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Optical Fiber

Optical Fiber

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Sections

  • INDEX
  • Course Objective
  • SYLLABUS
  • ARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & I.T
  • OPTICAL FIBERS
  • Unit-II
  • OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES & CONNECTION
  • UNIT-III
  • OPTICAL DETECTORS
  • UNIT-IV
  • OPTICAL MEASUREMENT
  • MEASUREMENT OF DISPERSION
  • MEASUREMENT OF DIAMETER
  • MEASUREMENT OF NUMERICAL APERTURE
  • UNIT-V
  • LASER
  • APPLICATION OF LASER
  • Velocity Measurement using Laser Doppler Velocimeter

Optical Communication

VIII Sem, ECE

Submitted By:Dimple Jhanwar Lecturer
(ECE Department)

1

INDEX
S No.
I. II III IV. Unit-IOPTICAL FIBERS 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Introduction Overview of fiber communication Ray propogation Total internal Reflection Modes in Optical fiber Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber Cables Propagation of Light along the fiber Ray Theory Types of Optical Fibers : 1.9.1 Step index fibers : 1.9.2 Graded index fibers Attenuation in Optical Fibers 1.10..1 Linear scattering losses 1.10.2 Non linear scattering losses 1.10.3 Material Absorption losses . Bending Loss 1.11.1 Microbend losses 1.11.2 Macrobend losses

Name of Content
Resume Objective Syllabus Lecture Plan

Page No.
5 8 9 10

1.11

1.12.

Dispersion 1.12.1 Intramodal Dispersion 1.12.2 Intermodal Dispersion UNIT-II OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES & CONNECTION 2.1 2.2 Introduction Light Emitting Diode Structure 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3
2.2.4

Dome LED Planar LED Basic Layer by Layer Structure
Basic Layer by Layer Structure

2.2.5 2.2.6

Homo- and Hetro-Junction Edge Emitter 2

2.2.7 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Edge Emitter

Characteristics of LED Quantum efficiency Fiber Alignment Technique Fiber Optical Splicing 2.6.1 Fusion Splicing 2.6.2 Mechanical Splicing 2.7 Optical fiber connector UNIT-III OPTICAL DETECTORS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Optical Detector Properties 3.3 Responsivity 3.4 Quantum efficiency 3.5 PIN Photo Diodes 3.5.1 Response Time 3.6 Avalanche Photo Diodes 3.7 Receiver Noise 3.7.1 Thermal Noise 3.7.2 Shot Noise 3.8 Photo Diode Materials UNIT-IV OPTICAL MEASUREMENT 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Measurement of Attenuation 4.1.1 Cut back Method Measurement of Cut-off wavelength Measurement of Dispersion Measurement of Diameter Measurement of Numerical Aperture

UNIT-V LASER 5.1 5.2 Principles of Laser Rate Equations and Population Inversion 5.2.1 Two- Level system 5.2.2 Three – Level System 5.2.3 Four Level System

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2 Distance Measurement 5.2.4.2.2 Mode Locking Theory 5.4 Principple 5.3 Mode Locking Methods 5.3.3 Velocity Measurement V.3.1 Laser active Mode Locking 5.1 Holography 5. VI.7 Applications 5.6 Passive Switching 5.4.3 Mode Locking 5. VIII X XI XII XIV XV XVI Assignment-I Assignment-II Assignment-III Assignment-IV Class-Test-I Class-Test-II Class-Test-III Class-Test-V Tutorial-I Tutorial-II XVII Tutorial-III XVIII Tutorial-IV XIX Tutorial-V XX I Mid Term Paper XXI II Mid Term Paper XXII Last Year Paper XXIII Evaluation sheet 4 . VII.2.Optical feedback Lasing threshold Q-switching: 5.4 Applications of LASER 5.3.2.5 Active Switching 5.4.

5 .

6 .

7 .

Students will do design calculation for a pointto-point optical fiber link and star networks. Avalance photodiodes) coupler. Technical concepts which are at the core of design.Course Objective 1) This subject deals with the practical aspects of optical fiber communication by introducing optical fiber 2) This course aims to initiate an expose the newcomers to exciting area of optical communication. 3)Basic optical networks and WDM will be studied. implementation and research will be discussed during this course in order that is conductive to understanding general concepts as well as latest development.fiber connectors 8 . 4)To give the student understanding of working principle of optical fiber sourses(LEDs and LASERs) detectors(PIN.

Measurements of Fiber Attenuation. Einstein relation. Absorption of radiation. single mode. PIN photo diode.SYLLABUS UNIT 1 : OPTICAL FIBERS. Noise in Detectors. plastic & glass fibers. Basic concept of Q-switching & mode locking. Laser applications for measurement of distance. Fiber splices.Light Emitting Diode . Refractive Index Profile.Fiber Alignment. Attenuation. Optical feed back. UNIT 5 : LASER . 9 . Optical fibers: multimode.Optical detection principles. semiconductors. Population inversion.Structure. responsivity. quantum efficiency. Basic idea of solid state.Emission and absorption of radiation. Expanded beam connectors. Cut off Wave Length.Introduction. UNIT 4 : OPTICAL FIBER MEASUREMENTS . Photo Diode Materials. Ray theory. Characteristics. step index.Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fibres -Introduction. Population inversion and threshold working of three level & four level laser. Material absorption loss. Holography. Threshold condition. Fibrebend loss. Material. Fiber connectors. Velocity.graded index. Numerical Aperture & Diometer. Dispersion. UNIT 3 : OPTICAL DETECTORS . Avalanche photo diodes. Dispersion (intermodal & intramodal) UNIT 2: OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES & CONNECTION . gas & liquid laser. Power & Efficiency.

II. 3. Expanded beam connectors Class Test-II 2 1 Numerical Problem 1. Dispersion (intermodal & intramodal) Class Test-I Light Emitting Diode . Ray theory Optical fibers: multimode.Structure. Attenuation Material absorption loss. Date Name of Topic Proposed Lectures Required Branch: ECE Actual Lecture Taken Extra Activities % of Syllabus Covered By the Unit Reference Books Sem. 9. Power & Efficiency. Fiber splices Fiber connectors. 8. Unit No. Jhon M Senior 20% 2 2 Numerical Problem Assignment . Characteristics.T.: VIII Remarks I. single mode. 2. OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES 5. Jhon M Senior 2. Material. Fibre bend loss. No. Gred Kaser 1 Assignmet -I Easy Theoretical & Analytical 25% 2 1 2 1.II 2. OPTICAL FIBERS 1. Lecture Plan LECTURE PLAN Name of Faculty: Dimple Jhanwar Subject: Optical Communication S. 6. Fiber Alignment. step index. Introduction. plastic & glass fibers. Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fibres Introduction. Navneet Gupta Easy Theoretical & Analytical 1 10 . 7.ARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & I. graded index. 4.

Jhon M Senior 2. quantum efficiency. 17. OPTICAL FIBER 2 15% 2 2 1 Numerical Problem AssignmentIV 1. Refractive Index Profile . Emission and absorption of radiation.Cut off Wave Length Numerical Aperture & Diometer Class test III 1 1. 12. MEASUREMENTSIV. Moderate Theoretical & Analytical 18. Photo Diode Materials Mid Term I Measurements of Fiber Attenuation. Einstein 2 1. Jhon M Hard 11 .Dispersi on. responsivity PIN photo diode. Jhon M Senior 15% 2 1 AssignmentIII 2. 14. Avalanche photo diodes Noise in Detectors. OPTICAL DETECTORS 10. 13. V. Navneet Gupta Moderate Theoretical & Analytical Branch: ECE Sem. 16.: VIII 11. Optical detection principles. Gred Kaser 15.& CONNECTION LECTURE PLAN Name of Faculty: Dimple Jhanwar Subject: Optical Communication III.

semiconductors. Threshold condition.: VIII 24. 25. 20. Holography Mid Term II Total Lecture 2 Branch: ECE Numerical Problem Sem. Laser applications for measurement of distance. gas & liquid laser Basic concept of Qswitching & mode locking. 22. Threshold Working of three level & four level laser Basic idea of solid state. Gred Kaser 3. 21. 36 Proposed Lecture: 36 Actual Lecture Taken: Signature of Faculty 12 . Senior 1 25% 2 2 2. relation Population inversion. Navneet Gupta Theoretical & Analytical 2 LECTURE PLAN Name of Faculty: Dimple Jhanwar Subject: Optical Communication 23.LASER 19. Optical feed back. Velocity.

including sensors and fiber lasers. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved.Unit-I OPTICAL FIBERS Introduction An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length.Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications. and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. thus allowing viewing in tight spaces.Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications. and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss. which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications.800 ft). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF). Fibers are also used for illumination. and then spliced 13 . Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 550 metres (1.

optical fiber cables in this system. It is notable that the optical carrier may be modulated by either analog or digital information signal. video) from the source to the destination. avalanche). data. Similarly at the receiver end a decoder is used after amplifier and equalizer stage. The common types of optical detectors used are photodiodes (p-i-n. The source provides information in the form of electrical signal to the transmitter. Semiconductor LASERs or LEDs are usually used as optical source here. phototransistors. Now it reaches to the receiver stage where the optical detector demodulates the optical carrier and gives an electrical output signal to the electrical stage. The information carrying light wave then passes through the transmission medium i. The electrical stage of the transmitter drives an optical source to produce modulated light wave carrier. In digital optical fiber communication system the information is suitably encoded prior to the drive circuit stage of optical source. Special connectors are used to make removable connections. photoconductors etc. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM : Like all other communication system.together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc. Principle of ray propagation : 14 .e. the primary objective of optical fiber communication system also is to transfer the signal containing information (voice. Finally the electrical stage gets the real information back and gives it to the concerned destination.

This is the most interesting thing about optical fiber cables. cladding and air. When the incidence angle is sufficiently high such that the angle of refraction is 90º then it is called critical angle.e. total internal reflection occurs. two parameters are very crucial namely Acceptance Angle and Numerical Aperture Acceptance angle is the maximum angle at which light may enter the fiber in order to be propagated and is denoted by θa in figure3. Such an indispensable part of modern day communication system works on an extremely simple property of light ray i. 15 . In this context. leads to the definition of Numerical Aperture which is given by – NA = (n1²-n2²)½ = n0 sin θa where n0 is the refractive index of air. However.e. The relationship between the acceptance angle and the refractive indices of the three media involved-core.9%) i. another category of ray exists which is transmitted without passing through the fiber axis and follows a helical path through the fiber. With the help of innumerable total internal reflections light waves are propagated along the fiber with low loss as shown in figure2. The light ray shown in figure3 is known as a meridional ray as it passes through the axis of the fiber. Now if light ray falls at the interface of the two mediums at an angle greater than the critical angle then the light ray gets reflected back to the originating medium with high efficiency (around 99. Total Internal Reflection. As we all know that when light ray is passing from denser (refractive index is higher) dielectric medium to a rarer (refractive index is lower) dielectric medium then from the point of incidence at the interface it bends away from the normal.

there is a maximum angle from the fiber axis at which light may enter the fiber so that it will propagate. Electromagnetic field comprises of a periodically varying electric field E and magnetic field 16 . only light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel down the fiber without leaking out. Single-mode fiber has a small NA.Total internal reflection When light traveling in a dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary). the light will be completely reflected. Fiber with a larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA. The optical waveguide can be considered to be either a planer guide or a cylindrical guide. The size of this acceptance cone is a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core and cladding. Optical Fiber Modes in optical fibers : The electromagnetic wave theory must be taken into account for getting an improved model for propagation of light through optical fibers. This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core. In simpler terms. Light travels along the fiber bouncing back and forth off of the boundary. in the core of the fiber. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. Because the light must strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle. This range of angles is called the acceptance cone of the fiber. or travel.

Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fiber Cables: The transmission characteristics of optical fiber cables play a major role in determining the performance of the entire communication system.M which are oriented at right angle to each other. Hybrid modes may also occur in the cylindrical fibers. Thus two integers (l & m) are necessary to specify the modes. that mode is known as Transverse Electric (TE) mode. These modes result from skew ray propagation and are designated by HElm when H makes a larger contribution to the transverse field and EHlm when E makes larger contribution to the transverse field. Attenuation and bandwidth are the two most important transmission characteristics when the suitability of optical fiber for communication is analysed. Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves exist where both Ez and Hz are zero. but a corresponding magnetic field component is in the direction of propagation. But when the reverse thing happens then it is termed as Transverse Magnetic (TM) mode. In a cylindrical fiber transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes are obtained which is bounded in two dimensions. The formation of modes in a planer dielectric guide and the interference of plane waves are shown in figure4. material absorption and fiber bends etc. PROPAGATION OF LIGHT ALONG A FIBER 17 . The various attenuation mechanisms are linear scattering. When the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation and hence Ez=0. Here the stable field distribution in the x direction with only a periodic z dependence due to sinusoidally varying electric field in z direction is known as a mode. non linear scattering. The bandwidth determines the number of bits of information transmitted in a given time period and is largely limited by signal dispersion within the fiber. Now when total field lies in the transverse plane.

