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205
1
/2 W. State Street, Suite C
Geneva, Illinois 60134
630.457.1412
MIT Career Development
Center
Building 12-170, 77 Massachusetts
Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 253-4733
Fax: (617) 253-8457
Web Address: http://careers.mit.edu
Email: mitco@mit.edu
Hours: 9:00 a.m.– 5:00 p.m.,
Monday–Friday
Global Education Office
Building 12-189
Phone: (617) 253-0676
Fax: (617) 452-2101
Email: studyabroad@mit.edu for Study Abroad or
scholarships@mit.edu for Fellowships
http://web.mit.edu/geo
Hours: 9:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m., Monday–Friday
Staff
Executive Director
Melanie Parker
Administrative
Camille Cottrell, Administrative Assistant/Receptionist
Alyssa Tasha, Financial/Information Technology Support
Representative
Career Services
Melissa Ackerman, Coordinator, Employer Relations
Bob Dolan, Career Development Counselor
Rachel Greenberg, Assistant Director, F/ASIP
Kathleen Haggerty, Career Development Counselor
Deborah Liverman, Associate Director, Career Services
Bob Richard, Assistant Director, Employer Relations
Jordan Siegel, Recruiting & Marketing, Employer
Relations
Marilyn Wilson, Senior Career Development Counselor
Preprofessional Programs
Shanell Littlejohn, Administrative Assistant
Shonool Malik, Associate Director, Preprofessional
Advising
Tamara Menghi, Assistant Director, Preprofessional
Advising
Erin Scott, Counselor, Preprofessional Advising
Global Education Office
Kimberly Benard, Program Advisor, Distinguished
Fellowships
Jennifer Cook, Program Assistant
Malgorzata Hedderick, Associate Dean
Sarra Shubart, Program Assistant
Brian Wahl, Assistant Dean
The MIT Career Development Handbook
is published once a year, in September,
by the Career Development Center at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cover Design: Jordan Siegel
Table of Contents
1. Introduction to the Career Development Center
Staff Contact List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction to the Career Development Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Career Development Process
Career Development Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Self-Assessment: Your Interests, Values and Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Exploring Your Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Focusing: Job Search Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Job Search Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Internships, Jobs and Networking
Internships: Getting Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CareerBridge Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Informational Interviewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Career Fairs/Company Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Alumni Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Community Service/Volunteering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Professional Associations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4. Resume and Career Writing
Resume Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Online Resumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Writing About Your Skills—PAR Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sample Resumes and CVs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Differences Between a CV and Resume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Cover Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Other Career Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5. Interviewing
Preparing for an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
What Happens During the Interview? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Some Questions to Ask an Interviewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Sample Questions Asked by Employers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Behavioral and Case Interviewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Telephone Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Dress Code for Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
The Site Visit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Negotiating Salary and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
The Art of Negotiating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6. Academic Pathways
Choice of Major. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Global Education Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Global Education Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Study Abroad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Distinguished Fellowships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Graduate School Advising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Prehealth Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Prelaw Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Pre-MBA Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Academic Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Sample Statement of Research Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Sample Statement of Teaching Philosophy and Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7. Advertiser Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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http://careers.mit.edu 3
Introduction to the
Career Development Center
The Career Development Center is a part of the Global Education and Career
Development Center (GECDC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Our
partner office at the GECDC is the Global Education Office.
MISSION STATEMENT
The Global Education and Career Development Center empowers MIT students and
alumni to achieve lifelong success through seamless access to transformative global
experiences, comprehensive and holistic career serivices and mutually beneficial
connections with employers and graduate schools.
Programs Overview
To take advantage of our services and learn about upcoming events, please visit us in
12-170, call our front desk (617-253-4733) or email us at mitco@mit.edu. Also, be sure to
visit our website (http://careers.mit.edu) for current information on events and services.
Our resources include career assessment, online career research tools, Employer
Business Card Directory, information sessions and workshops, fall and spring on-campus
recruiting, counseling appointments, study abroad and distinguished fellowships
advising, preprofessional advising, career panels, study abroad and career fairs,
symposia and other networking opportunities. During the academic year, we hold
Walk-in Hours daily. Please see our website for our Walk-ins schedule: http://web.mit.
edu/career/www/services/walkins.html.
On a recurring basis throughout the academic year, the MIT Career Development Center
presents career workshops. Many are tailored to the specific needs of undergraduates,
graduate students, international students and preprofessional applicants. Current work-
shops are listed at http://web.mit.edu/career/www/services/workshops.html. Online
pre-registration is required. Topics include but are not limited to:
Self-Assessment Job and Internship Search
Networking Researching Companies
Resumes, Cover Letters, and CVs Negotiating Job Offers
Interview Techniques Applying to Graduate School
4 MIT Career Development Center
Career Development Pyramid
The pyramid above presents a model for how to conduct
a successful job search, where “successful” refers to
getting a job that is genuinely a good fit for you. Although
the process is actually dynamic and there is movement
back and forth among the different stages, the model
suggests that a successful job search encompasses four
basic steps. It begins with Self-Assessment—knowing
who you are and what you want, moves on to Exploration
of what’s out there in terms of interesting industries and
occupati ons, progresses to Focusing on specific industries
and companies that appeal to you, and then culminates in
the nuts-and-bolts Job Search stage, involving sending out
resumes, interviewing, and negotiating job offers.
You might find it helpful to look through the following
questionnaire, Testing Your Career Fitness. You can use
this as a checklist to see how ready you currently are to
conduct a successful job search, and as a guide to help you
effectively and confidently prepare for your job search.
Testing Your Career Fitness
Self-Knowledge
1. I know what motivates me to excel.
2. I can identify my strongest abilities and skills.
3. I have several major achievements that clarify a
pattern of interests and abilities.
4. I know what I both like and dislike in work.
5. I have some ideas about what I want to do during the
next [two to three] years.
6. I can list my major accomplishments in action terms.
Knowledge of Employers
7. I know what skills I can offer employers in different
occupations.
8. I can clearly explain to employers what I do well and
enjoy doing.
9. I can specify why an employer should hire me.
10. When I’m ready to find an internship or job, I will be
able to identify and target potential employers.
Internship or Job Search Skills/Contacts
11. I can conduct research on different occupations,
employers, organizations and communities.
12. I can write different types of effective resumes,
internship search letters, and thank-you notes.
13. I can produce and distribute resumes and letters to
the right people.
14. I can develop a job referral network.
15. I can prospect for internship or job leads.
Adapted from Jobtrak Job Search Tips where it was reprinted with
permission from Change Your Job, Change Your Life by Dr. Ronald L.
Krannich, T 1995, Impact Publications.
Chapter 2.
Career Development Process
http://careers.mit.edu 5
G Self Assessment g
At the base of our model pyramid, providing the essential
foundation for the rest of the job search, is self-assessment,
or knowing yourself. Thoughtful self-assessment streamlines
the remaining steps of the job search, helping you to focus on
organizations and careers compatible with your goals, and
enabling you to market yourself knowledgeably and confi-
dently. Three aspects that are important to consider when
choosing a career are: interests, values, and skills. Being
able to clearly articulate these on a resume and dring an
interview will promote a good fit with potential employers.
The Career Development Center offers specific self-
assessment inventories such as the Myers Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) and Strong Interest Inventory to students
during counseling appointments, if both student and coun-
selor think it’s appropriate.
Interests
Our interest in the work we do is a key motivating factor for
work. If we are interested in our work, we will find it more
enjoyable, be more motivated to learn about it, develop
relevant skills, work hard, and persist through difficult
challenges, all of which increase our chances of success
and job satisfaction.
What are your interests? Think broadly when you answer
this question—include work, academics, volunteer
and leisure interests. Consider subject areas as well as
activities. For example, subjects might include biology,
architecture, and economics, while activities could be
research, design, and consulting.
Below is a list of questions that may help you identify some
of your interests.
1. What do you love to do?
2. What books do you browse through in bookstores?
3. Which are your favorite courses?
4. If you won the lottery, to which causes/issues would you
give money?
5. If you were a reporter, what kind of stories would you
like to write?
6. What are your favorite objects?
7. What sorts of information do you find most fascinating?
8. Who are your heroes?
9. What did you dream of being when you were 10?
Values
Values are ideals and core beliefs that are important to us;
they give meaning and purpose to what we do. We are most
likely to be comfortable and thrive in work that is compatible
with our own strongly held values. On the other hand,
difficulties may arise when we find ourselves in conflict
with a work situation because it clashes with our values.
Consider the following values as they relate to work. Which
ones are most important to you? Least important? Which
are very deep and clear? Which are more ambiguous?
How do your values impact your career direction and work
decisions?
Skills
Skills are learned abilities—things we do well. Most
students have far more skills than they realize, since they
tend to take many of their skills for granted. Do you know
what your skills are? Which skills do you like to use? Just
because we can do something well doesn’t mean that we
enjoy doing it. Can you communicate your skills effectively
to potential employers?
It is helpful to think of two types of skills. Here are a few
exercises to help you identify both types.
1) Knowledge-based skills are acquired through
education, training and on-the-job experience,
e.g., you may be knowledgeable about quasars or
JAVA or the plays of George Bernard Shaw. To think
about your knowledge-based skills, ask yourself what
subject areas do you know a lot about? Consider
academic, work and vocational activities. Which do
you enjoy?
2) Transferable skills are actions that can be carried out
in different knowledge areas, e.g., writing, data entry
and project management. Employers especially want to
know what your transferable skills are. To think about
your transferable skills, look at the list of action verbs on
Page 20. These verbs describe skills. How many do you
have? Which do you like to use? Which would you like to
develop? Are there others not on the list?
__ Achievement
__ Advancement
__ Adventure
__ Balance: Work/Family
__ Challenge
__ Competition
__ Contribute to Society
__ Creativity
__ Expertise
__ Flexibility
__ Friendship
__ Helping Others
__ High Salary
__ Independence
__ Inner Harmony
__ Job Security
__ Leadership
__ Leisure
__ Location
__ Personal Growth
__ Physical Activity
__ Pleasure
__ Precision
__ Recognition
__ Responsibility
__ Stability
__ Variety
6 MIT Career Development Center
Once you have evaluated your interests, values, and skills,
how do you put all that information together? Your interests
and values will likely point you to certain industries, compa-
nies or job functions. Knowledge of your skills will help you
determine if those industries, organizations, and job oppor-
tunities are likely to offer you work you can skillfully do or
learn to do and will enjoy doing.
Self-assessment is a lifelong practice, one that most people
will return to again and again over the course of their
professional careers. As you gain work experience and
your skills grow, your interests and values are likely to shift.
You can return to this pyramid to help you move confidently
into new areas of work and career.
Career Development Timelines
For tips on how to manage your professional develop-
ment at each stage of your degree program, use the time-
line below (if you are an undergaduate) or see Masters,
Doctoral and Postdoc versions at http://web.mit.edu/
career/www/graduate/timelines.html.
Freshman Year
Adjusting … Get to know yourself. Explore your academic
and extracurricular interests and your future goals.
Academics
q Test your interests through coursework, UROPs, volun-
teer jobs, and student activities.
q Meet your professors. Learn how to build your network
by taking advantage of their office hours. Get to know
at least one professor well every year.
q Identify four to seven career fields that interest you
and research how academic training supports those
careers. Meet with a Career Counselor to discuss
majors as they relate to careers. Read up on the
careers that interest you. Arrange informational inter-
views with alumni working in those fields, http://alum.
mit.edu/benefits/CareerGuidance/ICAN.
q Attend the Choice of Major Fair in the fall. Freshmen
are expected to pick a major in April, but you may
remain “Undecided” until sophomore year.
Career Decision Making
q Start a Career Log to record your thoughts on
academic coursework, future goals, and careers.
Create a “college accomplishments” section to record
courses taken, extracurricular and volunteer activi-
ties, honors/awards, internships, and jobs. Update
your Career Log throughout your college career. This
log can be used to create a resume and will be helpful
when you look for a summer job.
q Explore the services CDC offers such as career work-
shops, resume critiques, and mock interviews.
q Meet with a Career Counselor to help identify your
interests, skills and values.
q Talk to a career counselor about a summer job or
internship in an area that interests you. Consider a
summer UROP.
q Develop a resume to use both on- and off-campus.
q Sign up to become a registered user of CareerBridge,
see: https://www.myinterfase.com/mit/student.
Extracurricular Involvement
q Get involved in dorm activities, student organiza-
tions, or public service projects. Explore social and
academic clubs that interest you. Join at least one
extracurricular activity.
q Ask for help if you need it! That is what Resident
Assistants, Freshman Advisors, Teaching Assistants,
and Counselors are for!
Sophomore Year
Exploring … Explore occupations that interest you.
Research and network career possibilities.
Academics
q Confirm your choice of major. Explore a second major
or minor if interested.
q Get involved with your advisor and your department.
Schedule at least two meetings per semester with your
advisor. Use the time to learn about his/her field and
explore your interests in that field. Find out what activi-
ties and services are offered to undergraduates in your
department.
Additional resources on self-assessment:
•   MIT Career Development Center, Self-Assessment 
Workshop: http://web.mit.edu/career/www/
workshops/finding
•   University of Waterloo online Career Development 
Manual, Self-Assessment: www.cdm.uwaterloo.ca
•   John Holland’s Self-Directed Search online: 
www.self-directed-search.com
•   Career Zone: general interests and related jobs 
(Holland categories): www.nycareerzone.org/
graphic/assessment/index.jsp
•   Spencer Stuart Organizational Culture Match 
Test: http://www.spencerstuart.com/yourcareer/
resources/services/730
•    www.masscis.intocareers.com For descriptions
of various occupations, their tasks, requirements,
skills needed
•    http://careers.mit.edu/www/infostats/resources.
html has a comprehensive list of links to a wide
range of career resources
http://careers.mit.edu 7
q Electives can give you the opportunity to explore a
second major or minor as well as to develop a personal
interest. Consider targeting your electives to make you
more versatile and employable.
q Explore opportunities for research, UROPs, and
creative projects.
q If interested in studying abroad, begin to research your
options. To meet with Global Education advisors see:
http://web.mit.edu/goglobal.
q Learn about Distinguished Fellowship and Scholarship
opportunities available to students in various fields. To
meet with our Fellowships advisor see: http://web.mit.
edu/scholarships.
Career Decision Making
q Update your resume and post it on CareerBridge.
q Attend career and internship fairs to gather informa-
tion on different industries and companies, http://web.
mit.edu/career/www/events/careerfairs.html.
q Attend workshops and programs sponsored by CDC to
build your career management skills, http://web.mit.
edu/career/www/events/workshops.html.
q Explore opportunities to gain relevant work experi-
ence, for example: internships, externships, UROPS
and summer jobs.
q Learn how to build your network and cultivate mentors.
Conduct informational interviews with people in fields
that interest you and record notes in your Career Log.
Keep track of contacts!
q Update your Career Log.
Extracurricular Involvement
q Attend meetings of student professional organizations.
Get involved! This will help you gain skills including
teamwork and public speaking.
q Act on your interests. Take an active role in an extra-
curricular activity and explore new ones. Consider
assuming a leadership role in your dorm, campus orga-
nization, or on a class project.
q Volunteer.
Junior Year
Experiencing…Get experience through internships and
summer jobs. Prioritize your interests. Draft your job
search or graduate school strategy.
Academics
q Choose electives that enhance your learning and
career goals.
q If you have not yet done a UROP, seriously consider
doing one now, to develop skills and help you explore
areas of interest.
q Explore options and desires to attend graduate or
professional school. Consider one to three years of
work experience first to enhance learning.
q Meet with an advisor before spring to discuss graduate
school admissions and testing processes.
q Continue developing relationships with faculty, graduate
students, and professionals. Identify who will serve as
references for graduate school or employment.
q Apply to Distinguished Fellowships and Scholarships
if appropriate for you. See http://web.mit.edu/
scholarships.
Career Decision Making
q Meet with a Career Counselor to create a job or
graduate school search strategy. Also discuss with a
counselor effective ways to use web-based job and
internship services.
q Update your Career Log. Use your Career Log entries to
help you prioritize career choices.
q Post an updated resume on CareerBridge.
q Devote a significant amount of time to finding a
summer job or internship or UROP in a field related to
your future career goals.
q Practice networking while getting career information
at company presentations, career fairs, career related
events/forums, and talking to alums. Keep in touch with
previous teachers and advisors.
q Arrange a mock interview at CDC to practice inter-
viewing skills.
q Shop for business attire so you can “dress for
success” in interviews.
Extracurricular Involvement
q Send for career materials from professional associa-
tions and consider joining one as a student member.
q Continue to explore your values, interests, and skills
through involvement with clubs, student organizations,
and volunteer activities.
Senior Year
Transitioning…Develop skills you need to accomplish
your goals and thrive in life after MIT.
Academics
q If you are planning to attend graduate or professional
school, gather all application forms and write a state-
ment of purpose.
q Make sure to keep up your grades. Graduate schools
and some employers may want to see your final
semester grades.
Career Decision Making
q Visit CDC early in the fall semester to sharpen your
job search skills and to take advantage of on-campus
recruiting.
q Talk with professionals in your field about job search
techniques and opportunities.
q Network with parents, friends, faculty, alumni, and
others. Most jobs are found through networking.
q Tailor your resume to each position for which you are
applying and write compelling cover letters. Visit CDC
and have your resume and cover letters critiqued.
8 MIT Career Development Center
q Identify three references and ask permission to use
their names.
q Prepare for interviews by attending an Interview
Workshop and doing a mock interview at CDC.
q Read relevant periodicals and trade journals to under-
stand current issues in your field. Having this insight
makes a huge difference during interviews.
q Analyze job offers based upon the goals and values
that you documented in your Career Log. Visit CDC
where a Career Counselor can help you walk through
this decision.
q Let the CDC know what you are up to for next year by
completing the Graduating Student Survey.
Extracurricular Involvement
q Think about your first year after graduation; your ideal
work, proximity to family and friends, lifestyle, values,
and long-term goals. It may help to talk about these
things with your friends and people whose opinions
you value.
q Start thinking about practical life after MIT. Project
your needs and create a realistic budget. Attend semi-
nars regarding finances, work/life balance, managing
stress, office politics, etc.
q Enjoy the end of your senior year and graduation.
Congratulations!
G Exploring Your Options:
Knowing What’s Out There g
Here are some suggestions for how you can learn about the
enormous range of industries and occupations available to
you. Think expansively and creatively!
1) Read about industries, organizations, occupations in:
•   Occupational Outlook Handbook: www.bls.gov/oco
•   O*Net Online: http://online.onetcenter.org
•   WetFeet Career Guides (available through 
CareerBridge) https://www.myinterfase.com/mit/
student
•   Websites, for example: www.collegegrad.com/
careers/all.shtml
•   Newspapers and magazines
•   Trade magazines and newsletters
•   Career books and career websites
2) Notice the jobs around you, especially those done by family,
friends, acquaintances and others. Ask people about:
•   Their career path
•   How they feel about their work
•   What tips and advice do they have to offer
3) Browse the MIT Alumni Directory on: http://alum.mit.edu
and ICAN website:
•   What are alumni from your major doing? 
•   From other majors?
•   Who are they working for?
4) Talk to business/industry people:
•   Talk with your advisor and faculty about opportunities 
for people with your academic training
•   Attend student association events sponsored by 
various departments
•   Take part in career fairs
•   Conduct informational interviews with people in occu-
pations and organizations that interest you
G Focusing—
Job Search Strategies g
Focus on some industries and occupations that appeal to
you, and research them in greater depth.
Researching organizations that interest you helps you
decide which companies might offer a good fit for your
occupational goals and interests. In addition, it is essential
preparation prior to interviewing effectively with a
company. For an in-depth discussion on how to
research a company see www.learnwebskills.com/
company/index.html.
How 2008 MIT Graduates Found Their Jobs
Undergrad Masters Doctoral
On-campus recruiting 43.8% 37.6% 19.7%
Networking 27.4% 28.9% 33.1%
Internship led to job offer 28.3% 14.9% 1.6%
Career fair 24.7% 15.7% 7.1%
Professional conference .5% 1.7% 8.7%
Contacts acquired through MIT Career Development Center .9% 3.7% 2.4%
Through department (faculty, academic administrator) 5.9% 7.9% 22.8%
Directly applied to employer 22.4% 16.9% 36.2%
Advertised job listing (online, print) 5.5% 2.9% 18.9%
Other 10.0% 16.5% 10.2%
http://careers.mit.edu 9
What you should know about a company:
•   Size of organization (comparison to other 
companies in industry)
•   Number of years in business, history of organization
•   Geographical locations, corporate headquarters
•   Products and services, clientele
•   Age and background of top management
•   Values, company culture
•   Organizational structure, climate
•   Current financial condition
•   Annual sales growth for past five years
•   Competition
•   Reputation
•   Future outlook
•   News stories about company, any new develop-
ments, trends
Where can you learn about companies and
organizations?
•   Company websites
•   Annual reports: contact companies for copies of these
•   Trade associations: print and web materials
•   News articles about companies and executives: 
newspapers, journals (use online search engines,
e.g., www.google.com)
•   Online references: e.g., WetFeet Career Guides, 
available through CareerBridge
•   Directories: e.g., CorpTech, Standard & Poor’s 
Corporation Records
•   Talk to employees: network, MIT alumni directory
Researching Companies
You are able to find many helpful details you need about
a company by using the various MIT libraries and online
resources at http://libraries.mit.edu and http://libguides.mit.
edu/companies. MIT Libraries offers “career research work-
shops” to introduce you to electronic and print resources
for researching companies, organizations and agencies as
potential employers.
You can access business databases and directories for
specialized industry and economic research by going to the
MIT Libraries’ Vera service at http://libraries.mit.edu/vera.
There, from the List by Subject menu, select “Business &
Management.” These databases provide detailed informa-
tion about a company’s investment status, management,
products and markets. You can also use the databases to
generate lists of leads.
Sample of listings:
•   ABI/INFORM Global
•   Bloomberg
•   Business Source Elite
•   Corptech
•   Hoovers Online
•   I/B/E/S
•   InfoTech Trends
•   Investext Plus
•   ISI Emerging Markets
•   Jupiter Communications
•   LexisNexis Academic
•   Morningstar Principia Pro Plus
•   Reference USA
•   Reuters
•   Reuters Business Insight
•   SDC Platinum
•   TAQ
•   Thomson Research
•   VentureXpert Web
•   Yankee Group Reports
For a video tutorial on how to use these databases, see
http://libraries.mit.edu/tutorials/video/index.html.
G Job Search Action Plan g
Once you have completed your self-assessment, explored
different industries and fields, and narrowed your search to a
few target industries and companies, you are ready to enter
the final stage of the job search—identifying and applying
for jobs. Below are some tips for how to go about finding
job opportunities. Three job search methods are described:
Traditional, Using the Hidden Job Market, and Networking.
Traditional Job Search
You can apply for advertised job vacancies by checking out
the following locations.
•   CareerBridge—on-campus recruiting: 
https://www.myinterfase.com/mit/student
•   Newspapers, journals, publications
•   Company websites 
•   Internet jobsites, bulletin boards—e.g., http://www.
Medzilla.com, a pharmaceutical industry site, and
http://www.ieee.org, the electrical engineering
association’s website
•   Listservs
•   Notices from MIT Department Administrators
•   Employment agencies
•   Head hunters
Hidden Job Market
Many positions are never advertised so how can you find
out about them?
Target employers that interest you and identify someone
who works for each, talk to him/her about the company,
your interests and jobs.
•   Do any MIT alumni/ae work for the company?
•   Talk to people in your network—does anyone know 
anyone who works for the company?
•   Research to identify the name of someone you can 
contact
- Company/organization website
- Directories
10 MIT Career Development Center
- Company Annual Reports
- News articles—search http://www.google.com
Approach the employer
•   Conduct informational interviews and network
•   Ask for names of people you might talk with in areas of 
the company that particularly interest you
•   Send a letter of inquiry to a company even if you do not 
know of an advertised position
Networking
Networking is the most effective method of finding a job. It
involves talking to as many people as possible about your job
search. Networking is expanding your network of profes-
sional associates and acquaintances by connecting to other
people’s network of associates and acquaintances. It can
be part of a traditional job search as well as searches using
the hidden job market. When networking, you must gather
information and seek advice about professions, fields, occu-
pations, trends, skills and expertise required. Get referrals
to others who may expedite your job search. Networking is
a two-way street. Offer to help the people who are helping
you—become an active part of their network.
Long Distance Job Search
Use resources to help you identify organizations and
companies of interest in your desired location, and to find
people from that area with whom you can network:
•   Check directories (e.g., CorpTech) for organizations/
companies located there, research company websites
•   Study local newspapers, job postings
•   Network and conduct informational interviews
•   Search for alumni in your industry/areas of interest
- ICAN, Alumni Directory
- Alumni Clubs
•   Contact national, regional and local professional 
associations
•   Visit, learn about employment trends, opportunities
Record Keeping/Action Planning
Organize your job search. Find a method that works for you.
Use an electronic diary, ring binder, file folders, computer
reminders, database, palm pilot, Rolodex, scheduler. Keep
track of:
1) Job search ideas
2) Schedule of what you need to do and when:
•   Job application deadlines
•   Networking meetings
•   Follow-up calls to make
•   Interviews scheduled
•   Thank-you notes to be sent out
3) Records of all contacts made and networking leads:
•   Name
•   Dates of all actions
•   Contact information
•   Referred by whom
•   Phone calls, emails, letters
•   Notes about conversations
•   Additional contacts offered
•   Ideas to pursue
4) Industries and companies of interest and your
research findings
5) Advertised jobs, relevant research, records of all
related actions
6) Jobs applied for:
•   Research on the organization
•   Dates of all actions, contact information
•   Notes on all conversations, email correspondence
•   Copy of cover letters, resumes sent
•   Results
7) Reflections, lessons learned, suggestions for future
http://careers.mit.edu 11
Internships: Getting Experience
Internships and summer jobs give you an opportunity to apply
academic concepts in practice, and to explore possible
future occupations. The experiential learning and skills
acquired from internships and/or research experience on a
resume make you more marketable. MIT offers a variety of
programs and some have submission deadlines in the fall
semester. If you are seeking an internship overseas, you will
need to start your job search process at least six months to a
year in advance, depending on the countries that you will be
applying to.
Some internships in industry and in the executive area of
government pay a reasonable stipend. Many in the non-
profit sector pay little or nothing; however, if you are
work-study eligible you may be able to negotiate a salary
at the nonprofit of your choice. Either paid or unpaid, the
experience in an internship can be extremely valuable.
Reports from a variety of sources show that, compared to
the average, students who participate in these programs:
•   Do better in school
•   Are more likely to graduate
•   Are ahead in preparation for their field
•   Are viewed as better candidates in job interviews
•   Receive more job offers
•   Earn higher starting salaries
•   Are more likely to get the job with the employer they 
want after graduation
Other benefits of Internships and Experiential Education
Programs include developing transferable skills such as:
communication, critical thinking, teamwork, change
management, information technology, leadership, self-
managed learning, interpersonal diversity, ethics, social
responsibility, and technical knowledge.
MIT’s Opportunities for Experiential Learning
and Internships
Most students are unsure of what they want to do for a
profession. Those who think they know may not know how
to get where they want to be, or what skills they need in
order to be successful in their chosen field. The first step
is to explore and experience a field through one of MIT’s
many Experiential Education and Internship Programs.
Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program
(UROP)
Established in 1969, UROP is MIT’s flagship academic
program. Participating students work with MIT faculty and
research staff in a wide variety of investigative projects,
across all disciplines. While most UROP projects take place
on campus, students can learn the valuable technical and
collaborative skills necessary for future occupations. UROP
is a widely recognized program and employers look upon
participation favorably. For more information, consult the
UROP web site http://web.mit.edu/urop/, or contact UROP
staff in Room 7-104, at urop@mit.edu or (617) 253-7306.
Student/Alumni Externship Program
The Alumni Association’s Student/Alumni Externship
Program gives students a chance to meet and work with
alumni, gain marketable job experience, and explore compa-
nies that could become potential employers. Students join
alumni in their workplace during the January Independent
Activities Period (IAP) and get a first-hand look at a profes-
sion. Current undergraduate and graduate MIT students are
welcome to apply to the Externship Program. All applicants
must submit an application form, resume and personal
statement about their desire to participate. You will find
more information online at http://alum.mit.edu/students/
NetworkwithAlumni/ExternshipProgram or contact the
Alumni Association at externship@mit.edu, (617) 252-1143 or
visit the Alumni Center in W98-2nd Floor.
Freshman/Alumni Summer Internship Program
(F/ASIP)
MIT’s Freshman/Alumni Summer Internship Program
(F/ASIP) is a graded seminar (SP.800/SP.801) that provides
participating freshmen with career development training.
This seminar cultivates professional skills, assists first-year
students in finding summer internships, and pairs them
with MIT alumni mentors at their internships. These alumni
share a learning-by-doing philosophy, a propensity for hard
work, and methods for tackling problems. They also help
educate students on what it takes to survive and thrive in
the workplace. The program’s goal is to teach valuable
career planning and job skills that will be useful at MIT and
beyond. Interested students should submit their F/ASIP
application in the summer preceding their freshman year.
For more information about the program, including appli-
cation materials and deadlines, please visit the F/ASIP
website at http://web.mit.edu/fasip.
Chapter 3.
Internships, Jobs and Networking
12 MIT Career Development Center
MIT International Science & Technology
Initiatives (MISTI)
Imagine joining a team of engineers at BMW in Munich;
designing a Japanese robot; testing solar panels in Israel;
or tackling a research problem at the Curie Institute. MISTI
makes it possible.
MISTI connects MIT students to hands-on professional
internships and research around the globe. All expenses
are paid. Program coordinators work with students to match
their skills and interests with MISTI’s partners—hundreds
of the world’s leading companies, research labs and NGOs.
With language and cultural preparation, participants learn
first-hand how innovation happens around the world and
cultivate skills that make their resumes leap off the screen.
Over 300 MIT students intern each year through MISTI
programs in China, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan,
Mexico and Spain. Go now! Visit http://web.mit.edu/misti.
Undergraduate Practice Opportunities Program
(UPOP)
UPOP is a full-year educational program for School of
Engineering sophomores administered by the Office of the
Dean of Engineering and serving as the first year of the
three-year Gordon-MIT Engineering Leadership Program.
The summer practicum component of UPOP includes a
hands-on internship with coaching before, during and after
the assignment. This immersive learning experience lets
students integrate their academic work in math and engi-
neering science through application in the world of work.
The UPOP professional practice workshop during
January’s Independent Activities Period (IAP) covers
topics in team decision making, self-awareness, negotia-
tion, conflict resolution, product design, leadership, and
networking. The experiential learning modules are led by
MIT faculty from the School of Engineering and the Sloan
School of Management with the help of industry profes-
sionals, alums, and outside consultants who volunteer as
mentor-instructors to groups of 7-9 students. These rela-
tionships often endure beyond the workshop sessions and
help to establish a foundation for the student’s professional
network. For more information see http://upop.mit.edu.
MIT Washington DC Summer Internship Program
The Washington DC Summer Internship Program provides
technically sophisticated undergraduates the opportunity
to apply their scientific and technical training to public
policy issues. The core of the program is focused on the
summer months, when students work in the offices of
government agencies, the private sector, and advocacy
groups. Complementing the summer internships are a trip to
Washington DC during spring break and academic exercises.
Participating students are required to attend a seminar on
the policymaking process during the late spring and early fall,
for which they will receive 12 units of credit upon completion.
Pleas see http://web.mit.edu/summerwash/www.
VI-A M.Eng. Thesis Program
The VI-A M.Eng. Thesis Program enables EECS students to
combine classroom studies with serious professional work
experience in industry with competitive salaries through a
series of leading-edge technology jobs with participating
companies. The VI-A program is designed to work in
conjunction with the EECS five-year Master of Engineering
degree program culminating in an industry-based master’s
thesis. VI-A work assignments are available at both
domestic and international locations. For more information
see http://via.mit.edu/
Other Internship Programs and Resources
Internships may be offered at companies, government
agencies, nonprofit organizations, other universities,
and advocacy groups. Here are some helpful links to
find opportunities:
  •   MIT Career Development Center Internship 
Information http://web.mit.edu/career/www/jobs/
internships.html
  •   CareerBridge: see “Job Search” and “On-Campus 
Recruiting Schedules” https://www.myinterfase.
com/mit/student/
  •   iNet Internship Network: internships available to 
students from eight universities, including MIT:
http://web.mit.edu/career/www/inet/
  •   MonsterTrak no longer provides our CDC On- and 
Off-Campus Recruiting System, but it still offers job
and internship opportunities for students in general:
see http://www.monstertrak.com
  •   Federal Government Internships: http://www.
usajobs.opm.gov, http://www.studentjobs.gov
  •   Internships Abroad: see The Big Guide to Living and 
Working Overseas, from our CDC homepage:
http://careers.mit.edu
  •   Nonprofit Internships and Information: http://www.
idealist.org
  •   Jobweb articles on Internship Searching: http://
www.jobweb.com/students.aspx?folderid=86
Write to companies that recruit at MIT for full-time
positions and express your interest in an internship.
Ask if you might interview with them when they are on
campus. They may like your initiative and interview you.
Do not automatically restrict your search to the Boston
area or your hometown—a summer job away from MIT
and from home can be fun and broadening. Some
companies will help you find housing. Some will offer
housing at a local college. If you need to find a place
to live for the summer in another city, check out various
online housing listings.
http://careers.mit.edu 13
14 MIT Career Development Center
http://careers.mit.edu 15
Networking
Networking Defined
A professional network can be defined as people you
know who can provide leads, support and advice about
your career and the job market. They can help you tap the
vast majority of jobs that are never advertised. For this
reason, networking needs to be an integral part of your job
search. The benefits of networking include learning more
about career options, increased visibility within your field,
propelling your professional development, finding suit-
able mentors, increasing your chances of promotion and
perhaps finding your next job. Though initially, you may feel
uncomfortable about the notion of networking, it is a skill
that can be learned and mastered by following the practical
guidelines below.
Start by networking with people you know such as family,
friends, faculty, students, community members, service
professionals (doctors, dentists), alumni, and neighbors.
Talk to them about what you want to do. Ask whether they
know of any companies or organizations doing the types of
things that interest you. Do they know of anyone in a related
area of work or study who you might talk to? Networking
etiquette requires that you do not ask for a job. The focus of
networking is to meet many people in your field and find out
more about the jobs they do.
This is how you get to see first hand the type of company
and work that you really want to do. The art of informational
interviewing is in knowing how to balance your ultimate
agenda (to locate a job) with the unique opportunity to learn
firsthand about the demands of your field. Always approach
the experience as asking for advice rather than looking
for work. Be courteous and professional at all times, even
with your aunt’s best friend. Never abuse your privilege by
asking for a job, but execute your informational interviews
skillfully, and a job may follow.
Step 1: Identify Your Network
Start by listing everyone you know who is a potential
prospect.
•  Family (parents, siblings, uncles, aunts, cousins)
•  Friends
•  School contacts (faculty, teachers, classmates, alumni)
•  Community associates (religious affiliates, neighbors)
•  Work contacts (supervisors, coworkers)
•   Professional associations, industry receptions, career 
fairs
Step 2: Prepare and Practice Your Script
Prepare a brief introductory script. This should be a one-
minute summary of your interests, goals and your needs
right now. Practice by telling as many people in the above
list as you can. Once you are comfortable with your ‘pitch’,
start asking if they know of anyone who you should contact.
You can then start contacting these people by phone or email.
A script will sound something like: “I am in my junior year at
MIT and have a particular interest in Engineering Logistics.
I hope to ultimately apply my degree to product and inven-
tory management. Right now I am trying to learn more about
the actual experience of people working in these areas.
Could you spare some time to speak with me about the
current trends and opportunities in this field?” Or ... “Do you
know anyone I could speak with in order to find out more
about the field?”
If you have found the contact person through another
person your script might be:
“My name is Sandra Chee. I am due to graduate from
MIT in 6 months time. I received your name from your
company’s recruiting representative, David Jones who
suggested that I contact you. I am studying biological
sciences and David thought that, as you are doing work in
this field, you might be able to tell me a bit about it. David
also thought that you might be able to give me some names
of other people or companies that I could approach for a
possible informational interview (or summer internship).”
Informational Interviewing
Step 3: Arrange an Informational Interview
This script then forms the basis of an email that you might
write to someone with whom you would like to have an
informational interview. The first networking email may be
like a mini cover letter. Use an email subject line that will be
clear and encourage your reader to open the email—you
might write something like “Question from an MIT Student.”
If you prefer, you can try to call the person directly to set up
an informational interview at a later date.
Prepare for your informational interviews just as you would
for an actual job interview: polish your presentation and
listening skills, and conduct preliminary research on the
organization. You should outline an agenda that includes
well-thought-out questions.
Your networking meeting should include the following
elements: introduction, self-overview, Q & A, obtaining
referrals and closing.
Begin your interview with questions that demonstrate your
genuine interest in the other person such as, “Describe
a typical day in your department.” Then proceed with
more general questions such as, “What are the employ-
ment prospects in this field?” or “Are you active in any
professional organizations in our field and which would
you recommend?” If appropriate, venture into a series of
16 MIT Career Development Center
questions that place the employer in the advice-giving role,
such as, “What should the most important consideration be
in my first job?” Be sure to ask for referrals to other profes-
sionals. You could also ask their opinion about your resume.
Always remember to send a thank-you letter to every
person who grants you time and to every individual who
refers you to someone.
What motivates professionals to grant informational
interviews? The reasons are varied. Generally, most
people enjoy sharing information about themselves
and their jobs and, particularly, giving advice. Some
may simply believe in encouraging newcomers to their
profession and others may be scoping out prospects for
anticipated vacancies. It is common for professionals to
exchange favors and information, so do not hesitate to
call upon people. Also, they may be aware that some day
the tables may be turned and you could become a helpful
element of their networking.
Keep track of your networking meetings and be proactive with
follow up. Refer to ‘Record Keeping’ on page 10 for guidelines
about implementing a job search action plan. Keep a list of
your contacts and update it frequently with the names of
any leads given to you.
In a group setting, circulate and meet people, but do not try to
talk to everyone. It is better to have a few meaningful conver-
sations than 50 hasty introductions. If you are at a reception,
be sure to wear a nametag and collect or exchange business
cards so you can later contact the people you meet. Send a
thank-you note or email if appropriate.
Be Dedicated to Networking: Most importantly, networking
should be ongoing. You will want to stay in touch with contacts
over the long haul—not just when you need something. Make
networking part of your long-term career plan.
Career Fairs/Company Presentations
Career Fairs are a great way to connect with potential
employers. Many professional groups hold public career fairs
which are advertised through newspapers. At MIT, career fairs
are organized and run by a number of student organizations.
The MIT Career Development Center holds an annual career
week in the fall to prepare students for the Career Fair. This is
a tremendous opportunity for students to meet a wide variety
of employers. Keep in mind that career fairs should be just one
small part of your entire job search process; however, they can
be a successful part. Here are some useful tips to help make the
most of your career fair experience.
Keys to Career Fair Success
Research: Have a plan of attack for the fair. Research the
companies and organizations you are interested in and see
if any new companies have registered when you arrive at
the fair. Take time to survey the layout of the fair and deter-
mine where your “ideal” employers are located.
Resumes: Bring more than you think you will need—at least
two for each organization.
Attire: Conservative business attire is essential. Know what is
the expected attire of your profession and dress accordingly.
It is always better to be overdressed than underdressed.
Be Proactive: You may only have three minutes to market
yourself so be sure to make the most of your time. Start
with the basics: approach the company representative
in a friendly manner, make eye contact, offer a firm hand-
shake, and show enthusiasm. Recite your brief script and
prepare some questions just as you would for any employ-
ment interview. The most common question you will face is
something along the lines of “what are you here for today?”
A great follow-up question for you to ask is, “What do I
need to do to obtain a second interview with your firm?”
Obtain a business card or contact information for represen-
tatives of organizations that interest you.
Follow-up: There are two main methods of follow-up. Some
suggest calling the recruiter within a day or two of the fair
and leaving a voicemail message thanking the recruiter
again for his/her time. Another tactic would be to write a
thank-you note/email and send it the next day to the address
on the recruiter’s business card. The content of the note
should include thanking the recruiter for his/her time and
restating your interest and qualifications for the position.
Questions to Ask Employers at a Career Fair
Your questions should be natural. Before asking questions,
introduce yourself and establish rapport with the company
reps. Listen carefully to their answers. Be courteous and be
sure to thank them before closing the conversation.
Try not to ask questions that could easily be answered by
the company’s website (e.g., what does your company do?).
Do not read from this list. These are intended as examples
of kinds of questions you could ask.
1. Where do MIT grads typically work in your company?
2. Did you go to MIT? (Whether or not) What did you
major in?
3. What do you do at your company?
4. How long have you worked there?
5. Does your company hire on a continual basis or only
at certain times of year?
http://careers.mit.edu 17
6. How long does your hiring process take?
7. What are the most important qualifications your
company looks for in an employee?
8. Are there particular personality traits you look for?
9. What are your company’s major goals in the next few
years?
10. Are graduate degrees important? In what areas
within your company?
11. What kinds of courses do you suggest in order to be a
successful candidate?
12. Is there a GPA cut-off for your recruiting process?
13. What kinds of entry-level positions exist within your
organization that would be open to someone with my
background?
14. As an entry-level employee, what kind of career
advancement opportunities would be open to me in
two, or five years from now?
15. How many years do entry-level employees typically
work for your company? What is your retention rate?
16. Do you expect employees to relocate?
Company Presentations
MIT hosts employer panels and company presentations.
Representatives from the leading industries and companies
present on the trends of that industry and the opportuni-
ties that one can pursue within the industry. These may be
followed by a reception for attendees.
Try to personally meet the representatives and ask
thoughtful questions to gain information about the industry
in general and their company specifically. The person
you are networking with may not have a job opening, but
he or she may know someone who is hiring. The key is to
exchange information and then expand your network by
obtaining additional referrals each time you meet someone
new.
http://web.mit.edu/career/www/events/presentations.html
lists the company presentations.
Alumni Association Resources
Alumni Directory and the Institute Career
Assistance Network (ICAN)
The Institute Career Assistance Network (ICAN) is a
searchable database of alumni who volunteer their time
as career advisors. It includes more than 3,000 MIT alumni
who are willing to share their experiences and offer advice
about career paths, interviewing and specific companies.
You can communicate with them by telephone, email or
meet in person.
The ICAN website http://alum.mit.edu/benefits/
CareerGuidance/ICAN provides tips for making the contact,
conducting a successful informational interview, and a
bibliography of recommended career-related publications.
To use the online database students must register for an
Infinite Connection account at http://alum.mit.edu or visit
the Alumni Center in W98-2nd Floor. You can also write to:
ICAN@mit.edu.
Community Service/Volunteering
Put your communication, teamwork, and leadership skills
to use while giving back to the community. Refer to MIT’s
Public Service Center for ideas: http://web.mit.edu/mitpsc.
Professional Associations
Professional Associations can be an excellent resource for
job seekers. Through their various activities and services
(meetings, conferences, publications, websites, etc.)
professional associations provide information about career
fields, job opportunities, and employers in the professions
they serve. They can be particularly helpful if you need to
create a long-distance network to help you conduct a long-
distance job search.
For a comprehensive list of professional associations go
to: http://web.mit.edu/career/www/jobs/proforg.html.
Also consult the MIT Libraries Virtual References at http://
libraries.mit.edu/help/virtualref.
To students (for whom time and money may be in short
supply), the websites of professional associations offer
easy, inexpensive, accessible (24 hours a day, 7 days a
week!) access to:
•   Information about career options and industry/
professional trends in various fields.
•   Professional contacts: their members form a network 
of people who are often willing to assist others in
career exploration
•   Job listings 
To learn about professional organizations in your field or in
other fields you wish to explore, ask your advisor or other
faculty members.
18 MIT Career Development Center
Resume Guidelines
Your resume should be a concise summary of the high
points of your education, work experience, and other
qualifications relevant to your audience’s needs and to
your employment interests, not a complete history of your
life. It communicates your professional qualifications
to employers, to interest them in interviewing you, and
it creates their first impression of you. It is a marketing
tool and an introduction to you and your experiences. Do
enough research about the employer and the field to decide
which messages are most important to your audience, and
communicate these messages succinctly and clearly in a
visually appealing format. Here are some guidelines to help
you do this:
Presentation Checklist
•   Do not use a Microsoft Word resume template. None of 
them scan well.
•   Use a laser printer.
•   It is safe to use a conservative font, such as Arial or 
Times New Roman.
•   Font size should be 10-12 points.
•   Use 8 
1
/
2
˝ x 11˝ paper, printed on one side only.
•   Use high quality resume paper.
Format
•   Stick to one page; use two pages if you have an 
advanced degree or extensive experience (10+ years).
•   Make the page easy to scan and graphically pleasing: 
leave sufficient white space.
•   Select a format that suits your qualifications. Do not 
automatically follow someone else’s, which may not
suit what you have to say.
•   Avoid underlining, may use bullets to emphasize your 
credentials.
•   Use bold face sparingly for headings and employer 
information
Content
•   Put name, address, and phone number at the top of the 
page. If you have a second page, repeat your name at
the top.
•   Choose topic headings that invite your readers’ 
interest, e.g., ‘Experience’, ‘Leadership’, ‘Skills’,
‘Activities/ Honors’ rather than “employment” or
“other.”
•   Include marketable and/or relevant data only; for 
example, include classes that have been most
important in your education and are most relevant to
the type of work you seek; do not provide an extensive
list of courses.
•   Highlight skills, accomplishments, capabilities, and 
work experience. Give evidence of your personal
impact: show not only that you completed tasks but
that you contributed to organizational goals.
•   Cite numbers to convey size and/or scale of project, 
budget, and staff supervised.
•   Give examples that demonstrate desirable personality 
traits such as leadership, interpersonal facility, team-
work, and initiative.
•   Minimize personal information and omit unrelated 
memberships, age, marital and health status, and
information that is repetitive, implicit (e.g., high school
graduation for a college graduate), or out-of-date. If you
are a US citizen or hold a permanent resident visa, include
this if readers might have reason to think otherwise.
•    Generally, it is a good idea to exclude data relevant to 
salary expectations, religious or political affiliations,
and geographic descriptions.
•    References are usually omitted. Employers assume 
that “references are available upon request,” so leave
this phrase off.
Style
•   Proofread to eliminate all spelling, punctuation, and 
grammatical errors.
•   Use action verbs and strong adjectives. (See “Action 
Verbs.”)
•   Make it future or present oriented, suggesting that “I 
am this kind of person, with these abilities, as my past
record demonstrates.”
•   Avoid repeating words or phrases.
•   Leave out unnecessary words, sentences, and phrases 
such as “Duties included / Hired to / Project involved.”
•   Avoid stilted or confusing language. Ask yourself, 
“Would I talk like that?”
•   Do not use the first person I or any pronouns.
•   Be consistent and use the same grammatical style 
throughout.
•   Avoid self-flattering terms such as “highly skilled, 
outstanding, or excellent.” Describe your accom-
plishments effectively and let readers decide for
themselves that you are well qualified.
•   Be honest and accurate, but not overly modest.
•   Convey through the style and content of your resume 
an understanding of your audience’s needs, priorities,
hiring criteria, and vocabulary.
Chapter 4.
Resume and Career Writing
http://careers.mit.edu 19
Final Edit
•   Ask a counselor, friend, or someone unfamiliar with 
your background to review your resume for clarity and
effectiveness.
•   Tailor your resume to the specific qualifications of the job 
for which you are applying and/or to the specific employer.
•   Include all-important information, such as dates of 
graduation, major, GPA, etc.
•   Proofread one more time to ensure correct spelling and 
punctuation.
The Top 10 Pitfalls in Resume Writing
1. Too long. Restrict your resume to one page.
2. Typographical, grammatical, or spelling errors. Have at
least two people proofread your resume.
3. Hard to read. Keep it simple with clean lines and white space.
4. Too verbose. Say as much as possible with as few words
as possible, avoid use of jargon.
5. Not enough information.Give dates describing related
work experience, be specific about skills, accomplish-
ments, activities, interests, and memberships.
6. Irrelevant information. Customize each resume to each
position you seek (when possible). Of course, include
education and work experience, but emphasize relevant
experience, skills, accomplishments and activities. Do not
include marital status, age, sex, children, height, weight,
health, church membership, etc.
7. Obviously generic. Tweak each resume according to the
job description. The employer needs to feel that you are
interested in that particular position with his or her company.
8. Too fancy. Of course, use good quality bond paper, but
avoid exotic types, colored paper, photographs, binders,
and graphics. Electronic resumes should include appro-
priate industry keywords and use a font size between
10-12 points. Use italics and bolding sparingly.
9. Too static. Make your resume as dynamic as possible.
Begin every statement with an action verb. Use active
verbs to describe what you have accomplished in past
jobs. Take advantage of your rich vocabulary and avoid
repeating words, especially the first word in a section.
10. Too modest. The resume showcases your qualifications
in competition with the other applicants. Put your best foot
forward without misrepresentation, falsification, or arrogance.
Online Resumes
Though scanning technology and practices vary and are
constantly changing, some companies still scan resumes and/
or use keywords to identify candidates from their database.
You want to fill your resume with as many of these words as
possible. Companies that pick up many resumes at career fairs
may use scanning technology, though you should always check
with the employer requirements regarding format.
The essential keywords are specified by each employer for
each position. You can only make reasonable assumptions
about what a specific employer will ask for. Keep a log of
keywords that apply to your occupation and industry. Do not
fold or staple the resume.
Our diverse team members include engineers, architects,
scientists, and many other technical professionals. Most
importantly, our highly qualifed staff members are led by
principals and project managers who average 20 years of
employment with SGH. These leaders provide quality of
service and team continuity to support our long term client
relationships.
We offer an excellent compensation and benefts package in
a corporate culture based on learning and growth. To learn
more about SGH and current job opportunities, visit our
web site at www.sgh.com
Boston
Los Angeles
New York
San Francisco
Washington, DC
www.sgh.com
Simpson Gumpertz & Heger is a national, award-winning
engineering frm that designs, investigates, and rehabilitates
structures and building enclosures.
Our goals are simple: to earn the lasting trust of our clients,
gain the respect of our most capable peers, and further the
standards of practice in all areas of our profession.
From left clockwise: Grifth Observatory, Los Angeles, CA; China Basin Landing, San
Francisco, CA; Jean Yawkey Place, Boston, MA; New Museum of Contemporary Art,
New York, NY.
20 MIT Career Development Center
Management Skills
Administered
Analyzed
Assigned
Chaired
Consolidated
Contracted
Coordinated
Delegated
Developed
Directed
Evaluated
Executed
Organized
Oversaw
Planned
Prioritized
Produced
Recommended
Reorganized
Reviewed
Scheduled
Supervised
Communication Skills
Addressed
Arbitrated
Arranged
Authored
Co-authored
Collaborated
Corresponded
Developed
Directed
Drafted
Enlisted
Formulated
Influenced
Interpreted
Lectured
Mediated
Moderated
Negotiated
Persuaded
Promoted
Proposed
Publicized
Reconciled
Recruited
Spoke
Translated
Wrote
Research Skills
Clarified
Collected
Critiqued
Diagnosed
Evaluated
Examined
Extracted
Identified
Inspected
Inspired
Interpreted
Interviewed
Investigated
Organized
Reviewed
Summarized
Surveyed
Systemized
Technical Skills
Assembled
Built
Calculated
Computed
Designed
Devised
Engineered
Fabricated
Maintained
Operated
Pinpointed
Programmed
Remodeled
Repaired
Solved
Teaching Skills
Adapted
Advised
Clarified
Coached
Communicated
Conducted
Coordinated
Developed
Enabled
Encouraged
Evaluated
Explained
Facilitated
Guided
Informed
Instructed
Lectured
Persuaded
Set goals
Stimulated
Taught
Trained
Financial Skills
Administered
Allocated
Analyzed
Appraised
Audited
Balanced
Budgeted
Calculated
Computed
Developed
Managed
Planned
Projected
Researched
Creative Skills
Acted
Conceptualized
Created
Customized
Designed
Developed
Directed
Established
Fashioned
Illustrated
Instituted
Integrated
Performed
Planned
Proved
Revised
Revitalized
Set up
Shaped
Streamlined
Structured
Tabulated
Validated
Helping Skills
Assessed
Assisted
Clarified
Coached
Counseled
Demonstrated
Diagnosed
Educated
Facilitated
Familiarized
Guided
Inspired
Motivated
Participated
Provided
Referred
Rehabilitated
Reinforced
Represented
Supported
Taught
Trained
Verified
Clerical or Detail
Skills
Approved
Arranged
Catalogued
Classified
Collected
Compiled
Dispatched
Executed
Filed
Generated
Implemented
Inspected
Monitored
Operated
Ordered
Organized
Prepared
Processed
Purchased
Recorded
Retrieved
Screened
Specified
Systematized
Stronger Verbs for
Accomplishments
Accelerated
Achieved
Attained
Completed
Conceived
Convinced
Discovered
Doubled
Effected
Eliminated
Expanded
Expedited
Founded
Improved
Increased
Initiated
Innovated
Introduced
Invented
Launched
Mastered
Originated
Overcame
Overhauled
Pioneered
Reduced
Resolved
Revitalized
Spearheaded
Strengthened
Transformed
Upgraded
From To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Scientists, by Peter S. Fiske
Action Verbs
http://careers.mit.edu 21
PAR statements in your resume make it easy for employers
to recognize your achievements. They provide a writing
formula that stresses your skills and achievements. This
is a way of writing out your skills on a resume to maximize
their impact.
Using the action verbs listed on the previous page, write
your experience in the following format.
Describe this experience in terms of demonstrated skills
and accomplishments:
1) Describe the project, the context, task, job.
2) What activity did you do?
3) What were the results, outcomes, benefits?
Present the skill as a concrete action that has been done.
Do not use the words “took part in,” or “gained experience
in,” or “assisted in.”
Quantify the results by stating the amount of dollars saved,
the number of clients served, the percentage increase in
productivity or improvement in efficiency.
Writing About Your Skills—PAR Statements
Samples of how to stress your skills:
Before:
Cambridge Performing Center, Cambridge, MA May 2006-June 2008
Theatre Marketing Intern
Responsibilities included coordinating artist press releases, compiling tracking sheets
based on information from reservations and box office attendants, handling photo and
press release mailing to media, assisting in radio copy writing and performing various
other duties as assigned.
After:
Cambridge Performing Center (CPC), Cambridge, MA May 2006-June 2008
Theatre Marketing Intern
  •   Coordinated artist press releases that contributed to an increase in annual sales 
by 10%
  •    Compiled and maintained a mailing list of 10,000 customers, CPC’s largest ever 
  •    Organized photo and press releases to XYZ Television and Cambridge Daily News 
  •    Contributed to the copy writing of promotional radio commercials for five events
Before:
Bright Consulting Group, New York, NY June-July 2008
Marketing Analyst
I analyzed competitive strategies for clients in the bio tech industry. Data gathered
assessed profitability of strategies
After:
Bright Consulting Group, New York, NY June-July 2008
Marketing Analyst
  •    Assessed profitability of expansion strategy in the biotech industry; results were 
used by the client to make market entry decision
  •    Gathered data, as part of a three-member team, by interviewing over 100 potential 
customers and presented the results to the clients
Below are some further samples of PAR statements (both
bullet form and paragraph form are acceptable):
•   Investigated effects of gas phase oxygen concentra-
tion levels on the differentiation of embryonic stem
cells in order to establish optimal settings for growth.
•   Designed and implemented a website containing inter-
active problem sets, information, and announcements
for Math competition participants.
•   Investigated and evaluated business communication 
practices and expertise within XYZ Co. to model frame-
work for globalization initiative to improve the sharing
and use of existing knowledge.
•   Found systematic method to raise glass transition 
temperature of vaccines, which allowed a higher
storage temperature for the vaccines. Generated $5
million annual saving in refrigeration costs.
22 MIT Career Development Center
Describing Transferable Skills
Your resume should describe your experience in the form of PAR statements: project, activity and result.
The following exercise will help you to describe your skills. Complete the following worksheet describing your own
experiences by using: Project + action verb + activity + result/outcome/benefit.
Project/purpose Activity/task beginning with action verb Result/outcome/benefit
•   Technically advanced and trained the Major Account 
Sales crew with computerized presentation designs
and introduced customer and industry market data
software. Organized and developed new methods of
reporting and presenting material to top advertisers.
•   Reviewed literature and evaluated past models, 
expanded adaptability of key components, improved
stress analyses of fuel forms.
•   Consolidated 23 local customer service centers into 
five regional centers achieving 15% cost reduction and
improving customer services.
•   Led design efforts of five-member team that developed 
and manufactured a cooling system for desert combat
aviators in 90 days (10 days ahead of the schedule).
•   Using critical path scheduling and sub contractor 
management, successfully organized $3,000,000 pier
renewal due to ship collision.
•   Wrote software for simulating complex distillation 
processes that was adopted throughout XYZ Co. 
leading to significant savings in manufacturing costs.
•   Proposed procedure to streamline the process of 
reaching optimized fuel design. Produced corre-
sponding computer program using C++ and Fortran,
and designed Graphical User Interface (GUI) for better
communication with users.
•   Created, refined and trained Sales Team on new presen-
tation package and materials. Model was adopted and
resulted in a 2% increase in overall company revenue.
•   Incorporated new algorithms into pipeline simulation 
modules and achieved tenfold increase in speed.
Samples of Freshman PAR Statements:
Math Team Captain
Organized review sessions and scored practice tests,
leading team to Top 5 finishes in the Arizona State Math
League.
National Honor Society Service Chair
Coordinated the Senior Citizens Ball, which raised $1,500
for a new Senior Activities Center.
Swim Instructor
Taught children between the ages of four and six basic
swimming techniques to promote water safety and awareness.
Radio Shack Cashier
Communicated product details and provided exceptional
customer service to 50+ people per day. Promoted to
Assistant Manager after only four months.
Burger King Team Member
Worked in fast-paced environment, received food-
handling/cashier training, and experienced assembly-line
teamwork.
Country Club Tennis Instructor
Worked with five 12-year-old children and developed their
tennis playing ability, as well as cared for their well-being.
Provided sunscreen, snacks, supervision, and tennis
instruction. Helped to bring about a successful summer
with no injuries or complaints.
http://careers.mit.edu 23
Sample Resumes
24 MIT Career Development Center
Jane Doe
School Address: someone@mit.edu Home Address:
XXX Memorial Dr. (XXX) XXX-XXXX Someplace, MA
Cambridge, MA 02139
Education MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (M.I.T.) CAMBRIDGE, MA
Candidate for B.S. in Biology, GPA: 4.6/5.0 2006
• Concentration in Management at Sloan Business School and Minor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences.
• Authored 5 publications in the MIT Undergraduate Research Journal and other peer-reviewed journals.
• Relevant Coursework: Finance Theory, Economics of the Health Care Industry, Strategic Decision-Making in Life
Sciences, Building a Biomedical Business, Cancer Genetics and Therapies, Cellular Neurobiology, Immunology.
Experience PUTNAM ASSOCIATES BURLINGTON, MA
Analyst 2005
• Evaluated in 6-member team whether client’s marketing strategy for its $100M organ transplant drug effectively
targets key decision-makers in transplant community. Client implemented proposed improvements in message con-
tent and delivery, designed to increase prescriptions for product by nearly 30%.
• Managed recruitment and interviewing process of 98 physicians to obtain primary data for marketing case. Analyzed
data from interviews and secondary research in Excel/Access. Prepared PowerPoint deck for presentation to client.
• Analyzed past product switches from predecessor to successor drugs for independent project. Presented recommendations
for future drug launches. Developed a database providing key criteria for launching various types of drugs.
MIT PROGRAMS ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY CAMBRIDGE, MA
Health Economics Research Assistant, Sloan Business School 2005
• Designed, created, and tested a strategic model for the pharmaceutical industry that analyzes safety, efficacy,
and economics to forecast (prior to clinical trials) which drugs will succeed on the market. Early elimination of
inadequate drugs will significantly reduce the $800M spent to successfully launch a drug.
MERCK & CO., INC. RAHWAY, NJ
Pharmaceutical Laboratory Research Assistant, Infectious Disease Department 2004
• Identified deficiencies in Type 2 Diabetes drugs on the market and screened chemicals on new cellular targets to
develop an efficient drug without these shortcomings. Drug predicted to obtain substantially greater market share in
the $14B oral Type 2 Diabetes drug market compared to competitors.
MIT CENTER FOR CANCER RESEARCH CAMBRIDGE, MA
Academic Laboratory Research Assistant, Housman Laboratory 2003 - 2005
• Developed a product to recognize activity of a cancer-causing gene, aiding in discovery of drug for brain cancer.
Engaged in all stages of product development: identification of market need, engineering of product, collaborating
with industry for testing, production, and marketing of final drug.
• Designed a new sequencing technique that refines a common laboratory protocol. New procedure increases
efficiency by 50% on average, reducing processing time by 25%, and creating more usable biological end-product.
Leadership MARCH OF DIMES BIRTH DEFECTS FOUNDATION BOSTON, MA
Director of Massachusetts Youth Public Affairs 2003 - Present
• Lobbied legislators to encourage federal, Massachusetts, and California governments to develop public policies to
improve the health of women. Introduced and promoted 10 Senate Bills, 4 of which have been approved thus far.
• Represented Foundation on the Massachusetts State Public Affairs Committee.
• Organized conferences and fundraisers as a volunteer for the past 7 years (1998-Present).
JOURNAL OF YOUNG INVESTIGATORS CAMBRIDGE, MA
Story Editor and Science Journalist 2005 - Present
• Managed 25 science journalists, delegated writing and editing tasks, and chose articles to print in monthly journal.
• Created daily digests about current science news, distributed to all science journalists.
SCIENCE & ENGINEERING BUSINESS CLUB CAMBRIDGE, MA
Consulting Focus Group Organizing Committee 2005 - Present
• Organized 6 campus-wide information session to educate students about careers in consulting and law.
• Selected and worked closely with speakers from diverse occupational backgrounds.
Awards & • Robert C. Byrd Scholarship, awarded to top 1% of U.S. students for academic excellence.
Interests • Rensselaer Medal, awarded to top 20,000 students worldwide for achievements in mathematics and science.
• Interest in track & field, travel, photography, and oncology.
Undergraduate interested in Management Consulting
See Cover Letter on page 36
http://careers.mit.edu 25
26 MIT Career Development Center
Mech Eng Masters Student
XXXÊMemorialÊDr.,
Cambridge,ÊMAÊ02139
XXX-XXX-XXXXÊÊxresume2@mit.edu
Education
Ê Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyÊ Cambridge,ÊMA
Ê CandidateÊf orÊM asterÊo fÊSc ienceÊinÊMechanicalÊEngineering,ÊJuneÊ2007.Ê
Ê ÊRelevantÊc oursework:ÊEnt repreneurshipÊLab,ÊProductÊDesign,ÊPreliminaryÊVentureÊAnalysis,Ê
AppliedÊM athÊf orÊEng ineers.ÊG PA:Ê4.8/5.0
Ê South Dakota State UniversityÊ(SDSU)Ê Brookings,ÊSDÊ
Ê BachelorÊo fÊSc ienceÊi nÊM echanicalÊEngineering,ÊJuneÊ2004.
Ê GPA:Ê3.97/4.0.
Ê PeopleÕs Friendship University Ê Moscow,ÊRussia
Ê OneÊye arÊc ourseÊi nÊRussi anÊLa nguageÊ(92-93)ÊinÊpreparationÊforÊanÊMDÊinÊMedicine.
Experience
Ê Edelman Lab, MITÊÊ Cambridge,ÊMA
Ê 2005-current
Ê ÊExaminedÊi mplantationÊo fÊa Ême dicalÊdeviceÊ(stents)ÊinÊhumanÊarteries.ÊIdentifiedÊtheÊÊ
contributionÊo fÊt heÊg eometryÊa sÊwellÊasÊmaterialÊpropertiesÊofÊtheÊarterialÊwalls.ÊDrewÊÊ
interpretationsÊb yÊa ssessingÊt heÊresponseÊofÊarteriesÊtoÊtheseÊdevicesÊusingÊnumericalÊ
techniquesÊ( finiteÊe lementÊme thods).
Ê Gas Turbine Lab, MITÊÊ Cambridge,ÊMA
Ê 2004-2005
Ê ÊAnalyzedÊa Êp ropellerÊc onnectorÊ(hub)ÊforÊaÊverticalÊtestÊstandÊtoÊbeÊusedÊinÊtheÊstudyÊandÊ
controlÊo fÊf lowÊp atternsÊa roundÊpropellers.ÊCalculatedÊdesignÊparameters,ÊandÊstrengthÊ
evaluationÊusi ngÊso ftwareÊsuc hÊa sÊPatran.ÊCreatedÊmodelsÊusingÊcomputerÊaidedÊdesignÊ
toolsÊ( Pro-Engineer).
Skills
Ê ÊComputer:ÊF ortran,ÊM atlab,ÊH TML,ÊUNIX,ÊsomeÊJAVAÊandÊVisualÊBasic;ÊComputerÊaidedÊ
design:ÊPro -Engineer,ÊI deas;ÊN umericalÊanalysis:ÊADINA,ÊPatran;Ê
Ê ÊLanguage:ÊPro ficient:ÊEng lish,ÊH indi;ÊConversational:ÊRussian;ÊBasicÊFrench,ÊKorean,Ê
Arabic.
Leadership/Extracurricular
Ê ÊManagedÊ150ÊstudentsÊasÊaÊResidentÊAssistantÊatÊSDSU.ÊColumnistÊatÊSouthÊDakotaÊStateÊ
Univ;ÊWroteÊarticlesÊinÊtheÊMITÊcampusÊnewspaper.ÊPublishedÊpoemÊinÊanthologyÊofÊnewÊartists.
Honors/Awards
Ê PiÊT auÊSi gma,ÊT auÊBe taÊPi Êe ngineeringÊHonorÊsocieties;ÊSigmaÊPiÊSigmaÊoutstandingÊ
Ê ÊPhysicsÊst udentÊo fÊt heÊye arÊ200 0-2001;ÊPerryÊW.ÊWilliamsÊPrizeÊ2002-2003;ÊWiltonÊ
McCownÊSc holarshipÊ2001- 2002.
http://careers.mit.edu 27
Joe Resume
77 Massachusetts Avenue Phone: 617-253-XXXX
Cambridge, MA 02139 Email: XXX@mit.edu
EDUCATION
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA
Masters of Science in Computer Science and Mechanical Engineering GPA: 5.0/5.0 2008 (expected)
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras, India
Bachelor of Technology, Mechanical Engineering GPA: 9.5/10.0 2005
• Class Rank 1. (Summa cum Laude) – secured a gold medal and three silver medals for overall excellence.
• Published paper on manufacturing process control-Intl. Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management
• Standardized Test Score: GRE – Verbal: 720/800, Quantitative: 800/800.
RELEVANT SKILLS
Software Excel spreadsheets including Sensitivity Analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and modeling uncertainties; C, C++,
Matlab, Saphire (probabilistic analysis tool) MS Word and MS PowerPoint.
Courses Coursework covering fundamentals of finance, economics, statistics, risk-benefit and decision analysis, Options in
engineering, and engineering math.
Projects Simulated stock prices using Hidden-Markov-Models (Course - Statistics); researched system design optimization
techniques as part of a course portfolio (Course - Engineering Options).
EXPERIENCE
Osio Corporation, Boston, MA
Business Intern 2006 ÐP resent
• Developed Excel spreadsheet model for valuation of the start-up’s revenue prospects over the next ten years.
• Collaborated with management team in researching and identifying market segments for the new product.
• Currently working on evaluating strategies to be adopted for market deployment and future expansion.
X Corporation, City, State
Part-time Consultant 2006
• Optimized and redesigned the system to reduce manufacturing costs by 40% and system size by 20%.
• Appraised final results of analysis to senior management at the client site and at MIT. Conducted weekly client
update sessions
Center for Product Design, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
Intern for Program in Teaching Innovation 2003
• Deliberated with professors and fellow students on issues concerning barriers to student learning.
• Identified and specified strategies aimed at teaching innovations and translated them into actionable objectives.
• Implemented a key objective by developing a flexible teaching tool for an advanced graduate course.
Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore, India
Technical Analyst 2004
• Analyzed a structural component and identified its critical design parameters.
• Redesigned and optimized the component.
LEADERSHIP
• Chief Course Coordinator, MIT – Formulated the syllabus and developed the course content for an undergraduate design
engineering course. Organized lectures and led undergraduate assistants in conducting lab tutorials for 200 undergraduate
students..
• Innovative Teaching, MIT: Formulated new teaching approaches as part of an HP sponsored focus-group trial.
• Community Service Officer, MIT – Planned and organized community events for fostering greater interactions amongst
graduate students. Received Outstanding Officer Award for organizational excellence.
• Circulation Manager and News Reporter, Graduate Student News Magazine, MIT: Managed monthly distribution of
5000 copies of magazine on MIT campus. Popularized Cryptic Crosswords at MIT.
• Mentor, IIT Madras – Mentored 15 freshmen during the senior year at IIT Madras.
INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES
Story-Telling v Cryptic-Crosswords v Teaching Innovations v News Reporting v Tennis v Piano
HONORS AND ACHIEVEMENTS
Government of India Fellowship (2001-2005) v Certificates of distinction for National Math, Physics and Chemistry
Olympiads v Summa Cum Laude in high school v Ranked in top 0.3% for IITs
28 MIT Career Development Center
http://careers.mit.edu 29
Ph.D. Interested in Consulting
Rm. 12-170, M.I.T., 77 Mass Ave. • Cambridge, MA 02139 • Phone: 617-XXX-XXXX • Email: imastudent@mit.edu
Education MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA
Candidate for Ph.D. degree in Material Science & Engineering, June 2002 Used stochastic simulation
techniquestogainnewinsightsintopolymerstructure.Establishedcollaborationwithexperimentalgroupin
the Mechanical Engineering Dept. Pursuing unique integrated approach to develop new molecular models better
suitedtodesigningoptimalindustrialprocesses. GPA: 4.9/5.0
Minor: Business Administration at the Sloan School of Management, MIT
Business Courses:ManagementofInnovationandTechnology,InternationalManagement,Entrepreneurship,
Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Management and Policy in the International Economy, Marketing, Finance
Theory,OptionsandDerivatives,InvestmentBanking,OperationsResearch,all with grade A.
Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Practice, January 1999.
TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY United Kingdom
Master of Engineering, June 1996 ClassRank:2
Bachelor of Arts with Honors in Natural Science and Chemical Engineering, June 1995 Class Rank: 1

