer ||res sW||cr|rg sys|ers (32-rodu|e)--- VC8 3
1 C|oc| lrare---CK8 2
1 Trarsr|ss|or |r|erlace lrare Fl0 (reW 32-rodu|e) 1
Quantity Name No.
Figure 6-2 shows the networking of one BM module, other two BM modules have
similar configurations.
Chapter 6
Configuration Application
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
6-3
8V
8lE
8lE
8lE
8lE
1TRX
12TRX
12TRX
12TRX
2TRX 2TRX
2TRX
2TRX
1TRX
12TRX
AV/CV
E3V
TC3V
|w
E1
PCu
303N V3C
0p||ca| l|oer
Trarsparer|
|rarsr|s|cr
8lE
|w
F|gure 6-2 NelWor||rg ol ore 8H rodu|e
According to Figure 6-2, 4 BIE boards in active/standby mode are needed. In addition,
each BM module in large-capacity BSC needs a BIE board for transparent transfer of
SSN7 and PbSL signaling. So, there are 9 BIE boards in total.
64 TRXs require 480 (64*7.5=480) channels in the MSC direction and 16 (480/30=16)
FTC boards, 3 BM modules need totally 48 (16 3 48) FTC boards, and 12 TCSM
units (4 3= 12). As TCSM unit is in N 1 backup mode, the final number of the TCSM
units needed is 13 (12+1=13), and of FTC boards is 52 (48 4 52).
9 BIE boards occupy 5 main nodes, need 2 GNOD boards.
64 TRXs and 10 sites need 74 LPAD links (64+10=74) and 2 LAPD protocol
processing boards (64/2+10)/32=2. Since LAPD is in N 1 backup mode, 4 LAPD
protocol process boards are needed.
The detailed calculated configuration data is given in Table 6-2, 6-3:
Tab|e 6-2 Corl|gural|or lor TC8H ur|l
13 V3V ooard 1
52 FTC ooard 3
8 PoWer ooard 0Pw3 2
1 TC3V lrare 1
Count Name
Serial
number
Chapter 6
Configuration Application
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
6-4
Tab|e 6-3 Corl|gural|or lor eac| 8H rodu|e
9 83C s|de 8T3 |r|erlace ooard 8lE 15
2 8V rodu|e op||c l|oer ooard 00PT 11
2 0ua|-||r| rodu|e corrur|ca||ors ooard 0VC2 13
1 A|arr ooard 0ALV 12
1 LAP0 pro|oco| process|rg ooard 0LAP 11
2 33Z ooard LAP 10
2 Va|r rode ooard 0N00 9
1 0ua|-sys|er sW||cr|rg ooard 0EVA 8
2 Va|r process|rg ur|| 0VPu Z
2 C|oc| dr|v|rg ooard CKv ê
2 NET ooard (ore-s|o| pare|) 0NET 5
ê 3ecordary poWer ooard PwC 1
1 8T3 |r|erlace lrare 2
1 Va|r cor|ro| lrare 1
Count Name
Serial
number
Chapter 6
Configuration Application
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
6-5
Appendix A A Interface RuIes
This appendix describes the signaling flow at A interface during processing of location
update, calling, and handover between different BSSs in MSC.
1RWH
1) T|e ressages 'aul|erl|cal|or requesl¨ ard 'aul|erl|cal|or ac|roW|edgrerl¨ are opl|ora|.
2) T|e pos|l|or ol l|e ressage 'TH8l re-a||ocal|or corp|ele¨ |s c|argeao|e |r l|e ressage l|oW.
Appendix A
A lnterfacr Rules
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix A-1
Ì. Signaling flow during location update
388 H8C
CR: corp|ele L3 ressage (|ocal|or updale requesl)
CC: correcl|or ac|roW|edgererl
/ul|erl|cal|or requesl
/ul|erl|cal|or resporse
0T1: ercrypl|or rode corrard
0T1: ercrypl|or rode corp|ele
0T1: |ocal|or updale accepl
0T1: TH8l rea||ocal|or corp|ele
0T1: c|ear corrard
0T1: c|ear corp|ele
RL80
RLC
Appendix A
A lnterfacr Rules
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix A-2
ÌÌ. Signaling flow during MS to PSTN calls
833 V3C
CR: corp|e|e L3 ressage (CV serv|ce reques|)
CC: correc||or ac|roW|edgerer|
Au|rer||ca||or reques|
Au|rer||ca||or resporse
0T1: ercryp||or rode corrard
0T1: ercryp||or rode corp|e|e
0T1: se|up
0T1: ca|| process
0T1: ass|grrer| reques|
0T1: ass|grrer| corp|e|e
RL30
RLC
CV: serv|ce accep|
0T1: a|er|
0T1: correc||or
0T1: correc||or ac|roW|edgerer|
Corrur|ca||or
0T1: re|ease
0T1: re|ease corp|e|e
0T1: c|ear corrard
0T1: c|ear corp|e|e
Appendix A
A lnterfacr Rules
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix A-3
ÌÌÌ. Signaling flow during MS to MS call
833 V3C
833
CR: corp|e|eL3 ressage (CV
serv|ce reques|)
CC: correc||or ACK
0T1: au|rer||ca||or reques|
0T1: au|rer||ca||or resporse
0T1: ercryp||or rode corrard
0T1: ercryp||or rode corp|e|e
0T1: se|up
0T1: ca|| process
0T1: au|rer||ca||or resporse
0T1: ass|grrer| corp|e|e
0T1: prorp|
0T1: d|scorrec||or
0T1: correc||or
0T1: correc||or ACK
0T1: re|ease
0T1: re|ease l|r|sred
0T1: c|ear corrard
0T1: c|ear corp|e|e
RL30
RLC
u0T: pag|rg
CR: pag|rg resporse
CC
0T1: au|rer||ca||or reques|
0T1: ercryp||or
0T1: ercryp||or corp|e|e
0T1: se|up :
0T1: ca|| ACK
0T1: ass|grrer| reques|
0T1: des|gra||or corp|e|e
0T1: a|er|
0T1: correc||or
0T1: correc||or ACK
Corrur|ca||or
0T1: d|scorrec||or
0T1: re|ease
0T1: re|ease corp|e|e
0T1: c|ear corrard
0T1: c|ear corp|e|e
RL30
RLC
Appendix A
A lnterfacr Rules
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix A-4
ÌV. Signaling flow during handover between different BSSs in a same MSC
%66 06& %66
'7 KDQGRYHU UHTXHVW
'7 KDQGRYHU FRPPDQG
'7FOHDUFRPPDQG
5/6'
'7FOHDUFRPSOHWH
5/&
&5 KDQGRYHU UHTXHVW
&&
'7 KDQGRYHU UHTXHVW$&.