According to the first theory. that is lower than n1. Unbound rays are refracted out of the fiber core. light is described as a simple ray. attenuation. The light rays refracted into the cladding will eventually escape from the fiber. According to the second theory. This theory is the ray theory. or geometrical optics. The ray theory is used to approximate the light acceptance and guiding properties of optical fibers. Meridional rays are rays that pass through the axis of the optical fiber. or wave representation. Figure 2-10 shows a possible path taken by bound and unbound rays in a step-index fiber. meridional rays follow the laws of reflection and refraction. This theory is the mode theory. approach. The cladding of a step-index has an index of refraction n2. Ray Theory Two types of rays can propagate along an optical fiber. The mode theory is useful in describing the optical fiber properties of absorption. Meridional rays are used to illustrate the basic transmission properties of optical fibers. Skew rays are rays that travel through an optical fiber without passing through its axis. The second type is called skew rays.The concept of light propagation. imperfections at the core-cladding interface will cause part of the bound rays to be refracted out of the core into the cladding. MERIDIONAL RAYS. light is described as an electromagnetic wave. . In general. and dispersion. The core of the step-index fiber has an index of refraction n1. The first type is called meridional rays. However. These fiber properties are discussed later in this chapter. approach. The advantage of the ray approach is that you get a clearer picture of the propagation of light along a fiber. Bound rays propagate through the fiber by total internal reflection. Figure 2-10 assumes the corecladding interface is perfect.Meridional rays can be classified as bound or unbound rays. Bound rays remain in the core and propagate along the axis of the fiber. the transmission of light along an optical fiber. 18 . can be described by two theories. The mode theory describes the behavior of light within an optical fiber.

a. Types of Optical Fibers : According to the refractive index profile optical fibers can be divided into two categories namely Step index fibers and Graded index fibers which are described below. The light ray incident on the fiber core must be within the acceptance cone defined by the angle &Theta. I2 is refracted upon entering the fiber and is transmitted to the core-cladding interface. I1 is totally reflected back into the core and continues to propagate along the fiber. but how do these light rays enter the fiber? Rays that enter the fiber must intersect the core-cladding interface at an angle greater than the critical angle (&Theta. I1 is refracted upon entering the fiber and is transmitted to the core-cladding interface. The incident ray I1 enters the fiber at the angle &Theta. How a light ray is launched into a fiber is shown in figure 2-11.a. index difference.c). 1 Step index fibers : If the refractive index profile of a fiber makes a step change at the core cladding interface then it is known as step index fiber. A multimode step index fiber is shown in figure7(a). c). Some physical parameters like relative refractive index. core radius etc determines the 19 .a. The incident ray I2 enters the fiber at an angle greater than &Theta. I2 is refracted into the cladding and is eventually lost. I2 strikes the core-cladding interface at an angle less than the critical angle (&Theta. the core diameter of which is around 50µm. Only those rays that enter the fiber and strike the interface at these angles will propagate along the fiber.c). Again. The ray then strikes the core-cladding interface at the critical angle (&Theta.It is known that bound rays propagate in fibers due to total internal reflection.

It has the distinct advantage of low intermodal dispersion over multimode step index fiber. A single mode fiber has a core diameter of the order of 2 to 10µm and the propagation of light wave is shown in figure7(b).maximum number of guided modes possible in a multimode fiber. The graded index fiber gives best results for multimode optical propagation for parabolic refractive index profile.e. On the other hand multimode step index fibers allow the use of spatially incoherent optical sources and low tolerance requirements on fiber connectors. multimode step index fibers 20 . 2 Graded index fibers : The graded index fibers have decreasing core index n(r) with radial distance from a maximum value of n1 at the axis to a constant value n2 beyond the core radius a in the cladding as shown in figure8. Due to this special kind of refractive index profile multimode graded index fibers exhibit less intermodal dispersion than its counterpart i.

at different frequencies. The two dominant types of non linear scattering are : a) Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and b) Stimulated Raman Scattering. dB/km). 1. a fiber with a lower attenuation. Because of this non linear scattering the optical power from one mode is transferred in either the forward or backward direction to the same. It can be divided into two major categories namely Mie scattering and Rayleigh scattering. Rayleigh scattering can be reduced to a large extent by using longest possible wavelength. (b) Rayleigh Scattering : The dominant reason behind Rayleigh scattering is refractive index fluctuations due to density and compositional variation in the core.Attenuation in Optical Fibers : Attenuation is defined as the loss of optical power over a set distance. Now when the transfer takes place to a leaky or radiation mode then the result is attenuation. Figure5 shows optical fiber attenuation as a function of wavelength. strains and bubbles may create linear scattering which is termed as Mie scattering.e. will allow more power to reach to the receiver than a fiber with higher attenuation. due to non linear behaviour. It is the major intrinsic loss mechanism in the low impedance window. diameter fluctuations. Signal attenuation within optical fiber is usually expressed in decibel per unit length (i. 2. Linear scattering losses : Through this mechanism a portion/total optical power within one propagating mode is transferred to another. or other modes. Non linear scattering losses : Specially at high optical power levels scattering causes disproportionate attenuation. 21 . Loss in decibel (dB) = 10 log₁₀(Pi/Po) where Pi and Po are the transmitted and output optical power respectively. (a) Mie Scattering : Non perfect cylindrical structure of the fiber and imperfections like irregularities in the core-cladding interface.

. Absorption is defined as the portion of attenuation resulting from the conversion of optical power into another energy form. Here also there are two types of absorption losses in the fiber such as intrinsic absorption and extrinsic absorption. silica (pure glass) fibers are used predominately. such as heat.Intrinsic absorption is caused by basic fiber-material properties.3. If an optical fiber were absolutely pure. there is dissipation of optical power in the form of heat in the waveguide. Silica fibers are used because of their low intrinsic material absorption at the wavelengths of operation. In silica glass. Absorption in optical fibers is explained by three factors: • • • Imperfections in the atomic structure of the fiber material The intrinsic or basic fiber-material properties The extrinsic (presence of impurities) fiber-material properties Imperfections in the atomic structure induce absorption by the presence of missing molecules or oxygen defects. Intrinsic absorption sets the minimal level of absorption. Figure 221 shows the level of attenuation at the wavelengths of operation. Since intrinsic and extrinsic material properties are the main cause of absorption. then all absorption would be intrinsic. the wavelengths of operation range from 700 nanometers (nm) to 1600 nm. When the absorption is caused by interaction with one or more components of glass it is termed as intrinsic absorption whereas if it Absorption is a major cause of signal loss in an optical fiber. (a) Intrinsic Absorption. they are discussed further. In fiber optics. Material Absorption losses : When there happens to be some defect in the material composition and the fabrication process of optical fiber. Absorption is also induced by the diffusion of hydrogen molecules into the glass fiber. This wavelength of operation is between two 22 . with no imperfections or impurities.

Extrinsic absorption is caused by the electronic transition of these metal ions from one energy level to another. absorption occurs when a light particle (photon) interacts with an electron and excites it to a higher energy level. nickel. Extrinsic absorption also occurs when hydroxyl ions (OH-) are introduced into the fiber.intrinsic absorption regions. The second region is the infrared region (above 2000-nm wavelength). and chromium. Light energy is transferred from the electromagnetic field to the bond. The tail of the infrared absorption band is shown in figure 2-21.Extrinsic absorption is caused by impurities introduced into the fiber material. such as iron. the harmonics or overtones of the fundamental absorption occur in the region of operation. This bond has a fundamental absorption at 2700 nm. Trace metal impurities. The tail of the ultraviolet absorption band is shown in figure 2-21. In silica glass. are introduced into the fiber during fabrication. The interaction between the vibrating bond and the electromagnetic field of the optical signal causes intrinsic absorption. The first region is the ultraviolet region (below 400-nm wavelength). These harmonics 23 . Extrinsic Absorption. Intrinsic absorption in the ultraviolet region is caused by electronic absorption bands. Water in silica glass forms a silicon-hydroxyl (Si-OH) bond. (b). The main cause of intrinsic absorption in the infrared region is the characteristic vibration frequency of atomic bonds. . However. absorption is caused by the vibration of silicon-oxygen (Si-O) bonds. Basically.

then fiber attenuation is reduced.Bending the fiber also causes attenuation. External forces are also a source of microbends. These absorption peaks define three regions or windows of preferred operation. Microbend and macrobend losses are very important loss mechanisms. Macrobends are bends having a large radius of curvature relative to the fiber diameter. 1250 nm. 24 . 3. Fiber loss caused by microbending can still occur even if the fiber is cabled correctly. The level of the OH. . if fibers are bent too sharply. . Fiber optic systems operate at wavelengths defined by one of these windows. The amount of water (OH-) impurities present in a fiber should be less than a few parts per billion. An external force deforms the cabled jacket surrounding the fiber but causes only a small bend in the fiber. The third window is centered at 1550 nm. Microbends change the path that propagating modes take. Microbend loss increases attenuation because low-order modes become coupled with high-order modes that are naturally lossy. If the amount of impurities in a fiber is reduced. Fiber attenuation caused by extrinsic absorption is affected by the level of impurities (OH-) present in the fiber. macrobend losses will occur. and 950 nm. BENDING LOSS. as shown in figure 2-23.harmonic absorption is also indicated. The second window is centered at 1300 nm.Microbend loss. Bending loss is classified according to the bend radius of curvature: microbend loss or macrobend loss. Uneven coating applications and improper cabling procedures increase microbend loss.harmonics. Figure 2-23. Figure 2-21 shows the presence of the three OH.increase extrinsic absorption at 1383 nm. (a) Microbend losses are caused by small discontinuities or imperfections in the fiber. The first window is centered at 850 nm. Microbends are small microscopic bends of the fiber axis that occur mainly when a fiber is cabled. During installation.

Fiber sensitivity to bending losses can be reduced. Material dispersion is less at longer wavelengths. Dispersion is sometimes called chromatic dispersion. dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency. Dispersion In optics. These high-order modes are then lost or radiated out of the fiber. When the fiber bend is less than some critical radius. Intramodal dispersion occurs because different colors of light travel through different materials and different waveguide structures at different speeds. increases in the fiber core diameter increase fiber sensitivity. the mode phase velocity must increase to a speed greater than the speed of light. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. (a)Material dispersion occurs because the spreading of a light pulse is dependent on the wavelengths' interaction with the refractive index of the fiber core. waveguide dispersion and material 25 . There are two types of intramodal dispersion.(b) Macrobend losses are observed when a fiber bend's radius of curvature is large compared to the fiber diameter. the mode phase velocity must increase. dispersion depends primarily on fiber materials. Different wavelengths travel at different speeds in the fiber material.) is a function of the size of the fiber's core relative to the wavelength of operation. (1) Intramodal Dispersion Intramodal. Sensitivity also decreases as the diameter of the overall fiber increases. or chromatic. In multimode fibers. The first type is material dispersion. If the refractive index of the core is increased. then fiber sensitivity decreases. To maintain the phase of the light wave. Light propagating at the inner side of the bend travels a shorter distance than that on the outer side. This condition causes some of the light within the fiber to be converted to high-order modes. The spectral width specifies the range of wavelengths that can propagate in the fiber. These bends become a great source of loss when the radius of curvature is less than several centimeters. Material dispersion comes from a frequencydependent response of a material to waves. Material dispersion is a function of the source spectral width. it is impossible to exceed the speed of light. However. Fibers with larger core size propagate more modes.[1] or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. These additional modes tend to be more lossy. Waveguide dispersion also occurs because light propagates differently in the core than in the cladding. However. (b)Waveguide dispersion occurs because the mode propagation constant (&beta. Different wavelengths of a light pulse that enter a fiber at one time exit the fiber at different times. There are generally two sources of dispersion: material dispersion and waveguide dispersion. The second type is waveguide dispersion.

dispersion are basically separate properties. Multimode waveguide dispersion is generally small compared to material dispersion. Waveguide dispersion is usually neglected. However, in single mode fibers, material and waveguide dispersion are interrelated. The total dispersion present in single mode fibers may be minimized by trading material and waveguide properties depending on the wavelength of operation.

2. Intermodal Dispersion Intermodal or modal dispersion causes the input light pulse to spread. The input light pulse is made up of a group of modes. As the modes propagate along the fiber, light energy distributed among the modes is delayed by different amounts. The pulse spreads because each mode propagates along the fiber at different speeds. Since modes travel in different directions, some modes travel longer distances. Modal dispersion occurs because each mode travels a different distance over the same time span, as shown in figure 2-25. The modes of a light pulse that enter the fiber at one time exit the fiber a different times. This condition causes the light pulse to spread. As the length of the fiber increases, modal dispersion increases. Figure 2-25. - Distance traveled by each mode over the same time span.