Experience INDUSTRY INTERNSHIPS
MERCK PHARMACEUTICALS (Summer 1998) West Point, PA
Team Leader: Found systematic method to raise glass transition temperature of vaccines. This allowed a
higherstoragetemperatureforthevaccines.Generated$5millionannualsavinginrefrigerationcosts.
DOW CHEMICALS (Summer 1997) Plaquemine, LO
Intern: Wrote software for simulating complex distillation processes, adopted throughout Dow Chemicals.
DOW-CORNING (September-November 1997) Midland, MI
Team Leader: Removedabottlenecktoallowingdoublingofaplant’scapacity.$10millioncapitalsavings.
UNITED KINGDOM ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY (Summers, 1992-1995) United Kingdom
Intern:Worked for fluid mechanics groups on technical consulting projects for the petroleum industry.
Frequentlydeliveredpresentationstoclients.Incorporatednewalgorithmsintopipelinesimulationmodules
and achieved tenfold increase in speed. Developed strategies to reduce pipeline erosion. Improved reliability
offlowratemeasurementdevicesinoilpipelinestoallowclientstobettermonitorthroughputs.
Leadership MIT PRESIDENT, STUDENT LEADERSHIP COUNCIL OF MATERIAL SCIENTISTS (2000 - present)
Leader in group of 200 students that promotes collaboration between five major research universities. Organized
videoconferencestoallowstudentstoshareresearchideas.Planningsummerretreattofurtherstudent
collaboration. Investigating ways to promote science and technology in secondary schools and the community.
STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE, MIT MATERIAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING DEPT. STUDENT
AFFAIRS COMMITTEE (1999 - present)
Leading student / faculty discussion on ways to enhance student / advisor interaction.
TEACHING ASSISTANT, MIT MATERIAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING DEPT. (Fall semester 1999)
Organizedtutorialstoclarifycoursematerial.Wroteinstructionmanualtohelpstudentsusemathsoftware.
Class scored 7% higher in final than any of the professor’s former classes.
U.K. COORDINATOR, EUROPEAN CLUB CAREER FAIR (1998)
Awards, Winner of National Science Foundation Poster Competition (2000); Sigma Xi Engineering Research
Honors Honors Society(1997);Harvey Stern Fellowship,MIT(1996);Fox PrizeforOutstandingPerformancein
Chemical Engineering, Cambridge University (1996); Verhaydn de Lancy Prize for Outstanding Contribution
toTrinityCollege(1995);Mobil PrizeforBestPerformanceinChemicalEngineering,CambridgeUniversity
(1995); Senior Scholarship for Outstanding Academic Performance, Trinity College, Cambridge (1994);
Student Scholarship,UnitedKingdomAtomicEnergyAuthority(1992-1996)
Activities Dancing(MITSalsaClub),ClassicalGuitar,MITDebatingClub,MITEuropeanClubSoccerTeam
30 MIT Career Development Center
Ph.D. Resume for Industry Position
ANONYMOUS STUDENT
100AnyAve.,Cambridge,MA02140
home617-XX-XXXX,mobile617-XXX-XXXX,anonymous@mit.edu
Objective Associatepositioninenvironmentalconsultingapplyinggeochemicalknowledgeandgaining
experienceinenvironmentaleconomicsandregulations.
Education
1995- Jan. 2002 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA
Ph.D.DepartmentofEarth,AtmosphericandPlanetarySciences.
• Thesis:PetrologyandGeochemistryofHighDegreeMantleMelts.
• Combinedthermodynamic,traceelement,andgeodynamicmodelstoconstraincomplex
melting processes.
1991-1995 HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cambridge, MA
B.A.,Dept.ofEarthandPlanetarySciences,CumLaude.
• Broadgeologycourseworkincludingsurfaceprocessesandsedimentarypetrology.
Experience
Jan. 2002-present BOSTON UNIVERSITY Boston, MA
LECTURER.DepartmentofEarthSciences.
• Course:IntroductiontoGeochemistry.Coversigneousandenvironmentalgeochemistry,
elementtransportmechanisms,andkinetics.
Jan. 2002-present MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA
POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCHER.Dept.ofEarth,AtmosphericandPlanetarySciences.
• EstimatingpressureandtemperatureconditionsbeneaththeAleutianIslandsusing
combinationofexperimentalobservationsandthermodynamicmodeling.
1995-2002 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA
RESEARCH ASSISTANT.Dept.ofEarth,AtmosphericandPlanetarySciences.
• Constructedthermodynamiccomputercode(MatLab)topredictthedistributionofmajor
elementsinsolidandfluidphasesduringmeltingoftheinterioroftheEarth.
• Modeledtraceelementdistributioningeologicsamples.
• Constructedgeophysicalmodelofmantleconvectionusingexistingfinite-elementcode.
• Developedexperimentalandanalyticaltechniquestoprovidedataformodels.
• TaughtlabsectionofcoursesinMineralogyandinIgneousandMetamorphicPetrology.
• Mentored5undergraduateresearchprojectsingeochemistry.
1994-1995 HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cambridge, MA
UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCHER.Dept.ofEarthandPlanetarySciences.
• ConstructedcompositionalmodeloftheEarth’sdeepinteriorbycomparingtheoretical
seismicvelocityofexperimentalchargeswithobservedseismicvelocities.
• Performedandanalyzedultra-highpressureexperiments.
Skills Computer: MatLab,someHTMLandVBA,convectionmodelingusingpre-existingfinite
elementcode,PCandMacspreadsheet,text,anddrawingprograms(Illustrator,Canvas,...)
Analytical: Electronmicroprobe,ionmicroprobe,XRF,ICP-MS.
Awards/Activities NationalMeritScholarship(1991-1995),BestSeniorThesis-HarvardGeologyClub(1995).
Officer-HarvardGeologyClub(1994-1995),ChairmanofBoard-AgassizCooperative
Preschool(1998-1999),ultimate,basketball,hiking,gardening,reading.
Publications 2firstauthor(refereed),1co-author(refereed),8conferencepresentations,and5co-authoron
presentationabstract.Adetailedlistofpublicationsisavailableuponrequest.
See Sample CV on pages 32 - 33 for CV version of this resume.
http://careers.mit.edu 31
M4 Engineering is a dynamic and rapidly growing high technology
analysis and consulting company. M4 Engineering leads a productive
team that supplies innovative technical solutions focused on analysis,
optimization, and software development. We are currently seeking highly
organized, enthusiastic individuals to join our engineering organization.
The successful candidate will have the opportunity to work with a dynamic
team performing engineering research and development for Department
of Defense, NASA, and commercial clients.
Opportunities
Engineers are needed to perform:
  •   Structural/Aerodynamic/Thermal/
Propulsion analyses
  •  Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization
  •  Engineering systems analysis
  •  Engineering software development
Successful candidates shall exhibit:
  •  Strong technical aptitude
  •  Strong communication skills
  •  Strong teamwork skills
  •  Full time employees and interns will be considered
  •  US Citizen or permanent residents only
M4 Engineering, Inc., Long Beach, California, jobs@m4-engineering.com
N
Half page
Horizontal
7.25” x
4.75”
43p6 x 28p6
*
32 MIT Career Development Center
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.
See Industry Resume version of this CV on page 30.
http://careers.mit.edu 33
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http://careers.mit.edu 35
Cover Letters
You will have to write a number of letters to employers
while looking for a job. One type of letter is the cover letter,
which you send with your resume when you are requesting
a job interview. Other letters are those you write following
up interviews, arranging company site visits, and accepting
or rejecting job offers. See the examples on the next pages.
Here are some tips:
•   State clearly in your opening sentence the purpose for 
the letter. Then use the rest of the letter to support your
candidacy.
•   Be sure that each cover letter is specifically tailored to 
the company to which you are writing. Research the
company to help you determine your approach. Check the
company’s website and other resources on the Internet.
•   If you are seeking a position that is a departure from 
or an unexpected application of your academic
training—for example, you are an electrical engineer
who wants to use his/her quantitative skills in a finance
or consulting position—be explicit about why you
are interested in that particular field, organization or
job, and what value you bring. Do not leave the reader
wondering, “Why is an electrical engineer writing to
me, the personnel manager of McKinsey?”
•   If you are applying for a summer job and do not yet 
have any experience that is directly related to the posi-
tion, focus on telling the employer what experience
you do have that may be of interest.
•   Always try to write to a specific individual and include 
the job title. Do not address your letter to “Dear Sir or
Madam.”
•   Ask someone else to check your grammar, spelling, 
and style. When proofreading your own writing, it is
easy to overlook silly mistakes.
77MassachusettsAve.
Cambridge, MA 02139
September1,2008
Mr. John Doe
CollegeRelationsCoordinator
TechnologyCorporation,Inc.
11BeaconSt.,Suite7
Boston, MA 02134
Dear Mr. Doe:
FirstParagraph:Introduceyourselfbystatingyourdegreeprogram
andtheyearinwhichyouwillgraduate.Specifythetypeofposition
youareseeking(e.g.,summerinternship,full-timeposition).Tell
whyyouarewriting,andnametheposition,field,orgeneral
vocationalareainwhichyouareinterested.Tellhowyouheard
oftheopeningororganization(e.g.,thejobpostingonMIT’s
CareerBridge,orthecareersectionofthecompany’swebsite,or
throughafacultyrecommendation.)
SecondParagraph:Mentiononeortwoqualificationsyouthinkwould
beofgreatestinteresttotheemployer.Tellwhyyouareparticularly
interestedinthecompany,typeofworkorlocation.Ifyouhave
relatedexperienceorspecializedtraining,pointitout.Referthe
readertotheenclosedresume,whichwillgiveadditionalinformation
concerningyourbackgroundandinterests.
ThirdParagraph:Closebystatingyourdesireforaninterview.
Youmaysaythatyouwillphoneinaweekorsotorequestan
appointment.Makesurethatyourclosingisnotvague,butmakesa
specificactionfromthereaderlikely.
Sincerely,
Jane Doe
Suggested Formula for Cover Letter
36 MIT Career Development Center
Jane Doe
XXXMemorialDrive
Cambridge, MA 02139
janedoe@mit.edu
(617)XXX-XXXX
Recruiter’sName
CampusRecruiter
CompanyName
Company Address
Boston, MA 02116
June24,2007
DearCampusRecruiter:
IamasenioratMITmajoringinbiologywithaconcentrationinmanagementfromSloanBusinessSchool.Iwas
extremelyimpressedwithDeloitte’sapproachtoconsultingafterspeakingwithYelenaShklovskaya.Deloitteis
uniqueinhavingtheability toformdiverseteamstotacklealltheproblemsaclientmayhave.Asamemberof
theStrategy&Operationsgroup,Imayhavetheopportunitytomeetandworkwithavarietyofpeopleinthis
consultinggroup, inotherareasofconsulting,andoutsideofconsultingaswell.Inparticular,Iliketheamountof
attentionanddedicationthatDeloitteputsintoworkingwithitsclients,notonlybydevisingeffectivestrategiesto
addresstheclients’problems,butalsobyoftenimplementingtherecommendationson-site.Therefore,Iam
writingtorequestaninvitationtointerviewforaBusinessAnalystpositionwithDeloitte.
Inthepasttwoyears,Ihavebeeninvolvedinstrategyconsulting,pharmaceuticals,andgovernmentaffairsfora
non-profithealthcareorganization.Thissummer,IworkedinstrategyconsultingforPutnamAssociates.My
6-memberteamevaluatedthemarketingeffortsforamajorpharmaceuticalcompany’sorgantransplantdrug.
Throughmymanagementofrecruitmentandinterviewswith98physicians,Iobtainedprimaryresearchand
analyzeditonnationalandregionallevelstorecommendandhelpimplementimprovementsintheclient’s
marketingplan.Ilearnedhowtoworkinadeadline-orientedenvironment,heldresponsibilityforlargesegments
ofateamproject,andenhancedmyquantitativeskillsthroughanalysisofprimaryandsecondaryresearchdata.In
addition,Iconductedindependentresearchtoformrecommendationswhenlaunchingadrugthatfollowsarelated
product,andIpresentedthesekeyconsiderationstoallPutnamemployees.
Ihavebeenavolunteerinpublicpolicyfor7yearswiththeMarchofDimesBirthDefectsFoundation.Ilobbied
SenatorsatboththeMassachusettsandCaliforniaStateCapitols,aswellasonCapitolHillinWashington,D.C.
Lobbyinghastaughtmenegotiationskills,theneedforcontingencyplans,andtheabilitytomakequickyet
innovativedecisions.Twoyearsago,IwasappointedDirectorofMassachusettsYouthPublicAffairsandasked
tobeamemberofthestate’sPublicAffairsCouncil.Myresponsibilitiesincludedeveloping,organizing,and
implementingtheFoundation’sannualpublicpolicyobjectivesinanultimatelyresults-drivenenvironment.
ThroughmyexperiencewithPutnamAssociatesandtheMarchofDimes,alongwithmymodelingworkinthe
MITSloanBusinessSchool,Iusedmymanagementskillstonegotiateandconsultwithothers,analyticallydesign
asuccessfulplan,andexecutemyideas.IamconfidentthatIcanbringmystrong,diversetechnicalandbusiness
backgroundtobestfitthecurrentneedsandfutureventuresofDeloitte.
IwelcometheopportunitytospeakwithyouaboutmyqualificationsandwaysthatIcancontributetoDeloitte.
ThankyouandIlookforwardtohearingfromyousoon.
Sincerely,
Jane Doe
Sample Undergraduate Management Consulting Cover Letter
Jane Doe
http://careers.mit.edu 37
YourName
Address
Boston, MA 02215
February10,2007
EngineeringManager
CompanyName
Address
LosAngeles,CA92008
DearEngineeringManager,
IwillbegraduatingfromMITinJunewithaBachelor’sdegreeinMechanicalEngineering
andaminterestedinopportunitiesat(nameofcompany).Igotyournamefrom(website/
ICAN/othercontactperson).Iamexcitedaboutthedirection(nameofcompany)isheaded
andreadfromyourwebsitethatyouarecontinuallyproducinginnovativeproductsand
qualitycustomerservice.
IfeelthatmyexperiencesinboththeworkplaceandatMIThavegivenmetheskillstomake
avaluablecontributiontoafutureemployer.Ihavetakencoursesinproductdesignand
development,manufacturing,mechanicaldesign,andmanagementinengineering,inaddition
toMIT’sgeneralMechanicalEngineeringcourserequirements.Mythesisprojectisacataract
cryoprobeprototypethatshouldmakeasignificantimpactinthirdworldcountries,because
bothdoctorsaswellastrainedmedicaltechnicianscanadministerthisprocedure.Thispast
summerattheNaturalEnergyInstitute,Idesignedapolycarbonatepressurevesselthatwill
beusedfordeep-oceanalternativeenergysimulations.
IwouldverymuchliketospeakwithyoufurtherabouthowIcanmakeavaluable
contributionto(yourcompany).Pleasefeelfreetocontactmebyphoneat(617)555-5555or
by emailatstudent@mit.edu.Ilookforwardtohearingfromyousoon.
Sincerely,
YourName
Sample Cover Letter
38 MIT Career Development Center
StudentEnviroEng
EnvironmentSt.
Cambridge, MA 02139
March 20, 2009
JoanDough
77 MassachusettsAvenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
DearMs.Dough
Iama2009degreecandidateforaMasterofEngineeringinEnvironmentalEngineeringfrom
MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.Inaddition,IreceivedmyBachelorofScienceinCiviland
EnvironmentalEngineeringfromCornellUniversityin2005.Beforepursuingmygraduatestudies,
IworkedasaconsultantatCampDresserandMcKeeforthreeyearsapplyingmyskillstoarangeof
projectsincludingsustainabletechnologyassessmentsandmanagementofmulti-disciplinary,
multi-consultantprojectteams.Basedonmyworkandeducationalexperience,andperhapsmore
importantlybecauseofmyinterestandenthusiasm,IthinkIamwellsuitedtopursueacareerin
sustainabilityconsulting.
Ihaveakeeninterestinthefieldofglobalwarmingandgreenhousegasmanagement.Iamcurrently
pursuing thisinterestthroughmythesiswork:acarbonimpactevaluationofproposedhydropowerin
ChileanPatagonia.Duringmytimeasaconsultant,Iwasabletodistinguishmyselfasaproficientand
motivated employee.InparticularIsoughttoengageinprojectsthatfocusedonrenewableenergy,
sustainabledesign,andenergyefficiency.Iwasalsoinvolvedinpromotingsustainablepracticeswithin
thecompany,andinitiatedaneducationalconferenceforpublicsectorclients.
Myexperienceincludes:deliveringasustainabletechnologyassessmenttocomplimentacampus’
low-carbondesignstrategy;evaluatingtheconversionofwasteoilstobiofuelsatalocalwastewater
treatmentplant;andconductingacostanalysisandcarboninventoryforthedesignofadeepheat
geothermalenergyfacility.Therefore,IamhighlyconfidentthatIcanusemyskills,knowledge,and
enthusiasmtohelpbusinessesdevelopandimplementsustainabilityinitiatives.
Iwelcometheopportunitytospeakwithyoufurtheraboutpotentialcareeropportunities.Icanbereached
at(617)xxx-xxxxorEnviroEng@mit.edu.
Sincerely,
StudentEnviroEng
http://careers.mit.edu 39
7ConsultantAve.
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617)XXX-XXXX
ceestudent@mit.edu
December7,2007
Mr.PhillipNorse
McKinsey&Company,Inc.
10 InnovationDrive
OrangeCounty,CA92617
DearMr.Norse,
IamacandidateforMasterofScienceinCivilandEnvironmentalEngineeringatMIT,withaconcentrationon
decisionanalysisincomplexengineeringsystems.IreadyouremailregardingOperationsPracticeandtalkedtoMs.
ABCfromtheIstanbulOffice.Iamveryinterestedinjoining“theFirm”asanOperationsAnalyst.Ibelievethat
acareerinmanagementconsultingatMcKinseywillprovidethelearningenvironmentandthebusinessexposure
necessarytogrowasapowerfulleaderwhocanseethe“bigpicture”.
BeingatMIThasgivenmeexceptionalopportunitiestobroadenmyvisionthroughawide-varietyofcoursesfrom
bothengineeringandmanagementdisciplines.Throughoutmyresearchstudies,Iappliedthoseprinciplestodevelop
dynamicinvestmentstrategiesforlarge-scaleoildevelopmentprojects.Fromthetechnicalperspective,Ihavegained
extensiveknowledgeincomplexdecisionanalysis,stochasticmodeling,optimizationandsoftwaredevelopment.
Moreimportantly,Idevelopedstronginterpersonalskillsfromworkingcloselywithmanypeoplewithdifferent
backgrounds,bothinacademiaandindustry.Onenotableexperienceismyresearchpresentationtothesenior
executivesfromBP,whichfundedmyresearchprojectfortwoyears.Ilearnedagreatdealaboutcommunicating
highlytechnicalanalysistobusinesspeople,whichIbelieveisextremelyimportantinmanagementconsulting.
Beyondmyacademicendeavors,Ibuiltasuccessfulcareerasaprofessionaltennisplayerwheremycommitment
toexcellence,passionandhardworkhelpedmewinthetitleof“TurkishTennisChampion”forfourconsecutive
yearsandgavemethehonortorepresentmycountryontheinternationalarena.Ilearnedtobecomesuccessfulina
competitiveenvironment,tostaycommittedandtothinkstrategically.Also,Idevelopedmanypersonalskillsfrom
involvingmyselfinextracurricularactivities.Itookinitiativeinorganizingtheyearbookactivitiesincollegewhere
Igainedsignificantleadershipskillssuchasdefininggroupobjectivesforabetterteamalignmentandbuildingtrust
amongvariousentities.Iamconfidentthatalltheseskillswillenablemetoaddvaluetomyroleasasuccessful
consultantatMcKinsey.
IamparticularlyinterestedinMcKinsey&Companybecauseitprovidesagreatopportunitytohaveaworld-shaping
impactwhilesolvingthemostchallengingproblemsoftheleadinginstitutionsallaroundtheglobe.Operating
as “one firm” is one of McKinsey’s most distinctive characteristics, which helps it to become a true learning
organization.Iameagertobeapartofthisinternationalnetwork,learnfromtheexperiencesofpeopleatMcKinsey
andcontributetoyourcompanythroughmystrongpersonality.
IwouldappreciatetheopportunitytospeakwithyoufurtheraboutmyqualificationsanddiscusshowIcancontribute
toMcKinsey.Thankyouforyourtimeandconsideration.
BestRegards,
CivilEnviroEngStudent
40 MIT Career Development Center
YourName
000MemorialDrive,#0000
Cambridge, MA 02139
August25,2007
Professor XXXX
SearchCommittee,IT989
DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering
UniversityofXXX
Address
City,StateZip
Dear Professor XXXX:
IamrespondingtoyouradvertisementforafacultypositionintheDepartmentofMechanical
EngineeringatUniversityofXXX.IgraduatedfromtheDepartmentofAeronauticsandAstronauticsat
MITinJunewithaDoctor’sdegree,andamcurrentlyworkingasaPostdoctoralAssociateatMITinthe
DepartmentofAeronauticsandAstronautics.Mythesisworkisintheareaofactivestructuralacoustic
controlusingsmartstructurestechnology,andmyspecificresearchtopicisthedevelopmentofanew
wavenumberdomainsensingmethodforactive
structuralacousticcontrol.MythesisadvisorisProfessorXintheDepartmentofAeronautics
andAstronauticsatMIT.
FormyPh.D.dissertation,Ihaveworkedonthedevelopmentofthestructural-acousticcontrolalgo-
rithmsandtheirimplementationforthereductionofradiatednoisefromvibratingunderwatervehicles.
TheOfficeofNavalResearch,withanobjectiveofdeveloping“smart”underwater
vehiclesystemssothattheenemycannotdetecttheirattackinadvance,hasfundedthisproject.My
responsibilityinthisprojectistodevelopthenewtechnologytoreducetheradiatednoisefromvibrating
underwatervehicles.Inordertoaccomplishthis,Ihavedevelopedanewwavenumberdomainsensing
methodandappliedittothereal-timeestimationofacousticpowerandthedesignoffeedbackcontroller
foractivestructuralacousticcontrolofthegeneralcomplexstructures.Furthermore,Ihavedesignedand
experimentallyimplementedlocalandglobalcontroller
architectureswithdifferentconfigurationstofindthebestcontrollerconfigurationforthenewunderwa-
tervehiclesystem.
Iwouldliketocontinuemyresearchonactivestructuralcontrolandactivestructuralacousticcontrol
forcomplexsystems,includingaerospacesystems(aircrafts,helicopters)andunderwatervehicles
(submarines,torpedoes).Iwillcarryoutresearchonstructure/fluid/controlinteractionphenomena
andadvancedsensor/actuatordevelopmentusingsmartstructurestechnologies.Also,Iwillextendmy
researchtothedevelopmentofadvancedcontroldesigntechniquesfornoiseandvibrationreductionof
complexsystems.
Myultimateresearchgoalistodevelop“intelligentstructuralsystems”,whichwillcontainarrays
ofsensorsandactuators,andembeddeddevicesforcontrolsanddecision-makingalgorithms,sothat
thosesystemscancoordinatelargenumbersofdevicesandadaptthemselvestouncertainenvironmental
changesinanintelligentmanner.Ibelievemyextensiveresearchexperienceandspecializationinstruc-
turaldynamicsandcontrolswillallowmetocontinuemyresearchinthoseareas.
Ihaveenclosedmycurriculumvitaewithalistofpublications,andalistofreferences.Ifyouhaveany
questionsorwouldliketotalkwithme,Icanbereachedbyphoneat(617)XXX-XXXXoremailat
sample@mit.edu.Thankyouforyourconsideration.Ilookforwardtohearingfromyousoon.
Sincerely,
YourName
DearÊMs.ÊXXX:Ê
ProfessorÊXXX,ÊaÊfacultyÊmemberÊinÊtheÊElectricalÊEngineeringÊ
andÊComputerÊScienceÊdepartmentÊatÊMIT,ÊsuggestedÊIÊcontactÊ
you.ÊIÊhaveÊbeenÊmeetingÊwithÊProfessorÊSmthÊasÊaÊmeansÊofÊ
exploringÊtheÊfieldÊofÊSpeechÊSystemsÊTechnologyÊasÊaÊpotentialÊ
careerÊoption.Ê
HeÊthoughtÊyouÊwouldÊbeÊaÊgreatÊresourceÊtoÊhelpÊmeÊgainÊ
insightÊintoÊtheÊfieldÊandÊfocusÊmyÊjobÊsearchÊefforts.ÊIÊrealizeÊ
yourÊtimeÊisÊveryÊvaluableÊsoÊIÊamÊrequestingÊtoÊsetupÊaÊbriefÊÊ
20-30ÊminuteÊmeetingÊatÊyourÊconvenience.ÊIÊwouldÊenjoyÊaÊ
chanceÊtoÊaskÊyouÊsomeÊquestions.Ê
IÊhaveÊenclosedÊmyÊresumeÊforÊyourÊreview.ÊIÊthoughtÊitÊmightÊbeÊ
usefulÊasÊaÊwayÊofÊinformingÊyouÊofÊmyÊeducationalÊbackgroundÊ
andÊexperience.ÊIÊcabÊbeÊreachedÊatÊmitstudent@mit.eduÊorÊ(xxx)Ê
xxx-xxxx,ÊorÊifÊyouÊpreferÊIÊwouldÊbeÊhappyÊtoÊcontactÊyourÊofficeÊ
withinÊ10ÊworkingÊdaysÊtoÊfollowÊupÊwithÊthisÊletter.ÊThankÊyouÊinÊ
advanceÊforÊyourÊtimeÊandÊeffort.Ê
Sincerely,Ê
YourÊName
Sample Cover Letter
Request for
Informational
Interview
http://careers.mit.edu 41
Other Career Writing
DearÊMr.ÊSmith,
ItÊwasÊaÊpleasureÊspeakingÊwithÊyouÊandÊMr.ÊMansfieldÊÊ
yesterday,ÊregardingÊjobÊopportunitiesÊatÊSupaÊSystems.ÊIÊamÊ
veryÊinterestedÊinÊtheÊworkÊyouÊareÊdoingÊandÊamÊextremelyÊ
impressedÊwithÊtheÊadvancedÊapplicationsÊbeingÊusedÊinÊÊ
yourÊcompany.
AsÊIÊmentionedÊduringÊourÊconversation,ÊmyÊpastÊtwoÊsummerÊ
positionsÊwereÊrelatedÊtoÊtheÊdevelopmentÊandÊdesignÊofÊÊ
softwareÊprogramsÊforÊindustrialÊcomputervisionÊexperiments.Ê
WithÊmyÊskillsÊandÊinterestÊinÊsoftwareÊdesign,ÊIÊbelieveÊIÊcouldÊ
beÊofÊvalueÊtoÊSupaÊSystems.
ThankÊyouÊforÊyourÊtime.ÊTheÊinterviewÊwasÊveryÊinformative.Ê
PleaseÊletÊmeÊknowÊifÊyouÊneedÊanyÊmoreÊinformationÊaboutÊmyÊ
background.ÊIÊlookÊforwardÊtoÊhearingÊfromÊyou.
Sincerely,
YourÊName
YourÊC ontactÊI nformation
(phone,Êa ddress,Êe mail)
Dear Mr. Smith,
IamwritingtothankyoufortheoffertojoinNortheast
ElectronicsLaboratoriesasmemberoftheresearchand
developmentstaff.Unfortunately,Imustdeclineyouroffer.
Ihaveacceptedapositionwithanothercompany.
ItwasadifficultdecisionformebecauseIwasbothexcited
andimpressedbytheworkatNortheastElectronics.I
appreciateyourgivingmetheopportunitytomeetwithyou
and the members of the research staff.
Again,thankyouforyourtime.
Sincerely,
YourName
YourContactInformation
(phone, address, email)
Thank You/Follow-Up Email
Letter Declining a Job
42 MIT Career Development Center
Preparing for an Interview
Preparing for your first interview can be a little nerve-racking.
Good preparation will help you control the nervousness and
maximize your chances of a successful outcome.
One way to accomplish this is by looking at the results from
surveys of employers to discover what are the top charac-
teristics they look for in job candidates.
Take a look at the Top 10 Personal Characteristics, start
taking a personal inventory and see how you measure up
in these categories. Think of one or two examples of how
you have proven yourself in these areas in the past and be
thoughtful about how these characteristics would be
valuable in the workplace environment that you are hoping
to get in to.
Do thorough company research including reading annual
reports, newspaper articles and trade journals. Look at
the company homepage to find out their mission state-
ment, long-term goals, recent press releases, and to
view corporate photos. Do not limit your research only
to company-controlled information. Refer to Chapter 2:
Researching Employers.
What Happens During the Interview?
The interview process can be scary if you do not know what
to expect. To make it easier on you, keep in mind that most
interviews fit a general pattern. The typical interview will
last 30-45 minutes, although some may be longer. A typical
structure is as follows:
•  Five minutes: greeting and small talk 
•   Fifteen minutes: a mutual discussion of your back-
ground and credentials as they relate to the needs of
the employer
•  Five minutes: you have an opportunity to ask questions 
•   Five minutes: wrap-up/discuss next steps in the 
process
As you can see, there is not a lot of time to state your case.
When you do respond to questions or ask your own, your
statements should be concise and organized. But do not be
too brief. This could be your last chance to market yourself
to the employer!
The Greeting, First Impressions and Small Talk
It is a good idea to arrive at least 15 minutes before your
scheduled time. You can use the time to relax, organize
your thoughts, and even wipe your sweaty palms with a
handkerchief, if necessary. The recruiter begins to evaluate
you the minute you are identified and continues to evaluate
you in every way. For example, he or she is analyzing the
way you shake hands upon being introduced. Be firm, it
shows confidence. Do not be afraid to extend your hand
first. This shows assertiveness.
Here are some tips to ensure your first impression is a
positive one:
•   Appearance counts. When you look good, you feel 
good. Make sure you look groomed and professional.
Your clothes and accessories should be neat, conser-
vative and neutral. Your clothes are your packaging
and should not take attention away from the product.
Chapter 5.
Interviewing
How Employers View Candidates
Employers rate the importance of
candidate qualities/skills
Communication skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
Strong work ethic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Teamwork skills (works well with others) . . . . . . 4.5
Initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Analytical skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Computer skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Flexibility/adaptability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Interpersonal skills (relates well to others) . . . . . . 4.3
Problem-solving skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3
Technical skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2
Detail-oriented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Organizational skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0
Self-confidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0
Leadership skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9
Tactfulness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8
Friendly/outgoing personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6
Strategic planning skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4
Entrepreneurial skills/risk-taker . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2
Sense of humor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0
(5-point scale, where 1=not important and 5=extremely important)
Source: NACE Research: Job Outlook 2009 National Association of
Colleges and Employers.
http://careers.mit.edu 43
•   Nonverbal communication sometimes conveys 
a stronger message than verbal communication.
According to one UCLA study, 93 percent of a person’s
communication effectiveness is determined by
nonverbal communication. Eye contact and smiles
can indicate a confident and upbeat attitude. Have a
firm (but not too strong) handshake and moderate your
voice to sound calm and assertive.
•   During the ‘settling in’ stage of the interview you may 
engage in brief ‘small talk’. This is a good opportunity to
demonstrate your social and interpersonal skills as well
as your excitement about the opportunity for which you
are interviewing. The words you choose will say some-
thing about you, as well as your knowledge of the industry.
It is important to use “their” words and talk “their” talk.
Strategy for Discussing Your Credentials
The main part of the interview starts when the recruiter
begins discussing the organization and asking some ques-
tions regarding your past experience related to the position
for which you are interviewing. Many times recruiters will ask
why you chose the major you did or what your career goals are.
These questions are designed to determine your goal direction.
Employers seek people who have direction and motivation.
It is a good idea to think about what the recruiter is trying to find
out about you when they ask certain questions. For example,
if you are asked to discuss a time when you had a conflict
with a colleague, keep in mind that the recruiter is looking
for someone who is confident about his or her own beliefs,
but open to other people’s ideas as well. Most of the time, he
or she is looking for collaboration and compromise. Always
listen carefully to the question, ask for clarification if neces-
sary, and make sure you answer the question completely. Give
a specific example and walk through the situation, step by
step. A good story-telling technique is a huge plus when inter-
viewing because it keeps the recruiter interested. So give only
the essential background information and get to the point!
Your interview preparation should include identifying
examples of situations from your experiences on your
resume where you have demonstrated the behaviors a
given company seeks. Briefly explain a particular situation
that relates to the question, not a general one. Describe
the situation, tell what you did specifically, and the posi-
tive result or outcome. Your answer should contain these
four steps (Situation, Task, Action, Result or “STAR”) for
optimum success.
STAR Method:
Situation: Give an example of a situation you were involved
in that resulted in a positive outcome.
Task: Describe the tasks involved in that situation.
Action: Talk about the various actions involved in the situa-
tion’s task.
Results: What results directly followed because of your
actions?
Before the interview process, identify two or three of
your top selling points and determine how you will convey
these points (with demonstrated STAR stories) during the
interview.
It is helpful to frame your answer as a story that you can tell.
Typically, the interviewer will pick apart the story to try to
get at the specific behavior(s). The interviewer will some-
times ask you open-ended questions to allow you to choose
which examples you wish to use. When a part of your story
relates to a skill or experience the interviewer wishes
to explore further, he/she will then ask you very specific
follow-up questions regarding your behavior. These can
include “What were you thinking at that point?” or “Tell me
more about your meeting with that person.” or “Lead me
through your decision making process.”
Whenever you can, quantify your results. Numbers and
percentages illustrate your level of contribution and
responsibility. For example: “I was a shift supervisor” could
be enhanced by saying “ .... as Shift Supervisor, I trained
and evaluated four employees.”
Be prepared to provide examples of when results did not
turn out as you planned. What did you do then? What did
you learn? Your resume will serve as a good guide when
answering these questions. Refresh your memory regarding
your achievements in the past couple of years. Use
examples from past internships, classes, activities, team
involvements, community service and work experience.
Example of a STAR Answer
Situation: During my internship last summer, I was respon-
sible for managing various events.
Task: I noticed that attendance at these events had
dropped by 30% over the past three years and wanted to do
something to improve these numbers.
Action: I designed a new promotional packet to go out to
the local community businesses. I also included a rating
sheet to collect feedback on our events and organized
internal round table discussions to raise awareness of the
issue with our employees.
Result: We utilized some of the wonderful ideas we
received from the community, made our internal systems
more efficient and visible and raised attendance by 18% the
first year.
44 MIT Career Development Center
It’s Your Turn to Ask Questions
When the recruiter asks, “Do you have any questions for
me?” it is important to have a few ready. At this point you
are able to ask strategic questions that will elicit positive
responses from the employer. The questions should bring
out your interest in and knowledge of the organization.
Show the recruiter that you have done your homework.
Some Questions to Ask an Interviewer
The Position:
1. Would you describe the duties of the position for me,
please?
2. Can you tell me about the primary people with whom I
would be dealing? Is this a newly created position? If
not, how long did the previous person hold it? Was the
previous person promoted?
3. What support services are available to carry out the
responsibilities of this position?
4. To whom would I be reporting?
5. How and when would my performance be evaluated?
6. Is regular travel a part of this position?
7. Can you tell me about the people who would be reporting
to me?
Career Paths:
1. Can you tell me about the career path this position offers?
2. What percentage of the people are promoted from this
position? In how long?
3. Where does this position lead? How does it fit into the
organization?
4. About the people who have preceded me in this position
and in the department, where are they now, and what
are they doing?
5. Is it your usual policy to promote from within?
6. How are promotions or transfers determined within the
company?
7. Does advancement to upper management usually
require an advanced degree?
Education & Training:
1. What additional training might be necessary for this
position?
2. Is training done in a classroom/group session or is it
handled on an individual basis?
3. Are there training programs available to me so that I can
learn and grow professionally?
4. What type of on-the-job training programs do you offer?
5. Does the firm support further college education for its
employees?
Assessment Questions for Interviewer:
1. What kind of personal attributes and qualifications does
your company value?
2. What characteristics are important for this position?
3. What is the most significant challenge facing your staff
now?
4. What have been some of the best results produced by
people in this position?
5. What are your projections for this department/posi-
tion for the next year? (Specify type of projections, e.g.,
sales, production, products, profits)
6. What do you see ahead for your company in the next five
years?
7. What are your plans for expanding the (sales, audit,
research, etc.) department?
8. How do you rate your competition?
General Questions for Interviewer
1. Are there any questions about my qualifications
(resume) I can answer?
2. What are the backgrounds of the leading individuals in
my area of interest?
3. Are there any other assignments not specifically
mentioned in the position description?
4. Can you tell me a little about your own experience with
the company?
5. Is the company planning any new market lines?
6. When do you expect to make a hiring decision for this
position?
7. Could you describe the hiring process?
Wrap Up
The interview is not over until you walk out the door. The
conclusion of the interview usually lasts five minutes and is
very important. During this time the recruiter is assessing
your overall performance.
It is important to remain enthusiastic and courteous. Once
you take the cue that the interview is over, stand up, shake
the recruiter’s hand and thank him or her for considering you.
Overall - Expect the Unexpected
During the interview, do not be surprised if you are asked
some unusual questions. Many times questions are asked
simply to see how you react. For example, surprise ques-
tions could range from, “Tell me a joke” to “What time period
would you like to have lived in?” These are not the kind of
questions for which you can prepare so do not spend time
worrying about them in advance. Stay cool, think and give
an honest answer. The employer will evaluate your reaction
time and the response you give, but again, there is no way
to anticipate questions like these. While these questions
are not always used, they are intended to force you to react
under some stress and pressure.
During the interview, be prepared to deal with aspects of
your background that could be construed as negative, i.e.,
low grade point average, no participation in outside activities,
no related work experience. It is up to you to convince the
recruiter that although these points appear negative, positive
http://careers.mit.edu 45
attributes can be found in them. A low GPA could stem from
having to fully support yourself through college; you might
have no related work experience, but plenty of experience that
shows you to be a skilled and potentially valuable employee.
Sample Questions Asked by
Employers
Personal Assessment
•   Tell me about yourself.
•   What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? 
•   What have you done that shows initiative and
willingness to work?
•   How do you react to criticism? 
•   How would your best friend describe you? 
•   Describe your ideal job.
•   Define success. Define failure.
•   What can you offer us?
•   Who are your role models? Why?
•   What motivates you to put forth your greatest effort? 
•   What kind of people do you enjoy working with?
•   What motivates you in a job? 
•   What types of people rub you the wrong way? 
•   What frustrates you? (makes you angry?) 
•   Are you a joiner or a loner? A leader or follower? A 
committee member or an executive?
•   How do you spend your spare time? What are your 
hobbies?
•   Talk about a time when you had trouble getting along 
with a professor/co-worker/supervisor. How did you
handle it?
•   Have you ever spoken in front of a group of people? 
How large?
•   Tell me about a leadership role you have had. What 
makes a good leader?
•   Where do you want to be in five years? Ten years?
Education and Experience
•   Can you summarize your educational background for me? 
•   Why did you decide to attend school at MIT? 
•   Do you think you received a good education? Why or 
why not?
•   Why did you choose the major you did? 
•   What courses did you like the most? The least? 
•   Describe for me the most rewarding accomplishment 
since you’ve started college.
•   Describe your study habits. How do you balance study 
with personal life?
•   In which campus activities did you participate?
•   What job-related skills have you developed?
•   How do you spend college vacations? 
•   What extracurricular activities are you involved in? 
What have you gained from those experiences?
•   Have you plans for furthering your education? 
•   If you could start college over, what would you do 
differently?
•   Tell me about a class in which you were part of a study 
group. What role did you play?
•   Did you work while going to school? In what positions?
•   Tell me about the most satisfying job you ever held. 
The least?
•   Have you had any work experience related to this position? 
•   What kind of boss do you prefer? 
•   What kind of work interests you the most? 
•   Have you had any supervisory experience? 
•   What frustrates you on the job? 
•   Have you ever quit a job? Why?
•   Give an example of a situation where you provided a 
solution to an employer.
•   Give an example of a time when you worked under 
deadline pressure.
•   Have you ever done any volunteer work? What kind?
•   How would a former supervisor describe your work?
•   Describe a time when you had to go above and beyond 
the call of duty to get the job done.
•   Describe a time when a team member came to you for 
help. What was the situation? How did you respond?
Career Ambition and Plans
•   Why did you choose this career field? 
•   What type of position are you looking for? 
•   What are your long-range and short-range goals and 
objectives; when and why did you establish these
goals; how are you preparing to achieve them?
•   What specific goals, other than those related to your 
occupation, have you established for yourself in the
next five years?
•   What qualities does a successful manager possess? ... 
does a successful team player possess?
•   What do you know about opportunities in your field? 
•   What are the most important rewards you expect from 
your career?
•   What kind of challenge are you looking for? 
•   What do you think determines a person’s progress in a 
good company?
•   How do you determine or evaluate success? 
•   What are your ideas on salary? 
•   How much money do you hope to earn five years from 
now?
•   What personal characteristics are necessary for 
success in your field?
•   Do you prefer to work on your own or under a supervisor?
Company or Organization
•   Why do you want to work for this organization? 
•   What do you know about our organization? 
•   What section (service or product) are you most 
interested in?
•   Do you prefer large or small companies? Why? 
•   How do you feel about working in a structured environ-
ment? A non-structured environment?
46 MIT Career Development Center
•   What do you think it takes to be successful in a 
company such as ours?
•   In what ways do you think you can make a contribution 
to our company?
•   How long would you expect to work here? 
•   Are you willing to work overtime? 
•   Are you willing to work flextime?
•   Are you willing to go where the company sends you? 
•   What type of work environment are you most comfort-
able with?
•   Why do you think you might like to live in the commu-
nity in which our company is located?
•   Why should I hire you? 
The Close
•   When could you start work? 
•   Is there anything else I should know about you? 
•   Do you have any other questions? 
Behavioral and Case Interviewing
Behavioral Interviewing is based on the premise that the
most accurate predictor of future performance is past
performance in a similar situation. It focuses on experiences,
behaviors, knowledge, skills and abilities that are job related.
Employers predetermine which skills are necessary for the
particular job and then ask very pointed questions to deter-
mine if the candidate possesses those skills. For example, if
leadership is necessary for a position, you may be asked to
talk about an experience in which you were a leader as well
as what you think makes a good leader.
Examples of Behavioral Questions
Behavioral questions can be difficult if you are not
prepared. Always try to be conscious about what the
recruiter is trying to find out about you. Setting up a mock
interview with the MIT Career Development Center is an
excellent way to practice. Here are some examples:
•   Describe a situation in which you were able to use 
persuasion to successfully convince someone to see
things your way.
•   Describe an instance when you had to think on your 
feet to extricate yourself from a difficult situation.
•   Give me a specific example of a time when you used 
good judgment and logic in solving a problem.
•   By providing examples, convince me that you can 
adapt to a wide variety of people, situations and
environments.
•   Describe an experience when you were faced with 
problems or stresses that tested your coping skills.
•   Give me an example of a time in which you had to be 
relatively quick in coming to a decision.
•   Tell me about a time in which you had to use your 
written communication skills in order to get an impor-
tant point across.
•   Give me a specific occasion in which you conformed to 
a policy with which you did not agree.
•   Giveme an example of an important goal that you 
had set in the past and tell me about your success in
reaching it.
•   Tell me about a time when you had to go above and 
beyond the call of duty in order to get a job done.
•   Give me an example of a time when you were able to 
successfully communicate with another person even
when that individual may not have personally liked you
(or vice versa).
The Case Interview
Certain employers—especially management consulting
firms—use a “case interview” technique to determine how
well-suited you are to performing their type of work. Case
interviews are used to measure your problem solving ability,
your tolerance for ambiguity, and your communication skills
along several dimensions.
In a typical case interview, candidates are first introduced
to a business dilemma facing a particular company (often
drawn from the interviewer’s professional experience).
Next, depending on the length of the case, you will begin a
process in which you and the interviewer engage in an open
dialogue about various aspects of the case. Occasionally,
the interviewer will help to guide the discussion but will
often expect that you ask probing questions to uncover
key information about the case facts, identify key business
issues, and discuss how you move toward a possible
resolution. In this way, employers hope to learn about your
analytical skills, specifically, how you identify, structure,
and think through problems under pressure. Consequently,
your approach to a case is more important than the specific
content of your answers. Employers encourage that you
think out loud as you attempt to “crack” a case because it
allows the interviewer to evaluate your thought process.
Therefore, they will also evaluate your interpersonal skills
and ability to communicate your recommendations and
solutions to the presented business problem.
While there are many types of case interviews, most will
involve at least one of the three following components:
•  Brainteasers
•  Estimation (Market Sizing) Questions
•  A Specific Project or Business Case
Brainteasers
Brainteasers can be little or complex logic puzzles. These
can involve using some quick math and give you a chance
to demonstrate your conceptual skills to the interviewer.
Your answers should be thoughtful and include some
creativity in arriving at a solution.
Some sample brainteasers are:
•  “Why are man-hole covers round?”
•  “If a wall clock reads 3:15 pm, what is the angle
between the hour and the minute hands?”
http://careers.mit.edu 47
•  “How would you weigh a plane without scales?”
•   “Which would you rather have, a trunk full of nickels or
a trunk half full of dimes?”
Estimation Questions
Estimation Questions may be somewhat longer than
brainteasers and require you to be adept in both making
assumptions and working with numbers, facts, and the
unknown. Usually, with these types of questions, you will likely
need pencil and paper. Again, employers are looking for your
ability to be creative and will be evaluating your quantitative
ability very closely, so it is imperative that the numbers and
formulas you create in your solutions be correct.
•   “How many car batteries are sold in the US each year?”
•   “How much does all the ice in a hockey rink weigh?”
•    “Estimate the size of the DVD rental market in the
Midwest.”
Project Case
The third type of question found in most case interviews
involves analyzing a project or a business case. These can
be written or verbal cases and will take anywhere from 45
minutes or longer to process with the interviewer. Cases can
be specifically created for the interview process or can be a
past or current situation affecting a business or organization.
As such, the best way to begin learning how to approach the
different types of business cases comes with practice. Some
firms will have sample cases for students to become familiar
with the form, and there are many resources available to get
yourself acquainted with this popular interview method. The
following are just a few examples of project/business cases
used in a case interview setting:
Sample case #1: “You are called in by Pizza Hut to help them
develop a strategy for entering the home delivery market in
which Domino’s has the dominant position. As lead consul-
tant on this project, what would you do?”
Sample case #2: “Your client is a mid-sized hotel chain.
How would you develop a pricing strategy for the client?”
Sample case #3: “A US company who has just created
a new biotech device is thinking about expanding inter-
nationally. If its labor costs are competitive with industry
standards, what issues might influence its decision?”
Your first challenge is to identify the type of problem the
case addresses and decide whether there is an appropriate
framework to structure your analysis. Popular frameworks
are often derived from business concepts and several can
be learned in the process of preparing for your interview.
For example, each of the above scenarios addresses three
different types of business situations: entering a new market,
developing a pricing strategy, and developing a new product.
Next, the frameworks that you use to begin your analysis will
allow you to push deeper into each issue, starting with the
most important first. Questions to ask yourself about a case:
•   What additional information do I need to know?
•   What are the key issues to be addressed?
•   What are the key findings from the analysis?
•   What is my hypothesis for the solution?
Overall, as your interview progresses, listen carefully and
clarify anything you do not understand before proceeding.
Follow the interviewer’s lead. Each individual will have a
unique interviewing style and take you through the case in
different ways depending on his or her priorities.
What Employers Look for During a Case Interview
•   Enthusiasm for typical consulting issues
•   Ability to think out loud and brainstorm
•   Listening skills and the pace of candidate’s response
•   Ability to restate the problem and verify the objective of 
the business or project
•   Conciseness and focus when possible
•   Use of sketches, charts, or diagrams to describe your 
analysis and logic
•   Ability to create reasonable hypotheses and put them 
to the test
•   Ability to summarize final recommendations in a clear 
and concise way, identifying which case facts lead to
your solution
•   Confidence in your ideas
Common Mistakes to Avoid During a Case Interview
•   Ignoring the cues of the interviewer
•   Use of business terms in the wrong context
•   Asking open-ended questions throughout the entire 
interview (or asking a long series of questions without
explaining why you need the information)
•   Making assumptions that utilize extremely large 
numbers and percentages and not being able to use
them comfortably in your analysis
•   Appearing disorganized or having scattered notes on 
the specific business or project case
•   Spending too much time analyzing the smaller aspects of 
the case and not referring back to the big picture or problem
•   Not being able to respond well to criticism or questions 
about your assumptions or your solutions
Additional Case Interview Resources
Many of the medium to large consulting firms that recruit
from universities have practice cases somewhere on their
website. As consulting firms increase their recruitment
of students from a diverse set of majors, employers are
looking to expose non-business and management majors to
the dynamics of case interviews that will help prepare
candidates for the interview process.
In addition to these websites, there are a variety of print,
online, and campus resources to help you.
•   MIT Science and Engineering Business Club: 
http://web.mit.edu/sebc/
•   MIT Sloan Undergraduate Management Association: 
http://web.mit.edu/suma/
48 MIT Career Development Center
•   WetFeet Career Guides (available through CareerBridge): 
https://www.myinterfase.com/mit/student/
•   Vault Career Guides: http://www.vault.com/
•   http://www.casequestions.com/
•   http://www.acethecase.com/
Telephone Interviews
Telephone Interviews have one advantage over the other
types of interviews—you can have your preparation mate-
rials in front of you as the interview is taking place. Prepare
for a phone interview just as you would for a regular inter-
view. Compile a list of your strengths and weaknesses, as
well as a list of answers to typical interview questions. (see
http://jobsearch.about.com/library/weekly/aa121000a.htm
for extra hints).
Prior to the Interview
•   Keep your resume in clear view, on the top of your 
desk, or tape it to the wall near the phone, so it’s at your
fingertips when you need to answer questions.
•   Have a “cheat sheet” of compelling story topics that 
highlight your accomplishments.
•   Have company information summarized including 
specific critical points describing the employer and the
company’s products.
•   Have a short list of questions about the job and the 
organization.
•   Have a pen and paper handy for note taking. 
•   Clear the room—evict the roommates and the pets. 
Turn off the stereo and other distractions.
•   Close the door. Place a sign “Interview in progress—
please do not disturb. Thanks.”
•   If you are caught by surprise at a busy time, you may 
request another time to speak.
Employers use telephone interviews as a time-effective
way of identifying and recruiting candidates for employ-
ment. There are three basic types of telephone calls that
you get from employers at this stage. One of the keys to
success is to be able to identify quickly what type you are
going to be participating in.
A. “Information Gathering Interviews” An employer may
call in order to assess your interest in the company.
This often occurs if you are referred to him or her
through a personal contact, referral, or someone you
met at a career fair. This kind of call should be treated
as seriously as an in-depth interview. It is a good way
for you, as the potential employee, to see if you are a
good fit with the company and its objectives.
B. “Screening Call” Many companies use telephone
calls as a screening mechanism in order to narrow
the pool of applicants who will be invited for in-
person interviews. These are quick and the person
calling you will most likely be someone from Human
Resources.
C. “In-Depth Telephone Interview” In this case, the tele-
phone is being used as a way to minimize the expenses
involved in traveling for the interviewer and/or the
interviewee. Depending on the type of organization
that you are interviewing with, you may be interviewed
by a hiring committee, where you will be broadcast
over a speakerphone.
During the Phone Interview
•   Do not smoke, chew gum, eat, or drink. 
•   Do keep a glass of water handy, in case you need to 
wet your mouth.
•   Smile. This may sound strange but smiling will project a 
positive image to the listener and will change the tone
of your voice.
•   Speak slowly and enunciate clearly. 
•   Use the person’s title (Mr. or Ms.) and their last name. 
Only use a first name if they ask you to.
•   Do not interrupt the interviewer. 
•   Take your time—it’s perfectly acceptable to take a 
moment or two to collect your thoughts.
•   Give succinct answers. 
•   Be able to tell a brief example/story of your experiences. 
Before you hang up
•   Thank the interviewer for the opportunity.
•   Get the correct spelling of your interviewer’s name.
•   Get contact information for follow-up questions.
•   Ask about the hiring timeline, “When are you looking to 
have a decision made?”
After the Interview:
•   Take notes about what you were asked and how you 
answered.
•   Follow with a thank-you note, (see http://jobsearch.
about.com/library/weekly/aa082398.htm for further
hints) which reiterates your interest in the job.
Dress Code for Interviews
“What am I going to wear?” We get asked this question
nearly every day during the recruiting season. Basically, it’s
common sense. You can start by asking yourself “What kind
of company will I be interviewing with?” If it is a Fortune
500 company, obviously you should wear a traditional suit.
But maybe you will be seeing a funky, upbeat software
company and you heard the recruiter showed up for inter-
views last year in a tie-dye shirt, sandals and beads. Use
your own discretion but we suggest you dress the way you
would if you were giving an important presentation at the
company or attending a business meeting.
http://careers.mit.edu 49
Men
Suits—A traditional suit is preferred to a blazer. The color
should either be a dark blue or gray in either a solid or invis-
ible plaid with a pressed long-sleeved (even in summer!)
white dress shirt. If you buy or borrow one, a conservative
sports coat and dress slacks are best.
Shirts—White shirts are always your first choice. Solid blue
is an acceptable alternative. If you don’t own either, you
should really go buy one. Get plain or button down collar.
Choose cotton material. Polyesters and nylon are out.
Grooming—Avoid heavy cologne or aftershave.
Socks—Dark, neat and preferably over the calf. White
athletic socks are a big “no no” unless you are interviewing
to be a summer camp counselor at a sports camp.
Shoes—Clean and polished leather lace-up black or dark
brown shoes are best. Avoid shoes with a run down heel.
Neckties—Conservative silk ties are best. Be sure the tie
coordinates with the suit, is solid or has small neat patterns.
Be sure the knot is neat and centered on your neck. The
bottom of the tie should just reach your belt.
Belts—Wear a black or brown belt, one inch wide, no large
buckles.
Hair—Clean, well-groomed and professional looking.
Remember, the choice to cut your hair is yours, but the
choice to hire you is the interviewer’s. Be sure beards and
mustaches are neat and trimmed.
Accessories—No flashy cuff links, rings or gold chains.
Wedding or college ring is fine. No earrings. Not even one
small one. No visible body piercing.
Women
Suits—Skirted suits are almost always preferable. A solid
navy, grey or black suit with a solid or light colored blouse
is recommended for most positions. Avoid brown, green or
pastel suits. Business dresses are acceptable in fields that
are less formal and less conservative. Avoid frilly collars
and cuffs.
Shirts—A light colored blouse is ideal.
Makeup—Natural looking and conservative. Avoid bright
colors. Use a neutral or clear nail polish on clean and mani-
cured nails. Avoid heavy perfumes.
Hosiery— Light, natural color, plain style (no patterns).
Shoes— Should be conservative and compliment the
color and style of the interview suit. Low to medium heels
are ideal. Basic pumps, toes should be closed, no strappy
shoes, and avoid multi-colored trim.
Hair— Should be freshly cleaned and neatly styled. Long
hair should be worn as conservatively as possible.
Accessories—One conservative, non-dangling earring
per ear, one or 2 rings per hand. No dangling or distracting
bracelets. Avoid purses of any size—carry a portfolio or
briefcase instead. No visible body piercing beyond earrings.
Dining Etiquette for Interviews
If you are lucky, one round of the interview process will
take place over some sort of a meal setting. This could be
the most daunting meal of your career. Mental preparation
is key! As a rule of thumb, when you face a full battalion
of knives, forks, and spoons, start with the flatware the
furthest from the plate first. If you are unsure which fork to
use for your salad course, choose the one with the slightly
smaller prongs.
As soon as you are seated, put your napkin on your lap.
Sometimes, at very formal restaurants, the waiter may do
this for you. When you use your napkin, gently dab at your
lips. It is meant to catch food from falling into your lap and it
should gently dust the crumbs from your lips. When you are
finished, place your knife and fork so they lie horizontally
across your plate, and place your napkin next to your plate.
Do not refold it. Do not leave it on the chair when you get up