'7 KDQGRYHU FKHFN
'7 KDQGRYHU FRPSOHWH
Appendix A
A lnterfacr Rules
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix A-5
Appendix B Power LeveI TabIe
Ì. MS output power
a. Phase 1 MS output power (for GSM900 and GSM1800)
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 0.8w(29d8r) 5
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 2w(33d8r) 1
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 5w(3Zd8r) 3
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 0.25w(21d8r) 8w(39d8r) 2
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 1w(30d8r) 20w(13d8r) 1
Extreme Normal
Tolerance(dB)
GSM1800 Max
Peak power
GSM900 Max
peak power
Power
level
b. Phase 2 MS output power (GSM900 and GSM1800)
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 0.8w(29d8r) 5
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 2w(33d8r) 1
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 1w(3êd8r) 5w(3Zd8r) 3
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 0.25w(21d8r) 8w(39d8r) 2
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 1w(30d8r) ------ 1
Extreme Normal
Tolerance(dB)
GSM1800 Max
peak power
GSM900 Max
peak power
Power
level
Appendix B
Power Level Table
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix B-1
ÌÌ. BTS output power
a. Phase 1 BTS TRX power levels (for GSM900 and GSM1800)
-0, ÷3 2.5 w 1 8
-0, ÷3 5 w 3 Z
-0, ÷3 10 w 2 ê
-0, ÷3 20 w 1 5
-0, ÷3 10 w 1
-0, ÷3 80 w 3
-0, ÷3 1ê0 w 2
-0, ÷3 320 w 1
Tolerance(dB) Max. peak power
GSM1800 TRX
power level
GSM900 TRX
power level
b. Phase 2 BTS TRX power levels (GSM900 and GSM1800)
2.5 - (·5)w 1 8
5 - (·10)w 3 Z
10 - (·20)w 2 ê
20 - (·10)w 1 5
10 - (·80)w 1
80 - (·1ê0)w 3
1ê0 - (·320)w 2
320 - (·ê10)w 1
Max. peak power
GSM1800 TRX
power level
GSM900 TRX
power level
No|e: Tre rax ou|pu| poWer a| d|llerer| |eve|s |r Prase2 8T3 TRX |s a rarge va|ue, so ro |o|erarce.

Appendix B
Power Level Table
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix B-2
ÌÌÌ. Power control level
a. Phase 1 MS power control level
GSM900 GSM1800
÷/-1 ÷/-3 13 15
÷/-1 ÷/-3 15 11
÷/-5 ÷/-1 1 13 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 1Z 13
÷/-5 ÷/-1 ê 12 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 19 12
÷/-5 ÷/-1 8 11 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 21 11
÷/-5 ÷/-1 10 10 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 23 10
÷/-5 ÷/-1 12 9 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 25 9
÷/-1 ÷/-3 11 8 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 2Z 8
÷/-1 ÷/-3 1ê Z ÷/-1 ÷/-3 29 Z
÷/-1 ÷/-3 18 ê ÷/-1 ÷/-3 31 ê
÷/-1 ÷/-3 20 5 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 33 5
÷/-1 ÷/-3 22 1 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 35 1
÷/-1 ÷/-3 21 3 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 3Z 3
÷/-1 ÷/-3 2ê 2 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 39 2
÷/-1 ÷/-3 28 1 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 11 1
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 30 0 ÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 13 0
Extreme Normal Extreme Normal
Tolerance (dB) Output
power
(dBm)
Power
control
level
Tolerance(dB) Output
power
(dBm)
Power
control
level
No|e: wrer |re poWer cor|ro| |eve| ol |re Prase1 03V900 V3 |s 0, |re rax. ou|pu| poWer ol |re V3 |s 13d8r W||r a
|o|erarce: 2d8 (rorra|), 2.5d8 (ex|rere), Wrer |re poWer cor|ro| |eve| |s 1, |re rax. ou|pu| poWer ol |re V3 |s
11d8r, W||r a |o|erarce: 3d8 (rorra|), 1d8 (ex|rere).
