Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
A Mini Project Report on ―Flashers For Diwali”
Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
Electronics & Communication Engineering
By Rinku Kumar Maurya (University Roll No-0806331085) Ravi Pratap Singh (University Roll No-0806331082) Ravishankar Prasad (University Roll No-0806331083) Reetika Baweja (University Roll No-0806331084)
G.L.A. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT
Gautam Buddh Technical University, Lucknow (U.P.), INDIA
Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
I rejoice in expressing my prodigious gratification to Mr. G. constant attention offered throughout in preparing the mini project. perpetual encouragement. generous help.L. Institute of Technology &
Management.1 Batch-4G2 EC Final Year
Rinku Kumar Maurya (Roll no 26) Ravi Pratap Singh (Roll no 23) Ravishankar Prasad (Roll no 24) Reetika Baweja (Roll no 25) Group no. Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department.A. Diwakar Agrawal. Mathura for his indispensable guidance.
....19 Bibliography………………………………………….4 Component List……………………………………….18 Observation & Simulation Results…………………..6 Circuit Diagram……………………………………..Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
List of Contents Abstract……………………………………………….19 Conclusion…………………………………………....19
......18 Working Principle…………………………………..4 Introduction………………………………………….....5 Component Description…………………………….
as well as integrated import and export features to the Printed Circuit Board layout software in the suite.
Multisim was originally called Electronics Workbench and created by a company called Interactive Image Technologies. which is now a division of National Instruments. NI Ultiboard.
About Multisim NI Multisim
NI Multisim (formerly MultiSIM) is an electronic schematic capture and simulation program which is part of a suite of circuit design programs. Multisim was originally created by a company named Electronics Workbench. 'and when the IC 555 output is low LEDs remains 'off.When the output of the IC 555 is high . National Instruments has maintained this
. which is wired as an astable multi vibrator generating square wave.' The circuit is built around timer IC 555 (IC1). electronic schematic design and SPICE simulation. It uses nine LEDs. Multisim includes microcontroller simulation (formerly known as MultiMCU). Multisim is widely used in academia and industry for circuits education. At the time it was mainly used as an educational tool to teach electronics technician and electronics engineering programs in colleges and universities.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Here is the circuit for a portable electric LED flasher. along with NI Ultiboard.
FLASHERS FOR DIWALI The circuit is a LED Flasher whose flashing speed depends on the output square wave frequency of the IC 555. Multisim is one of the few circuit design programs to employ the original Berkeley SPICE based software simulation. When the IC555 output is high all the LEDs remain 'off. The output of IC1 drives transistor Q1.the transistor Q1 is on and the LEDS are OFF and when the output of IC555 is Low then transistor Q1 is OFF and the LEDS are ON.
In 1999. and circuit design. Educators worldwide are using the academic features of the Multisim education edition to foster learning and guide student exploration of circuit concepts. students gain intuition and a deeper understanding of circuit concepts. Multisim is available in two distinct versions to meet the teaching needs of educators or the design needs of professionals. a PCB layout software company.
. Without needing any expertise in SPICE. c) 1 resistance of 100 ohm.
What Is NI Multisim?
Multisim equips educators. BJT Transistor
a) NPN BJT transistor BC547BP. The intuitive and easy-to-use software platform combines schematic capture and industry-standard SPICE simulation into a single integrated environment. Using ―what-if‖ experiments and simulation-driven instruments to visualize circuit behavior.
1. Multisim makes it easier to engage students and reinforce theory. researchers. Resistance. and prototype faster. Engineers. students. Interactive Image Technologies was acquired by National Instruments Electronics Workbench Group and Multisim was renamed to NI Multisim.
a) 2 resistances of 1. SPICE simulation.6 K b) 1 resistances of 1K. Multisim abstracts the complexities and difficulties of traditional syntax-based simulation. and domain experts use the Multisim environment for schematic capture. validate design behavior.
2.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
educational legacy. Schematics can then be transferred to NI Ultiboard layout to prototype completed printed circuit boards (PCBs). Multisim can be used to identify errors. Multisim was integrated with Ultiboard after the original company merged with Ultimate Technology. and professionals with the tools to analyze circuit behavior. with a specific version of Multisim with features developed for teaching electronics. In 2005. so we no longer need to be an expert in SPICE to simulate and analyze circuits. engineers can use simulation to reduce prototype iterations earlier in the design flow.
write the corresponding number of the 3rd band to the right of the 2nd before you multiply by the corresponding number of the multiplier band. Now multiply that number (you should have 10) by the corresponding multiplier number of the 3rd band (RED)(100). may have an actual measurement any where from 950 ohms to 1050 ohms. LED
a) 3 RED LIGHT LED. write the corresponding number for the 2nd band (BLACK) .
