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**MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
**

FEA Solution Procedure

(demonstrated with a 1-D bar

element problem)

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

FEA Procedure for Static Analysis

1. Prepare the FE model

a. discretize (mesh) the structure

b. prescribe loads

c. prescribe supports

2. Perform calculations (solve)

a. generate stiffness matrix (k) for each element

b. connect elements (assemble K)

c. assemble loads (into load vector R)

d. impose supports conditions

e. solve equations (KD=R) for displacements

3. Postprocess

2

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Deflection of a Bar Element

• If we fix the left end of a bar (with constant cross

section) it’s end deflection is given by:

• If the left end is NOT fixed, the relationship

between force and deflection is given by:

P

δ

AE

PL

· δ

( )

( )

2 2 1

1 2 1

F u u

L

AE

F u u

L

AE

· + −

· −

F

2

u

1

u

2

F

1

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Deflection of a Bar Element

• These two equations can be conveniently expressed in

matrix form as:

• The different parts are known as:

– the elemental stiffness matrix

– the elemental displacement vector

– the elemental force vector

• This form allows us to easily combine the equations from all elements

of a structure.

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

2

1

2

1

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

AE

1

]

1

¸

−

−

·

1 1

1 1

L

AE

k

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

2

1

u

u

d

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

2

1

F

F

r

3

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

The 1-D Bar Problem

Calculate:

P

u

1

u

2

u

3

u

4

1

2 3 4

5

E.g.

- deflections,

- strains,

- stresses, and

- internal forces.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

a. Generate Elemental Equations

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

1 , 4

1 , 1

4

1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

E A

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

2 , 2

2 , 1

2

1

2

2 2

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

E A

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

3 , 3

3 , 2

3

2

3

3 3

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

E A

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

5 , 4

5 , 1

4

1

5

5 5

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

E A

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

1

]

1

¸

−

−

4 , 4

4 , 3

4

3

4

4 4

1 1

1 1

F

F

u

u

L

E A

Element number Node number

4

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

b. & c. Combine Equations

The global set of equations is obtained by sum-

ming the equations for each force.

In matrix form, the result is:

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

+ + − − −

− + −

− + −

− − − + +

P

R

u

u

u

u

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

4

3

2

1

5

5 5

4

4 4

1

1 1

4

4 4

5

5 5

1

1 1

4

4 4

4

4 4

3

3 3

3

3 3

3

3 3

3

3 3

2

2 2

2

2 2

5

5 5

1

1 1

2

2 2

5

5 5

2

2 2

1

1 1

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Combined Equations

The different parts are known as:

- the global stiffness matrix (K)

- the global displacement vector (D)

- the global force vector (R)

I.e.: KD=R

5

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Combined Loads

• Note also that the internal forces are

balanced by the external applied loads and

reactions:

• If there are no external loads on a node,

the internal forces must balance to 0.

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

+ +

+

+

+ +

P

R

F F F

F F

F F

F F F

0

0

1

5 , 4 4 , 4 1 , 4

4 , 3 3 , 3

3 , 2 2 , 2

5 , 1 2 , 1 1 , 1

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

d. Support Conditions

• In this example we have one support condition:

u

1

= 0.

• If we set u

1

= 0 in the global set of equations, then

the first column of the stiffness matrix is not

necessary, and the bottom 3 equations can be

written as:

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

¸

+ + −

− + −

− +

P u

u

u

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

0

0

0

0

4

3

2

5

5 5

4

4 4

1

1 1

4

4 4

4

4 4

4

4 4

3

3 3

3

3 3

3

3 3

3

3 3

2

2 2

6

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Support Conditions

• As well, the reaction at the boundary can

be solved using the top row equation:

• But this must be done after u

2

, u

3

and u

4

have been calculated.

1

4

3

2

5

5 5

1

1 1

2

2 2

0 R

u

u

u

L

E A

L

E A

L

E A

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

− − −

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

e. Solving for Deflections

• The global matrices (with boundary

condition rows/columns removed) are

solved for deflections (U).

U=K

-1

F

• In practice, the computer does not actually

calculate K

-1

, but solves for U directly,

using some technique such as Guassian

Elimination.

7

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

3.a. Solving for Strain

• Once we know the deflections, we can

calculate the strain for each element.

• In a one dimensional problem, the strain is

given by:

• For the bar,

dx

du

· ε

L

u u

1 2

−

· ε

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

3.b. Stress and Internal Force

• Below the yield stress, for a one-

dimensional problem, stress is given by:

• The force in each bar can be calculated by:

or by:

ε σ E ·

A F σ ·

L

u u AE

F

) (

1 2

−

·

8

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

What about Planar (2-D) problems?

• The equation for a bar element with an arbitrary

orientation in planar space is obtained by

transforming the local element coordinate system

to the global coordinate system.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

What about Planar (2-D) problems?