Appendix B
Power Level Table
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix B-3
b. Phase 2 MS power control level
GSM900 GSM1800
÷/-ê ÷/-5 0 15~28
÷/-ê ÷/-5 2 11 ÷/-ê ÷/-5 5 19~31
÷/-5 ÷/-1 1 13 ÷/-ê ÷/-5 Z 18
÷/-5 ÷/-1 ê 12 ÷/-ê ÷/-5 9 1Z
÷/-5 ÷/-1 8 11 ÷/-ê ÷/-5 11 1ê
÷/-5 ÷/-1 10 10 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 13 15
÷/-5 ÷/-1 12 9 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 15 11
÷/-1 ÷/-3 11 8 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 1Z 13
÷/-1 ÷/-3 1ê Z ÷/-1 ÷/-3 19 12
÷/-1 ÷/-3 18 ê ÷/-1 ÷/-3 21 11
÷/-1 ÷/-3 20 5 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 23 10
÷/-1 ÷/-3 22 1 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 25 9
÷/-1 ÷/-3 21 3 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 2Z 8
÷/-1 ÷/-3 2ê 2 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 29 Z
÷/-1 ÷/-3 28 1 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 31 ê
÷/-1 ÷/-3 30 0 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 33 5
÷/-1 ÷/-3 32 31 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 35 1
÷/-1 ÷/-3 31 30 ÷/-1 ÷/-3 3Z 3
÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 3ê 29 ÷/-2.5 ÷/-2 39 0~2
Extreme Normal Extreme Normal
Tolerance (dB) Output
power
(dBm)
Power
control
level
Tolerance(dB) Output
power
(dBm)
Power
control
level
No|e:
1) 0l a|| |re V3 poWer |eve|s ol Prase 2, |re r|r|rur poWer |eve| ol 03V900 V3 |s 19 (5d8r), ard |ra| ol
03V1800 V3 |s ol 15 (0d8r).
2) PoWer cor|ro| |eve|s 29, 30, ard 31 ol |re 03V1800 V3 app|y or|y |o ca|| poWer cor|ro|. wrer |re parare|er TX
PwR VAX CC| |s |rarsr|||ed, |r|s |eve| |s ro| used. ll V3 rardor access requ|res a poWer cor|ro| |eve| r|grer |rar
30d8r, |rer || |s recessary |o decode |r |re oroadcas| parare|ers or |re 8CC|.
3) A| eacr poWer cor|ro| |eve|, |re |rarsr|||ed poWer ol ar V3 |s |r roro|or|c sequerce, W||r a s|ep ol 2 1.5d8.
1) Tre rax. ||re lor perlorr|rg V3 poWer cor|ro| |eve| crarge |s del|red oy 03V0508: al|er rece|v|rg poWer
adjus|rer| corrard lror |re 3ACC|, |re V3 W||| adjus| ||se|l |o a reW |eve| a| |re ra|e ol 2d8/ê0rs (13T0VA), |.e.,
|re adjus|rer| ol 15 s|eps requ|res 900rs, s|ar||rg lror |re l|rs| T0VA lrare ol |re rex| VR cyc|e. ll || |s crarged |o
reW crarre|, |re corrard lor poWer adjus|rer| W||| app|y |o reW crarre|s |rred|a|e|y.
Appendix B
Power Level Table
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix B-4
c. Dynamic power control level for BTS
Pr-30 15
Pr-28 11
Pr-2ê 13
Pr-21 12
Pr-22 11
Pr-20 10
Pr-18 9
Pr-1ê 8
Pr-11 Z
Pr-12 ê
Pr-10 5
Pr-8 1
Pr-ê 3
Pr-1 2
Pr-2 1
Pr d8 0
Appendix B
Power Level Table
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix B-5
Appendix C Abbreviations
Ca|| Cor|ro| CC
Ce|| 8roadcas| 3ror| Vessage C83V
Ce|| 8roadcas| C|arre| C8C|
Ce|| A||oca||or CA
&
8ase Trarsce|ver 3|a||or Varagerer| 8T3V
8ase Trarsce|ver 3|a||or 8T3
8ase 3|a||or 3ys|er 0pera||or ard Va|r|erarce App||ca||or Par| 8330VAP
8ase 3|a||or 3ys|er Varagerer| App||ca||or Par| 833VAP
8ase 3|a||or 3ys|er 0PR3 Pro|oco| 8330P
8ase 3|a||or 3ys|er App||ca||or Par| 833AP
8ase 3|a||or 3ys|er 833
8ase |rarsce|ver 3|a||or lder|||y Code 83lC
8ase 3|a||or Cor|ro||er 83C
8as|c Vodu|e 8V
8as|c lrpu| 0u|pu| 3ys|er 8l03
8ase s|a||or lr|erlace Equ|prer| (ooard) 8lE
8usy |our Ca|| A||erp| 8|CA
8|| Error Ra|e 8ER
8roadcas| Cor|ro| C|arre| 8CC|
8ac| Adr|r|s|ra||or Vodu|e 8AV