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Modal dispersion is the dominant source of dispersion in multimode fibers. Modal dispersion does not exist in single mode fibers. Single mode fibers propagate only the fundamental mode. Therefore, single mode fibers exhibit the lowest amount of total dispersion. Single mode fibers also exhibit the highest possible bandwidth

Unit-II OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES & CONNECTION
Light-emitting diode
A light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many kinds of electronics and increasingly for lighting. LEDs work by the effect of electroluminescence, discovered by accident in 1907. The LED was introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. [2] All early devices emitted low-intensity red light, but modern LEDs are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infra red wavelengths, with very high brightness.LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.[3]LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size and faster switching. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.Applications of LEDs are diverse. They are used as low-energy indicators but also for replacements for traditional light sources in general lighting, automotive lighting and traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology.

27

Light Emitting Diode Structure
LEDs are p-n junction devices constructed of gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP), or gallium phosphide (GaP). Silicon and germanium are not suitable because those junctions produce heat and no appreciable IR or visible light. The junction in an LED is forward biased and when electrons cross the junction from the n- to the p-type material, the electron-hole recombination process produces some photons in the IR or visible in a process called electroluminescence. An exposed semiconductor surface can then emit light

1. Dome LED
A hemisphere of n-type Ga As is formed around p-type dome. The diameter of dome is chosen to maximize the amount of internal emission reaching the surface within the critical angle. This device has high efficiency.

28

Basic Layer by Layer Structure 29 .2. Plannar LED 3.

with the metal contact area a circle of diameter ~ 10µ m-15 µ m. Homo. Heterostructure device = semiconductor device structure that has junctions between different bandgap materials Double Heterojunction LED 30 . Surface Emitter In surface emitter the emitting area is defined by oxide isolation.The surface layer is kept as thin as possible (10-15 µ m) to minimise reabsorbtion 5.e having the same band gap).and Hetro-Junction Homojunction = a p-n junction made out of two differently doped semiconductors that are of the same material (i. Heterojunction = junction formed between two different band gaps semiconductors.4.

If the central layer of a double heterostructure.Edge Emitter In edge emitter a double heterostructure band gap engineering is used to achieve carrier confinement and recombination in an active layer but in addition layers of relatively low refractive index are included to produce optical guide. Heterostucture can be used to increase:Efficiency by carrier confinement (band gap engineering)Efficiency by photon confinement (refractive index)The double heterostructure enables the source radiation to be much better defined. A large fraction of the photons are therefore confined between two ‘plates’ of material and emerge at the edge of the device as highly directional flux compatible with coupling to a fibre optic cable. but further. 31 .The double heterostructure is invariably used for optical sources for communication as seen in the figure in the pervious slide. the optical power generated per unit volume is much greater as well. 6. the narrow band-gap region is made no more than 1µ m wide.

Electroluminescence in LEDs 32 .9.

400 nm in the violet.When the applied forward voltage on the diode of the LED drives the electrons and holes into the active region between the n-type and p-type material. the energy can be converted into infrared or visible photons. 700 nm.77 eV to provide the quantum energy of the photon. ηexternal = x100 % 33 . energy Quantum efficiency • • Internal quantum efficiency can of some LED approaches 100% but the external efficiencies are III-V materials have small critical angles therefore the radiation emitted suffers from TIR Poutput (optical ) IV much lower. The energy of an emitted photon from LED is distributed appropriately according to the distribution of electrons on the conduction band and holes in the valance band. At the other extreme. 3.1 eV is required. This implies that the electron-hole pair drops into a more stable bound state. Characteristics of LED 1. requires an energy release of 1. This is due to reabsorption and TIR. The energy of an emitted photon = to the size of the band gap 2. releasing energy on the order of electron volts by emission of a photon. The red extreme of the visible spectrum.

Relaxing placement tolerancesfrom the 1. passivealignment and packaging techniques would be preferred fortheir simplicity. Ultimately. Thesetight fabrication and assembly tolerances complicate fabricationand increase the demands on pick-and-place machines.m level to 20. 34 .Fiber Alignment Technique ALIGNMENT of an optical fiber within an optoelectronicmodule is a continuing challenge in photonics packagingand often dominates module cost. Passive systems utilizing silicon waferboardshave reported alignment accuracies of 1–2 m [1].severely limiting throughput.m level could potentially increasethroughput of a pick-and-place machine by an order of magnitude[2]. yet thisaccuracy is achieved by increasing process controls. but a mechanism for optimizing alignment withinthe package is then required.

5dB Fiber optic cable fusion splicing Fiber optic cable fusion splicing provides the lowest-loss connection. Fiber optic cable fusion splicing – Insertion loss < 0.1dB 2. Generate a small electric arc to melt the fibers and weld them together 35 . Fiber mechanical splicing – Insertion loss < 0. Both methods provide much lower insertion loss compared to fiber connectors. 1. The fusion splicer performs optical fiber fusion splicing in two steps. 1.Fiber Optical Splicing Two optical fiber splicing methods are available for permanent joining of two optical fibers. Special equipment called fusion splicer is used to perform the fiber fusion splicing. Precisely align the two fibers 2.

High precision fusion splicers are usually bulky and expensive. Fusion splicing 36 . a fiber splicing technician can routinely achieve less than 0.1dB insertion loss splicing for both single mode and multimode fiber cables. With proper training.

37 .

Mechanical Splicing 38 .

organizations will standardize on one kind of connector.g. LC) and multifiber connectors (e. respectively. avoiding any glass to air or plastic to air interfaces.Optical fiber connector An optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber. 39 . or per type of fiber (one for multimode. The main differences among types of connectors are dimensions and methods of mechanical coupling. one for singlemode). and thus reducing the footprint of the systems. A variety of optical fiber connectors are available. resulting in a direct glass to glass or plastic to plastic. Most optical fiber connectors are spring-loaded: The fiber endfaces of the two connectors are pressed together. Generally. depending on what equipment they commonly use. contact. MTP) are replacing the traditional connectors (e. mainly to pack more connectors on the overcrowded faceplate.g. which would result in higher connector losses.g. In datacom and telecom applications nowadays small form factor connectors (e. SC). and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so that light can pass.

40 .

It does this by generating an electrical current proportional to the intensity of incident optical radiation. Maintain stable operation in changing environmental conditions. The principal optical detectors used in fiber optic systems include semiconductor positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The relationship between the input optical radiation and the output electrical current is given by the detector responsivity.UNIT-III OPTICAL DETECTORS Introduction A transducer is a device that converts input energy of one form into output energy of another. Many of the requirements are similar to those of an optical source. SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL AND DEVICE PROPERTIES The mechanism by which optical detectors convert optical power into electrical current requires knowledge of semiconductor material and device properties. packaging. • • Optical detectors that meet many of these requirements and are suitable for fiber optic systems are semiconductor photodiodes. Have a sufficiently short response time (sufficiently wide bandwidth) to handle the system's Contribute low amounts of noise to the system. Responsivity is discussed later in this chapter. providing a complete description of these properties is beyond the scope of this manual. In this chapter we only discuss the general properties of semiconductor PINs and APDs. An optical detector is a transducer that converts an optical signal into an electrical signal. Fiber optic systems require that optical detectors: • Be compatible in size to low-loss optical fibers to allow for efficient coupling and easy Have a high sensitivity at the operating wavelength of the optical source. • • data rate. OPTICAL DETECTOR PROPERTIES Fiber optic communications systems require that optical detectors meet specific performance and compatibility requirements. As stated in chapter 6. such as temperature. 41 .

These two properties cause the wavelength dependence in the detector responsivity. For a particular material. Silicon (Si). This is due to reabsorption and TIR. Responsivity Responsivity is the ratio of the optical detector's output photocurrent in amperes to the incident optical power in watts. Quantum efficiency • • Internal quantum efficiency can of some LED approaches 100% but the external efficiencies are III-V materials have small critical angles therefore the radiation emitted suffers from TIR Poutput (optical ) IV much lower. Responsivity is a useful parameter for characterizing detector performance because it relates the photocurrent generated to the incident optical power. In some cases aluminum (Al) and indium (In) are used as dopants in the base semiconductor material. Additionally. the detector material absorbs some wavelengths better than others. ηexternal = x100 % PIN PHOTODIODES A PIN photodiode is a semiconductor positive-negative (p-n) structure with an intrinsic region sandwiched between the other two regions (see figure 7-2). This current is called a photocurrent. The 42 . only photons of certain wavelengths will generate a photocurrent when they are absorbed. and indium phosphide (InP) are the most common semiconductor materials used in optical detectors. germanium (Ge). The particular properties of the semiconductor are determined by the materials used and the layering of the materials within the device.Semiconductor detectors are designed so that optical energy (photons) incident on the detector active area produces a current. The responsivity of a detector is a function of the wavelength of the incident light and the efficiency of the device in responding to that wavelength. It is normally operated by applying a reverse-bias voltage. gallium arsenide (GaAs).

Dark current is dependent on temperature. but typically is less than a few volts. Response Time There are several factors that influence the response time of a photodiode and its output circuitry . it will increase as the device temperature increases.magnitude of the reverse-bias voltage depends on the photodiode application. While dark current may initially be low.The basic structure of a PIN photodiode. The thicker the detector active area. a current is still produced. the longer the transit time will be. When no light is incident on the photodiode. This time is referred to as the electron transit time. This current is called the dark current. The dark current is the leakage current that flows when a reverse bias is applied and no light is incident on the photodiode. 43 . The detector thickness is related to the amount of time required for the electrons generated to flow out of the detector active area. The most important of these are the thickness of the detector active area and the detector RC time constant. Figure .

Figure The basic structure of an APD. In APDs. they cause a fraction of them to become part of the photocurrent.A schematic representation of a . Avalanche multiplication continues to occur until the electrons move out of the active area of the APD. is applied across the active region. . As these electrons collide with other electrons in the semiconductor material. AVALANCHE PHOTODIODES An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a photodiode that internally amplifies the photocurrent by an avalanche process. a large reverse-bias voltage. This process is known as avalanche multiplication. typically over 100 volts. 44 .Figure photodiode. This voltage causes the electrons initially generated by the incident photons to accelerate as they move through the APD active region.

a larger reverse-bias voltage also results in increased noise levels. dark current. Many aspects of the discussion provided on responsivity. The response time of an APD and its output circuitry depends on the same factors as PIN photodiodes. Typical semiconductor materials used in the construction of low-noise APDs include silicon (Si). However. This chapter does not attempt to discuss trade-offs in APD design in more detail. The noise properties of an APD are affected by the materials that the APD is made of. Trade-offs are made in APD design to optimize responsivity and gain. indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs). dark current. 45 . Excess noise resulting from the avalanche multiplication process places a limit on the useful gain of the APD. The only additional factor affecting the response time of an APD is the additional time required to complete the process of avalanche multiplication.The gain of the APD can be changed by changing the reverse-bias voltage. To learn more about APD design trade-offs and performance parameters. A larger reverse-bias voltage results in a larger gain. The avalanche process introduces excess noise because every photogenerated carrier does not undergo the same multiplication. and response time provided in the PIN photodiodes section also relate to APDs. and germanium (Ge). response time. and linearity.

the thermal noise is unaffected by the internal carrier multiplication. Noise is the main factor that limits receiver sensitivity. Thermal noise arises from both the photodetector and the load resistor. For further information on the excess noise resulting from the avalanche process. increasing the value of the load resistor to reduce thermal noise reduces the receiver bandwidth. only noise associated with the photodetection process is discussed. the random nature of the avalanche process introduces an additional shot noise called excess noise.RECEIVER NOISE Noise corrupts the transmitted signal in a fiber optic system. There are many sources of noise in fiber optic systems. In APDs. Amplifier noise also contributes to thermal noise. dark current noise. A reduction in thermal noise is possible by increasing the value of the load resistor. This means that noise sets a lower limit on the amount of optical power required for proper receiver operation. Thermal noise is the noise resulting from the random motion of electrons in a conducting medium. Dark current and quantum noises are two types of noise that manifest themselves as shot noise. PHOTODIODE MATERIAL 46 . the discrete nature of the photodetection process creates a signal dependent shot noise called quantum noise. Noise introduced by the receiver is either signal dependent or signal independent. Dark current noise results from dark current that continues to flow in the photodiode when there is no incident light. However. In APDs. Signal independent noise is independent of the incident optical power level. They include the following: • • • Noise from the light source Noise from the interaction of light with the optical fiber Noise from the receiver itself Because the intent of this chapter is to discuss optical detector and receiver properties. Quantum noise results from the random generation of electrons by the incident optical radiation. Signal dependent noise results from the random generation of electrons by the incident optical power. refer to the avalanche photodiode section. Shot noise is noise caused by current fluctuations because of the discrete nature of charge carriers. Receiver noise includes thermal noise. and quantum noise. In addition. Dark current noise is independent of the optical signal.