• Mathematically this is done by multiplying

the elemental stiffness equation by a

rotation matrix:

9

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Varying cross-section

• A bar element with varying cross-section does

not have constant strain, therefore δ=PL/AE can

not be used.

• We could develop a new equation for a bar with

non-uniform cross-section, but instead, we ap-

proximate the solution with a set of constant

cross-section bar elements.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Distributed Load

• A bar element with distributed loading does not

have constant strain. (δ=PL/AE can not be used.)

• We could develop a new equation for a bar with

distributed loading, but in the Finite Element

Method, we approximate the solution with a set

of bar elements with loaded nodes in between.

10

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Formal Procedure for

Bar and Beam Elements

Another way to calculate the

stiffness matrix!

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Bar Element – Formal Method

• We have shown how to obtain the

elemental stiffness equations for a bar

element using the direct method. We can

also obtain these equations through a more

general, formal procedure.

11

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Bar Element – Formal Method

For most elements a general formula is used

to calculate k,

where B is the “strain-displacement matrix”

and E is the “material property matrix.”

To obtain B for a bar, we must first find u(x).

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Bar Element – Formal Method

• Let us assume that

(This is correct for a bar with constant cross-section and

no distributed loads.)

• N is called the shape function matrix.

12

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Bar Element – Formal Method

• The axial strain is given by:

• Thus ε

x

= (u

2

-u

1

)/L.

• E is simply the elastic modulus E (a scalar)

• dV is A dx, thus

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Direct Method

• We start with the shape functions.

13

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Direct Method

• There are two degrees of freedom (dis-

placements) at each node: v and θ

z

. Each

shape function corresponds to one dis-

placement equal to one and all the others

equal to zero.

• Note that everything we do in this course

assumes that the displacements are small.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Direct Method

• Using standard beam deflection formulae and

statics, we solve for one column of k at a time.

• E.g., to solve for column 1 of k:

14

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Direct Method

The result is:

which operates on d = [v

1

, θ

z1

, v

2

, θ

z2

]

T

.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Formal Method

• The formal beam element stiffness matrix

derivation is much the same as the bar element

stiffness matrix derivation. We start with the

formula:

• The commonality is that d

T

kd/2 gives the strain

energy.

15

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Formal Method

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element – Formal Method

• Stress is given by:

I My

x

/ · σ

16

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Beam Element w/Axial Stiffness

• If we combine the above bar and beam

stiffness matrices, we get a general beam

stiffness matrix with axial stiffness.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Uniformly Distributed Loads

can be represented by equivalent loads at

intermediate nodes. Axially:

17

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Uniformly Distributed Loads

Laterally:

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis

Orientating Element in 3-D Space

• Transformation matrices are used to transform

the equations in the element coordinate system

to the global coordinate system, as was shown

for the bar element in 2-D planar space.

Deflection of a Bar Element • If we fix the left end of a bar (with constant cross section) it’s end deflection is given by: δ= PL AE δ P • If the left end is NOT fixed. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 2 . the relationship between force and deflection is given by: AE (u1 − u 2 ) = F1 L u1 AE (− u1 + u2 ) = F2 F1 L MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis u2 F2 Deflection of a Bar Element • These two equations can be conveniently expressed in matrix form as: AE 1 − 1 u1 F1 = L − 1 1 u2 F2 • The different parts are known as: – the elemental stiffness matrix – the elemental displacement vector – the elemental force vector k= AE 1 − 1 L − 1 1 u d = 1 u2 F1 r= F2 • This form allows us to easily combine the equations from all elements of a structure.

deflections. Generate Elemental Equations A1 E1 1 − 1 u1 F1. u1 u2 1 2 3 5 4 u3 u4 P Calculate: . 3 A5 E5 1 − 1 u1 F1.5 = L5 − 1 1 u4 F4 .2 = L2 − 1 1 u2 F2 . MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis a.internal forces.4 3 .strains.2 Element number A4 E4 L4 1 − 1 u3 F3.1 Node number A3 E3 1 − 1 u2 F2 .The 1-D Bar Problem E.3 = L3 − 1 1 u3 F3.5 MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis A2 E2 1 − 1 u1 F1.1 = L1 − 1 1 u4 F4 . and . 4 − 1 1 u = F 4 4 .stresses.g. . .

Combine Equations The global set of equations is obtained by summing the equations for each force. the result is: A1 E1 A2 E2 A5 E5 L + L + L 2 5 1 A2 E2 − L2 0 − A1 E1 − A5 E5 L1 L5 A2 E2 L2 A2 E2 A3 E3 + L2 L3 A3 E3 − L3 − 0 0 A3 E3 L3 A3 E3 A4 E 4 + L3 L4 A4 E4 − L4 − u1 R1 0 u2 0 u = 0 A4 E4 − 3 L4 u4 P A1 E1 A4 E4 A5 E5 + + L1 L4 L5 − A1 E1 A5 E5 − L1 L5 MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Combined Equations The different parts are known as: .the global displacement vector (D) .e.: KD=R MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 4 . & c.the global force vector (R) I.b. In matrix form.the global stiffness matrix (K) .