4. c) 3 SKY BLUE LIGHT LED. Because resistors are not the exact value as indicated by the color bands. The higher the value of resistance (measured in ohms) the lower the current will be. Capacitor
a) 2 capacitors of 100nF. The tolerance band is usually gold or silver. Your answer will be 1000 or 1K. manufactures have included a tolorance color band to indicate the accuracy of the resistor. 5. IC 555.
. Resistors are color coded. 12 V DC Power Supply. * If a resistor has 5 color bands. Silver = 10% and None = 20%. It's that easy. start at the opposite side of the GOLD tolerance band and read from left to right. Write down the corresponding number from the color chart below for the 1st color band (BROWN). ignore this column and go straight to the multiplier. but some may have none. Gold band indicates the resistor is within 5% of what is indicated.
Resistors "resist" the flow of electrical current. 6. To the right of that number. Others are shown in the chart below. If you only have 4 color bands that include a tolerance band. To read the color code of a common 4 band 1K ohm resistor with a 5% tolerance. b) 3 GREEN LIGHT LED. The 1K ohm resistor in the example (left).Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
then you'll have to use your multimeter.000 100.000.1 0. If you are unable to read the color bands.01 ±5% ± 10 % ± 20 % ± 0. Be sure to zero it out first! Resistor Color Codes Band Color 1st Band # 2nd Band # *3rd Band # Multiplier x Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver None 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 10 100 1000 10. start from the band closest to a lead.000.000.5 % ± 0.10 % ± 0.000 100.05 % ± 1% ±2% Tolerances ± %
.000 1.25 % ± 0.000. This will be the 1st band.000 0.000 1.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
If a resistor does not have a tolerance band.000.000 10.
The collector–base junction is reverse-biased.NPN BJT with forward-biased E–B junction and reverse-biased B–C junction
An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode. the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base. In particular. In typical operation. Voltage.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
BJT Transistor Working
Fig. In an NPN transistor. but electrons that diffuse through the base towards the collector are swept into the collector by the electric field in the depletion region of the collector–base junction. the thickness of the base must be much less than the diffusion length of the electrons. when a positive voltage is applied to the base–emitter junction. current. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. the transistor's base region must be thin enough that carriers can diffuse across it in much less time than the semiconductor's minority carrier lifetime. the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. or by the base–emitter voltage (voltage control). and so little electron injection occurs from the collector to the base. These
. To minimize the percentage of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector– base junction. The thin shared base and asymmetric collector–emitter doping is what differentiates a bipolar transistor from two separate and oppositely biased diodes connected in series. for example. and charge control The collector–emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base–emitter current (current control).
the voltage-control (for example. That is. which depends on charge in the base region recombining. exhibit long base-storage times that limit maximum frequency of operation in switching applications. transistor level circuit design is performed using SPICE or a comparable analog circuit simulator. so the voltage-control view is often preferred. However. The common-emitter current gain is represented by βF or hFE. Detailed models of transistor action. Turn-on. design for circuits such as differential amplifiers again becomes a mostly linear problem. and handles the dynamics of turn-off. and that collector current is beta times the base current. Ebers–Moll) model is required. turn-off.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
views are related by the current–voltage relation of the base–emitter junction. the transistors are usually modelled as voltage controlled with transconductance proportional to collector current. It is typically greater than 100 for small-signal transistors but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications. which is just the usual exponential current–voltage curve of a p-n junction (diode). such as the Gummel– Poon model. so model complexity is usually not of much concern to the designer. αF. However. The heavy doping of the emitter region and light doping of the base region causes many more electrons to be injected from the emitter into the base than holes to be injected from the base into the emitter. the collector current is approximately βF times the base current.and voltage-control views are generally used in circuit design and analysis. or recovery time. and especially power transistors. The physical explanation for collector current is the amount of minority-carrier charge in the base region. as in the Ebers–Moll model. For translinear circuits. Transistor 'alpha' and 'beta' The proportion of electrons able to cross the base and reach the collector is a measure of the BJT efficiency. Some basic circuits can be designed by assuming that the emitter–base voltage is approximately constant. The voltage-control model requires an exponential function to be taken into account. to accurately and reliably design production BJT circuits. The common-base current gain is approximately the
. In general. The charge-control view easily handles phototransistors. Another important parameter is the common-base current gain. because base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals. In analog circuit design. the current-control view is sometimes used because it is approximately linear. where minority carriers in the base region are created by the absorption of photons. Most transistors. and storage delay The Bipolar transistor exhibits a few delay characteristics when turning on and off. it is approximately the ratio of the DC collector current to the DC base current in forward-active region. account for the distribution of this charge explicitly to explain transistor behavior more exactly. but when it is linearized such that the transistor can be modelled as a transconductance. in which the exponential I–V curve is key to the operation. the current. One method for reducing this storage time is by using a Baker clamp.
