4/3 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

:
The construction and operation oI a 4/3 DCV (Directional Control Valve) is explained below:
O This type oI valve has four ports (P, A, B & T).
O It consists oI three Spool-Positions.
O ainly used Ior controlling the directions oI Ilow oI Iluid or air.
O They are mainly used to control double acting Actuators.

4/3 push button spring return DCV
SPOOL-POSITION 1:
O In this position the Iluid Ilow Irom Port P to Port A and return thru Port B to Port T.

SPOOL -POSITION 2:
O During this Neutral position all the PORTS are BLOCKED.



SPOOL-POSITION 3:
O The Ilow is reverse compared to the POSITION 1.
O luid Ilow Irom PORT P to PORT B and return thru PORT A to PORT T.

CENTRE FLOW CONFIGURATIONS FOR 4/3 DCV:
O In 4/3 DCV, the two extreme positions are used to control the two extreme directions oI
motion oI Iluid.
O The intermediate or centre position oI 4/3 DCV, produce variety oI centre position.
O $ome widely used centre positions are discussed below.

% ½°n°ť
O All Lhe porLs of Lhe valve ( Þţ Aţ 8 Ǝ 1) are open Lo each oLherŦ
O ADVAN1AGLťAs soon as Lhe cyllnder compleLes lLs cycleţ Lhe open cenLre uC valve
allows Lhe pump flow Lo reLurn Lo back Lhe Lank aL a mlnlmum pressureŦ
1hls prevenLs unnecessary heaL bulldŴup ln Lhe sysLemŦ
O DISADVAN1AGLťJhen Lhe valve ls cenLre no oLher cyllnder can operaLeŦ

% Closed centreť
O All the ports oI the valve ( P, A, B & T) are blocked to each other.
O ADVANTAGE: The closed centre type valve can use the pump Ilow Ior other
parts oI the circuit. ThereIore they are used when multiple Iunctions are to be
accomplished Irom one source.
O DISADVANTAGE: hen the valve is in closed position, the pump Ilow cannot
be unloaded to the tank. $o that hydraulic cylinder or Iluid motor cannot be
moved.

% Tandem centreť
O Tandem centre type valve directs the pump Ilow out oI the reservoir PORT T
with other two working PORTS A & B closed when its in the centre position.
O ADVANTAGE : This type oI valve also unload the pump at essential
atmospheric pressure
O DISADVANTAGE : hen the number oI cylinders operated Irom a single
source, the pressure diIIerential Ior each tandem centre valve will be 3 to 4 bar,
when the valve is in the centre positionŦ

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