to exit the restaurant.
Dining Tips
•   If you are not sure what to order, follow your host’s lead.
•   If the recruiter is not first in line to order, ask him/her, 
“What do you recommend?”
•   A chicken breast or vegetable plate is always safe.
•   Stick to soft drinks, tea, coffee, and water. Avoid beer, 
wine, and mixed drinks.
•   Cut one bite (meat, fruit, or vegetables) at a time. Keep 
your fork prongs pointed down, not up.
•   With dinner rolls, break off and butter one small piece 
of bread at a time; avoid making a sandwich.
•   Never make slurping or yummy sounds.
•   When sharing a sauce with others, spoon some of it on 
to your plate; don’t dip your food into it.
•   If you need to leave the table temporarily, place your 
napkin on your seat.
•   Keep your elbows off the table.
•   Drink from the glass to your right.
•   Eat at the same pace as your host or hostess.
•   If you are a non-smoker and your host asks for a table 
in the smoking section, grin and bear it.
•   Be prepared to be conversational.
•   Skim the menu quickly; order a medium priced entrée 
that will be the least messy to eat.
•   Relax and keep the conversation focused on business-
related or casual topics.
•   Say please and thank you to the waiter.
•   Don’t talk about personal relationships, recent parties, 
politics, sports, or religion.
50 MIT Career Development Center
•   Don’t eat the garnish.
•   Don’t discuss dietary restrictions; downplay your food 
preferences.
•   Don’t drink alcohol if you are under age 21; don’t 
have more than one drink if you are 21 or over and the
recruiter insists.
•   Don’t argue over the check or offer to pay the tip; the 
host who invited you must take care of both.
•   Don’t eat as if this is your last meal. On the other hand, 
don’t dine on half a lettuce leaf. You’ll make the best
impression by eating like a human—not like a wolf or a
bird.
The Site Visit/Interview—
One Step Closer
After an on-campus interview, lead candidates are usually
invited to visit the employer’s facility. While on-campus
screening interviews are important, on-site visits are
where jobs are either won or lost. Work with the employer
to schedule the on-site visit at a mutually convenient time.
Sometimes employers will try to arrange a site visit for
several candidates to take place at the same time, so there
may not be much flexibility.
Notification of a plant trip may be by telephone or mail.
Respond promptly if you are sincerely interested in this
employer. Decline politely if you are not. Never go on a plant
trip for the sake of the trip. If you are attending, document
the name and phone number of the person coordinating your
trip. Verify who will be handling trip expenses. Most medium
and large-size companies (as well as many smaller ones) will
pay your expenses, but some will not. This is very important
because expenses are handled in various ways:
•   the employer may handle all expenses and travel 
arrangements;
•   you handle your expenses and arrangements (the 
employer may assist with this), and the employer will
reimburse you later;
•   the employer may offer an on-site interview, but will 
not pay for your travel expenses.
Bring extra copies of your resume, copies of any paper-
work you may have forwarded to the employer; names,
addresses, phone numbers and email addresses of your
references; an updated college transcript; a copy of your
best paper as a writing sample; a notebook; a black and/or
blue pen for filling out forms and applications; and names
and addresses of past employers.
Once again, your role at the interview is to respond to
questions, to ask your own questions and to observe.
Be ready to meet people who are not part of your formal
agenda. Be courteous to everyone regardless of his or her
position; you never know who might be watching you and
your actions once you arrive in town. Treat the custodian
the same as you would the CEO. Word gets back to people
in the most interesting ways.
Soon after the site visit, record your impressions of your
performance. Review the business cards of those you met
or write the information in your notebook before leaving
the facility. You should have the name, title, address, phone
number, and email of everyone who was involved in your
interview so you can determine which individuals you may
want to contact with additional questions or follow-up
information. Also, a thank-you letter should be written to
the person(s) who interviewed you and will be making the
hiring decision. Stay in touch with the employer if you want
to pursue a career with the organization.
The site visit is a two-way street. Just as the employer is
evaluating you, you are there to evaluate the employer and
to determine if your expectations are met for job content,
company culture and values, organizational structure, and
lifestyles (both at work and leisure). Take note of how the
employees interact with each other and their supervisors
and also assess the physical work environment.
Just as any good salesperson would never leave a
customer without attempting to close the sale, you should
never leave an interview without some sort of closure. If
you decide that the job is right for you, do not be afraid to
tell the employer that you feel that there is a good fit and
you are eager to join the team.
Negotiating Salary and Benefits
Before you start negotiating your salary, be sure that
you have done enough research to know what you can
realistically expect. Be aware, that you will be offered a
competitive salary based on what you are worth—not on
what you want or what others are getting for similar jobs.
Each person is unique, and “the going rate” is little more
than a guideline. Salaries can vary depending on where the
job is located.
The MIT Career Development Center compiles a yearly
salary survey that has been filled out by departing gradu-
ates who have been offered jobs.
Employee benefits at most large companies are generally
worth another thirty percent or more on top of your
salary. The normal benefits include paid vacation (usually
two weeks for the first year), health insurance, tuition
assistance for courses taken after work, contributions
toward your pension, and an opportunity to buy stock in
the company with the company making a contribution
toward the purchase. If the company grows, and its
stock rises accordingly, this last benefit can become
a nice nest egg. In addition, some companies may also
http://careers.mit.edu 51
include life insurance and /or relocation expenses in their
benefit packages.
It is also possible to work for a company and receive no
benefits whatever. This is typically the case if you sign on
as a consultant, or as a contract worker. Your salary should
be larger in this case because it is up to you to pay for
health insurance and to provide for your retirement.
Small companies may not have the cash flow to offer large
benefits. They may make up for this by giving stock options
(the chance to buy the stock later at an earlier and lower
price), or a new startup company may pay partly in stock or
give an outright gift of stock. Obviously, the value depends
on the success of the company.
For an index to many online salary surveys, see the
JobSmart website at http://jobsmart.org/tools/salary/ also
visit www.jobweb.com/sitemap.aspx
Research salaries for the industry and position you seek by
visiting:
•   http://web.mit.edu/career/www/infostats/graduation.
html
•   http://www.salary.com
•   http://www.rileyguide.com/salguides.html
•   http://jobstar.org/tools/salary/index.php
•   http://www.bls.gov/oes/home.htm
•   http://www.salaryexpert.com/
The Art of Negotiating
Once you have been offered a job, you have the opportunity
to discuss with the employer the terms of your employment.
Negotiating with your potential employer can make your
job one that best meets your own needs as well as those
of your employer. To ensure successful negotiations, it is
important to understand the basic components. The defini-
tion of negotiation as it relates to employment is: a series
of communications either oral or in writing that reach a
satisfying conclusion for all concerned parties, most often
between the new employee and the hiring organization.
For more information see http://web.mit.edu/career/www/
workshops
Negotiation is a planned series of events that requires
strategy, presentation and patience. Preparation is
probably the single most important part of successful
negotiations. Any good trial attorney will tell you the key
to presenting a good case in the courtroom is the hours
of preparation that happen beforehand. The same is true
for negotiating. A good case will literally present itself.
What follows are some suggestions that might help in
your preparation.
Research
Gather as much factual information as you can to back
up the case you want to make. For example, if most new
employees cannot negotiate salary you may be jeopar-
dizing the offer by focusing on that aspect of the package.
Find out about the costs and benefits associated with the
health plan, dental plan, retirement package, leave entitle-
ments, and other benefits.
Psychological Preparation
Chances are that you will not know the person with whom
you will be negotiating very well. If you are lucky enough to
be acquainted, spend some time reviewing what you know
about this person’s communication style and decision-
making behavior.
In most cases this person will be a stranger. Be assured
that he or she will expect some level of negotiation, even
if it only relates to your start date. How will you “psyche”
yourself up to feel confident enough to ask for what you
want? How will you respond to counteroffers? What are
your alternatives? What’s your bottom line? In short, plan
your strategy.
Create a list of all the items you want to negotiate. Be sure
you know exactly what you want, not approximately. This
does not mean you will get everything you want, but having
information clearly outlined in your head will help you
determine where you can compromise in return for things
that are more important to you. Unless you know what
you want, you won’t be able to tell somebody else. Clarity
improves communication, which is the conduit for effective
negotiations.
Dollars and Sense
Always begin by expressing genuine interest in the position
and the organization, emphasizing the areas of agree-
ment but allowing “wiggle room” to compromise on other
areas. Be prepared to support your points of disagreement,
outlining the parts you would like to alter, your suggestions
on how this can be done and why it would serve the compa-
ny’s best interests to accommodate your request.
Back up your reasons for wanting to change the offer
with meaningful work-related skills and positive benefits
to the employer. Requesting a salary increase because
you are a fast learner, or have a high GPA usually are not
justifiable reasons in the eyes of the employer. Meaningful
work experience or internships that have demonstrated or
tested your professional skills are things that will make an
employer stop and take notice.
State all the items to negotiate at the beginning. Cite those
areas in which you know you already agree upon. Follow
with areas that are open to negotiation.
52 MIT Career Development Center
It is sometimes more comfortable for job seekers to make
this initial request in writing and plan to meet later to hash
out the differences. Keep in mind that the employer has
chosen you from a pool of qualified applicants, so they need
you as much as you need them.
Do not rush the process. Remember this is a series of
volleys and lobs, trade-offs and compromises that occur
over a period of time. It is a process—not a singular event!
Once you have reached a conclusion with which you are
both relatively comfortable, present in writing your inter-
pretation of the agreement so that if there is any question,
it will be addressed immediately. Negotiation, by definition,
implies that each side will give. Do not perceive it as an
ultimatum.
If the employer chooses not to grant any of your requests—
and realistically, that can happen—you will still have the
option of accepting the original offer provided that you
have maintained a positive, collaborative and friendly
atmosphere during your exchanges. You can always
re-enter negotiations after you have demonstrated your
worth to the organization.
Money Isn’t Everything
There are many things you can negotiate besides salary.
Benefits can add thousands of dollars to the compensation
package. For more information about benefits see http://
benefitslink.com/index.shtml. Some negotiation points can
include:
•   Vacation time
•   Paid personal leave and sick days
•   Medical / dental / health coverage 
•   Child care or elder care
•   Discounts on the company’s products and services
•   Gym membership
•   Stock options / annual bonuses
•   Retirement / disability and life insurance
•   Flexibility of hours
•   Relocation package
•   Professional memberships / affiliations
•   Tuition reimbursement for continued education
For tips on Negotiating Offers, see http://web.mit.edu/
career/www/guide.
Because you want a career, not a job.
www.LogMeIn.com/Careers
Learn more at the LogMeIn Careers section of our website:
LogMeIn offers a challenging, dynamic
environment that encourages ownership and
innovation. Each employee is an integral
part of our global team and fun culture. Our
award-winning workplace allows everyone to
contribute and grow.
www.LogMeIn.com/Careers
Access, support, manage or back up remote computers and
mobile devices – from smartphones to PCs and Macs – from
any web browser with an Internet connection.
LogMeIn connects people to remote computers.
http://careers.mit.edu 53
Chapter 6.
Academic Pathways
Throughout your MIT career, you will make many choices
related to academic pursuits. The Career Development
Center can assist you, starting your first year with issues
related to choice of major, course selection and obtaining
research experiences. More and more of our students are
going global while at MIT and our Global Education Office
can help you pursue study abroad and work abroad experi-
ences. Later you may consider graduate or professional
school. The materials and advice in this chapter can help
you with some of these decisions.
Choice of Major—Consider Your Options
To help you weigh options for your choice of major at MIT,
ask yourself these questions about each academic depart-
ment/field you are considering:
Appeal of area of study
•   Will you enjoy this major for its own intrinsic value? 
Level of challenge
•   Do you think you can perform well in this field?
•   Is your motivation strong enough to enable you to 
succeed in this major?
•   Are you choosing this major because it is easy? 
Because it is hard?
Department characteristics
•   How big is the department?
•   How do you relate to other students in this major? 
•   Are the faculty accessible? Do you seek them out for 
informal discussions and other interactions?
•   Are there activities in the department that bring 
students together? Are there activities that bring
students and faculty together?
Courses within your major
•   Will this major help you acquire prerequisites needed 
for graduate studies you may be considering?
•   How many credits does this major require to complete 
a degree? Do you wish to focus largely on one depart-
ment, or do you want flexibility to study in other
departments as well?
Global experience
•   How much does the department facilitate or 
encourage or accommodate study abroad, research
abroad, work abroad?
UROPs/internship programs
•   Are there opportunities for you to get experience in 
your major that will help prepare you for your potential
career?
Skills
•   What kinds of skills will you be developing in this 
major?
Family, peers, outside influences
•   How are outside pressures from family, peers and the 
job market influencing your decision?
Here are some additional resources for you to
consult regarding choice of major:
•   The Major Guides on our website—these documents 
highlight skills learned, career path options commonly
associated with different fields of study, and resources
to help you learn more about majors and careers:
http://web.mit.edu/career/www/infostats/byschool.
html.
•   Sloan Career Cornerstone Center— excellent write-
ups on career paths in engineering and science, http://
www.careercornerstone.org.
•   UAAP Choice of Major website: go to this site: 
http://mit.edu/firstyear, then add to the url: /2012/
choiceofmajor/index.html—you may need to change
the year to your class year (e.g., /2013/choiceof major/
index.html )
54 MIT Career Development Center
Global Education Office
The Global Education Office is the one-stop office
where students can visit for information and advice
on how to go global! We offer one-on-one advising
sessions to help you identify and explore the various
options that best fit your academic plans and your
professional goals. In addition to this we can help you
with passports, visa informa-
tion, health and safety planning
and cost-saving ideas for living
overseas. We offer a series of
presentations and workshops,
pre-departure and re-entry meet-
ings and are here as a resource to
help you prepare for a meaningful
and successful time abroad.
In addition to general support
related to global educational oppor-
tunities, the MIT Global Education
Office supports all counseling of
students who are seeking to study
abroad and who are interested in
applying for a distinguished fellow-
ship. We are here to assist you in
identifying the program(s) that best
fit your needs, prepare you for the
transfer credit process, and also
work with you on logistical details
such as housing and insurance
coverage abroad. Please find more
information about specific study abroad opportunities
below.
Global Education Opportunities
Benefits of Going Global
The world today is a very different place than it was even
a few years ago. Business and research are conducted
across national boundaries, different time zones, and cultural
contexts. This means that as an MIT graduate you will be
called upon to work effectively with global collaborators and
across transnational engineering and science environments.
In this increasingly global context, deciding to participate in a
study abroad program could be one of the best decisions you
make as an undergraduate.
Students at MIT are able to engage with the world in a
variety of ways. Students can enroll in a study abroad
program taking classes in English or a foreign language,
undertake a research project, participate in an internship
or assist underserved communities through public service.
Our partner offices include:
•   MISTI (internships)—http://web.mit.edu/misti
•   Public Service Center (fellowships, grants, d-Lab, 
etc.)—http://web.mit.edu/mitpsc
•   UROP (IROP - international research)— http://web.mit.
edu/urop/basicinfo/irop.html
•   Alumni Association (externships)— http://alum.mit.
edu/students/NetworkwithAlumni/ExternshipProgram
In addition to the listings above, a wider collection of global
opportunities can be found on the MIT “Go Global” website
at http://web.mit.edu/goglobal.
Study Abroad Opportunities
Planning Study Abroad
You have probably already heard from other MIT students
about the life altering experience of their study abroad
program. It is never too early to start thinking about your
own study abroad experience and to start planning for it.
Be strategic in thinking about the study abroad possibilities that
might benefit you most. Contemplate these programs from the
point of view of your major, as well as your professional and
research interests and goals. The more integrated your experi-
ence abroad will be with your goals and interests, the more you
will benefit from that opportunity.
If you already have developed an interest in a particular
culture or region of the world by your freshman year,
you may wish to start learning (or continue learning if
Study Abroad Programs
MIT students who plan to study abroad have many exciting options from which to choose.
The following table includes the various categories of opportunities with examples.
Program Type Year-Long Semester IAP Summer
MIT-Managed
Institute Wide CME MIT-Madrid IAP-Madrid
(spring only) IAP-Germany
Departmental Aero/Astro Aero/Astro
Architecture
Materials Science
Direct Enrollment Examples include: Examples include:
Through MISTI Ecole Polytechnique, Ecole Polytechnique,
France France
Other Direct Examples include: Examples include: LSE
Enrollment Technion, Israel Technion, Israel
U. of Edinburgh Barcelona, Spain
LSE (General Course) Mexico
U. of Edinburgh
Outside Providers Examples include: Examples include: Examples include: Examples include:
Oxford, UK Cambridge, UK Mexico France
Australia South Africa Ireland Germany
  New Zealand  Turks & Caicos Islands  Argentina  Ireland
Spain, UK
http://careers.mit.edu 55
you started in high school) the foreign language most
commonly used in that culture or region. You also might
want to explore the international locations of exciting
developments in the academic/research fields that interest
you.
If you start to think about study abroad in your sophomore
or junior year, you should still be able to find a study abroad
program to fit your interests and goals. Even in your senior
year you may find some opportunities, especially intern-
ships and post-graduate foreign fellowships.
Deadlines
Please keep in mind that each study abroad program has its
own application deadlines. In addition, the Global Education
Office has its own internal deadlines (May 1 for summer,
full-year or fall semester study and December 1 for spring
semester study) to ensure that students are prepared and that
all the relevant MIT offices can be informed of the students
approved for study abroad.
How to Begin Study Abroad
We invite you to visit the Study Abroad website (http://
web.mit.edu/studyabroad) and we look forward to meeting
with you to discuss your study abroad ideas and to help
you find a program that will work best for you. Please make
an appointment to meet with us by contacting the Global
Education Office, 12-189, studyabroad@mit.edu or at (617)
253-0676.
Distinguished Fellowships
The Distinguished Fellowships Program, in 12-189, is avail-
able to provide support and guidance for students preparing
applications for the most prestigious awards for foreign study.
In many cases, these awards pay for the full costs of graduate
programs or international research. They are wonderful
opportunities to further one’s horizons without burdening
oneself. These awards, including but not limited to the Rhodes,
Marshall, Mitchell, Gates-Cambridge, and Fulbright, have
fostered the careers of the world’s best students. Winners
have gone on to become a United States President, a leading
string theorist (Brian Greene), CEOs, and even MIT professors.
Please keep in mind that these types of awards require a great
deal of work and are on extremely strict deadlines, so please
visit our website for the application schedule and deadlines.
If you are interested in learning more, please visit our website
http://web.mit.edu/scholarships and contact Kimberly Benard
(benard@mit.edu or 617.253.4378) for an appointment.
Key Qualities Valued in Distinguished Fellowship Competitions:
    •  Strong Academic Record
    •  History of Volunteering/Public Service
    •  Desire for Further Research or Studies
Graduate School Advising
You may be considering earning an advanced degree
for several reasons, including the opportunity to gain
knowledge in a particular field of interest, an interest in
expanding career opportunities and increasing earning
potential, or postponing a job search until economic condi-
tions improve.
A 2008 survey conducted by the MIT Global Education and
Career Development Center found that 42% of graduating
seniors planned to pursue advanced degrees right after
graduation. According to the Council of Graduate Schools,
graduate school enrollments are on the rise, and this trend
is likely to continue.
Strong undergraduate academic preparation is essential
to succeed in graduate school. Key skills for success as a
graduate student include: (1) critical thinking, (2) analytical
abilities, (3) research abilities, (4) written communication,
(5) verbal communication, (6) time management, (7) self-
motivation, and (8) self-discipline.
Range of Degrees
Graduate degrees include
•   M.S.= Master of Science
•   M.A.= Master of Arts
•   M.B.A= Master of Business Administration
•   Ph.D.= Doctor of Philosophy
•   Sc.D.=Doctor of Science
•   M.D.= Doctor of Medicine
•   D.D.S.= Doctor of Dental Surgery
•   D.V.M.= Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
•   J.D.= Juris Doctor
•   LL.M.= Master of Laws
•   J.S.D.= Doctor of the Science of Law
Top Ten Criteria to select a Graduate Program
•   Matching your career interests/goals with the program 
•   Quality of the program Department and faculty 
strength and reputation in the profession
•   Faculty/student ratio 
•   Program costs 
•   Internship or field-work opportunities 
•   Quality of research facilities, laboratories, and libraries 
• Financial Aid resources
•   What recent alumni are doing in the field now 
•   Can you easily make connections with alumni for 
purposes of discussing how graduate school may
enhance your opportunities
The best experts on assistantships and fellowships,
whether you are interested in MIT or other graduate
schools, are the staff in the Office of the Dean for Graduate
Education (3-138). See their website for up-to-date informa-
tion on the subject, http://web.mit.edu/odge/financialaid.
They also have various compendia listing individual
56 MIT Career Development Center
fellowship programs. For information on the aid available in
a particular discipline, a good place to turn is the graduate
office in the corresponding MIT department.
Most graduate schools will require you to take the
Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) before you apply. See
http://www.gre.org for more information and to apply to
take the GRE. For more in depth information, see our online
workshop “Applying to Graduate School” at: http://web.mit.
edu/career/www/workshops/gradschool.
Preprofessional Advising
The Preprofessional Advising staff works with students
interested in applying to:
•   Medical, dental, and other health related professional 
schools
•   Law school
The following services are available to both current MIT
students and alumni/ae:
•   Walk-in Hours: 15-minute sessions, set up to answer 
quick questions. Appointments: 30-45 minute sessions,
via phone or in-person. Call our front desk (617-
253-4733), or come into our office (12-170) to schedule
an appointment.
•   Mock Interviews: 45-minute sessions to help current 
applicants prepare for medical/health profession
school interviews.
•   Credential Service: Service for Prehealth students
that stores recommendation letters at the MIT Career
Development Center (12-170) and sends letters to
schools through DHL or electronic submission.
More information on our services and upcoming events can
be found at http://web.mit.edu/career/www/preprof.
Staff:
Erin Scott, Counselor for Preprofessional Advising:
scotte@mit.edu
Shonool Malik, Associate Director for Preprofessional
Advising: shonool@mit.edu
Tamara Menghi, Assistant Director for Preprofessional
Advising: trmenghi@mit.edu
Shanell Littlejohn, Administrative Assistant: slittlej@mit.edu
Considering & Exploring a Professional School/Career:
Individuals interested in health related careers, law or
business careers should consider the following:
•   What is my motivation for entering this career?
•   How can I explore this career during my time at MIT?
•   What are my core interests and skills and how do they 
align with this career?
To help answer these questions, we strongly recommend
that you set up an appointment with a member of our staff
to discuss your interest in these careers. In addition, we
encourage the use of the resources on the Preprofessional
Advising website http://careers.mit.edu/preprof/ and the
Alumni ICAN database (https://alum.mit.edu/
cs/ican/index.html).
Personal Statement/ Essay
Regardless of the type of school you are applying to, you will
be required to submit a personal statement as part of the appli-
cation process. Graduate school application essays typically
ask applicants to discuss their previous experience, future
professional goals, and how they believe that the graduate
program can assist them in achieving those objectives.
Graduate programs seek individuals with clear commitment to
the field, who have corresponding ideas and aspirations. The
personal statement provides the applicant with the opportu-
nity to articulate these goals and display strong writing skills.
Your essay should be well thought out, concise, compelling,
and interesting to the reader. Remember, admissions officers
read hundreds of personal essays. It will be important for you
to keep in mind the following suggestions:
1. Start your essay with something that will grab the
reader’s attention. Personal anecdotes can often help
draw the reader into the essay.
2. Make the essay personal. Do not simply repeat
the information that can be read on your applica-
tion. Provide the reader with an inside view on your
thoughts, interests and drives.
3. Make your motivation and commitment clear to the
reader. The admissions officer wants to get a sense
from the essay that you are extremely interested and
motivated to obtain the graduate degree and will
apply the education to your professional work.
4. Create a well-written document. Your essay is a
sample of your writing abilities. It is important that you
convey your thoughts clearly, with carefully chosen
vocabulary and correct grammar.
Attend the Essay Writing workshop offered by MIT Career
Development Center. http://careers.mit.edu. For specific
tips on writing a personal statement for professional
school, please see our online essay writing workshop.
GPA
GPA standards vary among different programs. While these
numerical records are an important factor, they are not the
only thing considered. Students with a range of GPA’s and
test scores are accepted. Most of the time, the average
GPA of students currently enrolled in the program or the
minimum GPA accepted can be found on the admissions
webpage. Admissions committees consider all aspects of
an application when making selection decisions. Look at
our website, to see the MIT applicant range of GPAs and
http://careers.mit.edu 57
test scores that have been accepted to medical and law
schools. http://careers.mit.edu/infostats/
Prehealth Information
The following information pertains most directly to students
applying to medical and dental schools. Many of the criteria
are similar for other health related professional schools.
For more specific information on other health related
professional schools, please visit our website. http://
careers.mit.edu/preprof/
Course Requirements:
There is no required major for applying to health related
professional schools. There are however, a number of
recommended courses one must take prior to applying.
Review the course list online with your academic advisor
and meet with a Preprofessional Advising Staff member if
you have any questions.
Volunteer / Service Activities:
Admissions officers are interested in applicants who, in addi-
tion to having good academic credentials, are humanistic in
nature, who care genuinely about others and have shown
evidence of this interest through volunteer or community
service activities. Your participation in volunteer work and
leadership activities can help develop personal qualities such
as integrity, breadth of interest, human relations skills, and
motivation towards a career in the health professions.
Prehealth Advisors
MIT draws its advisors from many groups: MIT faculty,
physicians at MIT Medical, MIT Dental, and the
MIT-Harvard Health Sciences and Technology (HST)
Program, and research affiliates from HST, Massachusetts
General Hospital, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
Advisors volunteer their time to discuss medical careers
with advisees and write a letter of recommendation for
them. Their expectation in return: responsible, timely, and
continuing communication throughout the year.
Getting an Advisor
Individuals who want a prehealth advisor are encouraged to
open a credential file and apply for an advisor two years prior
to the year they are interested in matriculating at a health
related professional school. For example, a person looking
to matriculate in fall 2011 must request an advisor in fall 2009.
Early registration enables the Preprofessional Advising staff
to determine the number of advisors needed, and provides
an advisee with adequate time and opportunity to develop a
meaningful relationship with his or her advisor.
Preference in the advisor assignment process is given to
current undergraduate and graduate students. Local area
alumni may be assigned an advisor in late fall semester,
provided that there are advisors available once all current
students have been assigned. Please be advised that we
cannot guarantee an advisor to all those with requests
past the November 30th deadline. Visit the following site
for detailed steps on requesting a Prehealth Advisor
and call 617-253-4733 to set up an appointment with a
Preprofessional Advising staff member: http://web.mit.edu/
career/www/preprof/advisors.html.
Application Process
Please note: The information provided below pertains
primarily to medical school and dental school. For more
details on how to apply to other health related professional
schools, please see our website.
The American Medical College Application Service
(AMCAS) is a nonprofit, centralized application processing
service for applicants to the first-year entering classes at
participating U.S. medical schools. http://www.aamc.org/
The AMCAS application will include:
•   Academic information from all of the colleges you 
attended
•   Copies of all undergraduate and graduate, transcripts
•   MCAT scores
•   Personal essay/statement
It is important to note that many admission decisions to
medical schools are made as applications are received and
reviewed. It is critical that you submit your AMCAS appli-
cation as early as possible, preferably by June 30th. Once
your AMCAS application is received it may take approxi-
mately a month to receive a secondary application from
individual schools.
The Associated American Dental Schools Application
Service (AADSAS) is a service available to students applying
to dental schools participating in the application service.
AADSAS simplifies the application process by providing one
standardized form, relieving students of the need to complete
multiple applications. AADSAS serves only as an information
clearinghouse and does not influence the dental schools
appraisal or selection of applicants. Each dental school has
the right to request supplemental information from the appli-
cants. http://www.adea.org
Entrance Tests: MCAT and DAT
The Medical College Application Test is a standardized
examination comprised of multiple-choice questions and a
writing assessment. The test is divided into four sections.
Scores for the Verbal Reasoning, Physical Sciences, and
Biological Sciences are reported numerically, while the
Writing Sample is scored alphabetically. The MCAT is
scored on a scale of 1-45.
58 MIT Career Development Center
The paper MCAT exam was replaced in 2007 with a
computer based test (CBT). The CBT MCAT is offered
several times a year, allowing more scheduling flexibility
and quicker score reporting.
The Dental Admission Test (DAT) is conducted by the
American Dental Association (ADA) and has been in opera-
tion on a national basis since 1950. The Dental Admission
Test is administered by computer on almost any day of the
year. The testing program is designed to measure general
academic ability, comprehension of scientific information,
and perceptual ability. For more information on the DAT &
the ADA visit the following sites: http://www.ada.org/ prof/
ed/testing/dat/index.asp and http://www.ada.org/.
Recommendation Letters
All applicants need at least three letters of recommenda-
tion. We recommend obtaining three to five letters, of
which two should be from a science professor and one
from a humanities professor. Your prehealth advisor’s letter
will count as one of your letters and will also act as a cover
letter for your other recommendation letters.
It is important to choose your writers with care and good
judgment. Please be certain that the people you ask to write
letters for you will be writing the letter you expect. Meet
with them and discuss your reasons for wanting to pursue a
health career.
As a courtesy, give each recommender at least two months
to write your letter of recommendation. It is suggested that
your letters be from the following areas: science classes,
humanities classes, research experiences, and community
service or leadership experiences. Letters from faculty
members from a variety of academic disciplines are very
important.
Credential Service
The Credential Service is designed to provide a reliable,
efficient means of disseminating letters of recommenda-
tion for MIT students and alumni/ae for the use of entering
medical or other health related professional programs.
Letters are mailed or electronically transmitted to the
schools designated by the applicant, once his or her file is
complete.
Students and alums may open a file as early as they would
like to store recommendation letters for future applications to
medical or other health profession programs. It is ideal that the
credential file be opened two years prior to the year they are
interested in matriculating at a health profession school.
Secondary Applications (for medical school)
Secondary applications are received approximately a
month or more after submitting your AMCAS application.
These applications will request similar, if not the same
information, provided in the AMCAS application and will
also request additional specific personal statements or
essays. It is important that you do not submit the same
essay you submitted with the AMCAS application. Your
recommendation letters are sent to schools during the
secondary application phase.
Interviews
Interviews are required for medical and dental schools
and are the final phase of the application process.
Interviews may be held by one member of an admissions
committee or by a group of individuals. Applicants should
be prepared to discuss all aspects of their application,
including their specific interest in the institution with
which they are interviewing. It is recommended that
applicants participate in a mock interview and review
the interview workshop, as well as, the sample interview
questions sheet in preparation for a formal school inter-
view: http://careers.mit.edu/preprof/.
Prelaw Information
The Official Guide to ABA-Approved Law Schools,
published by the Law School Admission Council (LSAC),
lists the following as the criteria used most by law schools
in evaluating prospective students.
•   Personal statement
•   Course of study
•   Quality of undergraduate courses
•   Letters of recommendation
•   LSAT score
•   Grade Point Average (GPA)
•   College activities
•   Ethnic background
•   Post college activities
•   Uniqueness/Personality
•   Motivation to study Law
Activities and Work Experience
Experiences both in and out of the classroom are important
in evaluating applicants. Law schools are looking for indi-
viduals that bring a unique perspective, background, and
insight to strengthen the classroom dynamic and intellec-
tual exchange in law school. Student leadership activities,
work experiences, and personal life challenges are all
elements that are considered when evaluating and making
decisions on which applicants to accept.
Academic and LSAT Credentials
Your GPA and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) score
are important factors to being competitive with other law
http://careers.mit.edu 59
school applicants; however they certainly aren’t the only
factors considered. Admissions committees consider all
aspects of an application, i.e., work experience, leader-
ship, etc., when making selection decisions. Visit the MIT
Law School applicant data for more detailed information on
the average GPA and LSAT scores: http://careers.mit.edu/
infostats/
Prelaw Advisors
Advisors are professionals within the MIT community
active in the practice of law, legal scholarship, teaching,
and/or counseling. These individuals volunteer their time
to speak with students about current trends in the legal
profession, as well as experiences they have had both in
law school and as a professional. Students and alumni are
welcome to contact one or all of the advisors to explore
their legal interests. Advisors’ names and contact
information can be found at: http://careers.mit.edu/preprof/
lawadvisors.html
Prior to contacting an advisor, it is recommended that a
student do the following:
•   Review the information provided throughout the 
Prelaw website.
•   Utilize the resources (books, school pamphlets, LSAT 
information, etc.) available in the Preprofessional
Advising Office, 12-185.
•   Make an appointment by calling 617-253-4733 to meet 
with a member of the Preprofessional Advising staff to
discuss basic law school information and the applica-
tion process.
Application Process
Applicants must obtain applications directly from law
schools online or by mail. It is important to note that many
admission decisions are made on a rolling basis as
applications are received and reviewed. It is critical that
you submit your application as early as possible, preferably
by the end of December.
LSAC
http://www.lsac.org
The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is a nonprofit
corporation whose members are 200 law schools in the
United States and Canada. Programs and Services offered
by the LSAC:
•   The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) 
•   The Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) 
•   Candidate Referral Service (CRS) 
•   Law School Forums 
•   MILE Program (Minorities Interested in Legal 
Education)
•   Publications, Software, and Videos for Legal Education 
• Questions
LSDAS
http://www.lsac.org/
The Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) provides
a means of centralizing and standardizing undergraduate
academic records to simplify the law school admission
process.
The LSDAS prepares and provides a report for each law
school to which you apply. Your report will include:
•   An undergraduate academic summary.
•   Copies of all undergraduate, graduate, and law school 
transcripts.
•   LSAT scores: Up to 12 exam scores are reported in the 
LSDAS report. Exam scores are averaged when more
than one reportable score is on file.
•   Writing sample copies: If more than one LSAT has 
been taken, photocopies of the last three LSAT writing
samples are provided in the LSDAS report.
•   Copies of Letters of Recommendation if processed by 
LSAC.
Law School Admission Test (LSAT)
The Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) is a half-day
standardized exam that is designed to measure skills that
are considered essential for success in law school. It is
comprised of five 35-minute sections of multiple-choice
questions and is scored on a scale of 120-180. One of
the five sections is un-scored and used to pretest new
test items and forms. In addition to the five sessions, a
30-minute writing sample is administered at the end of the
test. The test is divided into the following five sections:
1 Reading Comprehension
1 Analytical Reasoning
2 Logical Reasoning
1 Experimental section (un-scored section)
It is suggested that applicants take the LSAT no later than
December for admission in the following fall’s entering class.
Recommendation Letters and Dean’s Letter/
Certification:
http://careers.mit.edu/preprof/
Applicants need at least two letters of recommendation. It
is preferable to have two academic letters, however, some
schools will accept one letter which is a non-academic
letter of recommendation.
We recommend that you ask people to write you a letter
of recommendation early in the fall of the application year,
and give them at least one month to write your letter of
recommendation. The best recommendation letter will
come from an individual who knows you best. Provide
your recommenders detailed information to ensure that
your letters will have accurate information regarding your
60 MIT Career Development Center
activities, such as dates and places you worked. If you take
responsibility in giving your recommenders solid informa-
tion in writing, you help yourself in getting solid, informative
letters of reference.
On the Letter of Recommendation Form, provided through the
LSDAS, candidates have the choice to waive their rights to
see their letter of recommendation. The assumption is that a
waived letter of recommendation is bound to be more candid.
However, please note that law schools do not hold it against
candidates if they choose to retain their rights to the letters.
A Dean’s letter or certificate provides information on
whether there have been any academic or disciplinary
action taken against the applicant during their undergrad-
uate career. This document also confirms an applicant’s
GPA and/or class rank. To obtain a letter from the Dean
of Undergraduate Education at MIT, visit the Registrar’s
Academic Records office located in room 5-119.
Pre-MBA Information
Are you considering pursuing an MBA? Self-assessment
can help you decide if an MBA is the right degree for you. It
will also help you to convince business school admissions
counselors about your motivations for wanting to earn
an MBA. Admission counselors will look for evidence of
your professional interests and how that ties into the MBA
degree as well as your leadership potential and academic
achievement. A typical MBA candidate has a few and
sometimes several years of full-time, post-undergraduate
work experience in a responsible capacity.
Informational interviewing is another powerful tool to help
you in this process by answering questions such as what
are typical MBA careers and which industries actively
recruit MBAs. The Institute Career Assistance Network
(ICAN) is a good place to get names of alumni/ae in the
specific field in which you are interested. You can access
this database online at: http://alum.mit.edu/benefits/
CareerGuidance/ICAN, click on Get Connected.
Once you have decided that an MBA is indeed right for you,
there are many things to consider when selecting a school.
Schools vary significantly on teaching strategy, financial
aid, geographic location, student population, faculty, insti-
tution, and cost of the program. Choose criteria that are
important for you and choose a school that matches it. It
is also important that you fit in with the culture of a school.
Visit http://www.mba.com and http://www.gmac.com to
gather additional information.
GMAT
The Graduate Admission Management Test (GMAT) is a
standardized assessment designed to measure the qualifi-
cations of applicants for business and management studies
programs. It assesses your verbal, mathematical and
analytical writing skills. The test consists of three sections:
(1) Analytical Writing Assessment, (2) Quantitative Section,
and 3) Verbal Section. Total GMAT scores range from
200-800. Two-thirds of test takers score between 400 and
600. See http://www.mba.com.
References
When considering references for your applications to busi-
ness school, be sure to ask people who know you very well.
The more specific they can be about your candidacy for
an MBA, the stronger will be your application. If the school
does not specify from whom you should obtain refer-
ences, try to choose people with whom you have worked in
different settings, such as previous employers.
Interview
The interview process may vary depending on the school to
which you are applying. For the most part, interviews are by
invitation only and cannot be requested. During the inter-
view, demonstrate strong interpersonal skills while you
develop a clearer feeling for the school. In preparation for
a business school interview, the MIT Career Development
Center recommends that applicants participate in a mock
interview and review the Winning Interview Techniques
workshop online, http://web.mit.edu/career/www/
workshops/interviewing.pdf.
Academic Career
Nearly half of the doctoral graduates of MIT pursue an academic
career (junior faculty position or postdoc) upon completion of
the doctoral degree. The Career Development Center offers
several services for those considering an academic career:
•   CV Workshop (offered each semester, and available 
online at http://web.mit.edu/career/www/workshops/
cv. (Also see “Related Links” on this site.)
•   Workshop on Preparing for the Academic Job 
Interview. Emphasis is on the on-site interview day
beyond the job talk. (Offered each semester.)
•   Individual advice on any aspect of the academic 
career search (call 617-253-4733 for an appointment).
•   Academic Career Series, faculty presentations on 
four different topics, co-sponsored by the Career
Development Center, Graduate Student Council, and
Postdoctoral Advisory Council. (summers) http://web.
mit.edu/provost/pds.html.
•   Bibliographies and web links on academic careers 
http://web.mit.edu/career/www/graduate/academic
careers.html.
In addition, there are services available through the MIT
Writing Center http://web.mit.edu/writing (including
opportunities to practice the job talk) and the Teaching and
Learning Laboratory http://web.mit.edu/tll.
For information about Distinguished Fellowships and
other scholarship opportunities see http://web.mit.edu/
scholarships.
Seeking a postdoctoral fellowship? See PostDoc
Resources at http://web.mit.edu/career/www/infostats/
respostdoc.html.
http://careers.mit.edu 61
Sample Statement of Research Interests
CURRENT RESEARCH
Active Control of Rotorcraft Vibration
IamcurrentlyworkingwithBoeingHelicopterstodevelopadvancedcontroltechniquesforcontrolofrotorcraft
vibration,sothatthevibrationtypicallyexperiencedbyhelicopterscanbesignificantlyreduced.MyadvisorProf.
StevenHallandhisformerdoctoralstudentsdevelopedtheX-frameactuatorforthosepurposes,andIam
workingonthedesignandimplementationoftheadvancedHigherHarmonicControl(HHC)algorithmsusingthe
X-frameactuatorforanMD-900helicopter.TheadvancedHHCincludesanintelligentanti-windupscheme,which
showsbetterperformancethantraditionaldiscreteHHC.Theintelligentanti-windupalgorithmensuresthatthe
outputsignalsfromeachcontrollerdonotsaturate,sothatmultipleHHCsystemscanbeimplementedwithout
causinganydifficulties.TheactiverotorsystemwiththeadvancedHHCalgorithmswillbeflight-testedin2003.
Active Control of Noise Radiated from Underwater Vehicles
IhaveworkedwithNorthropGrummanCorp.andMaterialsSystemsInc.todevelopnewtechnologyforthe
reductionofradiatednoisefromvibratingunderwatervehiclesusingsmartstructurestechnologies.Thisproject
hasbeenfundedbytheOfficeofNavalResearch,withanobjectiveofdeveloping“smart”underwatervehicle
systemssothattheenemycannotdetectattackinadvance.Myresponsibilityinthisprojectistodevelopthecontrol
architectureandmethodologytoreducetheradiatednoisefromvibratingstructures.Inordertoaccomplishthis,
Ihavedesignedtwodifferentcontrollerarchitectures.Thefirstoneistheassemblyoflocalcontrollers,which
areimplementedforeachsensor/actuatorpairtoreduceitsvibrationlevel.Thesecondoneisaglobalcontroller,
whichmakesthestructureaweakradiatorbycoordinatingtheactionoflocalcontrollers.Inordertoimplement
theglobalcontrollersuccessfully,Ihavedevelopedanewwavenumberdomainsensingmethodandapplieditto
thefeedbackcontrollerdesignforactivestructuralacousticcontrol.Theapproachistominimizethetotalacoustic
powerradiatedfromvibratingstructuresinthewavenumberdomain.Thenewsensingmethodgreatlysimplifies
thedesignofMIMOLQGcontrollersforactivestructuralacousticcontrolbyreducingtheefforttomodelthe
acousticradiationfromthestructureandallowingthesystematicdevelopmentofstate-spacemodelsforradiating
wavenumbercomponents.Further,Ihaveextendedtheconcepttogeneralcomplexstructures,sothatitcanbe
appliedforreducingradiatednoisefromanyvibratingstructures.Thenewsensingmethodisnumerically
validatedonathick-walledcylindricalshellwith55piezoelectricpanelsmounted.
FUTURE RESEARCH GOALS
Myfutureresearchgoalistodevelop“intelligentstructuralsystems”,fromthemicro-scales(MEMS)to
macro-scales(aerospacesystemsandunderwatervehicles),whichwillcontainarrayofsensor/actuatorpairs
andembeddeddevicesforcontrolsanddecision-makingalgorithms.Thosesystemsshouldbeabletocoordinate
largenumbersofdevicesandadaptthemselvestouncertainenvironmentalchangesinanintelligentmanner.
Forthisresearchgoal,Iwillfocusonthefollowingthreeresearchareas.First,Iwillcarryoutresearchonstructure/
fluid/controlinteractionphenomenaforcomplexsystems.Thephenomenawillbecriticaldesignissuesinthose
complexstructuralsystems,bothinmicro-andmacro-scales,sothefundamentalunderstandingofthe
phenomenaisveryimportanttosuccessfulimplementationofthestructural/acousticcontrolalgorithms.Second,
Iwillextendmyspecializationinsmartstructurestechnologiestothedevelopmentofadvancedsensorsand
actuatorsforintelligentstructuralsystems.Sincethesystemswillcontainarraysofembeddeddevices,suchas
micro-sensorsandactuators,thedevelopmentofnovelsensorsandactuatorsthatcanbecoordinatedandintegrated
withinthesystemswillbecriticalinfutureareasofresearch.Finally,Iwillcontinuemyresearchonadvanced
controlanddecision-makingalgorithmsfornoiseandvibrationreductionofcomplexstructuralsystems.Some
oftheimportantrequirementsofthealgorithmsinclude:(1)theabilitytohandlemanysensorsandactuatorsinan
efficientmanner,(2)robustnesstomodelingerroranduncertainenvironmentalchanges,(3)theabilitytomodify
theirfunctionsadaptivelyevenintheunexpectedchangeintheplantorenvironment,and(4)theabilitytodetect
thefailureintheplantandmaintaintheperformancebyreconfiguringthealgorithmarchitecture.Asmentioned
earlier,Ihavedevelopedthenovelwavenumberdomainfeedbackcontrollerdesignmethodforactivestructural
acousticcontrolofcomplexstructuralsystems,whichsatisfiesthefirstandsecondrequirements.Iwillcontinue
myresearchtoimprovetheperformanceofthemethod,andthereforetodevelop“intelligentcontroldesign
methodology”forcomplexstructuralsystems,sothatthosefourrequirementsgivenabovewillbesuccessfully
satisfied.
62 MIT Career Development Center
Mygoalinteachingisthateachandeverystudentleavesmyclassroomwithasolidunderstandingof
engineeringconceptsandasoundbackgroundtoanalyzeengineeringsystems.Istronglybelievethata
thoroughunderstandingofundergraduate/graduatecoursesismostfundamentaltoyoungengineersfor
theirfutureresearch.Myresponsibilityasinstructorwouldbetohelpstudentsacquireasolidfoundation
inthesubjectmatter,andtoencouragethemtobuildconfidenceintheirknowledgeofthecourse
material,sothattheycanapplywhattheylearnedinmyclassroomtoengineeringproblemswith
confidence.Ihaveaverystrongundergraduateandgraduateeducationinmechanics,dynamicsand
controls.Also,Ihaveextensiveresearchexperienceinstructuraldynamics,acoustics,andcontrols,
whichwouldallowmetoteachstudentsfundamentalconceptsofengineeringsystemsthoroughly.
Myprimaryinterestsinundergraduate/graduatelevelteachinglieinthefollowingareas:
UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL
•   Mechanical Vibration—Thiscoursewouldinvolvebasicintroductiontomechanicalvibration,
includingfreeandforcedvibrationofsingle-andmulti-degreeoffreedomsystems,fundamentalsof
frequencyandmodalanalysis,andapproximatesolutiontechniques.
•   Engineering Mathematics—Thiscoursewouldbeanundergraduate-levelintroductiontoengineering
mathematics,includinglinearalgebra,differentialequations,complexanalysis,LaplaceandFourier
transform, etc.
•   Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems—Thiscoursewouldinvolveintroductiontodesignoffeed-
backcontrolsystems,focusingonpropertiesandadvantagesoffeedbacksystems,time-domainand
frequency-domainperformancemeasures,stabilityanddegreeofstability,rootlocusmethod,Nyquist
criterion,andfrequency-domaindesign.
GRADUATE LEVEL
•   Advanced Structural Dynamics and Acoustics—Thiscoursewouldfirstreviewsingleandmultiple-
degree-of-freedomvibrationproblems,usingmatrixformulationandnormalmodesuperposition
methods.Then,thiswouldpresentvarioustopicsinstructuraldynamicsandacoustics,includingtime
andfrequencydomainsolution,randomvibration,vibrationandnoisemeasurementandanalysis
techniques,wavemotionsinstructures,structure/fluidinteractionproblems,andacousticradiation.
•   Control of Structures—Thiscoursewouldpresentfundamentalcontrol-structuraldynamic
interactionfromaunifiedviewpoint,applicabletoactivecontrolofflexiblestructures,andactive
structuralacousticcontrolofstructuralsystems.
•   Multivariable Feedback Control Systems—Thiscoursewouldbeanintroductiontothestate-space
approachtocontrolsystemanalysisandcontrolsynthesis,focusingondesignof“robust”controllers
formechanicalsystems,includingoptimalcontrolmethodsandtheKalmanfilter.
•   Continuous and Discrete Time Signal Processing—Thiscoursewouldprovideatheoretical
foundationofsignalprocessingtechniquesnecessaryformechanicalengineers.Thiscoursewould
focusontheanalysisandprocessingofexperimentaldata,andreal-timeexperimentalcontrolmethods,
includingLaplaceandFouriertransform,spectralanalysis,filterdesign,systemidentification.
ThesepresentgeneraltopicsandIwouldbehappytoteachmorespecificcoursesaccordingtotheneeds
ofthestudentsandthedepartment.
Sample Statement of Teaching Philosophy and Interests
http://careers.mit.edu 63
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction to the Career Development Center 2. Career Development Process
Staff Contact List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction to the Career Development Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Career Development Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Self-Assessment: Your Interests, Values and Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Exploring Your Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Focusing: Job Search Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Job Search Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Internships: Getting Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 CareerBridge Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Informational Interviewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Career Fairs/Company Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Alumni Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Community Service/Volunteering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Professional Associations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Resume Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Online Resumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Writing About Your Skills—PAR Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Sample Resumes and CVs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Differences Between a CV and Resume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Cover Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Other Career Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Preparing for an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 What Happens During the Interview? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Some Questions to Ask an Interviewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Sample Questions Asked by Employers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Behavioral and Case Interviewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Telephone Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Dress Code for Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 The Site Visit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Negotiating Salary and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 The Art of Negotiating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Choice of Major. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Global Education Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Global Education Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Study Abroad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Distinguished Fellowships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Graduate School Advising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Prehealth Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Prelaw Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Pre-MBA Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Academic Career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Sample Statement of Research Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Sample Statement of Teaching Philosophy and Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