There is no obvious logic to the numbering system. for example a higher current gain or a different case style. This ratio usually has a value close to unity.998. The rest of the code identifies the particular transistor. Sometimes a letter is added to the end (eg BC108C) to identify a special version of the main type.98 and 0. In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage. symbol F There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups. Alpha and beta are more precisely related by the following identities (NPN transistor):
Transistors amplify current. Capacitance is measured in farads. If a project specifies a higher gain version (BC108C) it must be used. polarised and unpolarised. for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp. F means low power high frequency. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored.
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. The amount of current amplification is called the current gain. A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
gain of current from emitter to collector in the forward-active region. for example BC108. for example C means low power audio frequency. or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). A is for germanium (rarely used now). but if the general code is given (BC108) any transistor with that code is suitable. D means high power audio frequency. The second letter indicates the type. between 0.
This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. relay or other high current device.
Codes beginning with B (or A). so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage. Each group has its own circuit symbol. BC478
The first letter B is for silicon.
However older ones use a colour-code system which has two stripes (for the two digits) and a spot of colour for the number of zeros to give the value in µF. white 30V. The positive (+) lead is to the right when the spot is facing you: 'when the spot is in sight. grey is used to mean × 0. black 10V. The voltage rating can be quite low (6V for example) and it should always be checked when selecting an electrolytic capacitor. Radial capacitors tend to be a little smaller and they stand upright on the circuit board. A third colour stripe near the leads shows the voltage (yellow 6. They are expensive but very small. Tantalum Bead Capacitors Tantalum bead capacitors are polarised and have low voltage ratings like electrolytic capacitors. The standard colour code is used. axial where the leads are attached to each end (220µF in picture) and radial where both leads are at the same end (10µF in picture). choose a capacitor with a rating which is greater than the project's power supply voltage. pink 35V). at least one of their leads will be marked + or -. voltage and polarity in full. blue 20V. 1µF +)
Circuit symbol: Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are polarised and they must be connected the correct way round.01 and white means × 0.
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. but for the spot. If the project parts list does not specify a voltage.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Polarised capacitors (large values.3V. 25V is a sensible minimum for most battery circuits. grey 25V.1 so that values of less than 10µF can be shown. green 16V. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. It is easy to find the value of electrolytic capacitors because they are clearly printed with their capacitance and voltage rating. so they are used where a large capacitance is needed in a small size. the positive is to the right'. There are two designs of electrolytic capacitors. Modern tantalum bead capacitors are printed with their capacitance.
they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating.7nF (J means 5% tolerance). It can be difficult to find the values of these small capacitors because there are many types of them and several different labelling systems! Many small value capacitors have their value printed but without a multiplier. up to 1µF)
Small value capacitors are unpolarised and may be connected either way round.1 means 0. white spot means 6. grey. the 2nd number is the 2nd digit.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
For example: blue.
Capacitor Number Code A number code is often used on small capacitors where printing is difficult:
the 1st number is the 1st digit.
For example: 102 means 1000pF = 1nF (not 102pF!) For example: 472J means 4700pF = 4. except for one unusual type (polystyrene). black spot means 68µF For example: blue. Ignore any letters .
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. so you need to use experience to work out what the multiplier should be! For example 0. Sometimes the multiplier is used in place of the decimal point: For example: 4n7 means 4. grey.8µF For example: blue.68µF
Unpolarised capacitors (small values. grey spot means 0. They are not damaged by heat when soldering. They have high voltage ratings of at least 50V.1µF = 100nF.7nF. usually 250V or so. grey. the 3rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF.
The above figure shows the 555 timer connected as an astable multivibrator.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
IC555 as Astable Multivibrator
The astable multivibrator generates a square wave. The time during which the output is either high or low is determined by the two resistors and a capacitor which are externally connected to the 555 timer. The astable multivibrator does not require any external trigger to change the state of theoutput. Hence the name free running oscillator. the periodof which is determined by the circuit external to IC 555. Initially
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Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
when the output is high capacitor C starts charging towards Vcc through RA and RB. comparator1 triggers the flip-flop and the output switches to low state. The capacitor is periodically charged and discharged between 2/3 Vcc and 1/3 Vcc respectively. The time during which the capacitor charges from 1/3 Vcc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to the time the output remains high and is given by
where RA and RB are in ohms and C is in Farads. Then the cycle repeats.flop and the output goes high. comparator 2’s output triggers the flip.Now capacitor C discharges through RB and the transistor Q1. When voltage across C equals 1/3 Vcc.