In most components this is not desired. Materials commonly used to produce photodiodes include[2]: Because of their greater bandgap. UNIT-IV OPTICAL MEASUREMENT MEASUREMENT OF ATTENUATION 47 . these can still cause many ICs to malfunction due to induced photo-currents. so they are placed in an opaque housing. almost every active component is potentially a photodiode. especially those sensitive to small currents. and contain P-N junctions. Unwanted photodiodes Since transistors and ICs are made of semiconductors. because only photons with sufficient energy to excite electrons across the material's bandgap will produce significant photocurrents. but germanium photodiodes must be used for wavelengths longer than approximately 1 µm. Many components. Since housings are not completely opaque to X-rays or other high energy radiation.The material used to make a photodiode is critical to defining its properties. due to the induced photocurrents. will not work correctly if illuminated. silicon-based photodiodes generate less noise than germanium-based photodiodes.

It is a result of absorption. &alpha. Each fiber end should be properly prepared to make measurements. is L is the distance between points X and Y. Point X is assumed to be closer to the optical source than point Y. The fiber attenuation AT and the attenuation coefficient &alpha.In laboratory situations. The total amount of attenuation will vary with changes in wavelength &lambda. The cutback method begins by measuring. bending. The attenuation coefficient will also vary with changes in &lambda. Figure Cutback method for measuring fiber attenuation: A. The total attenuation (A) between an arbitrary point X and point Y located on the fiber is Px is the power output at point X. Test measurement. P y is the power output at point Y. the output power P1 of the test fiber of known length (L) (figure 5-1. The cutback method for measuring single mode fiber attenuation is EIA/TIA-455-78. the test fiber is cut back to an approximate 2-m length. with an optical power meter.Attenuation is the loss of optical power as light travels along the fiber. End users measure the total attenuation of a fiber at the operating wavelength (&lambda. end users perform the cutback method for measuring the total attenuation of an optical fiber. are then calculated. scattering. Cut-back measurement 48 .. EIA/TIA-455-57 describes how to properly prepare fiber ends for measurement purposes.. The test method requires that the test fiber of known length (L) be cut back to an approximate 2-m length. This method requires access to both fiber ends. . The output power P2 of the shortened test fiber is then measured (figure 5-1. The basic measurement process is the same for both of these procedures. This cut back causes the destruction of 2-m of fiber. The cutback method for measuring multimode fiber attenuation is EIA/TIA-455-46. and other loss mechanisms as described in chapter 3.).) or attenuation rate. is a positive number because Px is always larger than Py. view B). CUTBACK METHOD. view A). B. The cutback method involves comparing the optical power transmitted through a long piece of test fiber to the power present at the beginning of the fiber. Without disturbing the input light conditions. The attenuation coefficient (&alpha. Each loss mechanism contributes to the total amount of fiber attenuation.

The launch spot size is the area of the fiber face illuminated by the light beam from the optical source. An overfilled 49 . Overfilling the fiber excites both low-order and high-order modes. The launch angular distribution also depends on the size of the optical source and the properties of the optical elements between the optical source and the fiber end face. The angular distribution is the angular extent of the light beam from the optical source incident on the fiber end face. For multimode fiber. For single mode fiber.Measurement personnel must pay attention to how optical power is launched into the fiber when measuring fiber attenuation. and so on) between the source and the fiber end face. An underfilled launch results when the launch spot size and angular distribution are smaller than that of the fiber core. An underfilled launch concentrates most of the optical power in the center of the fiber.LAUNCH CONDITIONS. Multimode optical fiber launch conditions are typically characterized as being underfilled or overfilled. optical power must be launched only into the fundamental mode. This is more of a problem with multimode fiber than single mode fiber. The diameter of the spot depends on the size of the optical source and the properties of the optical elements (lenses. This is accomplished by controlling the launch spot size and angular distribution. Underfilling the fiber excites mainly low-order modes. the distribution of power among the modes of the fiber must be controlled. Different distributions of launch power (launch conditions) can result in different attenuation measurements. This is accomplished using a mode filter on the fiber. .

A mode filter is a device that attenuates specific modes propagating in the core of an optical fiber. Figure . Mandrel wraps for multimode fibers consist of several wraps (approximately 4 or 5) around a mandrel. light that is incident at angles greater than the angle of acceptance of the fiber core is lost. Most cladding-mode strippers consist of a material with a refractive index greater than that of the fiber cladding. This type of mode filter is known as a mandrel wrap mode filter. . In addition. The propagation of the second-order mode will affect attenuation measurements. Incident light that falls outside the fiber core is lost. Mode filters generally involve wrapping the test fiber around a mandrel. a mode filter is used to eliminate the second-order mode from propagating along the fiber. For single mode fibers. A cladding-mode stripper is a device that removes any cladding mode power from the fiber. the fiber bend radius and length.Overfilled launch condition.. For most fibers. The two most common types of mode filters are free-form loops and mandrel wraps. mode filters remove high-order propagating modes and are individually tailored and adjusted for a specific fiber type. In attenuation measurements. For multimode fibers. For multimode. cladding-mode strippers and mode filters eliminate the effects that high-order modes have on attenuation results. A 20-mm 50 . the fiber coating acts as an excellent cladding-mode stripper. Fiber attenuation caused by the second-order mode depends on the operating wavelength.launch condition occurs when the launch spot size and angular distribution are larger than that of the fiber core. tight bends tend to remove high-order modes from the fiber.

51 . Launch conditions significantly affect the results of multimode fiber attenuation measurements. Additional information on multimode and single mode filters (and launch conditions) is available in EIA/TIA-455-50 and EIA/TIA-455-77. Another common mode filter for single mode fibers is a 30mm diameter circular free-form loop. The fundamental mode can never be cut off. The cutoff wavelength of a single mode fiber is the wavelength above which the fiber propagates only the fundamental mode. B. respectively.5 &mu.diameter mandrel is typically used for 62. Mandrel wraps for single mode fibers consist of a single wrap around a 30-mm diameter mandrel. the high-order-mode power loss will dominate the attenuation results. MEASUREMENT OF CUT_OFF WAVE LENGTH The wavelength at which a mode ceases to propagate is called the cutoff wavelength for that mode. fiber attenuation measurements are performed using an underfilled launch condition.Types of mode filters: A. However. Generally. the fundamental mode.m fiber. Free-form loop. Mandrel-wrap. Figure . If too much power is launched into high-order modes. Power in highorder modes is eliminated by either controlling the input spot size and angular distribution or using mode filters to remove high-order mode power. an optical fiber is always able to propagate at least one mode. high-order-mode power loss has minimal effect on the measurement results. If the fiber is underfilled.

) is then recorded while scanning the wavelength range in increments of 10 nm or less. Cutoff wavelength may be measured on uncabled or cabled single mode fibers. The effects of length and bending are different on different fibers depending on whether they are matched-clad or depressed-clad in design. A slightly different procedure is used in each case. the technique is called the multimode-reference technique. The fiber cutoff wavelength (&lambda. The test method for cabled single mode fiber cutoff wavelength is EIA/TIA-455-170. The cutoff wavelength of single mode fibers depends on the fiber length and bend conditions. The cutoff wavelength of depressed-clad fibers is more sensitive to length than the cutoff wavelength of matched-clad fibers. Each test method describes the test equipment (input optics.Determining the cutoff wavelength of a single mode fiber involves finding the wavelength above which the power transmitted through the fiber decreased abruptly. 52 . If a piece of multimode fiber is used as the reference fiber. The test method for uncabled single mode fiber cutoff wavelength is EIA/TIA-455-80. the test fiber is loosely supported in a single-turn with a constant radius of 140 mm. Cutoff wavelength measurements require an overfilled launch over the full range of test wavelengths. The difference is due to the fiber bends introduced during the cable manufacturing process. The wavelength range scanned encompasses the expected cutoff wavelength. The cutoff wavelength of matched-clad fibers is more sensitive to bends than the cuttoff wavelength of depressed-clad fibers.cf) measured under EIA/TIA-455-80 will generally be higher than the cable cutoff wavelength (&lambda. If the same fiber with small bends is used as the reference fiber. only the test method for measuring the cutoff wavelength of uncabled fiber is discussed. but the basic measurement process is the same. This power decrease occurs when the second-order mode propagating in the fiber is cut off. The transmitted signal power P s (&lambda. Figure 55 shows this single-turn configuration. and cladding-mode strippers) necessary for the test. The reference fiber can be the same piece of single mode fiber with small bends introduced or a piece of multimode fiber. The launch and detection conditions are not changed while scanning over the range of wavelengths.cc) measured under EIA/TIA-455-170. mode filters. Measuring the cutoff wavelength involves comparing the transmitted power from the test fiber with that of a reference fiber at different wavelengths.GIF">bend-reference technique</emphasis>. For both techniques. the technique is called the <emphasis type="b. Since the procedures for measuring the cutoff wavelength of uncabled and cabled single mode fibers are essentially the same.

but an additional bend is added to the test fiber. the single mode fiber is replaced with a 2-m length of multimode fiber. The transmitted signal power P r(&lambda.) at each wavelength is calculated as follows: 53 . the launch and detection conditions are not changed. For the bend-reference technique. The attenuation A(&lambda.) is recorded while scanning the same wavelength range in the same increments of 10 nm or less. For the multimode-reference technique. The test fiber is bent to a radius of 30 mm or less to suppress the second-order mode at all the scanned wavelengths.The reference power measurement is then made.

Chromatic dispersion occurs because different colors of light travel through the fiber at different speeds. A multiwavelength source 54 . This differential group delay leads to pulse broadening. This delay difference is called the differential group delay &tau. Chromatic dispersion is also measured in the frequency domain using EIA/TIA-455-169 and EIA/TIA-455175. dispersion occurs in both single mode and multimode optical fibers.) per unit length. These methods measure the composite optical fiber material and waveguide dispersion. To understand the contribution that material and waveguide dispersive mechanisms have on multimode and single mode fiber dispersion. refer to chapter 2. or intramodal. The chromatic dispersion of multimode graded-index and single mode fiber is obtained by measuring fiber group delays in the time domain. some colors arrive at the fiber end before others. In this chapter we limit the discussion on chromatic dispersion to the time domain method described in EIA/TIA-455-168. Chromatic dispersion is measured using EIA/TIA-455-168 in the time domain. Since the different colors of light have different velocities. These measurements are made using multiwavelength sources or multiple sources of different wavelengths.(&lambda.Fiber cutoff wavelength determined by the multimode-reference technique MEASUREMENT OF DISPERSION Chromatic.

Near-field power distributions describe the emitted power per unit area in the near-field region. Generally.in(&lambda. The group delay &tgr. The pulse delay for both a long test sample fiber and a short reference fiber are measured over a range of wavelengths. The near-field region is the region close to the fiber-end face.). such as lenses. per unit length at each wavelength is where Ls is the test sample fiber length in kilometers (km) and Lref is the reference sample length in km. The image may also be scanned by using a detector array.(&lambda. The pulse delay for the reference fiber as a function of wavelength is &tgr. Detector arrays of known element size and spacing may provide a display of the power distribution on a video monitor. The range of wavelengths over which meaningful data is obtained depends on the wavelength range of optical source(s) used. EIA/TIA-455-43 describes the procedure for measuring the near-field power distribution of optical waveguides.). The near-field power distribution is defined as the emitted power per unit area (radiance) for each position in the plane of the emitting surface.0) and the zero-dispersion slope (S0) are determined from the chromatic dispersion curve. of the fiber group delay curve with respect to wavelength. 55 . Figure 5-8 shows an example setup for measuring the near-field power distribution.could be a wavelength-selectable laser. MEASUREMENT OF DIAMETER Core diameter is measured using EIA/TIA-455-58. the emitting surface is the output area of a fiber-end face. The zero-dispersion wavelength (&lambda. The pulse delay for the test fiber as a function of wavelength is &tgr. or slope. magnify the fiber-end face and focus the fiber's image on a movable detector.m) range.The fiber chromatic dispersion is defined as the derivative. In the near-field region. Our discussion is limited to measuring the core diameter directly from the output near-field radiation pattern obtained using EIA/TIA-455-43. Output optics.). The core diameter is defined from the refractive index profile n(r) or the output near-field radiation pattern. A record of the near-field power is kept as a function of scan position. the distance between the fiber-end face and detector is in the micrometers (&mu. out (&lambda. The image is scanned in a plane by the movable detector. the group delay as a function of wavelength is fit to a simple mathematical function and the derivative calculated. For this chapter.