MIT Career Development Center
Building 12-170, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 Phone: (617) 253-4733 Fax: (617) 253-8457 Web Address: http://careers.mit.edu Email: mitco@mit.edu Hours: 9:00 a.m.– 5:00 p.m., Monday–Friday

3. Internships, Jobs and Networking

Building 12-189 Phone: (617) 253-0676 Fax: (617) 452-2101 Email: studyabroad@mit.edu for Study Abroad or scholarships@mit.edu for Fellowships http://web.mit.edu/geo Hours: 9:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m., Monday–Friday

Global Education Office

Staff
Executive Director
Melanie Parker

4. Resume and Career Writing

Administrative

Camille Cottrell, Administrative Assistant/Receptionist Alyssa Tasha, Financial/Information Technology Support Representative

Career Services

5. Interviewing

Melissa Ackerman, Coordinator, Employer Relations Bob Dolan, Career Development Counselor Rachel Greenberg, Assistant Director, F/ASIP Kathleen Haggerty, Career Development Counselor Deborah Liverman, Associate Director, Career Services Bob Richard, Assistant Director, Employer Relations Jordan Siegel, Recruiting & Marketing, Employer Relations Marilyn Wilson, Senior Career Development Counselor

Preprofessional Programs

Shanell Littlejohn, Administrative Assistant Shonool Malik, Associate Director, Preprofessional Advising Tamara Menghi, Assistant Director, Preprofessional Advising Erin Scott, Counselor, Preprofessional Advising

6. Academic Pathways

Global Education Office

Kimberly Benard, Program Advisor, Distinguished Fellowships Jennifer Cook, Program Assistant Malgorzata Hedderick, Associate Dean Sarra Shubart, Program Assistant Brian Wahl, Assistant Dean

The MIT Career Development Handbook is published once a year, in September, by the Career Development Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Cover Design: Jordan Siegel

7. Advertiser Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
205 1/2 W. State Street, Suite C Geneva, Illinois 60134 630.457.1412

Rights - All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission of the publisher. © Copyright 2009 College Recruitment Media, Inc.