8CC| A||oca||or 8A
%
Au|rer||ca||or Cer|re AuC
App||ca||or Prograr lr|erlace APl
Au|ora||c PoWer Cor|ro| APC
Adr|r|s|ra||or Vodu|e/ Corrur|ca||or Vodu|e AV /CV
Access 0rar| Crarre| A0C|
Ar|erra Coro|rer AC0V
Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| Crarre| ACC|
A |r|erlace A, Asuo
$
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-1
F||e Trarsler Access ard rar|pu|a||or FTAV
F|asr rerory
Frare Crec| 3equerce FC3
Frequercy Correc||or C|arre| FCC|
C|ose l|oer oac|ooard F8C
Fas| Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| C|arre| FACC|
)
Europear Te|ecorrur|ca||ors 3|ardards lrs|||u|e ET3l
Europear Te|ecorrur|ca||or 3|ardard ET3
E|ec|roragre||c Corpa||o||||y EVC
Equ|prer| lder|||y Reg|s|er ElR
Ear|y A||oca||or EA
E3 suo-Vu|||p|exer E3V
(
0|scor||ruous |rarsr|ss|or (recrar|sr) 0TX
0ua| Tore Vu|||-lrequercy 0TVF
0|rec| Trarsler App||ca||or Par| 0TAP
0|g||a| 3|gra| Processor 03P
0|scor||rous Recep||or 0RX
0|s|r|ou|ed Re|a||ora| 08V3 0R08V3
0es||ra||or Po|r| Code 0PC
0a|a L|r| Correc||or lder||l|er 0LCl
0|g||a| 0a|a Ne|Wor| 00N
0a|aoase Varagerer| 3ys|er 08V3
0a|a8ase 08
0|rec| Currer| 0C
'
Cod|rg 3crere C3
Cyc||ca| Redurdarcy Crec| CRC
Cer|ra| Process|rg ur|| CPu
C|oc| 0r|ver CKv
Carr|er lr|erlace Cor|ro||er ooard ClC
Cor|ro| Crarre| CC|
Corror Cor|ro| Crarre| CCC|
Ca|| Cor|ro| 8|oc| CC8
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-2
lr|er-Wor||rg Furc||or lwF
lr|er-wor||rg Equ|prer| lwE
lr|erra||ora| Te|ecorrur|ca||or ur|or lTu
l30N user Par| (ol s|gra|||rg sys|er No.Z) l3uP
lr|errup| 3erv|ce l3R
lr|erra||ora| 3|ardard 0rgar|za||or l30
lr|egra|ed 3erv|ces 0|g||a| Ne|Wor| l30N
lr|erre| Pro|oco| lP
lr|erra||ora| Voo||e 3uoscr|oer lder|||y lV3l
lr|erra||ora| Voo||e s|a||or Equ|prer| lder|||y lVEl
,
||gr way |w
|ore Loca||or Reg|s|er |LR
||gr |eve| 0a|a L|r| Cor|ro| |0LC
|yor|d Coro|rer |C/|Y C0V
+
0PR3 Turre|||rg Pro|oco| 0TP
0|ooa| T|||e 0T
03NT
0|ooa| 3ys|er lor Voo||e corrur|ca||ors 03V 03V900 03V1800
0erera| Pac|e| Rad|o 3erv|ce 0PR3
Node cor|ro| ooard 0N00
0NET
0auss|or F|||ered rs| 0V3K
Va|r Process|rg ur|| 0VPu
Verory ooard 0VEV
Voo||e Cour|ry Code 0VCC
Vodu|e Corrur|ca||or ard Cor|ro| ooard 0VCC
Vodu|e Corrur|ca||or 2 L|r| 0VC2
0a|eWay 0PR3 3uppor| Node 003N
F|oer lr|erlace ooard 0F8l
Erergercy Vessage Au|ora||c Trarsr|ss|or 3ys|er 0EVA
Cer|ra| T Ne| ooard 0CTN
0CK3
A|arr ooard 0ALV
*
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-3
0ojec| 0r|er|ed Prograrr|rg 00P
0pera||ors & Va|r|erarce ur|| (ooard) 0Vu
0pera||ors & Va|r|erarce Cer|re 0VC
0pera||ors & Va|r|erarce 0&V, 0V
0pera||or ard Va|r|erarce App||ca||or Par| 0VAP
0ll A|r Ca|| 3e| up 0AC30
2
Ne|Wor| Equ|prer| NE
1
Vessage Trarsler Par| VTP
Vear T|re 8e|Weer Fa||ure VT8F
Voo||e Terr|ra| VT
V3C 3uora|e crarre| Vu|||p|exer V3V
Voo||e 3|a||or lr|erra||ora| l30N Nuroer V3l30N
Voo||e serv|ces 3W||cr|rg Cer|re, Voo||e 3W||cr|rg Cer|re V3C
Voo||e 3|a||or V3
Veasurerer| Repor| VR
Voo||e Ne|Wor| Code VNC
Voo||||y Varagerer| VV
Va|r C|ocK ooard VCK
Voo||e App||ca||or Par| VAP
Voo||e A||oca||or lrdex 0llse| VAl0
Ved|ur Access Cor|ro| VAC
Voo||e A||oca||or VA
0
LoW No|se Arp||l|er LNA
Loca| Va|r|erarce Terr|ra| LVT
Log|ca| L|r| Cor|ro| LLC
LAP0 Va||8ox LAP0VAlL
L|r| Access Pro|oco| or |re 0r crarre| LAP0r
L|r| Access Pro|oco| or |re 0 crarre| LAP0
L|r| Access Pro|oco| LAP
Loca||or Area LA
Layer-3 Voo||||y Varagerer| L3VV
/
.