Figure:The measurement of the near-field power distribution Near-field radiation pattern 56 .

The 2. Optical fiber and optical connection field measurements evaluate only the transmission properties affected by component or system installation or repair. The NA can be defined from the refractive index profile or the output far-field radiation pattern. Laboratory measurements can only attempt to simulate the actual operating conditions of installed components.5 percent points. Fiber optic component properties measured in the laboratory can change after the installation of these components on board ship. they are essentially the same as laboratory measurements so they will not be 57 . so field bandwidth measurement is generally not performed. The far-field power distribution describes the emitted power per unit area as a function of angle &Theta. End users must perform field measurements to evaluate those properties most likely affected by the installation or repair of fiber optic components or systems. or the 0. intersects the normalized curve at radial positions -a and a. The distance between the fiber-end face and detector in the far-field region is in the centimeters (cm) range for multimode fibers and millimeters (mm) range for single mode fibers. The discussion on field measurements is limited to optical fiber and optical connection properties.The core diameter (D) is defined as the diameter at which the intensity is 2. there is no need to remeasure these properties. The far-field region is the region far from the fiber-end face.025 level. If field bandwidth measurements are required. The core diameter is simply equal to 2a (D=2a). MEASUREMENT OF NUMERICAL APERTURE The numerical aperture (NA) is a measurement of the ability of an optical fiber to capture light.5 percent of the maximum intensity (see figure 5-9). The optical fiber properties that are likely to change include fiber attenuation (loss) and bandwidth. Bandwidth changes in the field tend to be beneficial. The far-field power distribution describes the emitted power per unit area in the far-field region. The NA of a multimode fiber having a nearparabolic refractive index profile is measured the fiber NA is measured from the output far-field radiation pattern. such as core and cladding diameter and numerical aperture. Figure illustrates an angular and spacial scan for measuring the far-field power distribution. some distance away from the fiber-end face. Our discussion is limited to measuring the NA from the output far-field radiation pattern. These procedures involve either an angular or spacial scan. Field measurements differ from laboratory measurements because they measure the transmission properties of installed fiber optic components. Because optical fiber geometrical properties. are not expected to change.

An OTDR requires access to only one fiber end. the fiber ends are normally located some distance apart. Poor fiber connections can also increase insertion loss and degrade transmitter and receiver performance by increasing reflectance and return loss. Measurements obtained with a stabilized light source and power meter are more accurate than those obtained with an OTDR. End users use this measurement technique when optical time-domain reflectometry is not recommended. End users can also measure fiber attenuation and cable plant transmission loss using an optical power meter and a stabilized light source. It also identifies and evaluates optical connection losses along a cable link and locates any fiber breaks or faults. End users should perform field measurements to verify that component performance is within allowable limits so system performance is not adversely affected. The installation and repair of fiber optic components on board ship can affect system operation. Measuring fiber attenuation and transmission loss using a power meter and light source requires access to both ends of the fiber or link. Field test equipment must provide accurate measurements in extreme environmental conditions. Since electrical power sources may not always be available in the field. Field measurements require rugged. An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is recommended for conducting field measurements on installed optical fibers or links of 50 meters or more in length. field measurements may require two people. An OTDR measures the attenuation of installed optical fibers as a function of length. There are additional differences in measuring optical fiber and optical connection properties in the field than in the laboratory. test equipment should allow battery operation. while both fiber ends are available for conducting laboratory measurements.repeated. unlike the sophisticated test equipment used in the laboratory. only one fiber end may be readily available for field measurements. portable test equipment. The main field measurement technique involves optical time-domain reflectometry. The optical connection properties that are likely to change are connection insertion loss and reflectance and return loss. Even if both fiber ends are available for field measurements. Modal redistribution at fiber joints can increase fiber attenuation in the fiber after the joint. In addition. Therefore. Microbends introduced during installation can increase fiber attenuation. Fiber breaks or faults can prevent or severely disrupt system operation. An optical loss test set (OLTS) combines the power meter and source functions into one physical unit 58 .

In the paper cited above the authors describe a new method for the loss distribution along the fiber. The comparison of the losses closely before and after point of interest makes possible to evaluate insertion losses of the various optical components on the fiber link.The backscattering method was invented by M. In this way one can evaluate the space distribution and magnitude of various non-homogeneities along the fiber like optical connectors. In any point on the fiber the magnitude of the backscattered optical power is proportional to the local transmitted optical power. The detected signal provides the detail picture about the local loss distribution or reflections along the fiber caused by any of the attenuation mechanisms or some other nonhomogeneities on the fiber. micro. An important feature of the method is non-destructivity and the fact that the access to only input end of the fiber is needed. in time when technology of the optical fiber manufacturing was at early stages. The precise and reliable measurement of local losses on the fiber was very important for further improvement of quality of fibers. 59 .The measurement of the time delay of the detected signal from the fiber end or from any perturbation on the fiber allows to derive the information about the perturbation localization provided that the index of refraction in the fiber core or group velocity of light propagation is known. The basic idea of the proposed method consisted in launching a rather short and high power optical impulse into the tested fiber and a consequent detection of back scattered optical power as a response of the fiber to the test impulse. splicings. Due to the nonzero losses this power is gradually attenuated along the fiber and consequently also the backscattered power is also attenuated.and macro-bend losses and others measurand-perturbances. Jensen in 1976 [1]. Barnoskim and M. The measurement of the backscattered power as a function of time or position on the fiber gives the information about the local distribution of the attenuation coefficient along the fiber.

E1. 60 . If N2>N1. we say population inversion exists.UNIT-V LASER Principles of Lasers — Spontaneous Emission. At thermal equilibrium. E2>E1 All objects above absolute zero temperature have spontaneous emission. This is the normal population distribution. in the same time they give out the electromagnetic radiation having the energy equal to the difference between the two energy levels. Since E2>E1. or spontaneously jump to lower energy levels. Stimulated Absorption and Emission Atoms at higher energy levels tend to. This is called spontaneous decay or spontaneous emission. the number of atoms at different energy levels obeys the Boltzmann population distribution equation: N2= N1 exp[-(E2-E1)/kT] Where N2 and N1 are numbers of atoms at energy state E2 and E1 repectively. The emission frequency is decided by: hn = E2 . N2/N1 at thermal equilibrium will be less than one.

Why? The reason is: the lower level and upper level atoms have the same chance to jump upward or downward. 61 . So the total decay time of E2 to E1 is composed of both radiative and non-radiative parts. We incident broadband light on a collection of atoms.e. Then the Laser — Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation occurs. it transfers the pumping or incident energy into light energy! One incident photon after stimulated emission becomes two photons with same frequency. the other is non-radiation relaxation processes like collision. direction and phase with the incident waves. this is called Stimulated Absorption. the upward transition absorbs the incident energy. Let’s analyze the following experiment.Spontaneous radiation is only one of the two forms of atomic relaxation or decay. see the figure below. Stimulated transitions are essential for lasers to work. When the atoms at lower energy levels absorb the incident energy with corresponding frequency. emitting electromagnetic waves or photons with the same frequency. Stimulated emission reduces the upper level population. the atoms at upper level have the same possibility to jump to the corresponding lower levels. they jump to upper level states. and use the grating spectrometer to measure the light passing through the medium. If this process can dominate over absorption processes. We will find that the detected light energy distribution with wavelength has changed from a relative smooth curve to a curve with discrete absorption lines. Aren’t you excited? But under normal conditions. This process is called Stimulated Emission. increases the lower level population. we could not get laser. becomes more and more intense with time. under the action of the incident electromagnetic field with the corresponding frequency..21. thermal dissipation. This process reduces the lower level population and increases the upper level population. i. Another very important thing is that it also coherently increases the incident EM wave. etc. the coherent light can be amplified. In the same time.21+Tnr. T21=Trad. This indicates that the atoms absorb the incident energy at certain frequencies. direction and phase.

From the above equation we see. but no population inversion occurs! The best it can go is at steady state or at saturation. the upper level atom population is always less than the lower level atom population.e. Rate Equations and Population Inversion Two-level Atomic System Let’s first examine the two-level atomic system.E1. the bigger the W12. define w12 and w21 as the corresponding relaxation or decay rate (including both spontaneous radiation rate and non-radiation decay rate). the incident signal will make the population difference ”N approach zero when the signal is bigger enough. ”N0=N10-N20 as the population difference at thermal equilibrium. T1 is the population recovery time or energy relaxation time of the system. We also define N10 and N20 as the atom population at thermal equilibrium. Note also W12=W21.1 62 . for a two-level atomic system. i. we must create Population Inversion first. the population difference becomes 0. we get: ”N0 is bigger than zero. Then the rate equations for two-level atomic system are: N is the total atom number. At thermal equilibrium of normal conditions. we get: At steady state. W12>0.. so it is the population difference between the two levels that decides whether there can exist a net amplification of the incident energy. ”N=N1-N2 is the population difference. After some operation. i. We must first make the upper level population larger than the lower level to generate laser light.. so the stimulating radiation can only attenuate when it interacts with the medium.e. Pumping process provides the incident radiation satisfying hn = E2 . define W21 as the possibility of atoms jumping from E2 to E1 because of stimulated emission. E2>E1.downward transition amplifies the incident energy. W12 is closely related with the incident signal and the stronger the incident signal. when ”N doesn’t change with time. Let’s define W12 as the possibility of atoms jumping from E1 to E2 because of stimulated absorption.

Atoms at E2 have a relatively slow transition time T21. E1 is the ground state. Ruby laser is a typical three level laser system. lasing is between E2 and E1. So we have rate equations for three level laser systems: At steady state. atoms at E2 will take a longer time to change to E1 than atoms from E3 to E2. i. For the three-level laser system. W13=W31=Wp. we must use atomic systems with more than two related energy levels. Also we have N=N1+N2+N3. Atoms at E3 have fast decay time T32. i.The conclusion is: to get population inversion.. Supposing the pumping process produces a stimulated transition probability between E1 and E3.e.e. the population difference between E2 and E1 is: 63 . Three-level Laser System Now let’s examine the three level laser system.. atoms at E3 decay to E2 in a very short time T32.

thus b =0. i. then at steady state. If we assume the atoms at E3 decay to E2 immediately. we have: Conclusion: population inversion is possible for a three level atomic system.From above we see. for N2-N1>0.e. So three-level laser system is not very efficient. N1 is always very big in the beginning. Now let’s see what advantages the four-level laser systems have over three-level systems Four-level Laser System Nd:YAG laser is a four level laser system. for population inversion to occur. Population inversion starts after half of the ground level atoms being pumped to the E2 level. Look at the four level laser model below. Because N1 is the ground level. the pumping rate Wp must satisfy: WpT21>1/(1-b ). present lasers are usually four-level or more level systems. The condition is: T32<<T21 and the pumping rate must be bigger than a positive threshold value. 64 ..

the decay time is T21. pumping process raise the atoms from E1 to E4. The actual detailed rate equations are far more complex than we see here.We have E1. the transmission time is Trad. When we get population inversion. Atoms at E2 then decay very fast to E1. We have to make a statement here: we make some simplifications to make the material easily understood. decay time is T43. Also atoms at E2 decay so fast that we can say N2 is nearly zero. Then we have rate equations for four-level laser systems: For simplification. 65 . N4 is nearly 0. we assume T43 is short enough that the pumped atoms to E4 immediately decay to E3. We list the conclusion here: Since b » 0 for a four level system. Up to now we have discussed population inversion conditions by analyzing the pumping rate equations. The advantage of four-level laser system is very clear now. There is almost no threshold for Wp to generate population conversion. Let’s examine population inversion between N3 and N2. N3-N2 is readily bigger than zero. We have the relation: N=N1+N2+N3+N4. we suggest the interested readers refer books on principles of lasers for further questions. Lasing happens between E3 and E2. our next step is to analyze the amplification of incident waves. N1 at the ground level. pumping rate is Wp=W14=W41. Atoms at E4 have fast decay to E3.