Computer Science and Engineering.co. Chemistry.Ê varied. We are constructing the infrastructure required to ensure complete access to high quality financial services from the most remote rural Indian village to the slums of Mumbai.D. We maintain a drug-free workplace.ifmr. As we enter our third year we are seeking more exceptional people with skills and experience in finance. and Ph. public policy.ifmr. and post-doctoral programs. Business Applications.co. We also offer internship. co-op. economics. access to finance to all.www.gov Sandia is one of the top science and engineering laboratories for national security and technology innovation. Materials Science. and more.. TheÊ challengeÊ isÊ asÊ vast. then check out www.in Do you believe that giving people the tools to change their own lives is the most viable way to change the world? www.in/challenge . levels in Electrical Engineering. Here you’ll find rewarding career opportunities for the Bachelor’s. So do we. Master’s. social science and advocacy as we continue to transform India. Systems Engineering.Ê andÊ immenseÊ asÊ IndiaÊ itself If you are ready to join us on the front line of the fight to provide Sandia is an equal opportunity employer. Mathematics. Physics. Information Systems.sandia. development. Mechanical Engineering..

graduate students. preprofessional advising.Introduction to the Career Development Center The Career Development Center is a part of the Global Education and Career Development Center (GECDC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). symposia and other networking opportunities. online career research tools.edu. Cover Letters.mit. international students and preprofessional applicants. Current workshops are listed at http://web. counseling appointments. the MIT Career Development Center presents career workshops. Our partner office at the GECDC is the Global Education Office. Many are tailored to the specific needs of undergraduates. we hold Walk-in Hours daily.mit. On a recurring basis throughout the academic year. MISSION STATEMENT The Global Education and Career Development Center empowers MIT students and alumni to achieve lifelong success through seamless access to transformative global experiences. Online pre-registration is required.html.edu) for current information on events and services.html. Our resources include career assessment. Employer Business Card Directory. comprehensive and holistic career serivices and mutually beneficial connections with employers and graduate schools. be sure to visit our website (http://careers.mit. please visit us in 12-170. call our front desk (617-253-4733) or email us at mitco@mit. Please see our website for our Walk-ins schedule: http://web.edu 3 . Topics include but are not limited to: Self-Assessment Networking Resumes. career panels. study abroad and distinguished fellowships advising.mit. edu/career/www/services/walkins. study abroad and career fairs. information sessions and workshops. fall and spring on-campus recruiting.edu/career/www/services/workshops. Also. During the academic year. Programs Overview To take advantage of our services and learn about upcoming events. and CVs Interview Techniques Job and Internship Search Researching Companies Negotiating Job Offers Applying to Graduate School http://careers.

Adapted from Jobtrak Job Search Tips where it was reprinted with permission from Change Your Job. involving sending out resumes. and negotiating job offers. 4. I can develop a job referral network. 10. I can clearly explain to employers what I do well and enjoy doing. I can list my major accomplishments in action terms. When I’m ready to find an internship or job. Krannich. Internship or Job Search Skills/Contacts 11. and thank-you notes. I can conduct research on different occupations. I have several major achievements that clarify a pattern of interests and abilities. able to identify and target potential employers. Testing Your Career Fitness. 6. interviewing. Knowledge of Employers 7. I will be The pyramid above presents a model for how to conduct a successful job search. 12. organizations and communities. 3. 14. 2. 15. I can identify my strongest abilities and skills. I know what I both like and dislike in work. I can prospect for internship or job leads. Career Development Process Career Development Pyramid Testing Your Career Fitness Self-Knowledge 1. employers. Ronald L. It begins with Self-Assessment—knowing who you are and what you want. and then culminates in the nuts-and-bolts Job Search stage. 5. 13. I know what skills I can offer employers in different occupations. T 1995. You can use this as a checklist to see how ready you currently are to conduct a successful job search. You might find it helpful to look through the following questionnaire. 9. 8. I know what motivates me to excel. 4 MIT Career Development Center . I have some ideas about what I want to do during the next [two to three] years. progresses to Focusing on specific industries and companies that appeal to you. moves on to Exploration of what’s out there in terms of interesting industries and occupati ons.Chapter 2. and as a guide to help you effectively and confidently prepare for your job search. I can produce and distribute resumes and letters to the right people. I can specify why an employer should hire me. Although the process is actually dynamic and there is movement back and forth among the different stages. internship search letters. Impact Publications. where “successful” refers to getting a job that is genuinely a good fit for you. the model suggests that a successful job search encompasses four basic steps. I can write different types of effective resumes. Change Your Life by Dr.

and skills. difficulties may arise when we find ourselves in conflict with a work situation because it clashes with our values. Do you know what your skills are? Which skills do you like to use? Just because we can do something well doesn’t mean that we enjoy doing it.edu 5 . what kind of stories would you like to write? 6. providing the essential foundation for the rest of the job search. be more motivated to learn about it. Employers especially want to know what your transferable skills are.g. We are most http://careers. ask yourself what subject areas do you know a lot about? Consider academic. and enabling you to market yourself knowledgeably and confidently. To think about your transferable skills. Below is a list of questions that may help you identify some of your interests. writing. design. likely to be comfortable and thrive in work that is compatible with our own strongly held values. e. work and vocational activities. 1. volunteer and leisure interests. you may be knowledgeable about quasars or JAVA or the plays of George Bernard Shaw. For example. What books do you browse through in bookstores? 3. subjects might include biology. If we are interested in our work. helping you to focus on organizations and careers compatible with your goals. 1) Knowledge-based skills are acquired through education. Which ones are most important to you? Least important? Which are very deep and clear? Which are more ambiguous? How do your values impact your career direction and work decisions? __ Achievement __ Advancement __ Adventure __ Balance: Work/Family __ Challenge __ Competition __ Contribute to Society __ Creativity __ Expertise __ Flexibility __ Friendship __ Helping Others __ High Salary __ Independence __ Inner Harmony __ Job Security __ Leadership __ Leisure __ Location __ Personal Growth __ Physical Activity __ Pleasure __ Precision __ Recognition __ Responsibility __ Stability __ Variety Interests Our interest in the work we do is a key motivating factor for work.mit. Three aspects that are important to consider when choosing a career are: interests. Which are your favorite courses? 4.. Here are a few exercises to help you identify both types. they give meaning and purpose to what we do. work hard. is self-assessment. On the other hand. What are your favorite objects? 7. Can you communicate your skills effectively to potential employers? It is helpful to think of two types of skills. look at the list of action verbs on Page 20. Consider the following values as they relate to work. all of which increase our chances of success and job satisfaction. architecture. Which do you enjoy? 2) Transferable skills are actions that can be carried out in different knowledge areas..G Self Assessment g At the base of our model pyramid. to which causes/issues would you give money? 5. These verbs describe skills.g. we will find it more enjoyable. Consider subject areas as well as activities. data entry and project management. or knowing yourself. The Career Development Center offers specific selfassessment inventories such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Strong Interest Inventory to students during counseling appointments. and consulting. and economics. academics. and persist through difficult challenges. If you won the lottery. if both student and counselor think it’s appropriate. since they tend to take many of their skills for granted. What sorts of information do you find most fascinating? 8. values. e. Who are your heroes? 9. What do you love to do? 2. develop relevant skills. Being able to clearly articulate these on a resume and dring an interview will promote a good fit with potential employers. How many do you have? Which do you like to use? Which would you like to develop? Are there others not on the list? Values Values are ideals and core beliefs that are important to us. What are your interests? Think broadly when you answer this question—include work. while activities could be research. What did you dream of being when you were 10? Skills Skills are learned abilities—things we do well. training and on-the-job experience. If you were a reporter. Thoughtful self-assessment streamlines the remaining steps of the job search. To think about your knowledge-based skills. Most students have far more skills than they realize.

Learn how to build your network by taking advantage of their office hours. and jobs. Get to know at least one professor well every year. their tasks. q Explore the services CDC offers such as career workshops. values. Freshman Advisors. Sophomore Year Exploring … Explore occupations that interest you. requirements.nycareerzone. q Confirm your choice of major.edu/benefits/CareerGuidance/ICAN. q Identify four to seven career fields that interest you and research how academic training supports those careers. and student activities. Career Decision Making q Start a Career Log to record your thoughts on academic coursework. organizations. Research and network career possibilities. companies or job functions. volunteer jobs. Consider a summer UROP.edu/www/infostats/resources. Create a “college accomplishments” section to record courses taken. q Meet with a Career Counselor to help identify your interests. and Counselors are for! Extracurricular Involvement Career Development Timelines For tips on how to manage your professional development at each stage of your degree program. Academics q Test your interests through coursework. q Get involved with your advisor and your department. skills and values. Explore social and academic clubs that interest you.ca •    ohn Holland’s Self-Directed Search online:  J www.masscis. skills needed •  http://careers.Once you have evaluated your interests. This log can be used to create a resume and will be helpful when you look for a summer job.html. q Talk to a career counselor about a summer job or internship in an area that interests you. Read up on the careers that interest you.uwaterloo. Additional resources on self-assessment: •    IT Career Development Center. q Attend the Choice of Major Fair in the fall. how do you put all that information together? Your interests and values will likely point you to certain industries. internships. future goals.cdm. Use the time to learn about his/her field and explore your interests in that field.mit.intocareers. Explore a second major or minor if interested.mit. use the timeline below (if you are an undergaduate) or see Masters. mit. q Develop a resume to use both on. or public service projects. Self-assessment is a lifelong practice.and off-campus. Knowledge of your skills will help you determine if those industries. Join at least one extracurricular activity.com/mit/student. and mock interviews.com •    areer Zone: general interests and related jobs  C (Holland categories): www. q Sign up to become a registered user of CareerBridge. q Get involved in dorm activities. your interests and values are likely to shift. q Ask for help if you need it! That is what Resident Assistants.edu/career/www/ workshops/finding •    niversity of Waterloo online Career Development  U Manual. You can return to this pyramid to help you move confidently into new areas of work and career.jsp •    pencer Stuart Organizational Culture Match  S Test: http://www.spencerstuart.self-directed-search. UROPs. see: https://www. one that most people will return to again and again over the course of their professional careers. Freshmen are expected to pick a major in April.com/yourcareer/ resources/services/730 •  www.   html has a comprehensive list of links to a wide range of career resources q Meet your professors. student organizations. Meet with a Career Counselor to discuss majors as they relate to careers.myinterfase. As you gain work experience and your skills grow. Academics Freshman Year Adjusting … Get to know yourself. Arrange informational interviews with alumni working in those fields.mit.org/ graphic/assessment/index. resume critiques. Schedule at least two meetings per semester with your advisor. Find out what activities and services are offered to undergraduates in your department. honors/awards. and careers. Self-Assessment  M Workshop: http://web.com For descriptions   of various occupations. and skills. but you may remain “Undecided” until sophomore year. Explore your academic and extracurricular interests and your future goals. Self-Assessment: www.edu/ career/www/graduate/timelines. Update your Career Log throughout your college career. Teaching Assistants. 6 MIT Career Development Center . and job opportunities are likely to offer you work you can skillfully do or learn to do and will enjoy doing. extracurricular and volunteer activities. Doctoral and Postdoc versions at http://web. http://alum.

and professionals. Use your Career Log entries to help you prioritize career choices. q Post an updated resume on CareerBridge. q Devote a significant amount of time to finding a summer job or internship or UROP in a field related to your future career goals. career related events/forums.edu . q Network with parents. http://web. career fairs. q Learn how to build your network and cultivate mentors. q If you have not yet done a UROP. To meet with Global Education advisors see: http://web. seriously consider doing one now. q Explore opportunities to gain relevant work experience.edu/ scholarships. q If you are planning to attend graduate or professional school. and creative projects.edu/career/www/events/careerfairs. q Make sure to keep up your grades. To meet with our Fellowships advisor see: http://web. q Continue to explore your values. 7 Academics q Choose electives that enhance your learning and career goals. q Attend career and internship fairs to gather information on different industries and companies. q Update your Career Log.mit.mit. q Attend workshops and programs sponsored by CDC to build your career management skills.q Electives can give you the opportunity to explore a second major or minor as well as to develop a personal interest. q Talk with professionals in your field about job search techniques and opportunities. Keep track of contacts! q Update your Career Log. q Attend meetings of student professional organizations. q Visit CDC early in the fall semester to sharpen your job search skills and to take advantage of on-campus recruiting. q Shop for business attire so you can “dress for success” in interviews. See http://web. http://web. to develop skills and help you explore areas of interest. q Volunteer. q Learn about Distinguished Fellowship and Scholarship opportunities available to students in various fields. q Send for career materials from professional associations and consider joining one as a student member. q Apply to Distinguished Fellowships and Scholarships if appropriate for you. q Continue developing relationships with faculty. externships. or on a class project. Consider targeting your electives to make you more versatile and employable. and talking to alums. and skills through involvement with clubs. gather all application forms and write a statement of purpose. Prioritize your interests. friends. and others. UROPS and summer jobs. begin to research your options. UROPs. alumni. q Explore options and desires to attend graduate or professional school. campus organization. Also discuss with a counselor effective ways to use web-based job and internship services. Identify who will serve as references for graduate school or employment. for example: internships.mit.html. Conduct informational interviews with people in fields that interest you and record notes in your Career Log.mit. Keep in touch with previous teachers and advisors. Draft your job search or graduate school strategy. Consider assuming a leadership role in your dorm. q Meet with an advisor before spring to discuss graduate school admissions and testing processes. edu/career/www/events/workshops. and volunteer activities. edu/scholarships. q Arrange a mock interview at CDC to practice interviewing skills. Consider one to three years of work experience first to enhance learning. student organizations. Visit CDC and have your resume and cover letters critiqued. Graduate schools and some employers may want to see your final semester grades. q Meet with a Career Counselor to create a job or graduate school search strategy. q Act on your interests. Most jobs are found through networking. interests. Extracurricular Involvement Extracurricular Involvement Senior Year Transitioning…Develop skills you need to accomplish your goals and thrive in life after MIT. Get involved! This will help you gain skills including teamwork and public speaking. q If interested in studying abroad. q Practice networking while getting career information at company presentations. Career Decision Making http://careers.html. q Explore opportunities for research. q Tailor your resume to each position for which you are applying and write compelling cover letters. Academics Junior Year Experiencing…Get experience through internships and summer jobs.mit. Take an active role in an extracurricular activity and explore new ones.edu/goglobal. faculty. Career Decision Making Career Decision Making q Update your resume and post it on CareerBridge. mit. graduate students.

values.9% 16.learnwebskills. your ideal work.2% 18. q Let the CDC know what you are up to for next year by completing the Graduating Student Survey.gov/oco O •    *Net Online: http://online.5% Doctoral 19. Having this insight makes a huge difference during interviews. Attend seminars regarding finances. q Enjoy the end of your senior year and graduation.9% 16. Researching organizations that interest you helps you decide which companies might offer a good fit for your occupational goals and interests. friends. occupations in: •    ccupational Outlook Handbook: www.edu and ICAN website: •    hat are alumni from your major doing?  W •    rom other majors? F •    ho are they working for? W 4) Talk to business/industry people: •    alk with your advisor and faculty about opportunities  T for people with your academic training •    ttend student association events sponsored by  A various departments T •    ake part in career fairs •    onduct informational interviews with people in occuC pations and organizations that interest you Extracurricular Involvement q Think about your first year after graduation. q Analyze job offers based upon the goals and values that you documented in your Career Log.5% .3% 24. work/life balance.7% 7. Visit CDC where a Career Counselor can help you walk through this decision. especially those done by family.1% 1.9% 2. q Read relevant periodicals and trade journals to understand current issues in your field. acquaintances and others.7% 1.com/mit/ student G Focusing— Job Search Strategies g Focus on some industries and occupations that appeal to you.0% Masters 37. it is essential preparation prior to interviewing effectively with a company.7% . and long-term goals. For an in-depth discussion on how to research a company see www.1% 8.onetcenter.2% MIT Career Development Center .q Identify three references and ask permission to use their names.mit.9% 15.5% 10.html.8% 36.6% 28.6% 7. and research them in greater depth.bls.4% 5.shtml •    ewspapers and magazines N •    rade magazines and newsletters T •    areer books and career websites C 2) Notice the jobs around you. for example: www.7% 3.4% 22.9% 10.org O •    etFeet Career Guides (available through  W CareerBridge) https://www.8% 27. It may help to talk about these things with your friends and people whose opinions you value. How 2008 MIT Graduates Found Their Jobs On-campus recruiting Networking Internship led to job offer Career fair Professional conference Contacts acquired through MIT Career Development Center Through department (faculty.9% 14.com/ W careers/all. In addition. office politics. proximity to family and friends. Think expansively and creatively! 1) Read about industries. Ask people about: •    heir career path T •    ow they feel about their work H •    hat tips and advice do they have to offer W 3) Browse the MIT Alumni Directory on: http://alum.myinterfase. Congratulations! G Exploring Your Options: Knowing What’s Out There g Here are some suggestions for how you can learn about the enormous range of industries and occupations available to you.com/ company/index. academic administrator) Directly applied to employer Advertised job listing (online. organizations. q Start thinking about practical life after MIT. etc. print) Other 8 Undergrad 43.7% 2. •    ebsites.9% 5. managing stress. lifestyle.9% 22.7% 33.4% 28. q Prepare for interviews by attending an Interview Workshop and doing a mock interview at CDC. Project your needs and create a realistic budget.collegegrad.

Three job search methods are described: Traditional. •    areerBridge—on-campus recruiting:  C https://www. and http://www.myinterfase.” These databases provide detailed information about a company’s investment status..edu and http://libguides. Below are some tips for how to go about finding job opportunities. MIT alumni directory T Researching Companies You are able to find many helpful details you need about a company by using the various MIT libraries and online resources at http://libraries. You can access business databases and directories for specialized industry and economic research by going to the MIT Libraries’ Vera service at http://libraries. organizations and agencies as potential employers. Sample of listings: •    BI/INFORM Global A •    loomberg B •    usiness Source Elite B •    orptech C H •    oovers Online •    /B/E/S I I •    nfoTech Trends I •    nvestext Plus •    SI Emerging Markets I http://careers.edu •    upiter Communications J •    exisNexis Academic L •    orningstar Principia Pro Plus M •    eference USA R •    euters R •    euters Business Insight R •    DC Platinum S •    AQ T •    homson Research T •    entureXpert Web V •    ankee Group Reports Y For a video tutorial on how to use these databases.g. and narrowed your search to a few target industries and companies. products and markets. Standard & Poor’s  D Corporation Records •    alk to employees: network. Using the Hidden Job Market.google. There. company culture V •    rganizational structure. Traditional Job Search You can apply for advertised job vacancies by checking out the following locations. journals.edu/vera.. your interests and jobs.g. WetFeet Career Guides. G Job Search Action Plan g Once you have completed your self-assessment. history of organization N •    eographical locations. edu/companies. CorpTech..mit. talk to him/her about the company. any new developN ments. e. http://www.com.html.What you should know about a company: •    ize of organization (comparison to other  S companies in industry) •    umber of years in business.mit. MIT Libraries offers “career research workshops” to introduce you to electronic and print resources for researching companies.org.Directories 9 . explored different industries and fields. climate O •    urrent financial condition C •    nnual sales growth for past five years A •    ompetition C •    eputation R •    uture outlook F •    ews stories about company. trends Where can you learn about companies and organizations? •    ompany websites C •    nnual reports: contact companies for copies of these A •    rade associations: print and web materials T •    ews articles about companies and executives:  N newspapers.com) •    nline references: e. You can also use the databases to generate lists of leads.mit. bulletin boards—e.  O available through CareerBridge •    irectories: e.mit. journals (use online search engines. •    o any MIT alumni/ae work for the company? D •    alk to people in your network—does anyone know  T anyone who works for the company? •    esearch to identify the name of someone you can  R contact . and Networking. www. publications N •    ompany websites  C •    nternet jobsites. select “Business & Management. management. the electrical engineering association’s website •    istservs L •    otices from MIT Department Administrators N •    mployment agencies E •    ead hunters H Hidden Job Market Many positions are never advertised so how can you find out about them? Target employers that interest you and identify someone who works for each. a pharmaceutical industry site.g.edu/tutorials/video/index. clientele P •    ge and background of top management A •    alues. see http://libraries. you are ready to enter the final stage of the job search—identifying and applying for jobs.Company/organization website .ieee. from the List by Subject menu. I Medzilla..com/mit/student •    ewspapers.g. corporate headquarters G •    roducts and services.mit.

occupations. skills and expertise required. file folders. Alumni Directory . emails. palm pilot. suggestions for future 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 10 MIT Career Development Center .google.g.. It involves talking to as many people as possible about your job search. letters P •    otes about conversations N •    dditional contacts offered A •    deas to pursue I Industries and companies of interest and your research findings Advertised jobs. trends. lessons learned.Company Annual Reports . you must gather information and seek advice about professions.com Approach the employer •    onduct informational interviews and network C •    sk for names of people you might talk with in areas of  A the company that particularly interest you •    end a letter of inquiry to a company even if you do not  S know of an advertised position Networking Networking is the most effective method of finding a job. fields. opportunities V Record Keeping/Action Planning Organize your job search. CorpTech) for organizations/ C companies located there. contact information D •    otes on all conversations. Offer to help the people who are helping you—become an active part of their network. Long Distance Job Search Use resources to help you identify organizations and companies of interest in your desired location. Keep track of: 1) 2) Job search ideas Schedule of what you need to do and when: •    ob application deadlines J •    etworking meetings N •    ollow-up calls to make F •    nterviews scheduled I T •    hank-you notes to be sent out Records of all contacts made and networking leads: •    ame N •    ates of all actions D •    ontact information C •    eferred by whom R •    hone calls. scheduler. Use an electronic diary.. ring binder. and to find people from that area with whom you can network: •    heck directories (e. relevant research.Alumni Clubs •    ontact national. Get referrals to others who may expedite your job search. email correspondence N •    opy of cover letters. database. computer reminders. Networking is expanding your network of professional associates and acquaintances by connecting to other people’s network of associates and acquaintances. research company websites •    tudy local newspapers. resumes sent C •    esults R Reflections. regional and local professional  C associations •    isit.ICAN. Networking is a two-way street. job postings S •    etwork and conduct informational interviews N •    earch for alumni in your industry/areas of interest S .News articles—search http://www. Rolodex. When networking. It can be part of a traditional job search as well as searches using the hidden job market. Find a method that works for you. learn about employment trends. records of all related actions Jobs applied for: •    esearch on the organization R •    ates of all actions.

mit. and explore companies that could become potential employers. Jobs and Networking Internships: Getting Experience Internships and summer jobs give you an opportunity to apply academic concepts in practice. Participating students work with MIT faculty and research staff in a wide variety of investigative projects. students who participate in these programs: •    o better in school D •    re more likely to graduate A •    re ahead in preparation for their field A •    re viewed as better candidates in job interviews A •    eceive more job offers R •    arn higher starting salaries E •    re more likely to get the job with the employer they  A want after graduation Other benefits of Internships and Experiential Education Programs include developing transferable skills such as: communication.Chapter 3. This seminar cultivates professional skills. The program’s goal is to teach valuable career planning and job skills that will be useful at MIT and beyond. All applicants must submit an application form. Reports from a variety of sources show that. including application materials and deadlines. students can learn the valuable technical and collaborative skills necessary for future occupations.mit.edu MIT’s Freshman/Alumni Summer Internship Program (F/ASIP) is a graded seminar (SP. or what skills they need in order to be successful in their chosen field. You will find more information online at http://alum. http://careers. gain marketable job experience. at urop@mit. Current undergraduate and graduate MIT students are welcome to apply to the Externship Program. interpersonal diversity.mit. Those who think they know may not know how to get where they want to be. assists first-year students in finding summer internships. the experience in an internship can be extremely valuable. if you are work-study eligible you may be able to negotiate a salary at the nonprofit of your choice. UROP is MIT’s flagship academic program. and to explore possible future occupations.mit. Some internships in industry and in the executive area of government pay a reasonable stipend. you will need to start your job search process at least six months to a year in advance. and pairs them with MIT alumni mentors at their internships. Either paid or unpaid. Interested students should submit their F/ASIP application in the summer preceding their freshman year. Student/Alumni Externship Program The Alumni Association’s Student/Alumni Externship Program gives students a chance to meet and work with alumni. While most UROP projects take place on campus. resume and personal statement about their desire to participate. For more information about the program. and methods for tackling problems. ethics. or contact UROP staff in Room 7-104. The experiential learning and skills acquired from internships and/or research experience on a resume make you more marketable. UROP is a widely recognized program and employers look upon participation favorably. and technical knowledge. social responsibility.801) that provides participating freshmen with career development training. compared to the average. Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) Established in 1969. a propensity for hard work. If you are seeking an internship overseas. Many in the nonprofit sector pay little or nothing.edu.edu or (617) 253-7306. Students join alumni in their workplace during the January Independent Activities Period (IAP) and get a first-hand look at a profession. For more information. teamwork. These alumni share a learning-by-doing philosophy. 11 . selfmanaged learning. critical thinking. depending on the countries that you will be applying to. The first step is to explore and experience a field through one of MIT’s many Experiential Education and Internship Programs. Internships. MIT offers a variety of programs and some have submission deadlines in the fall semester. Freshman/Alumni Summer Internship Program (F/ASIP) MIT’s Opportunities for Experiential Learning and Internships Most students are unsure of what they want to do for a profession. across all disciplines. however. (617) 252-1143 or visit the Alumni Center in W98-2nd Floor.edu/fasip. change management.edu/students/ NetworkwithAlumni/ExternshipProgram or contact the Alumni Association at externship@mit. consult the UROP web site http://web. leadership.800/SP.edu/urop/. please visit the F/ASIP website at http://web. information technology. They also help educate students on what it takes to survive and thrive in the workplace.

self-awareness. France. Imagine joining a team of engineers at BMW in Munich. com/mit/student/   •   Net Internship Network: internships available to  i students from eight universities.Eng. Undergraduate Practice Opportunities Program (UPOP) UPOP is a full-year educational program for School of Engineering sophomores administered by the Office of the Dean of Engineering and serving as the first year of the three-year Gordon-MIT Engineering Leadership Program. Do not automatically restrict your search to the Boston area or your hometown—a summer job away from MIT and from home can be fun and broadening. Some companies will help you find housing. designing a Japanese robot. http://www. Germany. when students work in the offices of government agencies. including MIT: http://web.edu. The summer practicum component of UPOP includes a hands-on internship with coaching before. N idealist. nonprofit organizations.com   •    ederal Government Internships: http://www. alums. government agencies. VI-A work assignments are available at both domestic and international locations.mit. Program coordinators work with students to match their skills and interests with MISTI’s partners—hundreds of the world’s leading companies. conflict resolution.edu   •    onprofit Internships and Information: http://www. MISTI connects MIT students to hands-on professional internships and research around the globe. Japan. Some will offer housing at a local college. the private sector.mit. The core of the program is focused on the summer months.gov.edu/career/www/inet/   •    onsterTrak no longer provides our CDC On- and  M Off-Campus Recruiting System. Israel. 12 MIT Career Development Center . Ask if you might interview with them when they are on campus. India. The UPOP professional practice workshop during January’s Independent Activities Period (IAP) covers topics in team decision making. Here are some helpful links to find opportunities:   •    IT Career Development Center Internship  M Information http://web. and advocacy groups. MISTI makes it possible.monstertrak.gov   •    nternships Abroad: see The Big Guide to Living and  I Working Overseas.mit.edu/misti. participants learn first-hand how innovation happens around the world and cultivate skills that make their resumes leap off the screen. or tackling a research problem at the Curie Institute. check out various online housing listings. MIT Washington DC Summer Internship Program The Washington DC Summer Internship Program provides technically sophisticated undergraduates the opportunity to apply their scientific and technical training to public policy issues.org   •    obweb articles on Internship Searching: http:// J www.mit.mit. For more information see http://upop. from our CDC homepage: http://careers. Mexico and Spain.edu/summerwash/www.html   •    areerBridge: see “Job Search” and “On-Campus  C Recruiting Schedules” https://www. With language and cultural preparation. If you need to find a place to live for the summer in another city. This immersive learning experience lets students integrate their academic work in math and engineering science through application in the world of work.aspx?folderid=86 Write to companies that recruit at MIT for full-time positions and express your interest in an internship. research labs and NGOs. The experiential learning modules are led by MIT faculty from the School of Engineering and the Sloan School of Management with the help of industry professionals. Over 300 MIT students intern each year through MISTI programs in China.com/students.studentjobs. negotiation. but it still offers job and internship opportunities for students in general: see http://www.Eng.myinterfase. Thesis Program The VI-A M. testing solar panels in Israel.mit. and networking.mit.MIT International Science & Technology Initiatives (MISTI) for which they will receive 12 units of credit upon completion. F usajobs.edu/career/www/jobs/ internships. other universities. All expenses are paid. For more information see http://via. Pleas see http://web. Thesis Program enables EECS students to combine classroom studies with serious professional work experience in industry with competitive salaries through a series of leading-edge technology jobs with participating companies. and outside consultants who volunteer as mentor-instructors to groups of 7-9 students. The VI-A program is designed to work in conjunction with the EECS five-year Master of Engineering degree program culminating in an industry-based master’s thesis. VI-A M.edu/ Other Internship Programs and Resources Internships may be offered at companies.jobweb. These relationships often endure beyond the workshop sessions and help to establish a foundation for the student’s professional network. during and after the assignment. Complementing the summer internships are a trip to Washington DC during spring break and academic exercises.opm. product design. Italy. Go now! Visit http://web. and advocacy groups. They may like your initiative and interview you. Participating students are required to attend a seminar on the policymaking process during the late spring and early fall. leadership.

http://careers.mit.edu 13 .

14 MIT Career Development Center .

Once you are comfortable with your ‘pitch’.. increasing your chances of promotion and perhaps finding your next job. service professionals (doctors. “What are the employment prospects in this field?” or “Are you active in any professional organizations in our field and which would you recommend?” If appropriate. community members. Your networking meeting should include the following elements: introduction. classmates. You should outline an agenda that includes well-thought-out questions. Though initially. Start by networking with people you know such as family. Use an email subject line that will be clear and encourage your reader to open the email—you might write something like “Question from an MIT Student. This is how you get to see first hand the type of company and work that you really want to do. Never abuse your privilege by asking for a job. career  P fairs Step 2: Prepare and Practice Your Script Prepare a brief introductory script. •  Family (parents. finding suitable mentors. even with your aunt’s best friend. students. Practice by telling as many people in the above http://careers. The focus of networking is to meet many people in your field and find out more about the jobs they do. faculty.” Then proceed with more general questions such as. aunts. you can try to call the person directly to set up an informational interview at a later date. You can then start contacting these people by phone or email.. I received your name from your company’s recruiting representative. The first networking email may be like a mini cover letter.edu . Right now I am trying to learn more about the actual experience of people working in these areas. The benefits of networking include learning more about career options. support and advice about your career and the job market. uncles.mit. siblings. self-overview.” Informational Interviewing Step 3: Arrange an Informational Interview This script then forms the basis of an email that you might write to someone with whom you would like to have an informational interview. dentists). “Describe a typical day in your department.Networking Networking Defined A professional network can be defined as people you know who can provide leads. I am due to graduate from MIT in 6 months time. Do they know of anyone in a related area of work or study who you might talk to? Networking etiquette requires that you do not ask for a job. David Jones who suggested that I contact you. “Do you know anyone I could speak with in order to find out more about the field?” If you have found the contact person through another person your script might be: “My name is Sandra Chee. I am studying biological sciences and David thought that. teachers. you might be able to tell me a bit about it. Talk to them about what you want to do. alumni) •  Community associates (religious affiliates. list as you can. The art of informational interviewing is in knowing how to balance your ultimate agenda (to locate a job) with the unique opportunity to learn firsthand about the demands of your field. as you are doing work in this field. Ask whether they know of any companies or organizations doing the types of things that interest you. Always approach the experience as asking for advice rather than looking for work. Could you spare some time to speak with me about the current trends and opportunities in this field?” Or .” If you prefer. industry receptions. but execute your informational interviews skillfully. Q & A. and neighbors. Prepare for your informational interviews just as you would for an actual job interview: polish your presentation and listening skills. Be courteous and professional at all times. coworkers) •    rofessional associations. alumni. start asking if they know of anyone who you should contact. increased visibility within your field. it is a skill that can be learned and mastered by following the practical guidelines below. neighbors) •  Work contacts (supervisors. obtaining referrals and closing. They can help you tap the vast majority of jobs that are never advertised. friends. I hope to ultimately apply my degree to product and inventory management. This should be a oneminute summary of your interests. venture into a series of 15 Step 1: Identify Your Network Start by listing everyone you know who is a potential prospect. cousins) •  Friends •  School contacts (faculty. For this reason. Begin your interview with questions that demonstrate your genuine interest in the other person such as. and a job may follow. you may feel uncomfortable about the notion of networking. goals and your needs right now. and conduct preliminary research on the organization. networking needs to be an integral part of your job search. propelling your professional development. David also thought that you might be able to give me some names of other people or companies that I could approach for a possible informational interview (or summer internship). A script will sound something like: “I am in my junior year at MIT and have a particular interest in Engineering Logistics.

. Follow-up: There are two main methods of follow-up. Listen carefully to their answers. Some suggest calling the recruiter within a day or two of the fair and leaving a voicemail message thanking the recruiter again for his/her time. Make networking part of your long-term career plan. This is a tremendous opportunity for students to meet a wide variety of employers. Take time to survey the layout of the fair and determine where your “ideal” employers are located. Keep in mind that career fairs should be just one small part of your entire job search process. Always remember to send a thank-you letter to every person who grants you time and to every individual who refers you to someone. Also. It is better to have a few meaningful conversations than 50 hasty introductions. career fairs are organized and run by a number of student organizations. be sure to wear a nametag and collect or exchange business cards so you can later contact the people you meet. Some may simply believe in encouraging newcomers to their profession and others may be scoping out prospects for anticipated vacancies. Recite your brief script and prepare some questions just as you would for any employment interview. Before asking questions. Here are some useful tips to help make the most of your career fair experience. but do not try to talk to everyone. make eye contact. Attire: Conservative business attire is essential. Be Proactive: You may only have three minutes to market yourself so be sure to make the most of your time. Start with the basics: approach the company representative in a friendly manner. Did you go to MIT? (Whether or not) What did you major in? 3. “What do I need to do to obtain a second interview with your firm?” Obtain a business card or contact information for representatives of organizations that interest you. The MIT Career Development Center holds an annual career week in the fall to prepare students for the Career Fair. circulate and meet people. Know what is the expected attire of your profession and dress accordingly. In a group setting. Questions to Ask Employers at a Career Fair Career Fairs/Company Presentations Career Fairs are a great way to connect with potential employers. Another tactic would be to write a thank-you note/email and send it the next day to the address on the recruiter’s business card. Do not read from this list. What motivates professionals to grant informational interviews? The reasons are varied. particularly. Refer to ‘Record Keeping’ on page 10 for guidelines about implementing a job search action plan. It is always better to be overdressed than underdressed. and show enthusiasm. At MIT. These are intended as examples of kinds of questions you could ask.questions that place the employer in the advice-giving role. such as. The content of the note should include thanking the recruiter for his/her time and restating your interest and qualifications for the position. Be courteous and be sure to thank them before closing the conversation. Resumes: Bring more than you think you will need—at least two for each organization. however. introduce yourself and establish rapport with the company reps. Many professional groups hold public career fairs which are advertised through newspapers.g. What do you do at your company? 4. what does your company do?). You will want to stay in touch with contacts over the long haul—not just when you need something. Be Dedicated to Networking: Most importantly. giving advice. Keys to Career Fair Success Research: Have a plan of attack for the fair. The most common question you will face is something along the lines of “what are you here for today?” A great follow-up question for you to ask is. offer a firm handshake. Keep a list of your contacts and update it frequently with the names of any leads given to you. It is common for professionals to exchange favors and information. most people enjoy sharing information about themselves and their jobs and. they can be a successful part. “What should the most important consideration be in my first job?” Be sure to ask for referrals to other professionals. so do not hesitate to call upon people. Keep track of your networking meetings and be proactive with follow up. Send a thank-you note or email if appropriate. Does your company hire on a continual basis or only at certain times of year? 16 MIT Career Development Center . You could also ask their opinion about your resume. Your questions should be natural. Where do MIT grads typically work in your company? 2. Research the companies and organizations you are interested in and see if any new companies have registered when you arrive at the fair. networking should be ongoing. they may be aware that some day the tables may be turned and you could become a helpful element of their networking. If you are at a reception. 1. Generally. Try not to ask questions that could easily be answered by the company’s website (e. How long have you worked there? 5.

mit.edu.edu/career/www/jobs/proforg. email or meet in person.mit. The person you are networking with may not have a job opening.html. Through their various activities and services (meetings. or five years from now? 15.edu/benefits/ CareerGuidance/ICAN provides tips for making the contact. websites. As an entry-level employee.edu/mitpsc. You can communicate with them by telephone. Try to personally meet the representatives and ask thoughtful questions to gain information about the industry in general and their company specifically. Refer to MIT’s Public Service Center for ideas: http://web. and leadership skills to use while giving back to the community. publications.mit. To students (for whom time and money may be in short supply). How long does your hiring process take? 7.mit. Are graduate degrees important? In what areas within your company? 11. These may be followed by a reception for attendees.6. They can be particularly helpful if you need to create a long-distance network to help you conduct a longdistance job search.mit. but he or she may know someone who is hiring. and a bibliography of recommended career-related publications. conferences. http://web. job opportunities. Professional Associations Professional Associations can be an excellent resource for job seekers.edu 17 . inexpensive. How many years do entry-level employees typically work for your company? What is your retention rate? 16. Do you expect employees to relocate? The ICAN website http://alum.) professional associations provide information about career fields. teamwork. and employers in the professions they serve. Company Presentations MIT hosts employer panels and company presentations. You can also write to: ICAN@mit.edu or visit the Alumni Center in W98-2nd Floor. The key is to exchange information and then expand your network by obtaining additional referrals each time you meet someone new. To use the online database students must register for an Infinite Connection account at http://alum. What are your company’s major goals in the next few years? 10. 7 days a week!) access to: •    nformation about career options and industry/ I professional trends in various fields.mit. conducting a successful informational interview.edu/help/virtualref. Is there a GPA cut-off for your recruiting process? 13. Are there particular personality traits you look for? 9. •    rofessional contacts: their members form a network  P of people who are often willing to assist others in career exploration •    ob listings  J To learn about professional organizations in your field or in other fields you wish to explore. accessible (24 hours a day. What are the most important qualifications your company looks for in an employee? 8. Also consult the MIT Libraries Virtual References at http:// libraries.000 MIT alumni who are willing to share their experiences and offer advice about career paths. It includes more than 3. Alumni Association Resources Alumni Directory and the Institute Career Assistance Network (ICAN) The Institute Career Assistance Network (ICAN) is a searchable database of alumni who volunteer their time as career advisors. what kind of career advancement opportunities would be open to me in two. the websites of professional associations offer easy.edu/career/www/events/presentations. For a comprehensive list of professional associations go to: http://web. ask your advisor or other faculty members. What kinds of courses do you suggest in order to be a successful candidate? 12. What kinds of entry-level positions exist within your organization that would be open to someone with my background? 14.mit. etc. Representatives from the leading industries and companies present on the trends of that industry and the opportunities that one can pursue within the industry. interviewing and specific companies. Community Service/Volunteering Put your communication.html lists the company presentations. http://careers.