• If we set u1= 0 in the global set of equations. 4 0 F4. 2 2 .1 + F4.5 R1 F +F 0 2. the internal forces must balance to 0. 4 + F4. 2 + F1.1 + F1. then the first column of the stiffness matrix is not necessary. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis d. 5 P • If there are no external loads on a node.3 = F3. 3 + F3. and the bottom 3 equations can be written as: A2 E2 A3E3 + L3 L2 A3E3 − L3 0 A3E3 L3 A3E3 A4E4 + L3 L4 AE − 4 4 L4 − u2 0 A4 E4 u = 0 − 3 L4 A1E1 A4 E4 A5E5 u4 P + + L1 L4 L5 0 MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 5 .Combined Loads • Note also that the internal forces are balanced by the external applied loads and reactions: F1. Support Conditions • In this example we have one support condition: u1= 0.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis e. Solving for Deflections • The global matrices (with boundary condition rows/columns removed) are solved for deflections (U). u3 and u4 have been calculated. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 6 .Support Conditions • As well. the computer does not actually calculate K-1 . but solves for U directly. U=K-1F • In practice. using some technique such as Guassian Elimination. the reaction at the boundary can be solved using the top row equation: − A2 E2 L2 u2 AE AE 0 − 1 1 − 5 5 u3 = R1 L1 L5 u4 • But this must be done after u2.

Stress and Internal Force • Below the yield stress.3. ε= u2 − u1 L MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 3. the strain is given by: du ε= dx • For the bar.a. for a onedimensional problem. stress is given by: σ = Eε • The force in each bar can be calculated by: F = σA or by: F= AE (u2 − u1 ) L MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 7 .b. Solving for Strain • Once we know the deflections. we can calculate the strain for each element. • In a one dimensional problem.

What about Planar (2-D) problems? • The equation for a bar element with an arbitrary orientation in planar space is obtained by transforming the local element coordinate system to the global coordinate system. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis What about Planar (2-D) problems? • Mathematically this is done by multiplying the elemental stiffness equation by a rotation matrix: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 8 .

we approximate the solution with a set of constant cross-section bar elements. we approximate the solution with a set of bar elements with loaded nodes in between. • We could develop a new equation for a bar with non-uniform cross-section. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Distributed Load • A bar element with distributed loading does not have constant strain. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 9 . therefore δ=PL/AE can not be used. but instead. but in the Finite Element Method.) • We could develop a new equation for a bar with distributed loading.Varying cross-section • A bar element with varying cross-section does not have constant strain. (δ=PL/AE can not be used.

We can also obtain these equations through a more general.Formal Procedure for Bar and Beam Elements Another way to calculate the stiffness matrix! MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Bar Element – Formal Method • We have shown how to obtain the elemental stiffness equations for a bar element using the direct method. formal procedure. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 10 .

where B is the “strain-displacement matrix” and E is the “material property matrix.) • N is called the shape function matrix.Bar Element – Formal Method For most elements a general formula is used to calculate k. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Bar Element – Formal Method • Let us assume that (This is correct for a bar with constant cross-section and no distributed loads. we must first find u(x). MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 11 .” To obtain B for a bar.

MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 12 .Bar Element – Formal Method • The axial strain is given by: • Thus εx = (u2-u1)/L. thus MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Beam Element – Direct Method • We start with the shape functions. • E is simply the elastic modulus E (a scalar) • dV is A dx.

to solve for column 1 of k: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 13 . • Note that everything we do in this course assumes that the displacements are small.g. • E. we solve for one column of k at a time. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Beam Element – Direct Method • Using standard beam deflection formulae and statics..Beam Element – Direct Method • There are two degrees of freedom (displacements) at each node: v and θz. Each shape function corresponds to one displacement equal to one and all the others equal to zero.

We start with the formula: • The commonality is that dTkd/2 gives the strain energy. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Beam Element – Formal Method • The formal beam element stiffness matrix derivation is much the same as the bar element stiffness matrix derivation.Beam Element – Direct Method The result is: which operates on d = [v1. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 14 . v2. θz1. θz2]T.

Beam Element – Formal Method MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Beam Element – Formal Method • Stress is given by: σ x = My / I MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 15 .

we get a general beam stiffness matrix with axial stiffness. Axially: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 16 .Beam Element w/Axial Stiffness • If we combine the above bar and beam stiffness matrices. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Uniformly Distributed Loads can be represented by equivalent loads at intermediate nodes.

Uniformly Distributed Loads Laterally: MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Orientating Element in 3-D Space • Transformation matrices are used to transform the equations in the element coordinate system to the global coordinate system. MEEM4405 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 17 . as was shown for the bar element in 2-D planar space.

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