)In this GIF movie. The image on the monitor is then captured by the videocamera again. The electronic loop moves with near light speed. and this creates a persistence which prevents the patterns changing too fast.The resulting images depend on different camera and monitor settings.Optical feedback Optical feedback is the optical equivalent of acoustic feedback. in this case from the candle. but as the resulting image is projected onto the phosphor dots on the inside of the screen by the electron beam. (A simple example of optical feedback is an image cast between mirrors. amplified and then sent by cable to a monitor projecting electron beams on the inside of the monitor screen. The feedback occurs when a loop exists between an optical input. and an optical output. angle and physical vibrations. and fed back to the monitor in a continuous loop.The original light source. and the JPG still image examples (right). distance. a television screen or monitor. Optical feedback can be combined with music. a videocamera. For each loop the image is doubled and the image interferes with itself. such as light amplification. the phosphor points take time to begin and stop glowing. while the feedback loop continues. for example. Lasing threshold 66 . for example. light from a candle is received by a videocamera. can then be extinguished. or other sound sources. contrast. to influence the image loop. and thus they survive long enough to be perceived.

the slope of power vs. Both techniques are sometimes applied at once. The linewidth of the laser's emission also becomes orders of magnitude smaller above the threshold than it is below. Q-switching: Q-switching:sometimes known as giant pulse formation. The technique allows the production of light pulses with extremely high (gigawatt) peak power. light which leaves the gain medium does not return. Initially the laser medium is pumped while the Q-switch is set to prevent feedback of light into the gain medium (producing an optical resonator with low Q). Principle of Q-switching Q-switching is achieved by putting some type of variable attenuator inside the laser's optical resonator. Above threshold. and much longer pulse durations. excitation is orders of magnitude greater. This produces a population inversion. the laser's output power rises slowly with increasing excitation. Because of the large amount of energy already stored in the gain medium. When the attenuator is functioning. the amount of energy stored in the gain medium increases as the medium is pumped. much higher pulse energies. much higher than would be produced by the same laser if it were operating in a continuous wave (constant output) mode. Compared to modelocking. Above the threshold. and lasing cannot begin. The variable attenuator is commonly called a "Q-switch". the Q-switch device is quickly changed from low to high Q. when used for this purpose. This attenuation inside the cavity corresponds to a decrease in the Q factor or quality factor of the optical resonator. this also causes the energy stored in 67 ." which is an acronym. after a certain time the stored energy will reach some maximum level. not an agent noun.The lasing threshold is the lowest excitation level at which a laser's output is dominated by stimulated emission rather than by spontaneous emission. is a technique by which a laser can be made to produce a pulsed output beam. another technique for pulse generation with lasers. A high Q factor corresponds to low resonator losses per roundtrip. Due to losses from spontaneous emission and other processes. At this point. and vice versa. Below the threshold. the medium is said to be gain saturated. the laser is said to be lasing. The term "lasing" is a back formation from "laser. Q-switching leads to much lower pulse repetition rates. allowing feedback and the process of optical amplification by stimulated emission to begin. Since the rate of stimulated emission is dependent on the amount of light entering the medium. but laser operation cannot yet occur since there is no feedback from the resonator. the intensity of light in the laser resonator builds up very quickly.

the medium to be depleted almost as quickly. The net result is a short pulse of light output from the laser, known as a giant pulse, which may have a very high peak intensity. There are two main types of Q-switching: Active Q-switching Here, the Q-switch is an externally-controlled variable attenuator. This may be a mechanical device such as a shutter, chopper wheel or spinning mirror placed inside the cavity, or (more commonly) it may be some form of modulator such as an acousto-optic device or an electro-optic device — a Pockels cell or Kerr cell. The reduction of losses (increase of Q) is triggered by an external event, typically an electrical signal. The pulse repetition rate can therefore be externally controlled. Modulators generally allow a faster transition from low to high Q, and provide better control. An additional advantage of modulators is that the rejected light may be coupled out of the cavity and can be used for something else. Alternatively, when the modulator is in its low-Q state, an externally-generated beam can be coupled into the cavity through the modulator. This can be used to "seed" the cavity with a beam that has desired characteristics (such as transverse mode or wavelength). When the Q is raised, lasing builds up from the initial seed, producing a Q-switched pulse that has characteristics inherited from the seed. Passive Q-switching In this case, the Q-switch is a saturable absorber, a material whose transmission increases when the intensity of light exceeds some threshold. The material may be an ion-doped crystal like Cr:YAG, which is used for Qswitching of Nd:YAG lasers, a bleachable dye, or a passive semiconductor device. Initially, the loss of the absorber is high, but still low enough to permit some lasing once a large amount of energy is stored in the gain medium. As the laser power increases, it saturates the absorber, i.e., rapidly reduces the resonator loss, so that the power can increase even faster. Ideally, this brings the absorber into a state with low losses to allow efficient extraction of the stored energy by the laser pulse. After the pulse, the absorber recovers to its highloss state before the gain recovers, so that the next pulse is delayed until the energy in the gain medium is fully replenished. The pulse repetition rate can only indirectly be controlled, e.g. by varying the laser's pump power and the amount of saturable absorber in the cavity. Direct control of the repetition rate can be achieved by using a pulsed pump source as well as passive Q-switching.

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Applications
Q-switched lasers are often used in applications which demand high laser intensities in nanosecond pulses, such metal cutting or pulsed holography. Nonlinear optics often takes advantage of the high peak powers of these lasers, offering applications such as 3D optical data storage and 3D microfabrication. However, Qswitched lasers can also be used for measurement purposes, such as for distance measurements (range finding) by measuring the time it takes for the pulse to get to some target and the reflected light to get back to the sender. Q-switched lasers are also used to remove tattoos. They are used to shatter tattoo pigment into particles that are cleared by the body's lymphatic system. Full removal takes an average of eight treatments, spaced at least a month apart, using different wavelengths for different colored inks.

Mode-locking

Mode-locking is a technique in optics by which a laser can be made to produce pulses of light of extremely short duration, on the order of picoseconds (10-12s) or femtoseconds (10-15s).The basis of the technique is to induce a fixed phase relationship between the modes of the laser's resonant cavity. The laser is then said to be phase-locked or mode-locked. Interference between these modes causes the laser light to be produced as a train of pulses. Depending on the properties of the laser, these pulses may be of extremely brief duration, as short as a few femtoseconds.

Laser cavity modes
Although laser light is perhaps the purest form of light, it is not of a single, pure frequency or wavelength. All lasers produce light over some natural bandwidth or range of frequencies. A laser's bandwidth of operation is determined primarily by the gain medium that the laser is constructed from, and the range of frequencies that a laser may operate over is known as the gain bandwidth. For example, a typical helium-neon (HeNe) gas laser has a gain bandwidth of approximately 1.5 GHz (a wavelength range of about 0.002 nm at a central wavelength of 633 nm), whereas a titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Sapphire) solid-state laser has a bandwidth of about 128 THz (a 300 nm wavelength range centred around 800 nm).The second factor that determines a laser's emission frequencies is the optical cavity or resonant cavity of the laser. In the simplest case, this

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consists of two plane (flat) mirrors facing each other, surrounding the gain medium of the laser (this arrangement is known as a Fabry-Perot cavity). Since light is a wave, when bouncing between the mirrors of the cavity the light will constructively and destructively interfere with itself, leading to the formation of standing waves between the mirrors.

These standing waves form a discrete set of frequencies, known as the longitudinal modes of the cavity. These modes are the only frequencies of light which are self-regenerating and allowed to oscillate by the resonant cavity; all other frequencies of light are suppressed by destructive interference. For a simple plane-mirror cavity, the allowed modes are those for which the separation distance of the mirrors L is an exact multiple of half the wavelength of the light λ, such that L = q λ/2, when q is an integer known as the mode order. In practice, the separation distance of the mirrors L is usually much greater than the wavelength of light λ, so the relevant values of q are large (around 105 to 106). Of more interest is the frequency separation between any two adjacent modes q and q+1; this is given (for an empty linear resonator of length L) by Δν: where c is the speed of light (≈3×108 m·s−1).

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In lasers with only a few oscillating modes. in essence like a set of independent lasers all emitting light at slightly different frequencies. leading to random fluctuations in intensity. or continuous wave. 71 . These pulses occur separated in time by τ = 2L/c. Instead of a random or constant output intensity.w. each mode operates with a fixed phase between it and the other modes. producing an intense burst or pulse of light.If instead of oscillating independently. Δν = 1/τ. where τ is the time taken for the light to make exactly one round trip of the laser cavity. with no fixed relationship between each other. in lasers with many thousands of modes. The individual phase of the light waves in each mode is not fixed. the laser output behaves quite differently. Such a laser is said to be mode-locked or phaselocked. and the laser operation is known as a c. interference between the modes can cause beating effects in the laser output. these interference effects tend to average to a near-constant output intensity. and may vary randomly due to such things as thermal changes in materials of the laser. the modes of the laser will periodically all constructively interfere with one another.Mode-locking theory In a simple laser. This time corresponds to a frequency exactly equal to the mode spacing of the laser. each of these modes will oscillate independently.

the shorter the pulse duration from the laser. As said above. it is not necessarily true that all of the laser's modes will be phase-locked). If the modulator is driven at the same frequency as the cavity-mode spacing Δν. Considering this in the frequency domain. Active methods typically involve using an external signal to induce a modulation of the intra-cavity light. the overall mode-locked bandwidth is NΔν. If there are N modes locked with a frequency separation Δν. a hyperbolic-secant-squared (sech2) pulse shape is often assumed. typical lasers are multi-mode and not seeded by a root mode. and the overall dispersion of the cavity. such as the actual pulse shape. then these sidebands correspond to the two cavity modes adjacent to the original mode. the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν-f and ν+f.4 femtoseconds. For the HeNe laser with a 1.The duration of each pulse of light is determined by the number of modes which are oscillating in phase (in a real laser. So multiple modes need to work out which phase to use. For example. which is in turn determined by the exact amplitude and phase relationship of each longitudinal mode. but rely on placing some element into the laser cavity which causes self-modulation of the light.Using this equation. and the wider this bandwidth. giving a time-bandwidth product of 0. and varies depending on the pulse shape. for a laser producing pulses with a Gaussian temporal shape. Further operation of the modulator on the sidebands produces phaselocking of the ν-2f and ν+2f modes. Since the sidebands are driven in-phase. we can calculate the minimum pulse duration which can be produced by a laser. in a real mode-locked laser. Passive methods do not use an external signal. Active mode-locking The most common active mode-locking technique places an electro-optic modulator into the laser cavity. the actual pulse duration is determined by the shape of each pulse. These values represent the shortest possible Gaussian pulses supported by the laser's bandwidth. Mode-locking methods Methods for producing mode-locking in a laser may be classified as either active or passive. the minimum possible pulse duration Δt is given byThe value 0. this produces a sinusoidal phase modulation of the light in the cavity. the shortest Gaussian pulse which can be produced would be around 300 picoseconds. if a mode has optical frequency ν. and so on until all modes in the gain bandwidth are locked. the actual pulse duration depends on many other factors. leading to a complicated behavior and not 72 . When driven with an electrical signal. For ultrashort pulse lasers.5 GHz bandwidth. the central mode and the adjacent modes will be phase-locked together. This locking is better described as a coupling. for the 128 THz bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser. In a passive cavity with this locking applied there is no way to dump the entropy given by the original independent phases.44 is known as the time-bandwidth product of the pulse. In practice.315. and is phase-modulated at a frequency f. this duration would be only 3.

In this.When placed in a laser cavity. After many repetitions. or synchronous pumping. This device. ideally a saturable absorber will selectively absorb low-intensity light. If the modulation rate f is synchronised to the cavity round-trip time τ. they use the light in the cavity to cause a change in some intracavity element. Typically. For passive mode-locking. a saturable absorber will attenuate low73 . since the same part of the light is repeatedly attenuated as it traverses the cavity. effectively turning the laser on and off to produce pulses. This process can also be considered in the time domain. If the frequency of modulation is matched to the round-trip time of the cavity. when placed in a laser cavity and driven with an electrical signal.A saturable absorber is an optical device that exhibits an intensity-dependent transmission. Rather. Passive mode-locking Passive mode-locking techniques are those that do not require a signal external to the laser (such as the driving signal of a modulator) to produce pulses. The amplitude modulator acts as a weak shutter to the light bouncing between the mirrors of the cavity. the pump source (energy source) for the laser is itself modulated. sinusoidally varying frequency shift in the light passing through it. then some light in the cavity sees repeated up-shifts in frequency. then a single pulse of light will bounce back and forth in the cavity. The only light which is unaffected is that which passes through the modulator when the induced frequency shift is zero. a modulator that attenuates 1% of the light when "closed" will mode-lock a laser. the pump source is itself another mode-locked laser. the up-shifted and down-shifted light is swept out of the gain bandwidth of the laser.Related to this amplitude modulation (AM) active modelocking is frequency modulation (FM) mode-locking. The third method of active mode-locking is synchronous mode-locking. The coupling is only dissipative because of the dissipative nature of the amplitude modulation. The actual strength of the modulation does not have to be large. which uses a standing wave modulator device based on the acousto-optic effect. which forms a narrow pulse of light. attenuating the light when it is "closed". What this means is that the device behaves differently depending on the intensity of the light passing through it. which will then itself produce a change in the intracavity light. and some repeated down-shifts. This technique requires accurately matching the cavity lengths of the pump laser and the driven laser. and transmit ligh t which is of sufficiently high intensity. and letting it through when it is "open". induces a small. The most common type of device which will do this is a saturable absorber. Otherwise the phase modulation would not work.clean pulses.