 Employers assume  R that “references are available upon request. Ask yourself. and vocabulary. Give evidence of your personal impact: show not only that you completed tasks but that you contributed to organizational goals. e. Presentation Checklist •    o not use a Microsoft Word resume template. and initiative.” so leave this phrase off. Resume and Career Writing Resume Guidelines Your resume should be a concise summary of the high points of your education. religious or political affiliations. include this if readers might have reason to think otherwise. •    e honest and accurate. or excellent. do not provide an extensive list of courses. ‘Leadership’. it is a good idea to exclude data relevant to  G salary expectations. with these abilities. and phone number at the top of the  P page.. Do enough research about the employer and the field to decide which messages are most important to your audience. •    hoose topic headings that invite your readers’  C interest. •    ake the page easy to scan and graphically pleasing:  M leave sufficient white space. •    elect a format that suits your qualifications. marital and health status. D •    e consistent and use the same grammatical style  B throughout.” •    void stilted or confusing language. which may not suit what you have to say. and it creates their first impression of you.” Describe your accomplishments effectively and let readers decide for themselves that you are well qualified. high school graduation for a college graduate). as my past record demonstrates. and staff supervised. (See “Action  U Verbs. It communicates your professional qualifications to employers. •    ive examples that demonstrate desirable personality  G traits such as leadership. include classes that have been most Format Style Content •    roofread to eliminate all spelling. repeat your name at the top. may use bullets to emphasize your  A credentials.  A “Would I talk like that?” •    o not use the first person I or any pronouns. ‘Skills’. It is a marketing tool and an introduction to you and your experiences. F •    se 8 1/2˝ x 11˝ paper. printed on one side only. and  P grammatical errors. •    se a laser printer.” •    void repeating words or phrases.g. •    enerally.” •    nclude marketable and/or relevant data only. •    inimize personal information and omit unrelated  M memberships. •    ont size should be 10-12 points. work experience. and information that is repetitive. hiring criteria. address.. ‘Activities/ Honors’ rather than “employment” or “other. interpersonal facility. not a complete history of your life. use two pages if you have an  S advanced degree or extensive experience (10+ years). age. or out-of-date. •    ighlight skills. None of  D them scan well. for  I example. sentences. MIT Career Development Center 18 . B •    onvey through the style and content of your resume  C an understanding of your audience’s needs. but not overly modest. •    se action verbs and strong adjectives. and phrases  L such as “Duties included / Hired to / Project involved. •    eferences are usually omitted. A •    eave out unnecessary words.”) •    ake it future or present oriented. teamwork.g. capabilities. Here are some guidelines to help you do this: important in your education and are most relevant to the type of work you seek.Chapter 4. punctuation.  C budget. If you have a second page. such as Arial or  I Times New Roman. U •    t is safe to use a conservative font. Do not  S automatically follow someone else’s. suggesting that “I  M am this kind of person. implicit (e. to interest them in interviewing you. •    ite numbers to convey size and/or scale of project. and geographic descriptions. •    se bold face sparingly for headings and employer  U information •    ut name.  A outstanding. accomplishments. ‘Experience’. •    void self-flattering terms such as “highly skilled. and communicate these messages succinctly and clearly in a visually appealing format. If you are a US citizen or hold a permanent resident visa. and other qualifications relevant to your audience’s needs and to your employment interests. U •    tick to one page. and  H work experience. U •    se high quality resume paper. •    void underlining. priorities.

7. The essential keywords are specified by each employer for each position. •    roofread one more time to ensure correct spelling and  P punctuation. Most importantly. http://careers. Typographical. gain the respect of our most capable peers. Boston. interests. Too long. friend. Customize each resume to each position you seek (when possible). Keep it simple with clean lines and white space. but avoid exotic types. avoid use of jargon. 9.edu Our diverse team members include engineers. be specific about skills. Simpson Gumpertz & Heger is a national. GPA. Too fancy. CA. New Museum of Contemporary Art. Irrelevant information. or arrogance. binders. Take advantage of your rich vocabulary and avoid repeating words. Our goals are simple: to earn the lasting trust of our clients. San Francisco. children. skills.Give dates describing related work experience. Electronic resumes should include appropriate industry keywords and use a font size between 10-12 points. New York. Do not include marital status.sgh. From left clockwise: Griffith Observatory. Keep a log of keywords that apply to your occupation and industry. 6. colored paper. •    ailor your resume to the specific qualifications of the job  T for which you are applying and/or to the specific employer. and memberships. and further the standards of practice in all areas of our profession. grammatical. DC www. Make your resume as dynamic as possible. height. accomplishments. Los Angeles. The employer needs to feel that you are interested in that particular position with his or her company. church membership.sgh. Have at least two people proofread your resume. and rehabilitates structures and building enclosures. NY. or someone unfamiliar with  A your background to review your resume for clarity and effectiveness. To learn more about SGH and current job opportunities. 3. Restrict your resume to one page. The resume showcases your qualifications in competition with the other applicants. Tweak each resume according to the job description. Hard to read. Jean Yawkey Place. falsification. architects. accomplishments and activities. CA.com Boston Los Angeles New York San Francisco Washington. Begin every statement with an action verb. health. Use italics and bolding sparingly. MA. Obviously generic. Online Resumes Though scanning technology and practices vary and are constantly changing. especially the first word in a section. Not enough information.com 19 . Too verbose. such as dates of  I graduation. and many other technical professionals. weight. scientists.mit. You want to fill your resume with as many of these words as possible. include education and work experience. 2. These leaders provide quality of service and team continuity to support our long term client relationships. major. Do not fold or staple the resume. Use active verbs to describe what you have accomplished in past jobs. but emphasize relevant experience. etc. investigates. and graphics.Final Edit •    sk a counselor. 8. award-winning engineering firm that designs. The Top 10 Pitfalls in Resume Writing 1. Too static. Of course. photographs. Say as much as possible with as few words as possible. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package in a corporate culture based on learning and growth. age. though you should always check with the employer requirements regarding format. Put your best foot forward without misrepresentation. etc. Companies that pick up many resumes at career fairs may use scanning technology. China Basin Landing. Too modest. You can only make reasonable assumptions about what a specific employer will ask for. our highly qualified staff members are led by principals and project managers who average 20 years of employment with SGH. Of course. 5. use good quality bond paper. activities. 10. visit our web site at www. 4. sex. or spelling errors. some companies still scan resumes and/ or use keywords to identify candidates from their database. •    nclude all-important information.

Action Verbs Management Skills Administered Analyzed Assigned Chaired Consolidated Contracted Coordinated Delegated Developed Directed Evaluated Executed Organized Oversaw Planned Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Reviewed Scheduled Supervised Communication Skills Addressed Arbitrated Arranged Authored Co-authored Collaborated Corresponded Developed Directed Drafted Enlisted Formulated Influenced Interpreted Lectured Mediated Moderated Negotiated Persuaded Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Spoke Translated Wrote Research Skills Clarified Collected Critiqued Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Extracted Identified Inspected Inspired Interpreted Interviewed Investigated Organized Reviewed Summarized Surveyed Systemized Technical Skills Assembled Built Calculated Computed Designed Devised Engineered Fabricated Maintained Operated Pinpointed Programmed Remodeled Repaired Solved Teaching Skills Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Guided Informed Instructed Lectured Persuaded Set goals Stimulated Taught Trained Financial Skills Administered Allocated Analyzed Appraised Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Developed Managed Planned Projected Researched Creative Skills Acted Conceptualized Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Established Fashioned Illustrated Instituted Integrated Performed Planned Proved Revised Revitalized Set up Shaped Streamlined Structured Tabulated Validated Helping Skills Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Facilitated Familiarized Guided Inspired Motivated Participated Provided Referred Rehabilitated Reinforced Represented Supported Taught Trained Verified Clerical or Detail Skills Approved Arranged Catalogued Classified Collected Compiled Dispatched Executed Filed Generated Implemented Inspected Monitored Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Purchased Recorded Retrieved Screened Specified Systematized Stronger Verbs for Accomplishments Accelerated Achieved Attained Completed Conceived Convinced Discovered Doubled Effected Eliminated Expanded Expedited Founded Improved Increased Initiated Innovated Introduced Invented Launched Mastered Originated Overcame Overhauled Pioneered Reduced Resolved Revitalized Spearheaded Strengthened Transformed Upgraded From To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Scientists. Fiske 20 MIT Career Development Center . by Peter S.

assisting in radio copy writing and performing various other duties as assigned. Using the action verbs listed on the previous page. handling photo and press release mailing to media. to model framework for globalization initiative to improve the sharing and use of existing knowledge. MA May 2006-June 2008 Theatre Marketing Intern Responsibilities included coordinating artist press releases. job.000 customers. CPC’s largest ever      •  Organized photo and press releases to XYZ Television and Cambridge Daily News      •  Contributed to the copy writing of promotional radio commercials for five events   Before: Bright Consulting Group. •    esigned and implemented a website containing interD active problem sets. Describe this experience in terms of demonstrated skills and accomplishments: 1) Describe the project. write your experience in the following format. information.” or “assisted in. NY June-July 2008 Marketing Analyst I analyzed competitive strategies for clients in the bio tech industry. Samples of how to stress your skills: Before: Cambridge Performing Center.Writing About Your Skills—PAR Statements PAR statements in your resume make it easy for employers to recognize your achievements. MA May 2006-June 2008 Theatre Marketing Intern   •    oordinated artist press releases that contributed to an increase in annual sales  C by 10%   •  Compiled and maintained a mailing list of 10.” Quantify the results by stating the amount of dollars saved. results were    used by the client to make market entry decision   •  Gathered data. They provide a writing formula that stresses your skills and achievements. Cambridge. •    ound systematic method to raise glass transition  F temperature of vaccines. 2) What activity did you do? 3) What were the results. compiling tracking sheets based on information from reservations and box office attendants. http://careers. Generated $5 million annual saving in refrigeration costs. benefits? Present the skill as a concrete action that has been done. Data gathered assessed profitability of strategies Bright Consulting Group. task. outcomes. New York. as part of a three-member team. the number of clients served. This is a way of writing out your skills on a resume to maximize their impact. After: Cambridge Performing Center (CPC). 21 .mit.edu After: •    nvestigated and evaluated business communication  I practices and expertise within XYZ Co. the percentage increase in productivity or improvement in efficiency. which allowed a higher storage temperature for the vaccines. the context. by interviewing over 100 potential    customers and presented the results to the clients Below are some further samples of PAR statements (both bullet form and paragraph form are acceptable): •    nvestigated effects of gas phase oxygen concentraI tion levels on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells in order to establish optimal settings for growth. Cambridge. Do not use the words “took part in. NY June-July 2008 Marketing Analyst   •  Assessed profitability of expansion strategy in the biotech industry.” or “gained experience in. New York. and announcements for Math competition participants.

leading team to Top 5 finishes in the Arizona State Math League. •    reated. •    ncorporated new algorithms into pipeline simulation  I modules and achieved tenfold increase in speed. Radio Shack Cashier Communicated product details and provided exceptional customer service to 50+ people per day. U •    sing critical path scheduling and sub contractor  management. successfully organized $3. •    rote software for simulating complex distillation  W processes that was adopted throughout XYZ Co. •    onsolidated 23 local customer service centers into  C five regional centers achieving 15% cost reduction and improving customer services.000 pier renewal due to ship collision. •    eviewed literature and evaluated past models. Project/purpose Activity/task beginning with action verb Result/outcome/benefit 22 MIT Career Development Center .000. Burger King Team Member Worked in fast-paced environment.  R expanded adaptability of key components. Country Club Tennis Instructor Worked with five 12-year-old children and developed their tennis playing ability. Complete the following worksheet describing your own experiences by using: Project + action verb + activity + result/outcome/benefit. and tennis instruction. and experienced assembly-line teamwork.  leading to significant savings in manufacturing costs. Swim Instructor Taught children between the ages of four and six basic swimming techniques to promote water safety and awareness. supervision. Produced corresponding computer program using C++ and Fortran. Provided sunscreen. received foodhandling/cashier training. activity and result. refined and trained Sales Team on new presenC tation package and materials.500 for a new Senior Activities Center. improved stress analyses of fuel forms. Organized and developed new methods of reporting and presenting material to top advertisers. The following exercise will help you to describe your skills. as well as cared for their well-being. •    ed design efforts of five-member team that developed  L and manufactured a cooling system for desert combat aviators in 90 days (10 days ahead of the schedule). and designed Graphical User Interface (GUI) for better communication with users. Samples of Freshman PAR Statements: Math Team Captain Organized review sessions and scored practice tests. •    roposed procedure to streamline the process of  P reaching optimized fuel design. National Honor Society Service Chair Coordinated the Senior Citizens Ball. Promoted to Assistant Manager after only four months. snacks. Helped to bring about a successful summer with no injuries or complaints. Describing Transferable Skills Your resume should describe your experience in the form of PAR statements: project.•    echnically advanced and trained the Major Account  T Sales crew with computerized presentation designs and introduced customer and industry market data software. Model was adopted and resulted in a 2% increase in overall company revenue. which raised $1.

Sample Resumes http://careers.edu 23 .mit.

Immunology. • Represented Foundation on the Massachusetts State Public Affairs Committee. delegated writing and editing tasks.) CAMBRIDGE. • Interest in track & field. and tested a strategic model for the pharmaceutical industry that analyzes safety. Drug predicted to obtain substantially greater market share in the $14B oral Type 2 Diabetes drug market compared to competitors. • Created daily digests about current science news. MA Story Editor and Science Journalist 2005 . Client implemented proposed improvements in message content and delivery. MA 02139 Education someone@mit. Byrd Scholarship. NJ Pharmaceutical Laboratory Research Assistant. efficacy. Awards & Interests • Robert C. created. Sloan Business School 2005 • Designed. • Organized conferences and fundraisers as a volunteer for the past 7 years (1998-Present). MIT CENTER FOR CANCER RESEARCH CAMBRIDGE. Massachusetts.I. 24 MIT Career Development Center . Housman Laboratory 2003 . Introduced and promoted 10 Senate Bills. students for academic excellence.6/5. travel. distributed to all science journalists. GPA: 4. awarded to top 20.edu (XXX) XXX-XXXX Jane Doe Home Address: Someplace. photography. Presented recommendations for future drug launches. INC.0 2006 • Concentration in Management at Sloan Business School and Minor in Brain and Cognitive Sciences. • Designed a new sequencing technique that refines a common laboratory protocol. designed to increase prescriptions for product by nearly 30%. Cellular Neurobiology.T.. collaborating with industry for testing. and marketing of final drug. MA MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (M. SCIENCE & ENGINEERING BUSINESS CLUB CAMBRIDGE.Present • Lobbied legislators to encourage federal. MA Academic Laboratory Research Assistant. and economics to forecast (prior to clinical trials) which drugs will succeed on the market.Present • Organized 6 campus-wide information session to educate students about careers in consulting and law. engineering of product. MA Analyst 2005 • Evaluated in 6-member team whether client’s marketing strategy for its $100M organ transplant drug effectively targets key decision-makers in transplant community. aiding in discovery of drug for brain cancer. Engaged in all stages of product development: identification of market need. Economics of the Health Care Industry. reducing processing time by 25%. MERCK & CO.S. RAHWAY. production. MA Candidate for B. MA Director of Massachusetts Youth Public Affairs 2003 . Cambridge. Strategic Decision-Making in Life Sciences. MIT PROGRAMS ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY CAMBRIDGE. Early elimination of inadequate drugs will significantly reduce the $800M spent to successfully launch a drug.2005 • Developed a product to recognize activity of a cancer-causing gene. • Managed recruitment and interviewing process of 98 physicians to obtain primary data for marketing case. Cancer Genetics and Therapies. • Analyzed past product switches from predecessor to successor drugs for independent project. Developed a database providing key criteria for launching various types of drugs. • Relevant Coursework: Finance Theory. • Selected and worked closely with speakers from diverse occupational backgrounds.S. awarded to top 1% of U. Analyzed data from interviews and secondary research in Excel/Access. and California governments to develop public policies to improve the health of women.Present • Managed 25 science journalists. Infectious Disease Department 2004 • Identified deficiencies in Type 2 Diabetes drugs on the market and screened chemicals on new cellular targets to develop an efficient drug without these shortcomings. Building a Biomedical Business. Prepared PowerPoint deck for presentation to client. PUTNAM ASSOCIATES BURLINGTON. JOURNAL OF YOUNG INVESTIGATORS CAMBRIDGE.000 students worldwide for achievements in mathematics and science. Experience Leadership MARCH OF DIMES BIRTH DEFECTS FOUNDATION BOSTON. MA Health Economics Research Assistant. MA Consulting Focus Group Organizing Committee 2005 . and chose articles to print in monthly journal. and oncology. • Authored 5 publications in the MIT Undergraduate Research Journal and other peer-reviewed journals. • Rensselaer Medal. and creating more usable biological end-product. New procedure increases efficiency by 50% on average.Undergraduate interested in Management Consulting See Cover Letter on page 36 School Address: XXX Memorial Dr. in Biology. 4 of which have been approved thus far.

http://careers.edu 25 .mit.

Ê ProductÊ Design.Ê PerryÊ W. MITÊ Ê Cambridge.ÊM atlab. Experience Ê Ê Ê Edelman Lab.Ê someÊ JAVAÊ andÊ VisualÊ Basic. Cambridge. Honors/Awards Ê Ê PiÊT auÊSi gma.Ê Russia OneÊye arÊc ourseÊi nÊRussi anÊLa nguageÊ (92-93)Ê inÊ preparationÊ forÊ anÊ MDÊ inÊ Medicine.ÊG PA:Ê 4.Ê WiltonÊ McCownÊSc holarshipÊ2001.Ê Korean.Ê SDÊ PeopleÕ s Friendship University Ê Moscow.Ê UNIX.Ê CalculatedÊ designÊ parameters. MITÊ Ê Cambridge.8/5. Ê Ê Ê Gas Turbine Lab.0.Ê SigmaÊ PiÊ SigmaÊ outstandingÊ ÊPhysicsÊst udentÊo fÊt heÊye arÊ200 0-2001.Ê CreatedÊ modelsÊ usingÊ computerÊ aidedÊ designÊ toolsÊ( Pro-Engineer). Leadership/Extracurricular Ê ÊManagedÊ 150Ê studentsÊ asÊ aÊ ResidentÊ AssistantÊ atÊ SDSU.Ê PreliminaryÊ VentureÊ Analysis.Ê WilliamsÊ PrizeÊ 2002-2003.Ê andÊ strengthÊ evaluationÊusi ngÊso ftwareÊsuc hÊa sÊ Patran.Ê ÊLanguage:ÊPro ficient:ÊEng lish.Ê BasicÊ French.Ê IdentifiedÊ theÊ Ê contributionÊo fÊt heÊg eometryÊa sÊ wellÊ asÊ materialÊ propertiesÊ ofÊ theÊ arterialÊ walls.ÊH TML.ÊN umericalÊ analysis:Ê ADINA.Ê Arabic.Ê PublishedÊ poemÊ inÊ anthologyÊ ofÊ newÊ artists.Ê Patran.Ê Conversational:Ê Russian. GPA:Ê3.0 South Dakota State UniversityÊ (SDSU)Ê BachelorÊo fÊSc ienceÊi nÊM echanicalÊ Engineering..ÊH indi.2002.97/4.Ê WroteÊ articlesÊ inÊ theÊ MITÊ campusÊ newspaper.ÊT auÊBe taÊPi Êe ngineeringÊ HonorÊ societies.Ê DrewÊ Ê interpretationsÊb yÊa ssessingÊt heÊ responseÊ ofÊ arteriesÊ toÊ theseÊ devicesÊ usingÊ numericalÊ techniquesÊ( finiteÊe lementÊme thods).edu Education Ê Ê Ê Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyÊ Cambridge. 26 MIT Career Development Center .Ê ColumnistÊ atÊ SouthÊ DakotaÊ StateÊ Univ.Ê MA CandidateÊf orÊM asterÊo fÊSc ienceÊ inÊ MechanicalÊ Engineering.Ê ComputerÊ aidedÊ design:ÊPro -Engineer.ÊI deas.Ê AppliedÊM athÊf orÊEng ineers.Ê MAÊ 02139 XXX-XXX-XXXXÊ Ê xresume2@mit.Mech Eng Masters Student XXXÊ MemorialÊ Dr. Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê Brookings.Ê MA 2005-current ÊExaminedÊi mplantationÊo fÊa Ême dicalÊ deviceÊ (stents)Ê inÊ humanÊ arteries.Ê MA 2004-2005 ÊAnalyzedÊa Êp ropellerÊc onnectorÊ (hub)Ê forÊ aÊ verticalÊ testÊ standÊ toÊ beÊ usedÊ inÊ theÊ studyÊ andÊ controlÊo fÊf lowÊp atternsÊa roundÊ propellers.Ê ÊRelevantÊc oursework:ÊEnt repreneurshipÊ Lab.Ê JuneÊ 2007. Skills Ê Ê ÊComputer:ÊF ortran.Ê JuneÊ 2004.

• Innovative Teaching. Bangalore. Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management • Standardized Test Score: GRE – Verbal: 720/800. Courses Coursework covering fundamentals of finance. C++. IIT Madras – Mentored 15 freshmen during the senior year at IIT Madras. • Mentor. India Technical Analyst • Analyzed a structural component and identified its critical design parameters.edu EDUCATION Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Popularized Cryptic Crosswords at MIT. • Implemented a key objective by developing a flexible teaching tool for an advanced graduate course. State Part-time Consultant • Optimized and redesigned the system to reduce manufacturing costs by 40% and system size by 20%. 2006 2003 2004 LEADERSHIP • Chief Course Coordinator. • Circulation Manager and News Reporter. City. MIT: Managed monthly distribution of 5000 copies of magazine on MIT campus. Indian Institute of Science.77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Mechanical Engineering GPA: 9.. and modeling uncertainties. Madras. C. • Community Service Officer. INTERESTS AND ACTIVITIES Story-Telling v Cryptic-Crosswords v Teaching Innovations v News Reporting v Tennis v Piano HONORS AND ACHIEVEMENTS Government of India Fellowship (2001-2005) v Certificates of distinction for National Math. Conducted weekly client update sessions Center for Product Design. Matlab. Saphire (probabilistic analysis tool) MS Word and MS PowerPoint. India Bachelor of Technology. • Collaborated with management team in researching and identifying market segments for the new product. RELEVANT SKILLS Software Excel spreadsheets including Sensitivity Analysis. Cambridge. Bharat Electronics Limited. Boston.Statistics). and engineering math. • Identified and specified strategies aimed at teaching innovations and translated them into actionable objectives.0 2008 (expected) 2005 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT). economics.5/10. • Appraised final results of analysis to senior management at the client site and at MIT. MIT – Planned and organized community events for fostering greater interactions amongst graduate students. Physics and Chemistry Olympiads v Summa Cum Laude in high school v Ranked in top 0. Organized lectures and led undergraduate assistants in conducting lab tutorials for 200 undergraduate students. MIT – Formulated the syllabus and developed the course content for an undergraduate design engineering course. • Redesigned and optimized the component. MA Business Intern 2006 Ð P resent • Developed Excel spreadsheet model for valuation of the start-up’s revenue prospects over the next ten years. Received Outstanding Officer Award for organizational excellence.3% for IITs http://careers. Quantitative: 800/800. statistics. risk-benefit and decision analysis. • Currently working on evaluating strategies to be adopted for market deployment and future expansion. India Intern for Program in Teaching Innovation • Deliberated with professors and fellow students on issues concerning barriers to student learning.edu 27 .mit. (Summa cum Laude) – secured a gold medal and three silver medals for overall excellence.0/5. Bangalore. researched system design optimization techniques as part of a course portfolio (Course . MA Masters of Science in Computer Science and Mechanical Engineering GPA: 5. MIT: Formulated new teaching approaches as part of an HP sponsored focus-group trial. EXPERIENCE Osio Corporation. Graduate Student News Magazine. Options in engineering. • Published paper on manufacturing process control-Intl. MA 02139 Joe Resume Phone: 617-253-XXXX Email: XXX@mit.Engineering Options).0 • Class Rank 1. X Corporation. Monte Carlo simulation. Projects Simulated stock prices using Hidden-Markov-Models (Course .

28 MIT Career Development Center .

D.0 Minor: Business Administration at the Sloan School of Management. June 1995 Class Rank: 1 Experience INDUSTRY INTERNSHIPS MERCK PHARMACEUTICALS (Summer 1998) West Point. Master of Science in Chemical Engineering Practice. Cambridge University (1996). EUROPEAN CLUB CAREER FAIR (1998) Awards. This allowed a higher storage temperature for the vaccines. COORDINATOR. Fox Prize for Outstanding Performance in Chemical Engineering. MIT MATERIAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING DEPT. Frequently delivered presentations to clients.edu 29 . MA Candidate for Ph. Finance Theory.. Operations Research. Generated $5million annual saving in refrigeration costs. Trinity College. MIT Debating Club. Class scored 7% higher in final than any of the professor’s former classes. June 1996 Class Rank: 2 Bachelor of Arts with Honors in Natural Science and Chemical Engineering. M.present) Leading student / faculty discussion on ways to enhance student / advisor interaction. MIT European Club Soccer Team Activities http://careers. Cambridge (1994). STUDENT LEADERSHIP COUNCIL OF MATERIAL SCIENTISTS (2000 .K. MIT (1996). Planning summer retreat to further student collaboration. Marketing. Entrepreneurship. Options and Derivatives. STUDENT AFFAIRS COMMITTEE (1999 . UNITED KINGDOM ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY (Summers. STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE. Cambridge University (1995). Organized videoconferences to allow students to share research ideas. Pursuing unique integrated approach to develop new molecular models better suited to designing optimal industrial processes. Student Scholarship. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY United Kingdom Master of Engineering. Sigma Xi Engineering Research Honors Society (1997). 1992-1995) United Kingdom Intern:Worked for fluid mechanics groups on technical consulting projects for the petroleum industry. U. GPA: 4. Developed strategies to reduce pipeline erosion. Improved reliability of flowrate measurement devices in oil pipelines to allow clients to better monitor throughputs. June 2002 Used stochastic simulation techniques to gain new insights into polymer structure. Leadership MIT PRESIDENT. Macroeconomics. Mobil Prize for Best Performance in Chemical Engineering. Classical Guitar. MIT Business Courses: Management of Innovation and Technology. all with grade A. 12-170.I. $10million capital savings. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1992-1996) Dancing (MIT Salsa Club). Investment Banking. Wrote instruction manual to help students use math software. Interested in Consulting Rm. PA Team Leader: Found systematic method to raise glass transition temperature of vaccines. adopted throughout Dow Chemicals.mit. TRINITY COLLEGE. LO Intern: Wrote software for simulating complex distillation processes.edu Education MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge. DOW-CORNING (September-November 1997) Midland. January 1999. Incorporated new algorithms into pipeline simulation modules and achieved tenfold increase in speed. MIT MATERIAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING DEPT.Ph. TEACHING ASSISTANT. Senior Scholarship for Outstanding Academic Performance.9/5. Harvey Stern Fellowship.D. Honors Winner of National Science Foundation Poster Competition (2000). 77 Mass Ave. International Management.present) Leader in group of 200 students that promotes collaboration between five major research universities. Management and Policy in the International Economy. (Fall semester 1999) O rganized tutorials to clarify course material. MA 02139 • Phone: 617-XXX-XXXX • Email: imastudent@mit.T. Verhaydn de Lancy Prize for Outstanding Contribution to Trinity College (1995). degree in Material Science & Engineering. • Cambridge. Microeconomics. Investigating ways to promote science and technology in secondary schools and the community. Established collaboration with experimental group in the Mechanical Engineering Dept. DOW CHEMICALS (Summer 1997) Plaquemine. MI Team Leader: Removed a bottleneck to allowing doubling of a plant’s capacity.

BOSTON UNIVERSITY Boston. Dept. • onstructed thermodynamic computer code (MatLab) to predict the distribution of major C elements in solid and fluid phases during melting of the interior of the Earth. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. M • onstructed geophysical model of mantle convection using existing finite-element code.. Department of Earth. MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge. PC and Mac spreadsheet. 2002 A ssociate position in environmental consulting applying geochemical knowledge and gaining experience in environmental economics and regulations. MA research assistant. Chairman of Board - Agassiz Cooperative Preschool (1998-1999). 30 MIT Career Development Center . MA 02140 home 617-XX-XXXX. MA Ph. and 5 co-author on presentation abstract. • stimating pressure and temperature conditions beneath the Aleutian Islands using E combination of experimental observations and thermodynamic modeling.33 for CV version of this resume. Computer: MatLab. ultimate. 8 conference presentations. and geodynamic models to constrain complex C melting processes. Cambridge. D T • aught lab section of courses in Mineralogy and in Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. MA PostdoctoraL researcher. MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge.. A detailed list of publications is available upon request. Best Senior Thesis - Harvard Geology Club (1995). • Course: Introduction to Geochemistry.Jan. of Earth. 1 co-author (refereed). Dept. Dept. Cum Laude. • Broad geology coursework including surface processes and sedimentary petrology. XRF.See Sample CV on pages 32 . mobile 617-XXX-XXXX. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cambridge. Resume for Industry Position 100 Any Ave. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences.A. ion microprobe. 2002-present 1995-2002 1994-1995 Skills Awards/Activities ational Merit Scholarship (1991-1995). anonymous@mit. T • ombined thermodynamic. hiking. convection modeling using pre-existing finite element code. 2002-present Jan. of Earth and Planetary Sciences.. of Earth.) Analytical: Electron microprobe. Publications 2 first author (refereed). ICP-MS. • onstructed compositional model of the Earth’s deep interior by comparing theoretical C seismic velocity of experimental charges with observed seismic velocities.D. MA undergraduate researcher. Covers igneous and environmental geochemistry. element transport mechanisms. Dept. • entored 5 undergraduate research projects in geochemistry. reading. C • eveloped experimental and analytical techniques to provide data for models.. MA Lecturer. Canvas. basketball. N Officer - Harvard Geology Club (1994-1995). Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. MA B. ANONYMOUS STUDENT 1991-1995 Experience Jan. Department of Earth Sciences. • odeled trace element distribution in geologic samples.edu Objective Education 1995. Ph. gardening. • Performed and analyzed ultra-high pressure experiments. M HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cambridge.D. trace element. • hesis: Petrology and Geochemistry of High Degree Mantle Melts.. of Earth and Planetary Sciences. and kinetics. text. MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge. and drawing programs (Illustrator. some HTML and VBA.

75” 43p6 x 28p6 N Engineers are needed to perform:   •    tructural/Aerodynamic/Thermal/ S Propulsion analyses   •  Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization   •  Engineering systems analysis   •  Engineering software development Opportunities M4 Engineering is a dynamic and rapidly growing high technology analysis and consulting company. The successful candidate will have the opportunity to work with a dynamic team performing engineering research and development for Department of Defense. and commercial clients. Successful candidates shall exhibit:           •  •  •  •  •  Strong technical aptitude Strong communication skills Strong teamwork skills Full time employees and interns will be considered US Citizen or permanent residents only M4 Engineering. jobs@m4-engineering. enthusiastic individuals to join our engineering organization. California.. Long Beach. M4 Engineering leads a productive team that supplies innovative technical solutions focused on analysis.25” x 4.* Half page Horizontal 7.com 31 http://careers. optimization. We are currently seeking highly organized.edu . NASA. Inc.mit. and software development.

Sample CV #1 Awards National Merit Scholarship (1993-1997). June 1997. and Planet. temperature. 2001) Research Cambridge. Department of Earth. and Sedimentary Petrology. Earth and Planetary Sciences. textural O of degassing and convection in the deep mantle. Previously existed as three • xperimentally determined the thermodynamic effect of water on high degree E separate classes. Sciences Igneous. Atm. Grove TL. • esponsible for entire curriculum. The calculations were used to evaluate various compositional models. XX-XXX Cambridge. 2004-present) MIT. Sciences Beyond the Solar System.5 Ga.edu studies of komatiites. MA Teaching Experience ANONYMOUS STUDENT 1 Business Address: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bldg. and Planet. The measured phase proportions and compositions were used to calculate the seismic velocities of the mantle at transition zone pressures. Challenge was to compress three semesters of work into one. and composition of the C source region of Aleutian arc magmas. • Determined the solubility of He in olivine with the goal of understanding the extent constrain the temperature and viscosity structure of the sub-arc mantle. Research focuses on the production of magmas in the Aleutian arc using experiments and geochemical modeling. while sacrificing as little content as possible. of Earth. Teaching Assistant. • stimated the secular cooling of the Earth’s mantle by applying predictive model to E mantle melting. MA Cambridge. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Advisor: Advisor Name • urrently quantifying the pressure. Metamorphic. . Dept. 1998) A nonymous Student 1.D. (Jan. Teaching Assistant. 2004) Cambridge. This geodynamic study was combined with petrologic data to • odeled the flow of mantle in subduction zones using pre-existing finite M Cambridge. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Cambridge. Senior Thesis: The Predicted Seismic Velocity of the Mantle Transition Zone Based on High Pressure Phase Equilibria Experiments. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences • ther experimental projects include the solubility of Fe in AuPd alloys. Cambridge. 1997) Boston University. Lecturer (1 term replacement position).32 Anonymous Student 1 - Page 2 Home Address: 0 Imaginary Ave. Dept. Department of Earth. Have I focused on teaching students fungible geochemical skills. This was the first time this class was taught. and Planet. Department of Earth. MA Advisor: Advisor Name Cambridge. Cambridge. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. • Work involved running ultra-high pressure (up to 2. Atm. MA Assisted with labs. 1995 - June. Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. MA R esponsible for teaching lab component of class. MA 02140 (617) 000-0000 student@mit. Barberton komatiite bulk samples and to constrain their tectonic setting. (1997-Jan. Sciences Mineralogy. Harvard University BA. 2003) The generation of Barberton komatiites in an Archean subduction zone. MA Advisor: Advisor Name curriculum. Department of Earth Sciences Boston. Assisted in development of lab MIT. and development of the multi-anvil device at MIT. Thesis: Petrology and Geochemistry of High Degree Mantle Melts. Cum Laude. Dept. MIT. MA Harvard University. geochemical modeling of data. 2004-present) • ork involves high pressure experiments. MIT Career Development Center • mployed trace element modeling to estimate the effect of metamorphism on E subduction magmas from 0 to 3. (Spring. Focus is on the effect of water on See Industry Resume version of this CV on page 30. (Fall. Cambridge. Introduction to Geochemistry. analyses of experimental charges. and W phase relations. Updated and revised existing lab assignments. Teaching Assistant. element codes. Department of Earth. MA R esponsible for teaching lab component of class. Atm. MIT.3 GPa) phase equilibrium experiments and analyzing results with electron microprobe. of Earth. MA 02139 (617) 253-0000 Education Massachusetts Institute of Technology P ostdoctoral Researcher. MA Experience MIT. Awarded best senior thesis by Harvard Geology Club (1997). Assisted in development of lab curriculum. Cambridge. Dann JC (Kaapvaal conference. MA • onstrained the composition of the mantle transition zone by comparing observed C and predicted seismic velocities. (Jan. Graded homework assignments. Massachusetts Institute of Technology P h. Developed a coherent framework under which R the disparate fields of high-temperature igneous geochemistry and low-temperature aqueous geochemistry could be seen as different applications of the same geochemical principles. (June. 1999) • ncorporated experimental data into a predictive thermodynamic model of hydrous I Presentations mantle melting. • nitiated use of computer modeling in teaching geochemical principles. (Fall. of Earth. January 2004.

Dann JC. MA 02139 USA (617)253-0002 anonymous@. A nonymous Student 1. 1997-present.mit.Anonymous Student 1 - Page 3 A nonymous Student 1. Grove TL (First International Pressure Calibration Workshop. Geophysical Research Letters. komatiites. 2001-present. MA 02543 (508)000-0000 blank@whoi. 1996-1997. Dann J.M. American Geophysical Union. Blank Department of Geology and Geophysics Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole. 1998) Quantitative estimates of the chemical composition and liquidus temperatures of komatiite magmas from the Barberton Mountainland. Special Publication 6. Earth Planet. Agassiz Cooperative Pre-School. Grove TL. 2000-2001. Feb. Anonymous Student 1. Grove TL and Anonymous Student 1 (IAVCEI. 2000) Mass transfer processes in the southern cascade subduction zone: the influence of variable water content on mantle melting. Gaetani GA. MA 02139 USA (617)253-0000 who@mit. 1996) P-T phase diagram for the Allende Meteorite. 1999) Origin of spinifex textures in 3. Dann J.. 2002) Petrologic and experimental evidence for high H2O contents in Anonymous Student 1 - Page 4 Publications A nonymous Student 1.edu Dr. A nonymous Student 1. de Wit M (Fall AGU.edu G rove TL. 2000) Precision and accuracy of pressure in a Walker style multi-anvil device. A nonymous Student 1. The Geochemical Society. A nonymous Student 1. Shimizu N. XX-XXXX Cambridge. Atmospheric. 2001) Segregation vesicles in 3. Who Department of Earth. 150. p. Anonymous Student 1. Boninites and Basalts. 2004) Boninites. Grove TL. Harvard Geology Club. Anonymous Student 1. 1996) Upper mantle transition zone: a remnant of primordial differentiation? A gee CB. Barberton Greenstone Belt. Elkins LT (Materials Recycling near convergent plate boundaries. Gaetani G. In Mantle Petrology: Field Observations and High Pressure Experimentation: A tribute to Francis R.49 Ga Barberton komatiite: evidence of variable H2O contents. 2001) High pressure water undersaturated liquidus phase relations of komatiite from the Barberton Mountainland. de Wit M (Spring AGU. Bertka and B. Communications Director. Anonymous Department of Earth. G rove TL. Sci.edu Dr. Dann JC (Komatiites. South Africa. C.mit. de Wit M (Spring AGU. 1999) Pyroxene compositions in 3.49 Ga komatiite magmas from the Barberton Mountainland. Cape Town. A nonymous Student 1. Friends of Cambridgeport School. and Planetary Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bldg. M ember. Officer. of Washington. Activities References Dr. Anonymous Student 1 (Fall AGU. Grove TL. Li J. (Joe) Boyd. Dann J. p. South Africa. 303-323. 155-167. Chairman of the Board. South Africa. A nonymous Student 1. Grove TL. 2002) Compositional effects of H2O on ol-opx saturated melts. South Africa. Grove TL (Goldschmidt.5 Ga komatiites: Barberton. XX-XXX Cambridge. Atmospheric. Grove TL. A gee CB. South Africa. Holzheid AD. 33 . 1999) Magmatic trace and minor element abundances in Barberton komatiites inferred from augite compositions. South Africa. and Planetary Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bldg. D ann J. Carnegie Inst.49 Ga Komati formation. Grove TL (Spring AGU. Phillipines. and Dann JC (2002) Conditions of magma generation for Archean komatiites from the Barberton Mountainland. Grove TL and de Wit MJ (2000) Emplacement conditions of komatiite magmas from the 3. de Wit M (Spring AGU. Lett. Mysen. Dann JC. eds. G rove TL. A nonymous Student 1. and Archean subduction zones. and de Wit MJ (accepted. Y Fei. Anonymous Student 1 (Spring AGU. Puerto Azul.edu Barberton komatiite magmas. de Wit M. http://careers. Norites. Dann J.O.

Member. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. References Teaching Experience Caltech. Sample CV #2 Research Experience MIT Department of Chemical Engineering Cambridge. Cummings. Teaching Assistant. October 19. Supervised other teaching assistants and graders. cellular targeting. Kansai Gaidai Hirakata City. Journal of the American Chemical Society. reading.. USA. P repared teaching materials including problem sets and exams. CA 55882 617-253-1111 908-570-0000 y@mit. Organized Organic Chemistry Seminar Series at Caltech. “ Simultaneous Binding of Polyamide Dimers and Oligonucleotides in the Minor and Major Grooves of DNA. S upervised and assisted students with multi-step syntheses of compounds designed to teach general laboratory techniques. which binds to DNA in the minor groove. 77 Massachusetts Ave. and J. Fifth National Conference on Undergraduate Research in Pasadena. Emphasized keeping complete and accurate scientific notes. Teaching Assistant.34 Jane Doe Home Address 10 Home Street Apt. Activities O fficer. oligonucleotide synthesis and purification.T)GG(A. cloning specific sequences into plasmids. CA Organic Chemistry. 1993-present. Techniques used include synthesis. 44-50 Cambridge. Howard University Washington. hiking.E. Doe. 1047. Head Teaching Assistant.J. Doe. 118. MIT Association of Postdoctoral Women.B.I. April 1995. (January - June 1995) “ Recognition of 5’-(A. 2000. California Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Ave. solid-phase peptide synthesis including HF cleavage and deprotection. (August 2000-present) California Institute of Technology Pasadena. B. May 2000. D. HPLC.I.” J. column chromatography. Reynolds. A. DC B achelor of Science. Howard University Marching and Symphonic Bands. (January - June 1998) Organic Chemistry Laboratory. MA Advisor: John Smith C urrently developing methodology for ribonucleic acid encapsulation in nanosphere particles using biodegradable polymers for ultimate use in gene therapy applications. Chemistry. (August 2000 - present) Caltech Department of Chemistry Pasadena.edu z@caltech.T)2-3’ Sequences in the Minor Groove of DNA by Hairpin Polyamides. DNA sequencing. Brown. Thesis: Synthesis of Imidazole-Containing and Amidine-Linked Analogs of Distamycin.” L. April 1995. Synthesis involved imidazole chemistry with amidine linkages and end groups for electrostatic interaction with DNA. E. GPC. and J. and M. Addressed individual students’ questions and needs. S upervised and instructed students in organic chemistry techniques.C. 1996-97. J. running marathons. Examining methods for chemical derivation of the polymer/RNA nanospheres for targeting specific cell types. Magna Cum Laude.J. CA Advisor: Brian Jones E xplored sequence-specific recognition of minor groove of double-helical DNAbinding properties through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 6153. 118. CA P h. Department of Chemistry Washington. Chemistry Department M. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry. and cooking. Japan F oreign exchange student. respectively. 1999.5. Howard Advantage Student (1994). J.J.L. MA 02139 Pasadena. Reynolds.J.” J. 10389. Assisted students individually with homework problems or material they found difficult to understand. NH 03745 (603) XXX-XXX Introductory Chemistry. NMR spectroscopy. CA. DC Adviser: Phillip Grey S ynthesized analogs of the natural product distamycin A. Journal of the American Chemical Society.. MA 02139 (617) XXX-XXX jdoe@mit. B.edu Professor Y Professor Z Department of Chemistry Department of Chemistry M.” J.T. Results from this work expanded sequence repertoire available to pyrrole-imidazole polyamides and provided general criteria for design of future sequence-specific DNA-binding polyamides. Western Biotech/ ACS Regional Conference in San Diego.B Cummings. (September 1995 - May 2000) MIT Career Development Center Howard University. 11-22 Cambridge.1045.” J. 93. 2000. Work involves polymer synthesis and characterization. # 2D Cornish. Member. Volunteered at the Hunting Memorial Hospital Extended Care.edu . Reynolds.T)GG(A. Doe. Teaching Assistant. L aboratory Techniques in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. 11-21 400 Rodeo Drive.edu Education Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge. Determined compatibility of oligonucleotide and a polyimide binding simultaneously in the major and minor grooves. (June - August 1994) Professor X Chair. J. Interests include traveling. Department of Chemistry Pasadena. Research focuses on encapsulation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) into polymer nanospheres for delivery to human cells. Studies included Japanese language and intercultural communication. Lyne. Participated in summer undergraduate research program resulting in thesis and presentation. General Electric Fellowship (1995-1996). Thesis: Sequence-Specific Recognition of DNA in the Minor Groove by Imidazole and Pyrrole-Containing Polyamides. Phi Beta Kappa (1994). Doe. “ Recognition of 5’-(A. (January - June 1995) Howard University Department of Chemistry Washington. (September 1999 - June 2000) Presentations Publications Business Address Massachusetts Institute of Technology 89 Ames Street 61-210 Cambridge. Doe. radioactive labeling of DNA.” J.T)2-3’ Sequences in the Minor Groove of DNA by hairpin Polyamides. 2000. Lived with a Japanese family. American Chemical Society. Doe. Department of Chemical Engineering.J. 5. CA. Department of Chemistry. Kinney. backpacking. “ Optimization of the Hairpin Polymide Design for Recognition of the Minor Groove of DNA. National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral (2000). Reynolds. MA N ational Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellow. Member. “ Synthesis and DNA Binding Studies of Imidazole-Containing and Amidine-Linked Analogs of Distamycin A. Reynolds. J. H elped write problem sets and exams. MA 02139 617-253-0000 x@mit.T. 1999.D. (August - December 1994) Awards C arolyn Vogel Chemistry Scholarship (2001). Cummings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “ Cyclic Polyamides for Recognition in the Minor Groove of DNA.