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-4
R|ves|-3rar|r-Ad|erar R3A
Rad|o Resource RR
Rad|o L|r| Varagerer| RLV
Rad|o L|r| Cor|ro| RLC
Rad|o Frequercy RF
Rardor Access Crarre| RAC|
5
4
PoWer Cor|ro| ooard PwC
Po|r| |o Vu|||po|r| 3erv|ce Cer|re PTV-3C
Po|r| To Vu|||po|r| PTV
Pac|e| T|r|rg advarce Cor|ro| Crarre| PTCC|
Puo||c 3W||cred Te|eprore Ne|Wor| P3TN
Puo||c 3W||cred 0a|a Ne|Wor| P30N
Pac|e| Rardor Access Crarre| PRAC|
Pac|e| Pag|rg Crarre| PPC|
Puo||c Lard Voo||e Ne|Wor| PLVN
Prase Loc|ed Loop PLL
Persora| lder|||y Nuroer PlN
Pac|e| 0a|a Trall|c Crarre| P0TC|
Pac|e| 0a|a Ne|Wor| P0N
Pac|e| 0a|a Crarre| P0C|
Pac|e| Cor|ro| ur|| PCu
Pu|se Code Vodu|a||or PCV
Pag|rg C|arre| PC|
Pac|e| C|rcu|| lder|||y Code PClC
Pac|e| Corror Cor|ro| Crarre| PCCC|
Pcu-osc 3|gra||rg L|r| Po3L
Pac|e| 8roadcas| Cor|ro| Crarre| P8CC|
Pac|e| Access 0rar| Crarre| PA0C|
Pac|e| Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| Crarre| PACC|
PoWer Arp||l|er PA
3
0per 3ys|er lr|ercorrec||or 03l
0pera||or 3ys|er 03
0p||c lr|erlace ooard 0PT
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-5
A lu|| ra|e TC| TC|/F
Trall|c Crarre| TC|
Trarscoder TC
Terporary 8|oc| F|oW T8F
T|r|rg Advarce TA
7
3|gra|||rg Trarsler Po|r| 3TP
3|gra|||rg 3ys|er No.Z 33Z
3upp|erer|ary 3erv|ce 33
3uoNe|Wor| 0eperder| corvergerce Pro|oco| 3N0CP
3uo-Vu|||p|exer 3VuX
3ror| Vessage 3erv|ce lr|erWor||rg V3C 3V3-lwV3C
3ror| Vessage 3erv|ce 0a|eWay V3C 3V3-0V3C
3ror| Vessage serv|ce 3erv|ce Cer|re 3V-3C
3ror| Vessage 3erv|ce Ce|| 8roadcas| 3V3C8
3ror| Vessage 3erv|ce 3V3
3uo-Vu|||p|exer lr|erlace 3Vl
3ror| Vessage Cer|er 3VC
3uoscr|oer lder|||y Vodu|e 3lV
3erv|rg 0PR3 3uppor| Node 303N
3|ard-a|ore 0ed|ca|ed Cor|ro| C|arre| 30CC|
3yrcrror|za||or C|arre| 3C|
3|gra|||rg Correc||or Cor|ro| Par| 3CCP
3erv|ce Access Po|r| lrd|ca|or 3APl
3erv|ce Access Po|r| 3AP
3|oW Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| C|arre|/Trall|c crarre| Fu|| ra|e 3ACC|/TF
3|oW Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| C|arre|/Trall|c crarre| 3ACC|/T
3|oW Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| C|arre|/30CC|/8 3ACC|/C8
3|oW Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| Crarre|/30CC|/1 3ACC|/C1
3|oW Assoc|a|ed Cor|ro| Crarre| 3ACC|
6
Rece|ved 3|gra| 0ua|||y RX0uAL
Rece|ved s|gra| |eve| RXLEv
Rece|ver/Recep||or RX
Rad|o Tes| Equ|prer| RTE
Rad|o 3|gra|||rg L|r| R3L
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-6
=
<
;
:
vo||age 3|ard|rg wave Rad|o v3wR
vo|ce Va||oox vV
v|s||or Loca||or Reg|s|er vLR
very Ear|y A||oc vEA
vo|ce Ac||v||y 0e|ec||or vA0
9
ur
user 0a|agrar Pro|oco| u0P
8
Te|eprore user Par|(33Z) TuP
Trarsce|ver (ooard) TRX
Trarscoder/Adap|or ur|| TRAu
T|res|o| Nuroer TN
Terporary Voo||e 3uoscr|oer lder||l|er TV3l
Terr|ra| Equ|prer| lder||l|er TEl
Terr|ra| Equ|prer| TE
T|re 0|v|de Vu|||p|e Access T0VA
Trarsr|ss|or Cor|ro| Pro|oco| TCP
TrarsCoder&3uo-Vu|||p|exer TC3V
A lu|| ra|e 3peecr TC| TC|/F3
A lu|| ra|e da|a TC| (9.ê|o||/s) TC|/F9.ê
A lu|| ra|e da|e TC| (1.8|o||/s) TC|/F1.8
A lu|| ra|e da|a TC| (2.1|o||/s) TC|/F2.1
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-7
Z
Y
X
W
Voltage Standing Wave Radio VSWR
Voice Mailbox VM
Visitor Location Register VLR
Very Early Alloc VEA
Voice Activity Detection VAD
V
Um
User Datagram Protocol UDP
U
Telephone User Part(SS7) TUP
Transceiver (board) TRX
Transcoder/Adaptor Unit TRAU
Timeslot Number TN
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identifier TMSI
Terminal Equipment Identifier TEI
Terminal Equipment TE
Time Divide Multiple Access TDMA
Transmission Control Protocol TCP
TransCoder&Sub-Multiplexer TCSM
A full rate Speech TCH TCH/FS
A full rate data TCH (9.6kbit/s) TCH/F9.6
A full rate date TCH (4.8kbit/s) TCH/F4.8
A full rate data TCH (2.4kbit/s) TCH/F2.4
Appendix C
Abbreviations
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
TM
Base Station Controller
Appendix C-7
Appendix D Definitions of GPRS Terms
Interface between SGSN and HLR.