Saturable absorbers are commonly liquid organic dyes. and the absorption of the low-intensity light. However. but has startup problems. because of the somewhat random intensity fluctuations experienced by an un-mode-locked laser. intense spike will be transmitted preferenti ally by the saturable absorber. the optical Kerr effect. which is one of the factors that determines the final duration of the pulses in a passively mode-locked laser. also sometimes called "self mode-locking".Considering this in the frequency domain. the resulting signal has sidebands at optical frequencies ν . this process repeats. if a mode has optical frequency ν. known as the reference beam. drawing) is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in the same position relative to the recording medium as it was when recorded. some of the light scattered from an object or a set of objects falls on the recording medium.In holography. a light field is diffracted by the reference beam 74 . In these methods. The resulting light field is an apparently random pattern of varying intensity which is the hologram. this effect can be exploited to produce the equivalent of an ultra-fast response time saturable absorber. There are also passive mode-locking schemes that do not rely on materials that directly display an intensity dependent absorption. thus making the recorded image (hologram) appear three dimensional. nonlinear optical effects in intra-cavity components are used to provide a method of selectively amplifying high-intensity light in the cavity. After many round trips. which results in high-intensity light being focussed differently than low-intensity light. and attenuation of low-intensity light. and is amplitude-modulated at a frequency n f. also illuminates the recording medium. ὅλος-hólos whole + γραφή-grafē writing. As the light in the cavity oscillates.n f and ν + n f and enables much stronger mode-locking for shorter pulses and more stability than active mode-locking. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present. so that interference occurs between the two beams. leading to the selective amplification of the high-intensity spikes. In a collidingpulse mode-locked laser the absorber steepens the leading edge while the lasing medium steepens the trailing edge of the pulse. A second light beam. but they can also be made from doped crystals and semiconductors.intensity constant wave light (pulse wings). This uses a nonlinear optical process. It can be shown that if the hologram is illuminated by the original reference beam. By careful arrangement of an aperture in the laser cavity. One of the most successful schemes is called Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM). any random. APPLICATION OF LASER Holography (from the Greek. this leads to a train of pulses and mode-locking of the laser. Semiconductor absorbers tend to exhibit very fast response times (~100 fs).

The photographic plate is developed giving a complicated pattern which can be considered to be made up of a diffraction pattern of varying spacing.which is identical to the light field which was scattered by the object or objects. An observer looking into the plate from the other side will "see" a point source of light whether the original source of light is there or not. even when the source has been removed. There are a variety of recording materials which can be used. Thus. including photographic film. so that it appears that light is coming from a point source behind the plate. it is diffracted by the grating into different angles which depend on the local spacing of the pattern on the plate. It can be shown that the net effect of this is to reconstruct the object beam.This sort of hologram is effectively a concave lens. An interference pattern is formed which in this case is in the form of curves of decreasing separation with increasing distance from the centre. someone looking into the hologram 'sees' the objects even though it may no longer be present. The light emerging from the photographic plate is identical to the light that emerged from the point source that used to be there. When the plate is illuminated by the reference beam alone. Point sources Holographic reconstruction process A slightly more complicated hologram can be made using a point source of light as object beam and a plane wave as reference beam to illuminate the photographic plate. since it "converts" a plane wavefront 75 .

general there are two kinds of lidar detection schema: "incoherent" or direct energy detection (which is principally an amplitude measurement) and Coherent detection (which is best for doppler. or near infrared range. or phase sensitive measurements). In general it is possible to image a feature or object only about the same size as the wavelength. typically in the ultraviolet. Coherent systems generally use Optical heterodyne detection which being more sensitive than direct detection allows them to operate a much lower power but at the expense of more complex transceiver requirements. The primary difference between lidar and radar is lidar uses much shorter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. It will also increase the divergence of any wave which is incident on it in exactly the same way as a normal lens does.into a divergent wavefront. visible. or larger. Thus lidar is highly sensitive to aerosols and cloud particles and has many applications in atmospheric research and meteorology[1]. Its focal length is the distance between the point source and the plate Distance Measurements with Lasers The prevalent method to determine distance to an object or surface is to use laser pulses. 76 .

trace gas concentration (ozone.)[1]. Position and navigation systems — Lidar sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the 77 . 2. such as silicon avalanche photodiodes. or photomultipliers. There are several major components to a lidar system: 1. but the detector technology is less advanced and so these wavelengths are generally used at longer ranges and lower accuracies. depolarization). Laser — 600-1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. methane. Micropulse systems have developed as a result of the ever increasing amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. the number of passes required through the gain material (YAG. Eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications. 4. and are often "eye-safe. Laser settings include the laser repetition rate (which controls the data collection speed). typically on the order of one microjoule. They are inexpensive but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye the maximum power is limited by the need to make them eye-safe. where they are widely used for measuring many atmospheric parameters: the height. a dual axis scanner." meaning they can be used without safety precautions. Scanner and optics — How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which it can be scanned into the system. nitrous oxide. while bathymetric systems generally use 532 nm frequency doubled diode pumped YAG lasers because 532 nm penetrates water with much less attenuation than does 1064 nm. cloud particle properties (extinction coefficient. pressure. Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses. Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. Photodetector and receiver electronics — Two main photodetector technologies are used in lidars: solid state photodetectors. a combination with a polygon mirror. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research.). A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal. there are two types of pulse models: micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. They use considerably less energy in the laser. humidity. including dual oscillating plane mirrors. temperature. wind. Airborne topographic mapping lidars generally use 1064 nm diode pumped YAG lasers. provided the Lidar receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth[1].In both coherent and incoherent LIDAR. layering and densities of clouds. Pulse length is generally an attribute of the laser cavity length. backscatter coefficient. and Q-switch speed. They are also used for military applications as 1550 nm is not visible in night vision goggles unlike the shorter 1000 nm infrared laser. 3. etc. A common alternative 1550 nm lasers are eye-safe at much higher power levels since this wavelength is not focused by the eye. etc. The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a LIDAR design. YLF. There are several options to scan the azimuth and elevation.

Only two types of instrument are used for the measurement of instantaneous point velocities in such fields: (i) Hot film anemometer.sensor. Velocity Measurement using Laser Doppler Velocimeter Introduction Measurement of instantaneous point velocities in water is of very importance in two types of studies in hydraulics viz. in which the random fluctuations of velocity at a point are to be measured. in which point velocities are measured close to a solid boundary and. and (ii) Laser Doppler velocimeter. (i) boundary layer studies. (ii) turbulence studies. 78 . Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).

Principle of the Instrument The instrument measures the velocity at a point in the fluid. Theory of Measurement Consider a light beam of wavelength μ crossing a flow stream at an angle β with direction of flow (Figure).The Hot film anemometer represents a complicated technique of measurement. is linearly related to flow velocity. turbidity of water etc. highly collimated) light beam of high spectral purity (i. (v) Can be used in both gas and liquid flows.02 mm3 (iii) No transfer function is involved. (the measuring volume is of the order of 0. and hence is Doppler-shifted with reference to the frequency ofthe incident light. The instrument in the Hydraulic and Water Resource Engineering Laboratory IIT Madras was locally built in 1974 by Jayaraman and later on it was modified in 1995 – 1997. which often gives erroneous results as the measurement is affected by changes in ambient temperature. For this reason. The laser source is used as it gives a narrow. (ii) Excellent spatial resolution. the typical frequency response going upto 50 kHz for a Doppler frequency of 1 MHz. intense and truly parallel (i.S. The Laser Doppler velocimeter represents a unique no-probe technique of measuring the instantaneous point velocities in a fluid flow. It was developed around the year 1968 as a result of research work carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. by detecting the Doppler shift in the frequency of the scattered light originating from minute suspended particles in the flow that happen to cross the point of measurement defined by two intersecting laser beams. The salient features of this instrument are (i) No physical probe is required.e. the simple and more reliable technique represented by the Laser Doppler velocimeter is generally used. very low spectral bandwidth).e. 79 . to obstruct the flow.A. U. When illuminated by the light beam suspended particles in the flow will scatter light in all directions. the output voltage is linearly related to the Doppler frequency which in turn. This scattered behaves as though it originated from moving particles. (iv) Very fast response to fluctuating velocities. flowing in a glass walled conduit or channel.

increases as increases. It may be noted that when θ = 0. 80 . Fig. namely..sinθ sinβ μ in which v is the flow velocity. 2 shows the set-up in the reference beam mode. For small values of (i. the Reference beam mode and the interference fringe mode. less than 10 degrees). fD= 0 .e.can be shown that if the scattered light is picked up at an angle θ with the direction of the incident light beam. Instrumental set-up The instrument can be set up in either of two modes of measurements. the Doppler shift fD is given by D ( ) f = v cosθ -1 cosβ .

having afrequency equal to the Doppler shift.I. that it picks up the reference beam as well as scattered light inthe same direction originating from the point of intersection of the two beams. It is then further amplified. (which is not desirable) in water is indicated by theintermittent glittering of the laser beam. whereas too large particles willncrease the system noise by excessive masking of the light picked up. The magnitude of the shift depends on the direction in which it is pickedup. Ordinary tapwater contains adequate fine suspended particles to provide enough scattering. By means of a Beam splitter the light from a 2 mill watt Helium-Neon laser issplit up into a strong (95% power) scattering beam and a weak (5% power) referencebeam. The lightis focused on ta tiny electronic device called P. (the Doppler signal) emerges. (iii) Light pick-up unit. and (iv) Signalprocessor. which are kept equally inclined to the flowdirection. are made to intersect at the point of velocity measurement in the channel. The light scattered by suspended particles inDoppler-shifted.When illuminated by the strong scattered beam minute suspended particles in the flowmicrons.N. (ii) Beam splitter. photodiode. The Light pick-up unit contains a built-ipreamplifier to boost the Doppler signal to a more appropriate level for transmission tothe Signal processor unit. 81 . where optical mixing takes place and a weak electrical signal. Thepresence of large particles. The converter has fastresponse which enables it to track closely the Doppler frequency. On the other side of the channel. The beam inclination θ could be raised using adjustment scale (provided inbeam splitter) and also the intensity of reference beam could be attenuated by means ofa lens in the beam splitterThe two beams. In the Signal processor unit. the Doppler signal is first passedthrough one of a set of three sharp band-pass filters to reduce the noise content of theDoppler signal. the light pick-up unit is so positioned. and itselescope so focused. Too fine particles will lead to Brownian motion. The frequency of the Doppler signal is thenconverted to a proportional voltage by an f-V converter.The instrument has four components (i) Laser source Helium-neon.

solid-state laser usually means a laser with bulk active medium. These lasers are also commonly frequency doubled. yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) and yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG). Yb:SYS. Yb:CaF2. Yb:BOYS. and pulverize kidney and gall stones. in the scientific literature. and erbium are other common "dopants" in solid-state lasers. remove rot from teeth. "Semiconductor lasers" are also solid-state lasers. Yb:KGW. commonly used for spectroscopy as well as the most common ultrashort pulse laser. holmium. The population inversion is actually maintained in the "dopant". Titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:sapphire) produces a highly tunable infrared laser. They are potentially very efficient and high powered due to a small quantum defect. but in the customary laser terminology. Yb:KYW. This heat. These types of issues can be overcome by another novel diode-pumped solid-state laser. Holmium-doped YAG crystals emit at 2097 nm and form an efficient laser operating at infrared wavelengths strongly absorbed by water-bearing tissues.Solid-state lasers Solid-state laser materials are commonly made by "doping" a crystalline solid host with ions that provide the required energy states. Ytterbium is used in crystals such as Yb:YAG. such as chromium or neodymium. typically operating around 1020-1050 nm. The Ho-YAG is usually operated in a pulsed mode. Neodymium is a common "dopant" in various solid-state laser crystals. vaporize cancers. the class of solid-state lasers includes also fiber laser. For example. when coupled with a high thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) can give rise to thermal lensing as well as reduced quantum efficiency. as the active medium (fiber) is in the solid state.Ytterbium. made from ruby (chromium-doped corundum). Formally. while wave-guide lasers are caller fiber lasers. "solid-state laser" excludes semiconductor lasers. All these lasers can produce high powers in the infrared spectrum at 1064 nm. thulium. and passed through optical fiber surgical devices to resurface joints. The thermal limitations in this laser type are mitigated by using a laser medium geometry in which the thickness is 82 . Practically. welding and marking of metals and other materials. visible). tripled or quadrupled to produce 532 nm (green. the first working laser was a ruby laser. Thermal limitations in solid-state lasers arise from unconverted pump power that manifests itself as heat and phonon energy. the diode-pumped thin disk laser. 355 nm (UV) and 266 nm (UV) light when those wavelengths are needed. and also in spectroscopy and for pumping dye lasers. which have their own name. including yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4). They are used for cutting. Extremely high powers in ultrashort pulses can be achieved with Yb:YAG.