However as soon as the voltage across the capacitor equals 2/3 Vcc . Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 Vcc to 1/3 Vcc is equal to thetime the output is low and is given by
Thus the total time period of the output waveform is
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electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2). When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on). smaller size. improved robustness. releasing energy in the form of photons. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. but modern versions are available across the visible. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. f is independent of the supply voltage Vcc. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962.
12 Volt DC power supply.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Therefore the frequency of oscillation
The output frequency. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.
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. longer lifetime. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. The output waveform may be observed in the waveform viewer. and faster switching. with very high brightness. early LEDs emitted lowintensity red light.
LEDs have allowed new text.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting. As in other diodes. Charge-carriers— electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. to prevent the conductors from being forcefully pulled out from mechanical strain or vibration. DVD players. to the n-side. video displays. but not in the reverse direction. it falls into a lower energy level. When an electron meets a hole. The wavelength of the light emitted. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions.
Parts of an LED. and sensors to be developed. and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. and other domestic appliances. or anode. turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. In silicon or germanium diodes. Although not directly labeled. automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps.
Working Of LED
The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. the flat bottom surfaces of the anvil and post embedded inside the epoxy act as anchors. the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no
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. while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. and releases energy in the form of a photon. current flows easily from the p-side. or cathode.
especially GaN/InGaN. subject to much research and development. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface.
Fig.I-V diagram for a diode. P-type substrates. Many commercial LEDs. occur as well. visible or near-ultraviolet light. also use sapphire substrate. with an electrode attached to the ptype layer deposited on its surface. while less common. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths. Typical on voltages are 2–3 volts
LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
optical emission. because these are indirect band gap materials. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices.
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. Thus. light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production. An LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded. emitting light in a variety of colors.The inner workings of an LED
In brief. transistor Q1 conducts and LEDs are OFF. When output pin 3 of IC555 goes low.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Working of the circuit is simple.The collector of transistor Q1 is connected to anodes of all the LEDs (LED1 through LED9). Current-limiting resistor R4 protects the LEDs from higher currents. A 12V DC power supply is used to power the circuit. and when Q1 conducts the LEDs go off. So when Q1 is cut-off the LEDs glow. the LEDs flash alternately depending on the frequency of IC555. When output pin 3 of IC555 goes high.
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wikipedia.com/resistors/resistors.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 752) 2011
Observation & Simulation Results
The LEDs flash according to the output frequency of the IC555.kpsec.org/wiki/NI_Multisim 7. http://www.wikipedia.com/multisim/whatis.org/wiki/Bipolar_junction_transistor 5.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode
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. http://www.electronicsforu.asp#calc 3. http://www.
1.com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/view_arti cle. http://en.htm 6.wikipedia. http://www.com/components/capac. http://en. http://en.htm 4.ni.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/lab/ad.the12volt.freeuk.asp?sno=99&title 2.asp?url=w ww.
especially GaN/InGaN. Typical on voltages are 2–3 volts
LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide.The inner workings of an LED
Fig. with an electrode attached to the ptype layer deposited on its surface. emitting light in a variety of colors.I-V diagram for a diode.
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.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 201 752) 1
Fig. Many commercial LEDs. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate. P-type substrates. while less common. An LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths. occur as well. also use sapphire substrate.
transistor Q1 conducts and LEDs are OFF. When output pin 3 of IC555 goes high. subject to much research and development.
➢ Working Principle
Working of the circuit is simple. When output pin 3 of IC555 goes low. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 201 752) 1
Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. Current-limiting resistor R4 protects the LEDs from higher currents. So when Q1 is cut-off the LEDs glow.The collector of transistor Q1 is connected to anodes of all the LEDs (LED1 through LED9). Thus. and when Q1 conducts the LEDs go off. light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production.
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A 12V DC power supply is used to power the circuit.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 201 752) 1
In brief. the LEDs flash alternately depending on the frequency of IC555.
➢ Observation & Simulation Results
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com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/vie w_article.electronicsforu. 5.kpsec.
1.Mini Project Report ECD LAB(EEC 201 752) 1
The LEDs flash according to the output frequency of the IC555.electronicsforu.org/wiki/Bipolar_junction_transistor http://www.ni.freeuk. 6.wikipedia.org/wiki/NI_Multisim http://en.com/electronicsforu/lab/ad.com/multisim/whatis.the12volt.htm http://en. 4.asp#ca lc http://www.ht m http://en.asp? url=www.asp?sno=99&title http://www. 7.com/resistors/resistors.com/components/capac.wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode
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