This interface supports SSN7 MAP. Via this interface, SGSN gets data about MS from the HLR, and HLR
stores information about GPRS subscribers and routing. If there is any change to the data in the HLR, the
SGSN will be notified and processes accordingly.
Gr interface
Interface between GPRS networks.
This interface is used for interconnection between different GPRS networks and is composed of gateway
and firewall.
Gp interface
Interface between GRPS support nodes.
I.e., interface between SGSNs, GGSNs, and between SGSN and GGSN. This interface employs TCP/IP.
Gn interface
Interface between GPRS and packet network.
Via this interface, GPRS interconnects with various public packet networks based on X.25, X.75, or IP.
Gi interface
Gateway GPRS support node.
Actually this node is a gateway or a router, which implements connection between GPRS and PSDN based
on X.25 or X.75 protocol, also it supports the interconnection between GPRSs.
Like SGSN, GGSN also has IP address. And GGSN and SGSN jointly implement the routing function of the
GPRS network. The gateway GPRS support node supports X.121 addressing scheme and IP. It can access
to Internet under IP, also it can supports access to ISDN.
GGSN
Interface between SMS_GMSC, SMS_INMSC and SGSNs.
Via this interface, the SGSN can receive short messages, and transfer it to the MS, SGSN, and short
message service center so as to complete short message service on the GPRS network.
Gd interface
This is an interface between SGSN and BSS.
Via this interface, the SGSN and PCU implements such functions as mobility management, radio resources
management, logical link management, and packet data call management.
Gb interface
BSS GPRS protocol.
This protocol includes functions of network layer and part of transmission layer, and is mainly responsible for
explaining information about routes and service quality.
BSSGP
BTS system, including BSC, BTS, and PCU.
In addition to the functions for meeting voice service requirements, the BSS is supposed to provide Gb
interface for connection with the SGSN, channel management function for multi-timeslot binding allocation,
and management function for packet logic channel.
BSS
Definition Abbreviation
Appendix D
Definitions of GPRS Terms
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
TM
Base Station Controller
Appendix D-1
User datagram protocol/transmission control protocol.
UDP/IP is one of the layer protocols. As a connection-oriented protocol, the TCP has the protection and traffic
control function so as to be able to ensure the accuracy of data transmission. The UDP is a
non-connection-oriented protocol and does not have the capability of error recovery, nor does it care if
messages have been correctly received. It only acts as the sender and receiver of datagrams.
UDP/TCP
Subnet related convergence protocol.
This protocol is in charge of the functions e.g. segmentation and convergence of user data, etc.
SNDCP
Service GPRS support node.
The SGSN serves MS. It works with the MSC/VLR and HLR to implement mobility management function
(including roaming, registration, handover, and authentication), logic links management (including the setup,
maintenance, and release of logic channels) and that of radio resources.
SGSN provides the MS caller and called with the management function and completes such functions as
transfer of packet data, address translation, encryption, and compression.
SGSN can function in the conversion between SNDCP, LLC of Gb interface and IP of Gn interface.
SGSN
Radio link control protocol.
This is also a link and network layer protocol. It provides error-free transmission of RLC data blocks.
RLC
Medium access control protocol.
This is a link layer protocol. It enables multiple MSs to share a same transmission medium which may include
one or multiple physical channels. And it provides competition arbitration during mulitple MSs access.
MAC
Logic link control protocol.
This protocol is a transmission layer protocol, and provides a reliable error-free data link between end and
end.
LLC
GPRS tunnel protocol.
All the PBUs transferred via GSNs should be re-packaged by GTP. GTP provides traffic control function.
GTP
Interface between the MSC/VLR and SGSN.
This interface supports SSN7 MAP. Via this interface, the SGSN and MSC work jointly implement the mobility
management function over the MS. The SGSN transfers position information to MSC and receives paging
information from MSC.
Gs interface
Definition Abbreviation
Appendix D
Definitions of GPRS Terms
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
TM
Base Station Controller
Appendix D-2
Appendix E Operation Mode of GPRS Network
The GPRS network provides the function of combined circuit/packet paging. Combined
paging means that the network transmits packet paging and circuit paging on the same
channel, and the MS only needs to monitor one channel.
Combined paging improves the usage of radio resources, but whether this function is
supported depends on the network operation mode. The GPRS network defines the
following three operation modes:
Network operation mode 1: To GPRS-attached MS, the network transmits circuit
paging either on the same channel (PCH or PPCH) as that for transmitting packet
paging, or on the packet traffic channel. The MS only needs to monitor one paging
channel. If it has been assigned a PDCH, it can receive circuit paging on this PDCH.