VECSELs are external-cavity VCSELs. and wavelengths of over 3 µm have been demonstrated. materials which allow coherent light to be produced from silicon. are used in industry for cutting and welding. and so electronic and silicon photonic components (such as optical interconnects) could be fabricated on the same chip. Quantum cascade lasers are semiconductor lasers that have an active transition between energy sub-bands of an electron in a structure containing several quantum wells.6 mm 'closed can' commercial laser diode. As of 2005. VCSEL devices typically have a more circular output beam than conventional laser diodes. and potentially could be much cheaper to manufacture.[18 Semiconductor lasers Semiconductor lasers are also solid-state lasers but have a different mode of laser operation. wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth radiation. probably from a CD or DVD player. such as indium(III) phosphide or gallium(III) arsenide. However. This allows for a more even thermal gradient in the material. Thin disk lasers have been shown to produce up to kilowatt levels of power. or ultrashort laser pulses.The development of a silicon laser is important in the field of optical computing. These are 83 . These devices can generate high power outputs with good beam quality.Commercial laser diodes emit at wavelengths from 375 nm to 1800 nm. External-cavity semiconductor lasers have a semiconductor active medium in a larger cavity. recently teams have produced silicon lasers through methods such as fabricating the lasing material from silicon and other semiconductor materials. Low power laser diodes are used in laser printers and CD/DVD players. More powerful laser diodes are frequently used to optically pump other lasers with high efficiency. with power up to 10 kW (70dBm). silicon is a difficult lasing material to deal with. Unfortunately. A 5. Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are semiconductor lasers whose emission direction is perpendicular to the surface of the wafer. Silicon is the material of choice for integrated circuits. since it has certain properties which block lasing.much smaller than the diameter of the pump beam. with 1300 nm VCSELs beginning to be commercialized. The highest power industrial laser diodes. only 850 nm VCSELs are widely available.[19] and 1550 nm devices an area of research.

which takes advantage of Raman scattering to produce a laser from materials such as silicon. 84 .7 nm.Argon-ion lasers emit light in the range 351-528.[16] making them candidates for use in fluorescence suppressed Raman spectroscopy.Carbon dioxide lasers can emit hundreds of kilowatts[14] at 9.5 nm. Helium-silver (HeAg) 224 nm and neon-copper (NeCu) 248 nm are two examples. 488 nm and 514. Depending on the optics and the laser tube a different number of lines is usable but the most commonly used lines are 458 nm.called hybrid silicon laser.6 µm and 10. These lasers have particularly narrow oscillation linewidths of less than 3 GHz (0.The helium-neon laser (HeNe) emits at a variety of wavelengths and units operating at 633 nm are very common in education because of its low cost. The efficiency of a CO 2 laser is over 10%.1 nm.[15]Metal ion lasers are gas lasers that generate deep ultraviolet wavelengths.A nitrogen transverse electrical discharge in gas at atmospheric pressure (TEA) laser is an inexpensive gas laser producing UV light at 337. Another type is a Raman laser.5 picometers).6 µm. Gas lasers Gas lasers using many gases have been built and used for many purposes. and are often used in industry for cutting and welding.

a light field is diffracted by the reference beam which is identical to the light field which was scattered by the object or objects. also illuminates the recording medium. In holography. ὅλος-hólos whole + γραφή-grafē writing. drawing) is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in the same position relative to the recording medium as it was when recorded. It can be shown that if the hologram is illuminated by the original reference beam. There are a variety of recording materials which can be used.Holography Holography (from the Greek. some of the light scattered from an object or a set of objects falls on the recording medium. thus making the recorded image (hologram) appear three dimensional. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present. so that interference occurs between the two beams. someone looking into the hologram 'sees' the objects even though it may no longer be present. known as the reference beam. Point sources Holographic reconstruction process A slightly more complicated hologram can be made using a point source of light as object beam and a plane wave as reference beam to illuminate the photographic plate. Thus. including photographic film. An interference pattern is formed which in this case is in the form of curves of decreasing separation with increasing distance from the centre. 85 . The resulting light field is an apparently random pattern of varying intensity which is the hologram. A second light beam.

It will also increase the divergence of any wave which is incident on it in exactly the same way as a normal lens does. It can be shown that the net effect of this is to reconstruct the object beam. Its focal length is the distance between the point source and the plate 86 . The light emerging from the photographic plate is identical to the light that emerged from the point source that used to be there. When the plate is illuminated by the reference beam alone. so that it appears that light is coming from a point source behind the plate. it is diffracted by the grating into different angles which depend on the local spacing of the pattern on the plate.The photographic plate is developed giving a complicated pattern which can be considered to be made up of a diffraction pattern of varying spacing. An observer looking into the plate from the other side will "see" a point source of light whether the original source of light is there or not. This sort of hologram is effectively a concave lens. since it "converts" a plane wavefront into a divergent wavefront. even when the source has been removed.

Differentiate betwwen meridonial and skew rays Q4. Explain Snell’s Law. Discuss the structure of an optical fiber.Optical Communication Assignment-I Q1. Explain concept of wave optics and ray optics 87 .ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. What is total iinternal reflection? Q2. What are various types of fibers? Q3.

Describe the various fiber alignment technique used in optical fibers.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. Explain the LED edge emitter and surface emitter pattern Q4. Explain the characteristics of LED. Q3. Define the term iinternal quantum efficiency.Optical Communication Assignment-II Q1. Q2. 88 .

Optical Communication Assignment-III Q1. give the definition and explain the term Noise equivalent temperature 89 . Derive expression for respositivity. Q3. Explain the impact ionization in Avalanche photodiodes Q4.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. What is an optical Detectors? Q2 Define Quantum efficiency.

Explain Optical Time Domain Reflectometry. Discuss the techniques used for measurement of Numerical Aperture. 90 .back technique for total attenuation Q2. Discuss with the help of suitable diagram the cut. Explain under filled and overfilled conditions Q3. Q4.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VII Sem EIC Subject.Fiber Optic Instrumentation Assignment-IV Q1.

91 .Fiber Optic Instrumentation Assignment-V Q1. What is LASER? Discuss anyone type of it in detail. Q2. Explain various characteristics of a semiconductor LASER. Explain the principle of operation of a quantum well laser diode Q4.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VII Sem EIC Subject. Q3. Explain the basic construction of a LASER diode.

Optical Communication Class Test-I MM-10 Note: attempt any three question Time:1 hr Q1.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. 92 . Discuss basic law of ray optics. What is meant by acceptance angle for an optical fiber? Q3. Derive an expression for NA. Q4. Explain how glass fiber guides light from one end to other. Q2.

Optical Communication Class Test-II MM-10 Note: attempt any three question Time:1 hr Q1. Q2. Describe the mechanism of emission of light from one LED. Q4. What is meant by a double hetero structure? 93 . What is LED? List out the main advantages of LED. Q3. Define the term external Quantum efficiency and internal quantum efficiency.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.

Briefly explain the mechanism Avalanche photodiode/ Q3. Q4. Discuss the types of noise that comes in action with an optical detector. What is an optical detector? What are the required feature to be a detector? Q2. Describe p-i-n Photodiode. Time:1 hr 94 .ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.Optical Communication Class Test-III MM-10 Note: attempt any three question Q1.

Does underfilling a multimode optical fiber exite mainly high order or low order modes. Q3. 95 . In multimode fiber how do fiber joints increase finer attenuation following the joints. Q2 Explain the four basic components used in optical connectors..Optical Communication Class Test-IV MM-10 Note: attempt any three question Time:1 hr Q1.? Q4. What are optical splicing? Describe briefly the different types of optical splicing.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.

How does a DFB laser diode operate? Q4.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. Explain the charaterstics of emitted light by LASER diodes.Optical Communication Class Test-V MM-10 Note: attempt any three question Time:1 hr Q1. Q3. With the aid of suitable diagram discuss the priciples of operation of the injection LASER. Q2. Compare LED and LASER as optical sources. 96 .

3 m is 1100/ Estimate the diameter of fiber core Q3.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. Deternmine the critical angle at the cor-cladding interface. Step index profile=. Calculate the refractive index of the core and cladding material of a fiber from – NA=0. 97 .5.Optical Communication Tutorial Class. The no. A multiple step index fiber has a relative refractive index of 1 % and core refractive index of 1. Q2.012. of modes propagating a wavelength 1.45.5 and a cladding refractive index of 1.I Q1.22. A silica ooptical fiber with a core diameter large enough to be considered by ray thoey analysis has a refractive index of 1.

ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.. From the stand point of a pn junction how does light radiation occur in a semiconductor diode.2m.II Q1. Explain the different constructions of index guided lasers Q3. It has an aperture of . A beam is focuses with a lense of focal length 0. 98 . Q2.005 meter and wavelength of 7000 angstrom. A laser beam has a power of 50MW.Optical Communication Tutorial Class. Calculate the areal spread and intensity of the image.

and whose dark current is 1 nA 99 . estimate the minimum detectable power for a PIN diode.III Q1. Q3. Compute the current amplification ini a photo multipliers tube if the gain at each diode is 5 and there are 9 diodes.8um.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. whose responsitivity is 0.Optical Communication Tutorial Class.5A/W. Compute the responsitivity of a detector having a quantum efficiency of 1% at 0. Q2.

Compute the return loss at the air to fiber interface. Q3.Optical Communication Tutorial Class. 100 . An ideal four port directional coupler has a 4:1 splitting ratio. A laser diode feeding a glass fiber may be separated from it by a small air gap. The Fresnel reflection at a butt joint with an air gap in multimode SI fiber is 0.46dB.IV Q1. Q2.Determine the refractive index of the fiber core.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject. What refraction of the input power goes to each of its port.

Determine the RI of fiber core.35 respectively and both have the same core RI.46dB. A GiI fiber has a characteristics RI profile of 1. Two mm SI fiber have NA 0. which is 1.45. Q3.V Q1.Optical Communication Tutorial Class.15 and 0.85 and a core diameter of 16um . A frersnel reflection at a butt joint with an air gap in a multimode SI0. Estimate the insertion loss due to 5um lateral offset of an index matched fiber joint assuming the uniform illumination of all guided modes. Estimate the insertion loss at a joint. Q2. 101 .ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.

Draw the block diagram of OFC system and describe the function of each componenet. What are intermodal and intramodal dispersion? Q5.30hr 102 . Q3. Explain the fusion splicing. All question carry equal marks Q1 What is meant by acceptance angle? Show that it is related to NA. Q2. What is internal efficiency oa a LED? Derive it and describe construction of edge emitter LED.Optical Communication Subject.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.Fiber Optic Instrumentation MM-20 Note: Attempt any four question. Q4. Discuss the advantages and drawbacks of it. Time-1.

All question carry equal marks Q1.ARYA College of Engineering & IT VIII Sem ECE Subject.Fiber Optic Instrumentation MM-20 Note: Attempt any four question. Give a brief overview of Avalanche photodiode. Q5. Q4. Q2.8micrometer.Optical Communication Subject. And compute the respositivity of a detector having quantum efficiency of 1% at 0.30hr 103 .Define quantum efficiency. How does population inversion can be achieved in LASER? Also explain the threshold condition of a LASER Time-1. What is Mach-Zehender interferomter ? How it is useful for optical phase modulation Q3. Explain the optical time domain reflectometry method used for measurement of attenuation.

What are the direct band and indirct band gap semiconductor? Give atleast two examples of each. Q13. Q10. Define quantum efficiency. Explain detection process in pin diode as compare to avalanche photodiode. Q11What are stimulated emission and spontaneous emission? Q12. Explain pin photo diode. What do you understand by the term splicing? Explain the types of splices and steps involved in splicing a fiber. Q20. Q16. Q15. Define step index and graded index fiber. Q18.8micrometer Q4. Q9. What is Mach-Zehender interferomter ? How it is useful for optical phase modulation? Q7. Which of these are suitable for fabricating LED’s and why? Q3. List two major types of optical couplers. Explain the basic principle of photo detection in an optical system. Give the techniques used for measurement of refractive index. Q2. Expalin the mechanism associated with noise in OFC: (a). Explain the advantages of optical communication. 104 . Differentiate between single mode and multimode optical fiber. Q17. Define quantum efficiency. And compute the respositivity of a detector having quantum efficiency of 1% at 0. Q8. Describe construction and working of simple coupler. Q19. What are the general requirement for a source in optical fiber communication? Discuss. Explain different types of losses in optical fiber. Explain the losses in optical fibers.Previous Year Questions Q1. Quantum Noise (b) Shot Noise Q6. Q5. What are the advantages of stimulating LASER over LED for communication? Q14. Explain the principle of avalanche photodiode.

105 .

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