Tell how you heard of the opening or organization (e. Third Paragraph: Close by stating your desire for an interview. Tell why you are particularly interested in the company. “Why is an electrical engineer writing to me. •    e sure that each cover letter is specifically tailored to  B the company to which you are writing. Other letters are those you write following up interviews. MA 02134 Dear Mr.. Check the company’s website and other resources on the Internet. or general vocational area in which you are interested. and what value you bring. Tell why you are writing.mit. MA 02139 September 1. Make sure that your closing is not vague. it is easy to overlook silly mistakes. arranging company site visits. See the examples on the next pages. Do not leave the reader wondering. Then use the rest of the letter to support your candidacy. focus on telling the employer what experience you do have that may be of interest. full-time position). you are an electrical engineer who wants to use his/her quantitative skills in a finance or consulting position—be explicit about why you are interested in that particular field. Suite 7 Boston. or the career section of the company’s website. or through a faculty recommendation.. 2008 Mr. Research the company to help you determine your approach. type of work or location. Jane Doe http://careers. and name the position. field. •    f you are seeking a position that is a departure from  I or an unexpected application of your academic training—for example. You may say that you will phone in a week or so to request an appointment. the personnel manager of McKinsey?” •    f you are applying for a summer job and do not yet  I have any experience that is directly related to the position. Do not address your letter to “Dear Sir or Madam. Refer the reader to the enclosed resume. John Doe College Relations Coordinator Technology Corporation. organization or job. When proofreading your own writing. One type of letter is the cover letter. Inc.  A and style. Cambridge. Suggested Formula for Cover Letter 77 Massachusetts Ave.. which you send with your resume when you are requesting a job interview. Here are some tips: •    tate clearly in your opening sentence the purpose for  S the letter.) Second Paragraph: Mention one or two qualifications you think would be of greatest interest to the employer. point it out.” •    sk someone else to check your grammar.g.g. spelling. Doe: First Paragraph: Introduce yourself by stating your degree program and the year in which you will graduate. summer internship.edu 35 . 11 Beacon St. Specify the type of position you are seeking (e. but makes a specific action from the reader likely. and accepting or rejecting job offers.Cover Letters You will have to write a number of letters to employers while looking for a job. Sincerely. If you have related experience or specialized training. which will give additional information concerning your background and interests. A •    lways try to write to a specific individual and include  the job title. the job posting on MIT’s CareerBridge.

Sample Undergraduate Management Consulting Cover Letter Recruiter’s Name Campus Recruiter Company Name Company Address Boston. and execute my ideas. pharmaceuticals. I am confident that I can bring my strong. Through my experience with Putnam Associates and the March of Dimes. and I presented these key considerations to all Putnam employees. analytically design a successful plan. Through my management of recruitment and interviews with 98 physicians. I am writing to request an invitation to interview for a Business Analyst position with Deloitte. Deloitte is unique in having the ability to form diverse teams to tackle all the problems a client may have. and government affairs for a non-profit healthcare organization. the need for contingency plans. As a member of the Strategy & Operations group. In the past two years. I used my management skills to negotiate and consult with others. held responsibility for large segments of a team project. 2007 I am a senior at MIT majoring in biology with a concentration in management from Sloan Business School. I was extremely impressed with Deloitte’s approach to consulting after speaking with Yelena Shklovskaya. I lobbied Senators at both the Massachusetts and California State Capitols. In addition. In particular. but also by often implementing the recommendations on-site. My responsibilities include developing. MA 02139 janedoe@mit. diverse technical and business background to best fit the current needs and future ventures of Deloitte. along with my modeling work in the MIT Sloan Business School. as well as on Capitol Hill in Washington. and implementing the Foundation’s annual public policy objectives in an ultimately results-driven environment. Lobbying has taught me negotiation skills. I obtained primary research and analyzed it on national and regional levels to recommend and help implement improvements in the client’s marketing plan. This summer. and the ability to make quick yet innovative decisions. and enhanced my quantitative skills through analysis of primary and secondary research data. I conducted independent research to form recommendations when launching a drug that follows a related product. not only by devising effective strategies to address the clients’ problems. Thank you and I look forward to hearing from you soon. and outside of consulting as well. I have been involved in strategy consulting. I welcome the opportunity to speak with you about my qualifications and ways that I can contribute to Deloitte.edu (617) XXX-XXXX June 24. Two years ago. organizing. I learned how to work in a deadline-oriented environment. Therefore. in other areas of consulting. I worked in strategy consulting for Putnam Associates. D. MA 02116 Dear Campus Recruiter: Jane Doe XXX Memorial Drive Cambridge. My 6-member team evaluated the marketing efforts for a major pharmaceutical company’s organ transplant drug. I was appointed Director of Massachusetts Youth Public Affairs and asked to be a member of the state’s Public Affairs Council. Sincerely. I have been a volunteer in public policy for 7 years with the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Jane Doe Jane Doe 36 MIT Career Development Center . I like the amount of attention and dedication that Deloitte puts into working with its clients.C. I may have the opportunity to meet and work with a variety of people in this consulting group.

This past summer at the Natural Energy Institute. CA 92008 Dear Engineering Manager. 2007 Engineering Manager Company Name Address Los Angeles. I would very much like to speak with you further about how I can make a valuable contribution to (your company). I am excited about the direction (name of company) is headed and read from your website that you are continually producing innovative products and quality customer service. I will be graduating from MIT in June with a Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and am interested in opportunities at (name of company). I look forward to hearing from you soon. I feel that my experiences in both the workplace and at MIT have given me the skills to make a valuable contribution to a future employer.Sample Cover Letter Your Name Address Boston. Please feel free to contact me by phone at (617) 555-5555 or by email at student@mit. because both doctors as well as trained medical technicians can administer this procedure.mit. I designed a polycarbonate pressure vessel that will be used for deep-ocean alternative energy simulations. and management in engineering. MA 02215 February 10. My thesis project is a cataract cryoprobe prototype that should make a significant impact in third world countries.edu 37 . Your Name http://careers. mechanical design. Sincerely.edu. I have taken courses in product design and development. I got your name from (website/ ICAN/other contact person). manufacturing. in addition to MIT’s general Mechanical Engineering course requirements.

I am highly confident that I can use my skills. I worked as a consultant at Camp Dresser and McKee for three years applying my skills to a range of projects including sustainable technology assessments and management of multi-disciplinary. Therefore. I think I am well suited to pursue a career in sustainability consulting. sustainable design. I received my Bachelor of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Cornell University in 2005. I can be reached at (617) xxx-xxxx or EnviroEng@mit. I was able to distinguish myself as a proficient and motivated employee. My experience includes: delivering a sustainable technology assessment to compliment a campus’ low-carbon design strategy. evaluating the conversion of waste oils to biofuels at a local wastewater treatment plant. During my time as a consultant. Student Enviro Eng 38 MIT Career Development Center . I welcome the opportunity to speak with you further about potential career opportunities. MA 02139 Dear Ms. In addition. 2009 Joan Dough 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Sincerely. and initiated an educational conference for public sector clients. I was also involved in promoting sustainable practices within the company. In particular I sought to engage in projects that focused on renewable energy. Dough I am a 2009 degree candidate for a Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and energy efficiency.Student Enviro Eng Environment St. Cambridge. and conducting a cost analysis and carbon inventory for the design of a deep heat geothermal energy facility. I am currently pursuing this interest through my thesis work: a carbon impact evaluation of proposed hydropower in Chilean Patagonia. Before pursuing my graduate studies. and enthusiasm to help businesses develop and implement sustainability initiatives. I have a keen interest in the field of global warming and greenhouse gas management.edu. and perhaps more importantly because of my interest and enthusiasm. MA 02139 March 20. knowledge. multi-consultant project teams. Based on my work and educational experience.

I learned to become successful in a competitive environment. I believe that a career in management consulting at McKinsey will provide the learning environment and the business exposure necessary to grow as a powerful leader who can see the “big picture”. More importantly. I developed many personal skills from involving myself in extracurricular activities. I applied those principles to develop dynamic investment strategies for large-scale oil development projects. stochastic modeling. I read your email regarding Operations Practice and talked to Ms. ABC from the Istanbul Office. Phillip Norse McKinsey & Company. From the technical perspective. both in academia and industry. I am particularly interested in McKinsey & Company because it provides a great opportunity to have a world-shaping impact while solving the most challenging problems of the leading institutions all around the globe. which helps it to become a true learning organization. Throughout my research studies. I am confident that all these skills will enable me to add value to my role as a successful consultant at McKinsey.edu 39 . I would appreciate the opportunity to speak with you further about my qualifications and discuss how I can contribute to McKinsey. I developed strong interpersonal skills from working closely with many people with different backgrounds.edu December 7. I built a successful career as a professional tennis player where my commitment to excellence. I learned a great deal about communicating highly technical analysis to business people. passion and hard work helped me win the title of “Turkish Tennis Champion” for four consecutive years and gave me the honor to represent my country on the international arena. learn from the experiences of people at McKinsey and contribute to your company through my strong personality. optimization and software development.7 Consultant Ave. with a concentration on decision analysis in complex engineering systems. which funded my research project for two years. Civil Enviro Eng Student http://careers. Thank you for your time and consideration. which I believe is extremely important in management consulting. Also. One notable experience is my research presentation to the senior executives from BP. Best Regards. I took initiative in organizing the yearbook activities in college where I gained significant leadership skills such as defining group objectives for a better team alignment and building trust among various entities. I am eager to be a part of this international network. CA 92617 Dear Mr.mit. I have gained extensive knowledge in complex decision analysis. 10 Innovation Drive Orange County. Being at MIT has given me exceptional opportunities to broaden my vision through a wide-variety of courses from both engineering and management disciplines. Norse. Beyond my academic endeavors. I am very interested in joining “the Firm” as an Operations Analyst. to stay committed and to think strategically. Operating as “one firm” is one of McKinsey’s most distinctive characteristics. 2007 Mr. I am a candidate for Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering at MIT. Cambridge. MA 02139 (617) XXX-XXXX ceestudent@mit. Inc.

D. I look forward to hearing from you soon.edu. I have enclosed my curriculum vitae with a list of publications. and am currently working as a Postdoctoral Associate at MIT in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In order to accomplish this. IT 989 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of XXX Address City. which will contain arrays of sensors and actuators. Sincerely. I have designed and experimentally implemented local and global controller architectures with different configurations to find the best controller configuration for the new underwater vehicle system. and embedded devices for controls and decision-making algorithms. 2007 Professor XXXX Search Committee.Ê IÊ wouldÊ enjoyÊ aÊ chanceÊ toÊ askÊ youÊ someÊ questions. dissertation.Ê IÊ haveÊ enclosedÊ myÊ resumeÊ forÊ yourÊ review. My ultimate research goal is to develop “intelligent structural systems”. My thesis work is in the area of active structural acoustic control using smart structures technology. I can be reached by phone at (617) XXX-XXXX or email at sample@mit. I graduated from the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT in June with a Doctor’s degree. I have worked on the development of the structural-acoustic control algorithms and their implementation for the reduction of radiated noise from vibrating underwater vehicles. MA 02139 Sample Cover Letter I am responding to your advertisement for a faculty position in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of XXX. so that those systems can coordinate large numbers of devices and adapt themselves to uncertain environmental changes in an intelligent manner. # 0000 Cambridge. Also. I would like to continue my research on active structural control and active structural acoustic control for complex systems. torpedoes). The Office of Naval Research. I will extend my research to the development of advanced control design techniques for noise and vibration reduction of complex systems. State Zip Dear Professor XXXX: Your Name 000 Memorial Drive. I believe my extensive research experience and specialization in structural dynamics and controls will allow me to continue my research in those areas.eduÊ orÊ (xxx)Ê xxx-xxxx. I will carry out research on structure/fluid/control interaction phenomena and advanced sensor/actuator development using smart structures technologies.Ê IÊ thoughtÊ itÊ mightÊ beÊ usefulÊ asÊ aÊ wayÊ ofÊ informingÊ youÊ ofÊ myÊ educationalÊ backgroundÊ andÊ experience.Ê ThankÊ youÊ inÊ advanceÊ forÊ yourÊ timeÊ andÊ effort.August 25. and my specific research topic is the development of a new wavenumber domain sensing method for active structural acoustic control. including aerospace systems (aircrafts. My thesis advisor is Professor X in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT.Ê suggestedÊ IÊ contactÊ you. I have developed a new wavenumber domain sensing method and applied it to the real-time estimation of acoustic power and the design of feedback controller for active structural acoustic control of the general complex structures.Ê Sincerely. If you have any questions or would like to talk with me.Ê IÊ haveÊ beenÊ meetingÊ withÊ ProfessorÊ SmthÊ asÊ aÊ meansÊ ofÊ exploringÊ theÊ fieldÊ ofÊ SpeechÊ SystemsÊ TechnologyÊ asÊ aÊ potentialÊ careerÊ option. Furthermore. has funded this project. Your Name DearÊ Ms.Ê YourÊ Name 40 MIT Career Development Center .Ê IÊ realizeÊ yourÊ timeÊ isÊ veryÊ valuableÊ soÊ IÊ amÊ requestingÊ toÊ setupÊ aÊ briefÊ Ê 20-30Ê minuteÊ meetingÊ atÊ yourÊ convenience.Ê orÊ ifÊ youÊ preferÊ IÊ wouldÊ beÊ happyÊ toÊ contactÊ yourÊ officeÊ withinÊ 10Ê workingÊ daysÊ toÊ followÊ upÊ withÊ thisÊ letter. For my Ph.Ê IÊ cabÊ beÊ reachedÊ atÊ mitstudent@mit. and a list of references. Thank you for your consideration. My responsibility in this project is to develop the new technology to reduce the radiated noise from vibrating underwater vehicles.Ê Request for Informational Interview HeÊ thoughtÊ youÊ wouldÊ beÊ aÊ greatÊ resourceÊ toÊ helpÊ meÊ gainÊ insightÊ intoÊ theÊ fieldÊ andÊ focusÊ myÊ jobÊ searchÊ efforts.Ê XXX:Ê ProfessorÊ XXX. helicopters) and underwater vehicles (submarines. with an objective of developing “smart” underwater vehicle systems so that the enemy cannot detect their attack in advance.Ê aÊ facultyÊ memberÊ inÊ theÊ ElectricalÊ EngineeringÊ andÊ ComputerÊ ScienceÊ departmentÊ atÊ MIT.

Êa ddress.Ê regardingÊ jobÊ opportunitiesÊ atÊ SupaÊ Systems.mit.Ê PleaseÊ letÊ meÊ knowÊ ifÊ youÊ needÊ anyÊ moreÊ informationÊ aboutÊ myÊ background.edu 41 . ItÊ wasÊ aÊ pleasureÊ speakingÊ withÊ youÊ andÊ Mr. I appreciate your giving me the opportunity to meet with you and the members of the research staff. Again.Ê IÊ lookÊ forwardÊ toÊ hearingÊ fromÊ you.Ê IÊ amÊ veryÊ interestedÊ inÊ theÊ workÊ youÊ areÊ doingÊ andÊ amÊ extremelyÊ impressedÊ withÊ theÊ advancedÊ applicationsÊ beingÊ usedÊ inÊ Ê yourÊ company.Other Career Writing Thank You/Follow-Up Email DearÊ Mr. YourÊ Name YourÊC ontactÊI nformation (phone. Sincerely. AsÊ IÊ mentionedÊ duringÊ ourÊ conversation. Your Name Your Contact Information (phone. Sincerely. thank you for your time. Unfortunately. I am writing to thank you for the offer to join Northeast Electronics Laboratories as member of the research and development staff. ThankÊ youÊ forÊ yourÊ time.Ê TheÊ interviewÊ wasÊ veryÊ informative. address. Smith.Ê myÊ pastÊ twoÊ summerÊ positionsÊ wereÊ relatedÊ toÊ theÊ developmentÊ andÊ designÊ ofÊ Ê softwareÊ programsÊ forÊ industrialÊ computervisionÊ experiments.Êe mail) Dear Mr. I have accepted a position with another company.Ê MansfieldÊ Ê yesterday.Ê IÊ believeÊ IÊ couldÊ beÊ ofÊ valueÊ toÊ SupaÊ Systems.Ê Smith.Ê WithÊ myÊ skillsÊ andÊ interestÊ inÊ softwareÊ design. It was a difficult decision for me because I was both excited and impressed by the work at Northeast Electronics. I must decline your offer. email) Letter Declining a Job http://careers.

7 . . . . . . . . . . . When you do respond to questions or ask your own. . long-term goals. 4. One way to accomplish this is by looking at the results from surveys of employers to discover what are the top characteristics they look for in job candidates. . 3. Problem-solving skills. . . . . . . . . Entrepreneurial skills/risk-taker . . . 42 . . . . . . it shows confidence. . To make it easier on you. . . . . . . 4. . . When you look good. . . . . . . . Teamwork skills (works well with others) . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . Do thorough company research including reading annual reports. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . Strategic planning skills . . 4. . Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . You can use the time to relax. . . . . newspaper articles and trade journals. . . .3 . . .3 . . Good preparation will help you control the nervousness and maximize your chances of a successful outcome. MIT Career Development Center (5-point scale. and even wipe your sweaty palms with a handkerchief. . . . 4. . . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . What Happens During the Interview? The interview process can be scary if you do not know what to expect. . . . where 1=not important and 5=extremely important) Source: NACE Research: Job Outlook 2009 National Association of Colleges and Employers. . keep in mind that most interviews fit a general pattern. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . The typical interview will last 30-45 minutes. . .4 . Computer skills . . 3. . . Sense of humor . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . 3. 4. Be firm. . . . . . . . . . .0 .Chapter 5.3 . . . . . . . Refer to Chapter 2: Researching Employers. Do not be afraid to extend your hand first. . . . . Think of one or two examples of how you have proven yourself in these areas in the past and be thoughtful about how these characteristics would be valuable in the workplace environment that you are hoping to get in to. . . Technical skills .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Self-confidence . . . . . . 4. Make sure you look groomed and professional. . . Interviewing Preparing for an Interview Preparing for your first interview can be a little nerve-racking. . . . . . he or she is analyzing the way you shake hands upon being introduced. . Initiative . 4. . . . . you feel  A good. although some may be longer. . .3 . . . . . . . . . .8 .4 . . . . . . . your statements should be concise and organized. . there is not a lot of time to state your case. . . . Do not limit your research only to company-controlled information. . . . . Take a look at the Top 10 Personal Characteristics. . . .6 . . . . . . . recent press releases. . .0 . . Leadership skills . . . 3. . . . . . . Detail-oriented. . . . . . 4. Tactfulness. if necessary. . . . . . conservative and neutral.0 The Greeting. . . . . . . . .2 . . . 3. . . . . . . start taking a personal inventory and see how you measure up in these categories. . . . Your clothes and accessories should be neat. . . and to view corporate photos. Organizational skills . 4. . . . . . . . . . But do not be too brief. Analytical skills . 3. . The recruiter begins to evaluate you the minute you are identified and continues to evaluate you in every way. organize your thoughts. . Here are some tips to ensure your first impression is a positive one: •    ppearance counts. . . Look at the company homepage to find out their mission statement. Your clothes are your packaging and should not take attention away from the product. Strong work ethic . . . First Impressions and Small Talk It is a good idea to arrive at least 15 minutes before your scheduled time. . . . . . . . . . Flexibility/adaptability. .3 . . A typical structure is as follows: •  Five minutes: greeting and small talk  •    ifteen minutes: a mutual discussion of your backF ground and credentials as they relate to the needs of the employer •  Five minutes: you have an opportunity to ask questions  •    ive minutes: wrap-up/discuss next steps in the  F process As you can see. . . . . . . This shows assertiveness. . . . . . . Friendly/outgoing personality . . .6 . . .5 . Interpersonal skills (relates well to others) . . . . . . . This could be your last chance to market yourself to the employer! How Employers View Candidates Employers rate the importance of candidate qualities/skills Communication skills . For example. . .5 . . . . . . . .

. keep in mind that the recruiter is looking for someone who is confident about his or her own beliefs. 93 percent of a person’s communication effectiveness is determined by nonverbal communication. Use examples from past internships. made our internal systems more efficient and visible and raised attendance by 18% the first year.” Be prepared to provide examples of when results did not turn out as you planned. These questions are designed to determine your goal direction. Describe the situation. The words you choose will say something about you. Numbers and percentages illustrate your level of contribution and responsibility. Briefly explain a particular situation that relates to the question. The interviewer will sometimes ask you open-ended questions to allow you to choose which examples you wish to use.. Result: We utilized some of the wonderful ideas we received from the community.” Whenever you can. Task: Describe the tasks involved in that situation. I also included a rating sheet to collect feedback on our events and organized internal round table discussions to raise awareness of the issue with our employees. I was responsible for managing various events. the interviewer will pick apart the story to try to get at the specific behavior(s). Your answer should contain these four steps (Situation. Results: What results directly followed because of your actions? Before the interview process. tell what you did specifically. According to one UCLA study. community service and work experience. What did you do then? What did you learn? Your resume will serve as a good guide when answering these questions. as Shift Supervisor. Employers seek people who have direction and motivation. Always listen carefully to the question.mit. Action: I designed a new promotional packet to go out to the local community businesses. It is helpful to frame your answer as a story that you can tell. Give a specific example and walk through the situation. classes.edu . team involvements.•    onverbal communication sometimes conveys  N a stronger message than verbal communication. and make sure you answer the question completely. Many times recruiters will ask why you chose the major you did or what your career goals are. So give only the essential background information and get to the point! Your interview preparation should include identifying examples of situations from your experiences on your resume where you have demonstrated the behaviors a given company seeks. not a general one. as well as your knowledge of the industry. It is important to use “their” words and talk “their” talk. •    uring the ‘settling in’ stage of the interview you may  D engage in brief ‘small talk’. step by step. identify two or three of your top selling points and determine how you will convey these points (with demonstrated STAR stories) during the interview. Typically. For example. Action: Talk about the various actions involved in the situation’s task. activities. Have a firm (but not too strong) handshake and moderate your voice to sound calm and assertive. Task: I noticed that attendance at these events had dropped by 30% over the past three years and wanted to do something to improve these numbers. he or she is looking for collaboration and compromise. Result or “STAR”) for optimum success. Eye contact and smiles can indicate a confident and upbeat attitude. Refresh your memory regarding your achievements in the past couple of years. This is a good opportunity to demonstrate your social and interpersonal skills as well as your excitement about the opportunity for which you are interviewing. Most of the time. quantify your results. When a part of your story relates to a skill or experience the interviewer wishes to explore further. but open to other people’s ideas as well. Task. Action. http://careers.” or “Lead me through your decision making process. I trained and evaluated four employees. These can include “What were you thinking at that point?” or “Tell me more about your meeting with that person. if you are asked to discuss a time when you had a conflict with a colleague. he/she will then ask you very specific follow-up questions regarding your behavior. A good story-telling technique is a huge plus when interviewing because it keeps the recruiter interested. It is a good idea to think about what the recruiter is trying to find out about you when they ask certain questions. Strategy for Discussing Your Credentials The main part of the interview starts when the recruiter begins discussing the organization and asking some questions regarding your past experience related to the position for which you are interviewing. ask for clarification if necessary.. For example: “I was a shift supervisor” could be enhanced by saying “ . 43 Example of a STAR Answer STAR Method: Situation: Give an example of a situation you were involved in that resulted in a positive outcome. Situation: During my internship last summer. and the positive result or outcome.

Some Questions to Ask an Interviewer The Position: 1. When do you expect to make a hiring decision for this position? 7. What percentage of the people are promoted from this position? In how long? 3. For example. Can you tell me about the career path this position offers? 2. “Do you have any questions for me?” it is important to have a few ready. How do you rate your competition? General Questions for Interviewer 1. production. e.. Does advancement to upper management usually require an advanced degree? Wrap Up The interview is not over until you walk out the door. and what are they doing? 5. While these questions are not always used. there is no way to anticipate questions like these. Is training done in a classroom/group session or is it handled on an individual basis? 3. profits) 6. i.g. It is up to you to convince the recruiter that although these points appear negative. stand up. What are the backgrounds of the leading individuals in my area of interest? 3. Is it your usual policy to promote from within? 6. During the interview.. how long did the previous person hold it? Was the previous person promoted? 3. Where does this position lead? How does it fit into the organization? 4. The employer will evaluate your reaction time and the response you give.e. Can you tell me about the primary people with whom I would be dealing? Is this a newly created position? If not. Once you take the cue that the interview is over. please? 2. no participation in outside activities. Show the recruiter that you have done your homework. Many times questions are asked simply to see how you react. Would you describe the duties of the position for me. sales. Can you tell me about the people who would be reporting to me? 3. Are there any other assignments not specifically mentioned in the position description? 4. How are promotions or transfers determined within the company? 7. Is regular travel a part of this position? 7. What type of on-the-job training programs do you offer? 5. At this point you are able to ask strategic questions that will elicit positive responses from the employer. The conclusion of the interview usually lasts five minutes and is very important. but again. Stay cool. audit. Can you tell me a little about your own experience with the company? 5. be prepared to deal with aspects of your background that could be construed as negative. What characteristics are important for this position? 44 . Are there training programs available to me so that I can learn and grow professionally? 4.) department? 8. Overall . What have been some of the best results produced by people in this position? 5. The questions should bring out your interest in and knowledge of the organization. etc. Are there any questions about my qualifications (resume) I can answer? 2. where are they now. What additional training might be necessary for this position? 2. What do you see ahead for your company in the next five years? 7. they are intended to force you to react under some stress and pressure. During this time the recruiter is assessing your overall performance. no related work experience. About the people who have preceded me in this position and in the department. Does the firm support further college education for its employees? During the interview.Expect the Unexpected Education & Training: 1.It’s Your Turn to Ask Questions When the recruiter asks. Could you describe the hiring process? Career Paths: 1. How and when would my performance be evaluated? 6. products. “Tell me a joke” to “What time period would you like to have lived in?” These are not the kind of questions for which you can prepare so do not spend time worrying about them in advance. Is the company planning any new market lines? 6. What is the most significant challenge facing your staff now? 4. positive MIT Career Development Center Assessment Questions for Interviewer: 1. research. shake the recruiter’s hand and thank him or her for considering you. do not be surprised if you are asked some unusual questions. What support services are available to carry out the responsibilities of this position? 4. surprise questions could range from. low grade point average. It is important to remain enthusiastic and courteous. What are your plans for expanding the (sales. think and give an honest answer. What are your projections for this department/position for the next year? (Specify type of projections. What kind of personal attributes and qualifications does your company value? 2. To whom would I be reporting? 5.

mit. How did you handle it? •    ave you ever spoken in front of a group of people?  H How large? •    ell me about a leadership role you have had. D •    efine success. other than those related to your  W occupation. but plenty of experience that shows you to be a skilled and potentially valuable employee.edu . What role did you play? •    id you work while going to school? In what positions? D •    ell me about the most satisfying job you ever held. you might have no related work experience. how are you preparing to achieve them? •    hat specific goals. A low GPA could stem from having to fully support yourself through college. What  T makes a good leader? •    here do you want to be in five years? Ten years? W •    f you could start college over. How do you balance study  D with personal life? •    n which campus activities did you participate? I •    hat job-related skills have you developed? W •    ow do you spend college vacations?  H •    hat extracurricular activities are you involved in?  W What have you gained from those experiences? •    ave you plans for furthering your education?  H •    hy did you choose this career field?  W •    hat type of position are you looking for?  W •    hat are your long-range and short-range goals and  W objectives. T •    hat are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?  W •    hat have you done that shows initiative and W willingness to work? •    ow do you react to criticism?  H •    ow would your best friend describe you?  H •    escribe your ideal job. •    escribe a time when a team member came to you for  D help.  T The least? •    ave you had any work experience related to this position?  H •    hat kind of boss do you prefer?  W •    hat kind of work interests you the most?  W •    ave you had any supervisory experience?  H •    hat frustrates you on the job?  W •    ave you ever quit a job? Why? H •    ive an example of a situation where you provided a  G solution to an employer.attributes can be found in them.. D •    hat can you offer us? W •    ho are your role models? Why? W •    hat motivates you to put forth your greatest effort?  W •    hat kind of people do you enjoy working with? W •    hat motivates you in a job?  W •    hat types of people rub you the wrong way?  W •    hat frustrates you? (makes you angry?)  W •    re you a joiner or a loner? A leader or follower? A  A committee member or an executive? •    ow do you spend your spare time? What are your  H hobbies? •    alk about a time when you had trouble getting along  T with a professor/co-worker/supervisor. Define failure. •    ave you ever done any volunteer work? What kind? H •    ow would a former supervisor describe your work? H •    escribe a time when you had to go above and beyond  D the call of duty to get the job done. •    ive an example of a time when you worked under  G deadline pressure. Sample Questions Asked by Employers Personal Assessment •    ell me about yourself.  W does a successful team player possess? •    hat do you know about opportunities in your field?  W •    hat are the most important rewards you expect from  W your career? •    hat kind of challenge are you looking for?  W •    hat do you think determines a person’s progress in a  W good company? •    ow do you determine or evaluate success?  H •    hat are your ideas on salary?  W •    ow much money do you hope to earn five years from  H now? •    hat personal characteristics are necessary for  W success in your field? •    o you prefer to work on your own or under a supervisor? D Company or Organization •    hy do you want to work for this organization?  W •    hat do you know about our organization?  W •    hat section (service or product) are you most  W interested in? •    o you prefer large or small companies? Why?  D •    ow do you feel about working in a structured environH ment? A non-structured environment? 45 http://careers. have you established for yourself in the next five years? •    hat qualities does a successful manager possess? . what would you do  I differently? •    ell me about a class in which you were part of a study  T group. when and why did you establish these goals. What was the situation? How did you respond? Career Ambition and Plans Education and Experience •    an you summarize your educational background for me?  C •    hy did you decide to attend school at MIT?  W •    o you think you received a good education? Why or  D why not? •    hy did you choose the major you did?  W •    hat courses did you like the most? The least?  W •    escribe for me the most rewarding accomplishment  D since you’ve started college. •    escribe your study habits..

behaviors. your tolerance for ambiguity.•    hat do you think it takes to be successful in a  W company such as ours? •    n what ways do you think you can make a contribution  I to our company? •    ow long would you expect to work here?  H •    re you willing to work overtime?  A •    re you willing to work flextime? A •    re you willing to go where the company sends you?  A •    hat type of work environment are you most comfortW able with? •    hy do you think you might like to live in the commuW nity in which our company is located? •    hy should I hire you?  W •    ive me a specific occasion in which you conformed to  G a policy with which you did not agree. •    escribe an instance when you had to think on your  D feet to extricate yourself from a difficult situation. •    ive me an example of a time when you were able to  G successfully communicate with another person even when that individual may not have personally liked you (or vice versa). Therefore. employers hope to learn about your analytical skills. Here are some examples: •    escribe a situation in which you were able to use  D persuasion to successfully convince someone to see things your way. most will involve at least one of the three following components: •  Brainteasers •  Estimation (Market Sizing) Questions •  A Specific Project or Business Case Brainteasers Brainteasers can be little or complex logic puzzles. •    ell me about a time in which you had to use your  T written communication skills in order to get an important point across. In this way. and your communication skills along several dimensions. candidates are first introduced to a business dilemma facing a particular company (often drawn from the interviewer’s professional experience). identify key business issues. Employers predetermine which skills are necessary for the particular job and then ask very pointed questions to determine if the candidate possesses those skills. if leadership is necessary for a position. •    ive me an example of a time in which you had to be  G relatively quick in coming to a decision. These can involve using some quick math and give you a chance to demonstrate your conceptual skills to the interviewer. what is the angle between the hour and the minute hands?” MIT Career Development Center Behavioral and Case Interviewing Behavioral Interviewing is based on the premise that the most accurate predictor of future performance is past performance in a similar situation. knowledge. Some sample brainteasers are: •  “Why are man-hole covers round?” •  “If a wall clock reads 3:15 pm. how you identify. situations and environments. skills and abilities that are job related. Consequently. and discuss how you move toward a possible resolution. Occasionally. and think through problems under pressure. convince me that you can  B adapt to a wide variety of people. Always try to be conscious about what the recruiter is trying to find out about you. 46 . structure. the interviewer will help to guide the discussion but will often expect that you ask probing questions to uncover key information about the case facts. For example. While there are many types of case interviews. depending on the length of the case. •    escribe an experience when you were faced with  D problems or stresses that tested your coping skills. •    ell me about a time when you had to go above and  T beyond the call of duty in order to get a job done. you may be asked to talk about an experience in which you were a leader as well as what you think makes a good leader. Examples of Behavioral Questions Behavioral questions can be difficult if you are not prepared. they will also evaluate your interpersonal skills and ability to communicate your recommendations and solutions to the presented business problem. Employers encourage that you think out loud as you attempt to “crack” a case because it allows the interviewer to evaluate your thought process. The Case Interview The Close •    hen could you start work?  W •    s there anything else I should know about you?  I •    o you have any other questions?  D Certain employers—especially management consulting firms—use a “case interview” technique to determine how well-suited you are to performing their type of work. Setting up a mock interview with the MIT Career Development Center is an excellent way to practice. you will begin a process in which you and the interviewer engage in an open dialogue about various aspects of the case. Next. It focuses on experiences. Case interviews are used to measure your problem solving ability. G •    ive me a specific example of a time when you used  good judgment and logic in solving a problem. specifically. In a typical case interview. your approach to a case is more important than the specific content of your answers. Your answers should be thoughtful and include some creativity in arriving at a solution. •    y providing examples. •    ive me an example of an important goal that you  G had set in the past and tell me about your success in reaching it.

Some firms will have sample cases for students to become familiar with the form.mit.•  “How would you weigh a plane without scales?” •    Which would you rather have. so it is imperative that the numbers and formulas you create in your solutions be correct. Cases can be specifically created for the interview process or can be a past or current situation affecting a business or organization. What Employers Look for During a Case Interview •    nthusiasm for typical consulting issues E •    bility to think out loud and brainstorm A •    istening skills and the pace of candidate’s response L •    bility to restate the problem and verify the objective of  A the business or project •    onciseness and focus when possible C •    se of sketches. each of the above scenarios addresses three different types of business situations: entering a new market. and the unknown. How would you develop a pricing strategy for the client?” Sample case #3: “A US company who has just created a new biotech device is thinking about expanding internationally. •    IT Science and Engineering Business Club:  M http://web.edu/sebc/ •    IT Sloan Undergraduate Management Association:  M http://web. online. charts. what would you do?” Sample case #2: “Your client is a mid-sized hotel chain. employers are looking for your ability to be creative and will be evaluating your quantitative ability very closely.edu •    hat additional information do I need to know? W •    hat are the key issues to be addressed? W •    hat are the key findings from the analysis? W •    hat is my hypothesis for the solution? W Overall. In addition to these websites. and campus resources to help you. For example. Next. and developing a new product. As consulting firms increase their recruitment of students from a diverse set of majors.mit. If its labor costs are competitive with industry standards. Questions to ask yourself about a case: http://careers. employers are looking to expose non-business and management majors to the dynamics of case interviews that will help prepare candidates for the interview process. Popular frameworks are often derived from business concepts and several can be learned in the process of preparing for your interview.mit. As lead consultant on this project. identifying which case facts lead to your solution •    onfidence in your ideas C Common Mistakes to Avoid During a Case Interview •    gnoring the cues of the interviewer I •    se of business terms in the wrong context U •    sking open-ended questions throughout the entire  A interview (or asking a long series of questions without explaining why you need the information) •    aking assumptions that utilize extremely large  M numbers and percentages and not being able to use them comfortably in your analysis •    ppearing disorganized or having scattered notes on  A the specific business or project case •    pending too much time analyzing the smaller aspects of  S the case and not referring back to the big picture or problem •    ot being able to respond well to criticism or questions  N about your assumptions or your solutions Additional Case Interview Resources Many of the medium to large consulting firms that recruit from universities have practice cases somewhere on their website. what issues might influence its decision?” Your first challenge is to identify the type of problem the case addresses and decide whether there is an appropriate framework to structure your analysis. you will likely need pencil and paper. Usually.” Project Case The third type of question found in most case interviews involves analyzing a project or a business case. the best way to begin learning how to approach the different types of business cases comes with practice. or diagrams to describe your  U analysis and logic •    bility to create reasonable hypotheses and put them  A to the test •    bility to summarize final recommendations in a clear  A and concise way. Each individual will have a unique interviewing style and take you through the case in different ways depending on his or her priorities. As such.edu/suma/ 47 . listen carefully and clarify anything you do not understand before proceeding. and there are many resources available to get yourself acquainted with this popular interview method. starting with the most important first. facts. developing a pricing strategy. as your interview progresses. Follow the interviewer’s lead. •    How many car batteries are sold in the US each year?” “ •    How much does all the ice in a hockey rink weigh?” “ •    Estimate the size of the DVD rental market in the “ Midwest. there are a variety of print. a trunk full of nickels or “ a trunk half full of dimes?” Estimation Questions Estimation Questions may be somewhat longer than brainteasers and require you to be adept in both making assumptions and working with numbers. the frameworks that you use to begin your analysis will allow you to push deeper into each issue. Again. The following are just a few examples of project/business cases used in a case interview setting: Sample case #1: “You are called in by Pizza Hut to help them develop a strategy for entering the home delivery market in which Domino’s has the dominant position. with these types of questions. These can be written or verbal cases and will take anywhere from 45 minutes or longer to process with the interviewer.

Dress Code for Interviews “What am I going to wear?” We get asked this question nearly every day during the recruiting season. It is a good way for you.  B Before you hang up •    hank the interviewer for the opportunity. •    ollow with a thank-you note. F about.” •    f you are caught by surprise at a busy time. or Ms. •    lose the door.com/library/weekly/aa082398.  H •    lear the room—evict the roommates and the pets. Thanks. calling you will most likely be someone from Human Resources.casequestions. “When are you looking to  A have a decision made?” After the Interview: Employers use telephone interviews as a time-effective way of identifying and recruiting candidates for employment. where you will be broadcast over a speakerphone. MIT Career Development Center . During the Phone Interview Prior to the Interview •    eep your resume in clear view. or someone you met at a career fair.com/ h •    ttp://www. referral. •    ave company information summarized including  H specific critical points describing the employer and the company’s products. One of the keys to success is to be able to identify quickly what type you are going to be participating in.  G •    e able to tell a brief example/story of your experiences. or tape it to the wall near the phone. •    ave a short list of questions about the job and the  H organization.  D •    ake your time—it’s perfectly acceptable to take a  T moment or two to collect your thoughts. “In-Depth Telephone Interview” In this case.  D •    o keep a glass of water handy. •    o not interrupt the interviewer. sandals and beads. to see if you are a good fit with the company and its objectives. This may sound strange but smiling will project a  S positive image to the listener and will change the tone of your voice.com/ V •    ttp://www.  S •    se the person’s title (Mr. •    ave a “cheat sheet” of compelling story topics that  H highlight your accomplishments. Use your own discretion but we suggest you dress the way you would if you were giving an important presentation at the company or attending a business meeting. you may be interviewed by a hiring committee.com/ h Telephone Interviews Telephone Interviews have one advantage over the other types of interviews—you can have your preparation materials in front of you as the interview is taking place. “Information Gathering Interviews” An employer may call in order to assess your interest in the company. There are three basic types of telephone calls that you get from employers at this stage.com/mit/student/ •    ault Career Guides: http://www. •    peak slowly and enunciate clearly. (see http://jobsearch. •    mile. This often occurs if you are referred to him or her through a personal contact. as the potential employee.  U Only use a first name if they ask you to. Compile a list of your strengths and weaknesses. as well as a list of answers to typical interview questions. on the top of your  K desk. Prepare for a phone interview just as you would for a regular interview. This kind of call should be treated as seriously as an in-depth interview.myinterfase.htm for extra hints). the telephone is being used as a way to minimize the expenses involved in traveling for the interviewer and/or the interviewee.about. A. •    ive succinct answers.  C Turn off the stereo and other distractions. in case you need to  D wet your mouth. These are quick and the person 48 •    ake notes about what you were asked and how you  T answered. •    o not smoke.) and their last name. Depending on the type of organization that you are interviewing with. (see http://jobsearch. •    ave a pen and paper handy for note taking. But maybe you will be seeing a funky. “Screening Call” Many companies use telephone calls as a screening mechanism in order to narrow the pool of applicants who will be invited for inperson interviews. so it’s at your fingertips when you need to answer questions.vault. it’s common sense. Place a sign “Interview in progress— C please do not disturb. obviously you should wear a traditional suit. Basically. B. G •    et contact information for follow-up questions.htm for further hints) which reiterates your interest in the job. C.com/library/weekly/aa121000a. or drink. eat. you may  I request another time to speak.acethecase. You can start by asking yourself “What kind of company will I be interviewing with?” If it is a Fortune 500 company. chew gum. G •    sk about the hiring timeline. upbeat software company and you heard the recruiter showed up for interviews last year in a tie-dye shirt.•    etFeet Career Guides (available through CareerBridge):  W https://www. T •    et the correct spelling of your interviewer’s name.

plain style (no patterns). grey or black suit with a solid or light colored blouse is recommended for most positions. tea. Accessories—One conservative. choose the one with the slightly smaller prongs. •    f you need to leave the table temporarily. Accessories—No flashy cuff links. No visible body piercing.  S wine. B •    kim the menu quickly. Keep  C your fork prongs pointed down. but the choice to hire you is the interviewer’s. When you are finished. •    ever make slurping or yummy sounds. at very formal restaurants. Do not leave it on the chair when you get up to exit the restaurant. Dining Etiquette for Interviews If you are lucky. Hosiery— Light. don’t dip your food into it. fruit. Avoid brown. Be sure the knot is neat and centered on your neck. As soon as you are seated. Avoid heavy perfumes. Grooming—Avoid heavy cologne or aftershave.  D politics. Avoid frilly collars and cuffs. White athletic socks are a big “no no” unless you are interviewing to be a summer camp counselor at a sports camp. S •    ay please and thank you to the waiter. Women Suits—Skirted suits are almost always preferable. toes should be closed. you should really go buy one. E •    f you are a non-smoker and your host asks for a table  I in the smoking section. Sometimes. Not even one small one. Shoes— Should be conservative and compliment the color and style of the interview suit. rings or gold chains. break off and butter one small piece  W of bread at a time. Get plain or button down collar. Be sure beards and mustaches are neat and trimmed. neat and preferably over the calf. Shirts—A light colored blouse is ideal. If you buy or borrow one. •    ut one bite (meat. or religion. Dining Tips •    f you are not sure what to order. I •    f the recruiter is not first in line to order. no strappy shoes. Business dresses are acceptable in fields that are less formal and less conservative. is solid or has small neat patterns. When you use your napkin. and avoid multi-colored trim. Be sure the tie coordinates with the suit. Avoid shoes with a run down heel. Neckties—Conservative silk ties are best. or vegetables) at a time. http://careers. a conservative sports coat and dress slacks are best. A solid navy. •    e prepared to be conversational. place your knife and fork so they lie horizontally across your plate. one inch wide. one or 2 rings per hand. place your  I napkin on your seat. Avoid beer. Low to medium heels are ideal. No earrings. This could be the most daunting meal of your career. D •    at at the same pace as your host or hostess. Long hair should be worn as conservatively as possible. one round of the interview process will take place over some sort of a meal setting. gently dab at your lips. green or pastel suits. Polyesters and nylon are out. •    elax and keep the conversation focused on businessR related or casual topics. It is meant to catch food from falling into your lap and it should gently dust the crumbs from your lips. K •    rink from the glass to your right. not up. Do not refold it. N •    hen sharing a sauce with others. spoon some of it on  W to your plate. No visible body piercing beyond earrings. put your napkin on your lap. sports.edu Hair— Should be freshly cleaned and neatly styled. The bottom of the tie should just reach your belt. and mixed drinks. forks. No dangling or distracting bracelets. Hair—Clean. and spoons. 49 . Solid blue is an acceptable alternative. A •    tick to soft drinks. natural color. Avoid bright colors. well-groomed and professional looking. order a medium priced entrée  S that will be the least messy to eat. no large buckles. Shirts—White shirts are always your first choice. when you face a full battalion of knives. Basic pumps. the waiter may do this for you. the choice to cut your hair is yours. and water. Mental preparation is key! As a rule of thumb. non-dangling earring per ear. Belts—Wear a black or brown belt. ask him/her. The color should either be a dark blue or gray in either a solid or invisible plaid with a pressed long-sleeved (even in summer!) white dress shirt. grin and bear it. Shoes—Clean and polished leather lace-up black or dark brown shoes are best. Socks—Dark. Avoid purses of any size—carry a portfolio or briefcase instead.Men Suits—A traditional suit is preferred to a blazer. avoid making a sandwich. •    ith dinner rolls. Wedding or college ring is fine. If you don’t own either.mit. •    on’t talk about personal relationships. Makeup—Natural looking and conservative. coffee. •    eep your elbows off the table. follow your host’s lead. If you are unsure which fork to use for your salad course. Use a neutral or clear nail polish on clean and manicured nails. and place your napkin next to your plate. Remember.  I “What do you recommend?” •     chicken breast or vegetable plate is always safe. recent parties. Choose cotton material. start with the flatware the furthest from the plate first.