Network operation mode 2: To GPRS-attached MS, the network transmits circuit
paging on PCH, which is also used for packet paging. The MS only needs to monitor
the PCH. Even if the MS has been assigned the PDCH, the circuit paging to it is still
transmitted via PCH.
Network operation mode 3: To GPRS-attached MS, the network transmits circuit
paging on PCH, while transmits packet paging on PPCH (if the cell is configured with
PCCCH) or PCH. To receive both circuit and packet paging signals, the MS needs to
monitor both PCH and PPCH (if the cell is configured with the PCCCH). In this mode,
combined circuit/packet paging is impossible.
When Gs interface for MSC and SGSN interconnection is available, the circuit paging
signals to GPRS-attached MS will be transmitted along the way MSC--SGSN--BSS,
and the network supports combined circuit/packet support, i.e., it works in operation
mode 1.
When Gs interface is not available, the circuit paging signals to GPRS-attached MS will
be transmitted via the A interface between MSC and BSS. In this case, the combined
circuit/packet paging is supported. The network works in either of the following two
operation modes:
Operation mode 2: no PCCCH is configured in the cell, and packet paging signals are
transmitted on PCH;
Operation mode 3: if PCCCH is configured in the cell, packet paging signals are
transmitted on PPCH.
The network operation mode is transmitted to MS as part of system information. The
operation modes of all the cells in one routing area should be consistent.
Appendix E
Operation Mode of GPRS Network
Technical Manual
M900/M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix E-1
Appendix F GPRS MS CIasses
To meet the requirements of various GPRS subscribers, the GPRS standard defines
three GPRS MS classes (class A, B, and C), which is mainly different in the capabilities
of the MS in implementing GPRS services and circuit services. The classes of GPRS
MS are described in the following:
Ì. Class A
The class A mobile station can implement the GPRS service and circuit service at the
same time, including simultaneous attachment, activation monitor and dispatching.
GPRS service and circuit service are carried on different timeslots, so a class A mobile
phone has 2 timeslots at least to handle two services at the same time.
ÌÌ. Class B
A class B mobile station can complete simultaneous attachment, activation monitor of
GPRS service and circuit service, but the two services can be invoked simultaneously.
The data of the two service are transmitted in a certain sequence. A class B mobile
phone processes the two services on different timeslots.
ÌÌÌ. Class C
A class C mobile station separates completely GPRS service and circuit service. When
it is necessary to turn up the other service when carrying on one service, it should be
re-attached and initialized first.
Appendix F
GPRS MS Classes
Technical Manual
M900/ M1800
%
Base Station Controller
Appendix F-1

   
  

 

  

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HDLC controller is responsible for processing of HDLC link transceiving and logic control. etc.Technical Manual M900/M1800TM Base Station Controller Chapter 2 Overall Architecture of BSC E1 (1) E1 transceiver 1 Timeslot interchanger E1 (5) E1 transceiver 5 4K network Multiplex demultiplex 32M 32M Backplane HDLC Controller HDLC 2M HDLC Clock SR A M CPU Flash Serial port O &M Figure 2-33 Detailed structure of E3M The board is mainly composed of the following parts: E1 transceivers. The switching and frequency conversion part is responsible for multiplexing and de-multiplexing of E1. signal extraction and insertion. switching chip. logic control part. E1 driving board DRC The DRC board interworks with E3M to provide E1 interface. performs the conversion between 16kbps and 64kbps signals. The fifth E1 carries the SS7 signaling and Pb interface signaling of the first 4 E1s and transfers them to the BIE board. and other control signals as required by the modules. backplane interface part. Logic control part function read/write control signals. The first 4 E1s are connected to the MSMs or PCUs in the 4 TCSM units. 2-32 . etc. frequency upconverter and downconverter circuit. This board uses a total of 5 E1s. DRC board is inserted in the backplane of the frame. CPU. Functions of the E1 transceiver include recovering clock signals and data from analog signals. and self-testing. multiplex/demultiplex part. IV. HDLC controller.

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as illustrated in Figure 2-52. with time division exchange accomplished based on 2. a.Technical Manual M900/M1800TM Base Station Controller Chapter 2 Overall Architecture of BSC this unit is read out as voice memory address.e. i. clock GNET board mainly consists of 4K phase-lock/driving and HW input/output driving circuits. bus interface.. HW Input drive UHW Voice channel input bus UHW Voice channel output bus DHW HW output drive D HW DT 8K0 DT 8K1 External clock Clock frame clock Data bus Bus interface Address bus Control bus Clock generation and processing 4K X 4K switching network +5 V Power circuit FS0 FSX 2MHz 4MHZ FOD Figure 2-51 Principle of GNET 4K T network. 4K 4K T network The 4K 4K T network consists of four 2K 2K T network boards ASIC SD509 (Huawei-developed ASIC product serial number). the content of input timeslot 8 is exchanged to output timeslot 512.5V 2-51 .048Mbit/s HW line. Clock phase-lock and output circuit +5V . In Figure 2-50. II. and with which the content of the timeslot needed in voice memory is read out and exported to parallel/serial conversion circuit. 8 is written to control memory j unit. Principle of GNET The functional diagram of switching network board GNET is illustrated in Figure 2-51.

