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Planning Scheduling & Controlling 21110,221123,221124,221129

Planning Scheduling & Controlling 21110,221123,221124,221129

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05/09/2014

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CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: PLANNING, SCHEDULING & CONTROLLING

SUBMITTED BY MEERA R NAIR(221110) POOJA PATIL(221123) MANJUSHA PATIL(221124) SHWETA PHANSALKAR(221129)
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Overview
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Characteristics of a Project Project Management Project-Planning and Control Techniques Computer Software for Project Management An Evaluation of CPM/PERT

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Characteristics of a Project
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A unique, one-time effort Requires the completion of a large number of interrelated activities Resources, such as time and/or money, are limited Typically has its own management structure

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Definition of Planning
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Definition of Planning: “It is the process of representing the project scope by its identifiable components and then established the logical interdependence among these components” (Handout, 2007)

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Definition of Scheduling
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•Definition of Scheduling: “Scheduling=Planning + Time”. “Scheduling establishes activity durations, project completion time, critical activities, floats.” (Handout, 2007)

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Project-Planning and Control Techniques
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Planning inputs Tools Scheduling and control charts Horizontal bar charts Expenditure charts and graphs Personnel charts Materials milestone charts Critical path method (CPM) Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
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Planning Inputs
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Resource Availability and/or Limits Due date, late penalties, early completion incentives Budget Activity Information Identify all required activities Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each activity Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create interrelationships
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Critical Path Method (CPM)

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Designed to provide intense micro-control The system is dynamic; it continues to provide periodic reports as the project progresses

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View of CPM
• List of project activities • Precedence relationship among activities • Estimate of each activity’s duration

CPM processing procedures

• Estimated duration of project • Identification of critical activities • Amount of slack for each activity
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CPM Terminology
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Activity A task or a certain amount of work required in the project Requires time to complete Represented by an arrow Dummy Activity Indicates only precedence relationships Does not require any time of effort
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CPM Terminology
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Event Signals the beginning or ending of an activity Designates a point in time Represented by a circle (node) Network Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows
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CPM Terminology
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Path A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event Critical Path The longest path (time); determines the project duration Critical Activities All of the activities that make up the critical path
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CPM Terminology
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Earliest Start (ES) The earliest that an activity can begin; assumes all preceding activities have been completed Earliest Finish (EF) ES + activity time Latest Finish (LF) The latest that an activity can finish and not change the project completion time Latest Start (LS) LF - activity time
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Steps in CPM Analysis
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Draw the CPM network A graphic view of the relationships among the required activities Analyze the paths through the network Determine the length of each path (time required to complete each path) Starting at the beginning of the network and working toward the end (from left to right), determine the ES and EF for each activity
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Steps in CPM Analysis
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Path analysis (continued) Identify the critical path(s) (the longest path[s] through the network) The critical path(s) determines how long the project will take
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Steps in CPM Analysis
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Determine the slack for each activity Working from the end of the project network (from right to left), find the LF and the LS for each activity Compute the activity’s slack slack = LS - ES = LF - EF Slack is the maximum amount of time that this activity can be delay in its completion before it becomes a critical activity, i.e., delays completion of the project
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Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
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PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value. The probabilistic information about the activities is translated into probabilistic information about the project.

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PERT
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Three time estimates are required to compute the parameters of an activity’s duration distribution: pessimistic time (tp ) - the time the activity would take if things did not go well most likely time (tm ) - the consensus best estimate of the activity’s duration optimistic time (to ) - the time the activity would take if things did go well
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PERT
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From these three time estimates about an activity, two probability distribution parameters are calculated: the mean (te ) and the variance (Vt ). te = ( to + 4tm + tp ) / 6 Vt = [ ( tp - to ) / 6 ] 2

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Steps in PERT Analysis
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Draw the network. Analyze the paths through the network and find the critical path. The length of the critical path is the mean of the project duration probability distribution which is assumed to be normal

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Steps in PERT Analysis
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The standard deviation of the project duration probability distribution is computed by adding the variances of the critical activities (all of the activities that make up the critical path) and taking the square root of that sum Probability computations can now be made using the normal distribution table.

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Computer Software for Project Management
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Microsoft Project (Microsoft Corp.) MacProject (Claris Corp.) PowerProject (ASTA Development Inc.) Primavera Project Planner (Primavera) Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.) Project Workbench (ABT Corp.) SuperProject (Computer Associates International) TurboProject (IMSI)

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Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle.

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Controlling is directly related to planning. The controlling process ensures that plans are being implemented properly. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems allow supervisors to know how well implementation is going.
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The control process is a continuous flow between measuring, comparing and action.

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Establish Performance Standards Measure Actual Performance Compare Measured Performance Against Established Standards Take Corrective Action

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Establish Performance Standards
Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. A standard is any guideline established as the basis for measurement It is usually expressed numerically and is set for quality, quantity, and time. Different types of control are-· Time controls, Material controls , Equipment controls , Cost controls , Financial controls , Operations control methods , Statistical process control
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Measure Actual Performance

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Written data such as time cards, production tallies, inspection reports, and sales tickets. Personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports can be used to measure performance.

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Types of Control

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Feedforward controls ( Before the process begins ) Concurrent controls (During the process ) Feedback controls (After it ceases )

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Feedforward controls
( Before the process begins )

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Focus on operations before they begin. Their goal is to prevent anticipated problems. Scheduled maintenance on automobiles and machinery, safety systems, training programs, and budgets.

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Concurrent controls
(During the process )

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Concurrent controls enacted while work is being performed include any type of steering or guiding mechanism Direct supervision, automated systems (such as computers programmed to inform the user when they have issued the wrong command), and organizational quality programs.

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Feedback controls
(After it ceases )

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Focus on the results of operations. They guide future planning, inputs, and process designs. Timely (weekly, monthly, quarterly, annual) reports

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Characteristics of Effective Controls
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Control at all levels in the business Acceptability to those who will enforce decisions Flexibility Accuracy Timeliness Cost effectiveness Understandability Balance between objectivity and subjectivity Coordinated with planning, organizing and leading
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THANK YOU
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