but some will not. Take note of how the employees interact with each other and their supervisors and also assess the physical work environment. Also. Respond promptly if you are sincerely interested in this employer. document the name and phone number of the person coordinating your trip. Review the business cards of those you met or write the information in your notebook before leaving the facility. Stay in touch with the employer if you want to pursue a career with the organization. •    on’t drink alcohol if you are under age 21. a black and/or blue pen for filling out forms and applications. If you are attending. Most medium and large-size companies (as well as many smaller ones) will pay your expenses. Treat the custodian the same as you would the CEO. •    ou handle your expenses and arrangements (the  y employer may assist with this). and an opportunity to buy stock in the company with the company making a contribution toward the purchase. some companies may also MIT Career Development Center . Never go on a plant trip for the sake of the trip. Employee benefits at most large companies are generally worth another thirty percent or more on top of your salary. If the company grows. do not be afraid to tell the employer that you feel that there is a good fit and you are eager to join the team. The normal benefits include paid vacation (usually two weeks for the first year). Verify who will be handling trip expenses. Each person is unique. Once again. The Site Visit/Interview— One Step Closer After an on-campus interview. and names and addresses of past employers. •    he employer may offer an on-site interview. your role at the interview is to respond to questions. phone numbers and email addresses of your references.•    on’t eat the garnish. you are there to evaluate the employer and to determine if your expectations are met for job content. On the other hand. the  D host who invited you must take care of both. Salaries can vary depending on where the job is located. Be courteous to everyone regardless of his or her position. downplay your food  D preferences. copies of any paperwork you may have forwarded to the employer. and “the going rate” is little more than a guideline. a thank-you letter should be written to the person(s) who interviewed you and will be making the hiring decision. be sure that you have done enough research to know what you can realistically expect. your actions once you arrive in town. address. While on-campus screening interviews are important. contributions toward your pension. Notification of a plant trip may be by telephone or mail. Just as any good salesperson would never leave a customer without attempting to close the sale. title.  D don’t dine on half a lettuce leaf. Bring extra copies of your resume. health insurance. The site visit is a two-way street. You should have the name. but will  t not pay for your travel expenses. record your impressions of your performance. Word gets back to people in the most interesting ways. This is very important because expenses are handled in various ways: •    he employer may handle all expenses and travel  t arrangements. to ask your own questions and to observe. and the employer will reimburse you later. on-site visits are where jobs are either won or lost. don’t  D have more than one drink if you are 21 or over and the recruiter insists. addresses. so there may not be much flexibility. •    on’t argue over the check or offer to pay the tip. In addition. Sometimes employers will try to arrange a site visit for several candidates to take place at the same time. this last benefit can become a nice nest egg. If you decide that the job is right for you. D •    on’t discuss dietary restrictions. a notebook. a copy of your best paper as a writing sample. an updated college transcript. and its stock rises accordingly. that you will be offered a competitive salary based on what you are worth—not on what you want or what others are getting for similar jobs. Be ready to meet people who are not part of your formal agenda. you never know who might be watching you and 50 Negotiating Salary and Benefits Before you start negotiating your salary. and email of everyone who was involved in your interview so you can determine which individuals you may want to contact with additional questions or follow-up information. names. Just as the employer is evaluating you. •    on’t eat as if this is your last meal. Work with the employer to schedule the on-site visit at a mutually convenient time. Be aware. you should never leave an interview without some sort of closure. organizational structure. Decline politely if you are not. tuition assistance for courses taken after work. The MIT Career Development Center compiles a yearly salary survey that has been filled out by departing graduates who have been offered jobs. and lifestyles (both at work and leisure). You’ll make the best impression by eating like a human—not like a wolf or a bird. company culture and values. lead candidates are usually invited to visit the employer’s facility. Soon after the site visit. phone number.

com/ h Research Gather as much factual information as you can to back up the case you want to make.org/tools/salary/index. spend some time reviewing what you know about this person’s communication style and decisionmaking behavior.mit. which is the conduit for effective negotiations.salaryexpert. This is typically the case if you sign on as a consultant.org/tools/salary/ also visit www. the value depends on the success of the company. Negotiating with your potential employer can make your job one that best meets your own needs as well as those of your employer. What follows are some suggestions that might help in your preparation. and other benefits. retirement package.htm h •    ttp://www. dental plan. you have the opportunity to discuss with the employer the terms of your employment. Psychological Preparation Chances are that you will not know the person with whom you will be negotiating very well. Obviously. emphasizing the areas of agreement but allowing “wiggle room” to compromise on other areas. Your salary should be larger in this case because it is up to you to pay for health insurance and to provide for your retirement. Be sure you know exactly what you want. Be prepared to support your points of disagreement. For more information see http://web. leave entitlements. 51 . even if it only relates to your start date. outlining the parts you would like to alter. Preparation is probably the single most important part of successful negotiations. For an index to many online salary surveys. For example.aspx Research salaries for the industry and position you seek by visiting: •    ttp://web. Unless you know what you want. presentation and patience.jobweb. If you are lucky enough to be acquainted. The same is true for negotiating.edu Dollars and Sense Always begin by expressing genuine interest in the position and the organization. Small companies may not have the cash flow to offer large benefits. http://careers. or as a contract worker. Any good trial attorney will tell you the key to presenting a good case in the courtroom is the hours of preparation that happen beforehand.com/salguides. Cite those areas in which you know you already agree upon.mit. To ensure successful negotiations. see the JobSmart website at http://jobsmart. Follow with areas that are open to negotiation. or a new startup company may pay partly in stock or give an outright gift of stock.salary.php h •    ttp://www. or have a high GPA usually are not justifiable reasons in the eyes of the employer. This does not mean you will get everything you want.bls. In most cases this person will be a stranger.gov/oes/home.include life insurance and /or relocation expenses in their benefit packages. most often between the new employee and the hiring organization. A good case will literally present itself. It is also possible to work for a company and receive no benefits whatever. not approximately. your suggestions on how this can be done and why it would serve the company’s best interests to accommodate your request.rileyguide. if most new employees cannot negotiate salary you may be jeopardizing the offer by focusing on that aspect of the package. but having information clearly outlined in your head will help you determine where you can compromise in return for things that are more important to you. They may make up for this by giving stock options (the chance to buy the stock later at an earlier and lower price). Find out about the costs and benefits associated with the health plan.com/sitemap. Clarity improves communication. Requesting a salary increase because you are a fast learner. you won’t be able to tell somebody else. Back up your reasons for wanting to change the offer with meaningful work-related skills and positive benefits to the employer. plan your strategy.com h •    ttp://www. The definition of negotiation as it relates to employment is: a series of communications either oral or in writing that reach a satisfying conclusion for all concerned parties. it is important to understand the basic components. State all the items to negotiate at the beginning. Create a list of all the items you want to negotiate.edu/career/www/ workshops Negotiation is a planned series of events that requires strategy. How will you “psyche” yourself up to feel confident enough to ask for what you want? How will you respond to counteroffers? What are your alternatives? What’s your bottom line? In short. Meaningful work experience or internships that have demonstrated or tested your professional skills are things that will make an employer stop and take notice.edu/career/www/infostats/graduation. h html •    ttp://www. The Art of Negotiating Once you have been offered a job. Be assured that he or she will expect some level of negotiation.mit.html h •    ttp://jobstar.

It is sometimes more comfortable for job seekers to make this initial request in writing and plan to meet later to hash out the differences. Keep in mind that the employer has chosen you from a pool of qualified applicants, so they need you as much as you need them. Do not rush the process. Remember this is a series of volleys and lobs, trade-offs and compromises that occur over a period of time. It is a process—not a singular event! Once you have reached a conclusion with which you are both relatively comfortable, present in writing your interpretation of the agreement so that if there is any question, it will be addressed immediately. Negotiation, by definition, implies that each side will give. Do not perceive it as an ultimatum. If the employer chooses not to grant any of your requests— and realistically, that can happen—you will still have the option of accepting the original offer provided that you have maintained a positive, collaborative and friendly atmosphere during your exchanges. You can always re-enter negotiations after you have demonstrated your worth to the organization.

Money Isn’t Everything
There are many things you can negotiate besides salary. Benefits can add thousands of dollars to the compensation package. For more information about benefits see http:// benefitslink.com/index.shtml. Some negotiation points can include: •    acation time V •    aid personal leave and sick days P •    edical / dental / health coverage  M •    hild care or elder care C •    iscounts on the company’s products and services D •    ym membership G •    tock options / annual bonuses S •    etirement / disability and life insurance R •    lexibility of hours F •    elocation package R •    rofessional memberships / affiliations P •    uition reimbursement for continued education T For tips on Negotiating Offers, see http://web.mit.edu/ career/www/guide.

Because you want a career, not a job.
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Learn more at the LogMeIn Careers section of our website:

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Access, support, manage or back up remote computers and mobile devices – from smartphones to PCs and Macs – from any web browser with an Internet connection.

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MIT Career Development Center

Chapter 6. Academic Pathways
Throughout your MIT career, you will make many choices related to academic pursuits. The Career Development Center can assist you, starting your first year with issues related to choice of major, course selection and obtaining research experiences. More and more of our students are going global while at MIT and our Global Education Office can help you pursue study abroad and work abroad experiences. Later you may consider graduate or professional school. The materials and advice in this chapter can help you with some of these decisions. •    ow many credits does this major require to complete  H a degree? Do you wish to focus largely on one department, or do you want flexibility to study in other departments as well?

Global experience

•    ow much does the department facilitate or  H encourage or accommodate study abroad, research abroad, work abroad?

Choice of Major—Consider Your Options
To help you weigh options for your choice of major at MIT, ask yourself these questions about each academic department/field you are considering:

UROPs/internship programs

•    re there opportunities for you to get experience in  A your major that will help prepare you for your potential career?

Skills Appeal of area of study
•    ill you enjoy this major for its own intrinsic value?  W

•    hat kinds of skills will you be developing in this  W major?

Level of challenge

Family, peers, outside influences

•    o you think you can perform well in this field? D •    s your motivation strong enough to enable you to  I succeed in this major? •    re you choosing this major because it is easy?  A Because it is hard?

•    ow are outside pressures from family, peers and the  H job market influencing your decision?

Here are some additional resources for you to consult regarding choice of major:
•    he Major Guides on our website—these documents  T highlight skills learned, career path options commonly associated with different fields of study, and resources to help you learn more about majors and careers: http://web.mit.edu/career/www/infostats/byschool. html. •    loan Career Cornerstone Center— excellent writeS ups on career paths in engineering and science, http:// www.careercornerstone.org. •    AAP Choice of Major website: go to this site:  U http://mit.edu/firstyear, then add to the url: /2012/ choiceofmajor/index.html—you may need to change the year to your class year (e.g., /2013/choiceof major/ index.html )

Department characteristics

•    ow big is the department? H •    ow do you relate to other students in this major?  H •    re the faculty accessible? Do you seek them out for  A informal discussions and other interactions? •    re there activities in the department that bring  A students together? Are there activities that bring students and faculty together?

Courses within your major

•    ill this major help you acquire prerequisites needed  W for graduate studies you may be considering?

http://careers.mit.edu

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Global Education Office

The Global Education Office is the one-stop office where students can visit for information and advice on how to go global! We offer one-on-one advising sessions to help you identify and explore the various options that best fit your academic plans and your professional goals. In addition to this we can help you with passports, visa information, health and safety planning Study Abroad Programs and cost-saving ideas for living MIT students who plan to study abroad have many exciting options from which to choose. overseas. We offer a series of The following table includes the various categories of opportunities with examples. presentations and workshops, pre-departure and re-entry meetProgram Type Year-Long Semester IAP Summer MIT-Managed ings and are here as a resource to Institute Wide CME MIT-Madrid IAP-Madrid help you prepare for a meaningful (spring only) IAP-Germany and successful time abroad.
Departmental Aero/Astro

•    ISTI (internships)—http://web.mit.edu/misti M •    ublic Service Center (fellowships, grants, d-Lab,  P etc.)—http://web.mit.edu/mitpsc •    ROP (IROP - international research)— http://web.mit. U edu/urop/basicinfo/irop.html •    lumni Association (externships)— http://alum.mit. A edu/students/NetworkwithAlumni/ExternshipProgram

In addition to general support related to global educational opporDirect Enrollment tunities, the MIT Global Education Through MISTI Office supports all counseling of students who are seeking to study Other Direct Enrollment abroad and who are interested in applying for a distinguished fellowship. We are here to assist you in identifying the program(s) that best Outside Providers fit your needs, prepare you for the transfer credit process, and also   work with you on logistical details such as housing and insurance coverage abroad. Please find more information about specific study abroad opportunities below.

Aero/Astro Architecture Materials Science

Examples include: Ecole Polytechnique, France Examples include: Technion, Israel U. of Edinburgh LSE (General Course) Examples include: Oxford, UK Australia New Zealand 

Examples include: Ecole Polytechnique, France Examples include: Technion, Israel Barcelona, Spain Mexico U. of Edinburgh Examples include: Cambridge, UK South Africa Turks & Caicos Islands  Examples include: Mexico Ireland Argentina  LSE

Examples include: France Germany Ireland Spain, UK

In addition to the listings above, a wider collection of global opportunities can be found on the MIT “Go Global” website at http://web.mit.edu/goglobal.

Global Education Opportunities
Benefits of Going Global

Study Abroad Opportunities
Planning Study Abroad
You have probably already heard from other MIT students about the life altering experience of their study abroad program. It is never too early to start thinking about your own study abroad experience and to start planning for it. Be strategic in thinking about the study abroad possibilities that might benefit you most. Contemplate these programs from the point of view of your major, as well as your professional and research interests and goals. The more integrated your experience abroad will be with your goals and interests, the more you will benefit from that opportunity. If you already have developed an interest in a particular culture or region of the world by your freshman year, you may wish to start learning (or continue learning if
MIT Career Development Center

The world today is a very different place than it was even a few years ago. Business and research are conducted across national boundaries, different time zones, and cultural contexts. This means that as an MIT graduate you will be called upon to work effectively with global collaborators and across transnational engineering and science environments. In this increasingly global context, deciding to participate in a study abroad program could be one of the best decisions you make as an undergraduate. Students at MIT are able to engage with the world in a variety of ways. Students can enroll in a study abroad program taking classes in English or a foreign language, undertake a research project, participate in an internship or assist underserved communities through public service. Our partner offices include:

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D. and Fulbright.D.mit.you started in high school) the foreign language most commonly used in that culture or region. Please keep in mind that these types of awards require a great deal of work and are on extremely strict deadlines. According to the Council of Graduate Schools.edu/odge/financialaid.edu/scholarships and contact Kimberly Benard (benard@mit. They also have various compendia listing individual 55 Deadlines Please keep in mind that each study abroad program has its own application deadlines.= Juris Doctor J •    L. laboratories. full-year or fall semester study and December 1 for spring semester study) to ensure that students are prepared and that all the relevant MIT offices can be informed of the students approved for study abroad. These awards. including the opportunity to gain knowledge in a particular field of interest. in 12-189.A.S. CEOs.mit.edu or 617. especially internships and post-graduate foreign fellowships. Graduate School Advising You may be considering earning an advanced degree for several reasons. Gates-Cambridge. (3) research abilities. Distinguished Fellowships The Distinguished Fellowships Program.D. Please make an appointment to meet with us by contacting the Global Education Office. and this trend is likely to continue. please visit our website http://web. (6) time management.= Doctor of the Science of Law J Top Ten Criteria to select a Graduate Program •    atching your career interests/goals with the program  M •    uality of the program Department and faculty  Q strength and reputation in the profession •    aculty/student ratio  F •    rogram costs  P •    nternship or field-work opportunities  I •    uality of research facilities. See their website for up-to-date information on the subject. (7) selfmotivation. Key skills for success as a graduate student include: (1) critical thinking.4378) for an appointment. Winners have gone on to become a United States President. and even MIT professors. whether you are interested in MIT or other graduate schools.M. A 2008 survey conducted by the MIT Global Education and Career Development Center found that 42% of graduating seniors planned to pursue advanced degrees right after graduation.D. (4) written communication.mit. and libraries  Q • Financial Aid resources •    hat recent alumni are doing in the field now  W •    an you easily make connections with alumni for  C purposes of discussing how graduate school may enhance your opportunities The best experts on assistantships and fellowships.edu/studyabroad) and we look forward to meeting with you to discuss your study abroad ideas and to help you find a program that will work best for you. including but not limited to the Rhodes. Key Qualities Valued in Distinguished Fellowship Competitions:     •  Strong Academic Record     •  History of Volunteering/Public Service     •  Desire for Further Research or Studies http://careers. an interest in expanding career opportunities and increasing earning potential. Mitchell. (5) verbal communication. In addition. In many cases. graduate school enrollments are on the rise.S. You also might want to explore the international locations of exciting developments in the academic/research fields that interest you. If you are interested in learning more.= Master of Science M •    . the Global Education Office has its own internal deadlines (May 1 for summer. so please visit our website for the application schedule and deadlines.A= Master of Business Administration M •    h.253.=Doctor of Science S •    .edu .D. are the staff in the Office of the Dean for Graduate Education (3-138). They are wonderful opportunities to further one’s horizons without burdening oneself. Marshall.= Doctor of Medicine M •    .= Master of Arts M •    .mit.edu or at (617) 253-0676. How to Begin Study Abroad We invite you to visit the Study Abroad website (http:// web.= Doctor of Philosophy P •    c. a leading string theorist (Brian Greene). studyabroad@mit.M. have fostered the careers of the world’s best students.D.V.S. 12-189. If you start to think about study abroad in your sophomore or junior year. http://web.= Doctor of Veterinary Medicine D •    . Even in your senior year you may find some opportunities. is available to provide support and guidance for students preparing applications for the most prestigious awards for foreign study. you should still be able to find a study abroad program to fit your interests and goals. Range of Degrees Graduate degrees include •    . (2) analytical abilities. or postponing a job search until economic conditions improve. these awards pay for the full costs of graduate programs or international research.B.= Master of Laws L •    . Strong undergraduate academic preparation is essential to succeed in graduate school. and (8) self-discipline.= Doctor of Dental Surgery D •    .

Appointments: 30-45 minute sessions. It is important that you convey your thoughts clearly. we 56 Regardless of the type of school you are applying to. In addition. the average GPA of students currently enrolled in the program or the minimum GPA accepted can be found on the admissions webpage. Your essay is a sample of your writing abilities. Most graduate schools will require you to take the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) before you apply.edu/preprof/ and the Alumni ICAN database (https://alum. concise. compelling.mit. •    ock Interviews: 45-minute sessions to help current  M applicants prepare for medical/health profession school interviews. Do not simply repeat the information that can be read on your application.edu/career/www/preprof. Students with a range of GPA’s and test scores are accepted. Create a well-written document. Look at our website.mit. •    redential Service: Service for Prehealth students C that stores recommendation letters at the MIT Career Development Center (12-170) and sends letters to schools through DHL or electronic submission. Attend the Essay Writing workshop offered by MIT Career Development Center.edu Shanell Littlejohn. Admissions committees consider all aspects of an application when making selection decisions.edu Considering & Exploring a Professional School/Career: Individuals interested in health related careers. via phone or in-person. with carefully chosen vocabulary and correct grammar. 3. Assistant Director for Preprofessional Advising: trmenghi@mit. Counselor for Preprofessional Advising: scotte@mit. edu/career/www/workshops/gradschool. The admissions officer wants to get a sense from the essay that you are extremely interested and motivated to obtain the graduate degree and will apply the education to your professional work. to see the MIT applicant range of GPAs and MIT Career Development Center .org for more information and to apply to take the GRE. Your essay should be well thought out. Call our front desk (617253-4733). For specific tips on writing a personal statement for professional school. Start your essay with something that will grab the reader’s attention. While these numerical records are an important factor. encourage the use of the resources on the Preprofessional Advising website http://careers. Personal anecdotes can often help draw the reader into the essay. 2.mit. http://careers. who have corresponding ideas and aspirations. interests and drives. a good place to turn is the graduate office in the corresponding MIT department. and other health related professional  M schools •    aw school L The following services are available to both current MIT students and alumni/ae: •    alk-in Hours: 15-minute sessions. you will be required to submit a personal statement as part of the application process. Remember. The personal statement provides the applicant with the opportunity to articulate these goals and display strong writing skills.fellowship programs.edu Tamara Menghi. see our online workshop “Applying to Graduate School” at: http://web. Make the essay personal. future professional goals. Graduate programs seek individuals with clear commitment to the field. or come into our office (12-170) to schedule an appointment. GPA GPA standards vary among different programs. 4. admissions officers read hundreds of personal essays. we strongly recommend that you set up an appointment with a member of our staff to discuss your interest in these careers. Make your motivation and commitment clear to the reader. they are not the only thing considered. please see our online essay writing workshop. Graduate school application essays typically ask applicants to discuss their previous experience. For information on the aid available in a particular discipline. See http://www.edu. dental.mit.edu/ cs/ican/index. and interesting to the reader. Associate Director for Preprofessional Advising: shonool@mit. It will be important for you to keep in mind the following suggestions: 1. Staff: Erin Scott. Personal Statement/ Essay Preprofessional Advising The Preprofessional Advising staff works with students interested in applying to: •    edical. and how they believe that the graduate program can assist them in achieving those objectives. law or business careers should consider the following: •    hat is my motivation for entering this career? W •    ow can I explore this career during my time at MIT? H •    hat are my core interests and skills and how do they  W align with this career? To help answer these questions. For more in depth information.edu Shonool Malik. Provide the reader with an inside view on your thoughts. More information on our services and upcoming events can be found at http://web.mit. Administrative Assistant: slittlej@mit.html). set up to answer  W quick questions.gre. Most of the time.

Once your AMCAS application is received it may take approximately a month to receive a secondary application from individual schools.mit.S.org/ The AMCAS application will include: •    cademic information from all of the colleges you  A attended •    opies of all undergraduate and graduate. The American Medical College Application Service (AMCAS) is a nonprofit. please visit our website. alumni may be assigned an advisor in late fall semester. relieving students of the need to complete multiple applications. Please be advised that we cannot guarantee an advisor to all those with requests past the November 30th deadline.mit. http://www.adea. AADSAS serves only as an information clearinghouse and does not influence the dental schools appraisal or selection of applicants.edu Entrance Tests: MCAT and DAT The Medical College Application Test is a standardized examination comprised of multiple-choice questions and a writing assessment. medical schools. and research affiliates from HST. timely. are humanistic in nature. Application Process Please note: The information provided below pertains primarily to medical school and dental school. http://www. Local area http://careers. and the MIT-Harvard Health Sciences and Technology (HST) Program. For more specific information on other health related professional schools. preferably by June 30th.org Prehealth Advisors MIT draws its advisors from many groups: MIT faculty. Many of the criteria are similar for other health related professional schools. The test is divided into four sections. human relations skills. http:// careers. please see our website. MIT Dental. Massachusetts General Hospital. and continuing communication throughout the year.aamc. Physical Sciences. Preference in the advisor assignment process is given to current undergraduate and graduate students.html. http://careers. It is critical that you submit your AMCAS application as early as possible. Getting an Advisor Individuals who want a prehealth advisor are encouraged to open a credential file and apply for an advisor two years prior to the year they are interested in matriculating at a health related professional school. The MCAT is scored on a scale of 1-45.test scores that have been accepted to medical and law schools.edu/infostats/ Prehealth Information The following information pertains most directly to students applying to medical and dental schools. and motivation towards a career in the health professions.mit. For example. There are however. Review the course list online with your academic advisor and meet with a Preprofessional Advising Staff member if you have any questions. a person looking to matriculate in fall 2011 must request an advisor in fall 2009. and Biological Sciences are reported numerically. Volunteer / Service Activities: Admissions officers are interested in applicants who. in addition to having good academic credentials. provided that there are advisors available once all current students have been assigned. centralized application processing service for applicants to the first-year entering classes at participating U. a number of recommended courses one must take prior to applying. 57 . Visit the following site for detailed steps on requesting a Prehealth Advisor and call 617-253-4733 to set up an appointment with a Preprofessional Advising staff member: http://web.edu/preprof/ Course Requirements: There is no required major for applying to health related professional schools. Each dental school has the right to request supplemental information from the applicants. transcripts C •    CAT scores M •    ersonal essay/statement P It is important to note that many admission decisions to medical schools are made as applications are received and reviewed. while the Writing Sample is scored alphabetically. Scores for the Verbal Reasoning. The Associated American Dental Schools Application Service (AADSAS) is a service available to students applying to dental schools participating in the application service.mit. For more details on how to apply to other health related professional schools. AADSAS simplifies the application process by providing one standardized form.edu/ career/www/preprof/advisors. and provides an advisee with adequate time and opportunity to develop a meaningful relationship with his or her advisor. Your participation in volunteer work and leadership activities can help develop personal qualities such as integrity. Their expectation in return: responsible. Early registration enables the Preprofessional Advising staff to determine the number of advisors needed. and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Advisors volunteer their time to discuss medical careers with advisees and write a letter of recommendation for them. physicians at MIT Medical. breadth of interest. who care genuinely about others and have shown evidence of this interest through volunteer or community service activities.

Meet with them and discuss your reasons for wanting to pursue a health career.org/ prof/ ed/testing/dat/index. We recommend obtaining three to five letters. The Dental Admission Test (DAT) is conducted by the American Dental Association (ADA) and has been in operation on a national basis since 1950. •    ersonal statement P •    ourse of study C Q •    uality of undergraduate courses •    etters of recommendation L •    SAT score L •    rade Point Average (GPA) G •    ollege activities C •    thnic background E •    ost college activities P •    niqueness/Personality U •    otivation to study Law M Credential Service The Credential Service is designed to provide a reliable. Student leadership activities. once his or her file is complete. It is important to choose your writers with care and good judgment. Secondary Applications (for medical school) Secondary applications are received approximately a month or more after submitting your AMCAS application. as well as. It is important that you do not submit the same essay you submitted with the AMCAS application. comprehension of scientific information. Prelaw Information The Official Guide to ABA-Approved Law Schools. It is suggested that your letters be from the following areas: science classes. Students and alums may open a file as early as they would like to store recommendation letters for future applications to medical or other health profession programs. and personal life challenges are all elements that are considered when evaluating and making decisions on which applicants to accept. published by the Law School Admission Council (LSAC). humanities classes.mit.asp and http://www. Interviews may be held by one member of an admissions committee or by a group of individuals. the sample interview questions sheet in preparation for a formal school interview: http://careers.edu/preprof/. lists the following as the criteria used most by law schools in evaluating prospective students. The CBT MCAT is offered several times a year. Your recommendation letters are sent to schools during the secondary application phase. Letters from faculty members from a variety of academic disciplines are very important. The Dental Admission Test is administered by computer on almost any day of the year.ada. It is recommended that applicants participate in a mock interview and review the interview workshop. including their specific interest in the institution with which they are interviewing. These applications will request similar. It is ideal that the credential file be opened two years prior to the year they are interested in matriculating at a health profession school. The testing program is designed to measure general academic ability.org/.The paper MCAT exam was replaced in 2007 with a computer based test (CBT). Activities and Work Experience Experiences both in and out of the classroom are important in evaluating applicants. if not the same information. provided in the AMCAS application and will also request additional specific personal statements or essays. and insight to strengthen the classroom dynamic and intellectual exchange in law school. Interviews are required for medical and dental schools and are the final phase of the application process. of which two should be from a science professor and one from a humanities professor. 58 Academic and LSAT Credentials Your GPA and Law School Admission Test (LSAT) score are important factors to being competitive with other law MIT Career Development Center . research experiences. and perceptual ability. Please be certain that the people you ask to write letters for you will be writing the letter you expect.ada. Law schools are looking for individuals that bring a unique perspective. Your prehealth advisor’s letter will count as one of your letters and will also act as a cover letter for your other recommendation letters. give each recommender at least two months to write your letter of recommendation. and community service or leadership experiences. background. allowing more scheduling flexibility and quicker score reporting. efficient means of disseminating letters of recommendation for MIT students and alumni/ae for the use of entering medical or other health related professional programs. For more information on the DAT & the ADA visit the following sites: http://www. work experiences. Interviews Recommendation Letters All applicants need at least three letters of recommendation. As a courtesy. Letters are mailed or electronically transmitted to the schools designated by the applicant. Applicants should be prepared to discuss all aspects of their application.

These individuals volunteer their time to speak with students about current trends in the legal profession. Software. and/or counseling. In addition to the five sessions. as well as experiences they have had both in law school and as a professional. One of the five sections is un-scored and used to pretest new test items and forms. •    tilize the resources (books.mit. however. photocopies of the last three LSAT writing samples are provided in the LSDAS report.mit. teaching. school pamphlets.html Prior to contacting an advisor. and Videos for Legal Education  P • Questions http://careers.edu Recommendation Letters and Dean’s Letter/ Certification: http://careers.. and law school  C transcripts. however they certainly aren’t the only factors considered. some schools will accept one letter which is a non-academic letter of recommendation.lsac. leadership. Law School Admission Test (LSAT) The Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) is a half-day standardized exam that is designed to measure skills that are considered essential for success in law school. Students and alumni are welcome to contact one or all of the advisors to explore their legal interests. Application Process Applicants must obtain applications directly from law schools online or by mail. C •    opies of Letters of Recommendation if processed by  LSAC. etc. Prelaw Advisors Advisors are professionals within the MIT community active in the practice of law. We recommend that you ask people to write you a letter of recommendation early in the fall of the application year.org The Law School Admission Council (LSAC) is a nonprofit corporation whose members are 200 law schools in the United States and Canada. i. graduate. A •    opies of all undergraduate. Advisors’ names and contact information can be found at: http://careers..mit. •    ake an appointment by calling 617-253-4733 to meet  M with a member of the Preprofessional Advising staff to discuss basic law school information and the application process. legal scholarship.edu/preprof/ Applicants need at least two letters of recommendation.e. The test is divided into the following five sections: 1 Reading Comprehension 1 Analytical Reasoning 2 Logical Reasoning 1 Experimental section (un-scored section) It is suggested that applicants take the LSAT no later than December for admission in the following fall’s entering class. work experience.org/ The Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) provides a means of centralizing and standardizing undergraduate academic records to simplify the law school admission process.lsac. 12-185. It is important to note that many admission decisions are made on a rolling basis as applications are received and reviewed. it is recommended that a student do the following: •    eview the information provided throughout the  R Prelaw website. Admissions committees consider all aspects of an application. •    SAT scores: Up to 12 exam scores are reported in the  L LSDAS report.edu/ infostats/ LSDAS http://www. LSAT  U information.school applicants. Exam scores are averaged when more than one reportable score is on file.mit.edu/preprof/ lawadvisors. when making selection decisions. Visit the MIT Law School applicant data for more detailed information on the average GPA and LSAT scores: http://careers. and give them at least one month to write your letter of recommendation. It is critical that you submit your application as early as possible. Provide your recommenders detailed information to ensure that your letters will have accurate information regarding your 59 . Your report will include: •    n undergraduate academic summary. The best recommendation letter will come from an individual who knows you best. a 30-minute writing sample is administered at the end of the test. It is preferable to have two academic letters. Programs and Services offered by the LSAC: •    he Law School Admission Test (LSAT)  T •    he Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS)  T •    andidate Referral Service (CRS)  C •    aw School Forums  L •    ILE Program (Minorities Interested in Legal  M Education) •    ublications. preferably by the end of December. •    riting sample copies: If more than one LSAT has  W been taken. The LSDAS prepares and provides a report for each law school to which you apply. It is comprised of five 35-minute sections of multiple-choice questions and is scored on a scale of 120-180. etc.) available in the Preprofessional Advising Office. LSAC http://www.

The Career Development Center offers several services for those considering an academic career: •    V Workshop (offered each semester. If you take responsibility in giving your recommenders solid information in writing. A Dean’s letter or certificate provides information on whether there have been any academic or disciplinary action taken against the applicant during their undergraduate career.com and http://www. References When considering references for your applications to business school. analytical writing skills. faculty. candidates have the choice to waive their rights to see their letter of recommendation. please note that law schools do not hold it against candidates if they choose to retain their rights to the letters. http://web. Total GMAT scores range from 200-800.mba.pdf.edu/provost/pds. Schools vary significantly on teaching strategy. and cost of the program. Choose criteria that are important for you and choose a school that matches it. On the Letter of Recommendation Form. (Offered each semester.mit.edu/career/www/workshops/ cv. The Institute Career Assistance Network (ICAN) is a good place to get names of alumni/ae in the specific field in which you are interested.activities. A typical MBA candidate has a few and sometimes several years of full-time.mit. Interview Pre-MBA Information Are you considering pursuing an MBA? Self-assessment can help you decide if an MBA is the right degree for you. Admission counselors will look for evidence of your professional interests and how that ties into the MBA degree as well as your leadership potential and academic achievement. visit the Registrar’s Academic Records office located in room 5-119. interviews are by invitation only and cannot be requested. (summers) http://web. During the interview. See http://www. Seeking a postdoctoral fellowship? See PostDoc Resources at http://web. the MIT Career Development Center recommends that applicants participate in a mock interview and review the Winning Interview Techniques workshop online. •    cademic Career Series. faculty presentations on  A four different topics.mit. geographic location. and 3) Verbal Section. You can access this database online at: http://alum.html.) •    ndividual advice on any aspect of the academic  I career search (call 617-253-4733 for an appointment). In addition.html. click on Get Connected. For the most part. The assumption is that a waived letter of recommendation is bound to be more candid. and Postdoctoral Advisory Council. institution. Once you have decided that an MBA is indeed right for you. It is also important that you fit in with the culture of a school. If the school does not specify from whom you should obtain references. For information about Distinguished Fellowships and other scholarship opportunities see http://web. Graduate Student Council. This document also confirms an applicant’s GPA and/or class rank. •    ibliographies and web links on academic careers  B http://web.mba.edu/career/www/graduate/academic careers.mit. student population. you help yourself in getting solid. Informational interviewing is another powerful tool to help you in this process by answering questions such as what are typical MBA careers and which industries actively recruit MBAs. such as dates and places you worked.edu/tll. The more specific they can be about your candidacy for an MBA. there are services available through the MIT Writing Center http://web.mit. provided through the LSDAS. MIT Career Development Center GMAT The Graduate Admission Management Test (GMAT) is a standardized assessment designed to measure the qualifications of applicants for business and management studies programs. mathematical and 60 . the stronger will be your application. post-undergraduate work experience in a responsible capacity.) •    orkshop on Preparing for the Academic Job  W Interview. such as previous employers. co-sponsored by the Career Development Center.gmac. be sure to ask people who know you very well. (Also see “Related Links” on this site. In preparation for a business school interview.html. Academic Career Nearly half of the doctoral graduates of MIT pursue an academic career (junior faculty position or postdoc) upon completion of the doctoral degree. However. and available  C online at http://web. mit. financial aid. demonstrate strong interpersonal skills while you develop a clearer feeling for the school.edu/career/www/ workshops/interviewing. The interview process may vary depending on the school to which you are applying.com to gather additional information.mit. Two-thirds of test takers score between 400 and 600. informative letters of reference.mit. It assesses your verbal.com. To obtain a letter from the Dean of Undergraduate Education at MIT. there are many things to consider when selecting a school. try to choose people with whom you have worked in different settings.edu/ scholarships.edu/career/www/infostats/ respostdoc. Emphasis is on the on-site interview day beyond the job talk. It will also help you to convince business school admissions counselors about your motivations for wanting to earn an MBA. Visit http://www. The test consists of three sections: (1) Analytical Writing Assessment.mit. (2) Quantitative Section.edu/benefits/ CareerGuidance/ICAN.edu/writing (including opportunities to practice the job talk) and the Teaching and Learning Laboratory http://web.

As mentioned earlier. both in micro- and macro- scales. I have developed a new wavenumber domain sensing method and applied it to the feedback controller design for active structural acoustic control.Sample Statement of Research Interests CURRENT RESEARCH Active Control of Rotorcraft Vibration I am currently working with Boeing Helicopters to develop advanced control techniques for control of rotorcraft vibration. Those systems should be able to coordinate large numbers of devices and adapt themselves to uncertain environmental changes in an intelligent manner. Second. the development of novel sensors and actuators that can be coordinated and integrated within the systems will be critical in future areas of research. and (4) the ability to detect the failure in the plant and maintain the performance by reconfiguring the algorithm architecture. I will carry out research on structure/ fluid/control interaction phenomena for complex systems. I have designed two different controller architectures. Since the systems will contain arrays of embedded devices. The active rotor system with the advanced HHC algorithms will be flight-tested in 2003. My responsibility in this project is to develop the control architecture and methodology to reduce the radiated noise from vibrating structures. I will extend my specialization in smart structures technologies to the development of advanced sensors and actuators for intelligent structural systems. The second one is a global controller. Active Control of Noise Radiated from Underwater Vehicles I have worked with Northrop Grumman Corp. The advanced HHC includes an intelligent anti-windup scheme. For this research goal. so that those four requirements given above will be successfully satisfied. which are implemented for each sensor/actuator pair to reduce its vibration level. This project has been funded by the Office of Naval Research. The first one is the assembly of local controllers.edu 61 . (3) the ability to modify their functions adaptively even in the unexpected change in the plant or environment. so the fundamental understanding of the phenomena is very important to successful implementation of the structural/acoustic control algorithms. Further. The intelligent anti-windup algorithm ensures that the output signals from each controller do not saturate.mit. I have extended the concept to general complex structures. First. I have developed the novel wavenumber domain feedback controller design method for active structural acoustic control of complex structural systems. and therefore to develop “intelligent control design methodology” for complex structural systems. so that the vibration typically experienced by helicopters can be significantly reduced. Some of the important requirements of the algorithms include: (1) the ability to handle many sensors and actuators in an efficient manner. http://careers. In order to implement the global controller successfully. I will continue my research on advanced control and decision-making algorithms for noise and vibration reduction of complex structural systems. from the micro-scales (MEMS) to macro-scales (aerospace systems and underwater vehicles). which satisfies the first and second requirements. FUTURE RESEARCH GOALS My future research goal is to develop “intelligent structural systems”. (2) robustness to modeling error and uncertain environmental changes. In order to accomplish this. which will contain array of sensor/actuator pairs and embedded devices for controls and decision-making algorithms. so that it can be applied for reducing radiated noise from any vibrating structures. and I am working on the design and implementation of the advanced Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) algorithms using the X-frame actuator for an MD-900 helicopter. such as micro-sensors and actuators. The approach is to minimize the total acoustic power radiated from vibrating structures in the wavenumber domain. with an objective of developing “smart” underwater vehicle systems so that the enemy cannot detect attack in advance. which makes the structure a weak radiator by coordinating the action of local controllers. to develop new technology for the reduction of radiated noise from vibrating underwater vehicles using smart structures technologies. Finally. which shows better performance than traditional discrete HHC. so that multiple HHC systems can be implemented without causing any difficulties. The new sensing method greatly simplifies the design of MIMO LQG controllers for active structural acoustic control by reducing the effort to model the acoustic radiation from the structure and allowing the systematic development of state-space models for radiating wavenumber components. My advisor Prof. The new sensing method is numerically validated on a thick-walled cylindrical shell with 55 piezoelectric panels mounted. and Materials Systems Inc. The phenomena will be critical design issues in those complex structural systems. I will continue my research to improve the performance of the method. Steven Hall and his former doctoral students developed the X-frame actuator for those purposes. I will focus on the following three research areas.

random vibration. vibration and noise measurement and analysis techniques. •    eedback Control of Dynamic Systems—This course would involve introduction to design of feedF back control systems. I have extensive research experience in structural dynamics. time-domain and frequency-domain performance measures. fundamentals of frequency and modal analysis. and frequency-domain design. so that they can apply what they learned in my classroom to engineering problems with confidence. Then. acoustics. including Laplace and Fourier transform. focusing on design of “robust” controllers for mechanical systems. dynamics and controls. filter design. M including free and forced vibration of single- and multi-degree of freedom systems. etc. GRADUATE LEVEL •    dvanced Structural Dynamics and Acoustics—This course would first review single and multipleA degree-of-freedom vibration problems. •    ontrol of Structures—This course would present fundamental control-structural dynamic C interaction from a unified viewpoint. 62 MIT Career Development Center . this would present various topics in structural dynamics and acoustics. using matrix formulation and normal mode superposition methods. These present general topics and I would be happy to teach more specific courses according to the needs of the students and the department. structure/fluid interaction problems. which would allow me to teach students fundamental concepts of engineering systems thoroughly.Sample Statement of Teaching Philosophy and Interests My goal in teaching is that each and every student leaves my classroom with a solid understanding of engineering concepts and a sound background to analyze engineering systems. complex analysis. Also. spectral analysis. including time and frequency domain solution. •    ontinuous and Discrete Time Signal Processing—This course would provide a theoretical C foundation of signal processing techniques necessary for mechanical engineers. and acoustic radiation. system identification. wave motions in structures. including linear algebra. and to encourage them to build confidence in their knowledge of the course material. and controls. I have a very strong undergraduate and graduate education in mechanics. and active structural acoustic control of structural systems. My responsibility as instructor would be to help students acquire a solid foundation in the subject matter. My primary interests in undergraduate/graduate level teaching lie in the following areas: UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL •    echanical Vibration—This course would involve basic introduction to mechanical vibration. I strongly believe that a thorough understanding of undergraduate/graduate courses is most fundamental to young engineers for their future research. and approximate solution techniques. •    ultivariable Feedback Control Systems—This course would be an introduction to the state-space M approach to control system analysis and control synthesis. differential equations. focusing on properties and advantages of feedback systems. stability and degree of stability. Laplace and Fourier transform. and real-time experimental control methods. •    ngineering Mathematics—This course would be an undergraduate-level introduction to engineering E mathematics. This course would focus on the analysis and processing of experimental data. root locus method. including optimal control methods and the Kalman filter. Nyquist criterion. applicable to active control of flexible structures.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Sandia National Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . .edu 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vecna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Earth Share. . . . . . . . . . . . .AdvertiserÊ Index CNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LogMeIn . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Simpson Gumpertz & Heger . . . . 64 GraduatingEngineer. . . . . . . Back Cover College Recruitment Media and Massachusetts Institute of Technology wish to thank the above participating sponsors for making this publication available to students. . . . . . . . . . 52 M4 Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 IFMR Trust . . . . . .mit. . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .com. . . . . . . . 19 StratéGenius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Consumer Information Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . http://careers. . . . .

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Join Vecna HIRING@VECNA. I always wanted a job I would look forward to when I woke up each day. email Software Engineers. challenging and dynamic work keeps me interested. To set up an interview today. Better World™ The fun. Every day is a new adventure. Kiosk Workflow Software TM .com QCbot Path Finding Software AI Based Infectious Disease Surveillance Software TM Better Technology. but just as important. cooperation. and camaraderie in a low-ego environment is better than any other company for which I have worked. Change the world.GoalMind Business Software Working at Vecna is great mental exercise. taking-on new responsibilities and having fun are all integral parts of the job. Vecna is de nitely that place. learning. the teamwork. I really enjoy the cool work. solving tough problems.