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Hence the difference between the data formats of the background and the foreground comes into being. c. Data management server under the client/server system structure The client/server system structure is a very popular database management system. Via the management of user authorities. Data conversion According to the features of data operations. The security of the database system is further guaranteed and provides multiple and flexible operation methods and modes for large-scale data applications.: Only related data of each module is stored in it so that distributed data management is realized. Message processing Background message processing Foreground message processing Maintenance management system processing Figure 3-15 Service access mechanism d. illegal access or operations can be controlled. Figure 3-15 shows the service access mechanism under the client/server system structure. relation mode and index mode. DBMS is designed on the bases of ORACLE and SYBASE. Functions are shared and the performance of the system is greatly improved. The background maintenance terminal system adopts the format conversion mode to keep the consistency of foreground and background data as well as validity of data. b. relation mode and index mode. In the loading process.Technical Manual M900/M1800TM Base Station Controller Chapter 3 System Software Data of each BM is different from that of AM/CM. data operations and data usage are separated. is different from normal database systems in storage format. Each maintenance system can maintain the data of the BSC. The conversion process converts the data required by different modules into different files according to the configurations of modules. The advantage of the structure is that according to the division of functions. The M900/M1800 BSC can be configured with multiple terminal systems. The database of the background maintenance terminal system adopts the standard database mode to enable the storage format. relative data files shall then be loaded into relative modules. the foreground database adopts the self-designed special database system. Contents of data maintenance Data management system processing Alarm management system processing Data online setting/query Test system processing Load system processing Traffic statistics system processing MML processing Load 3-23 . whose data management mode based on the specific characteristics of the GMPU.

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Interface between SMS_GMSC. X. The gateway GPRS support node supports X. Interface between GPRS and packet network. the BSS is supposed to provide Gb interface for connection with the SGSN. and is mainly responsible for explaining information about routes and service quality. and transfer it to the MS. BSSGP This protocol includes functions of network layer and part of transmission layer. SGSN. the SGSN will be notified and processes accordingly. Gi interface Via this interface. and short message service center so as to complete short message service on the GPRS network. also it supports the interconnection between GPRSs. Via this interface.e. It can access to Internet under IP. This is an interface between SGSN and BSS.25. Gr interface This interface supports SSN7 MAP. Gb interface Via this interface. Definition GGSN Appendix D-1 . which implements connection between GPRS and PSDN based on X. If there is any change to the data in the HLR. Interface between GRPS support nodes. BSS In addition to the functions for meeting voice service requirements.25 or X. GGSNs. BTS.Technical Manual M900/ M1800TM Base Station Controller Appendix D Definitions of GPRS Terms Appendix D Definitions of GPRS Terms Abbreviation BTS system. and between SGSN and GGSN. and HLR stores information about GPRS subscribers and routing. interface between SGSNs.121 addressing scheme and IP. including BSC. SGSN gets data about MS from the HLR. Actually this node is a gateway or a router.75 protocol. Gd interface Via this interface.. BSS GPRS protocol. SMS_INMSC and SGSNs. Gp interface This interface is used for interconnection between different GPRS networks and is composed of gateway and firewall. the SGSN can receive short messages. channel management function for multi-timeslot binding allocation. And GGSN and SGSN jointly implement the routing function of the GPRS network. Gateway GPRS support node. GGSN also has IP address. radio resources management. also it can supports access to ISDN. Interface between GPRS networks. the SGSN and PCU implements such functions as mobility management. and packet data call management. Interface between SGSN and HLR.75. and management function for packet logic channel. Gn interface I. logical link management. and PCU. or IP. Like SGSN. This interface employs TCP/IP. GPRS interconnects with various public packet networks based on X.

It enables multiple MSs to share a same transmission medium which may include one or multiple physical channels. handover. segmentation and convergence of user data. Gs interface This interface supports SSN7 MAP. LLC of Gb interface and IP of Gn interface. address translation. RLC This is also a link and network layer protocol. GPRS tunnel protocol. The SGSN transfers position information to MSC and receives paging information from MSC. nor does it care if messages have been correctly received. and compression. and provides a reliable error-free data link between end and end. Medium access control protocol. It provides error-free transmission of RLC data blocks. It works with the MSC/VLR and HLR to implement mobility management function (including roaming. Service GPRS support node. As a connection-oriented protocol. logic links management (including the setup. registration. encryption. SGSN can function in the conversion between SNDCP. and authentication). GTP provides traffic control function. SNDCP This protocol is in charge of the functions e. MAC This is a link layer protocol. And it provides competition arbitration during mulitple MSs access. Via this interface. the SGSN and MSC work jointly implement the mobility management function over the MS. SGSN Appendix D-2 . The UDP is a non-connection-oriented protocol and does not have the capability of error recovery. User datagram protocol/transmission control protocol. etc.Technical Manual M900/ M1800TM Base Station Controller Appendix D Definitions of GPRS Terms Definition Abbreviation Interface between the MSC/VLR and SGSN. GTP All the PBUs transferred via GSNs should be re-packaged by GTP. Radio link control protocol. maintenance.g. SGSN provides the MS caller and called with the management function and completes such functions as transfer of packet data. and release of logic channels) and that of radio resources. Logic link control protocol. the TCP has the protection and traffic control function so as to be able to ensure the accuracy of data transmission. The SGSN serves MS. UDP/TCP UDP/IP is one of the layer protocols. LLC This protocol is a transmission layer protocol. Subnet related convergence protocol. It only acts as the sender and receiver of datagrams.

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