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Inverter cum charger

Inverter cum charger

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Published by: DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE on Oct 19, 2008
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Inverter Cum Charger

SYNOPSIS
Today the world is of electronics and computers, the development in there spheres are unprecedented and there are more and more sophisticated devices being launched. Therefore the need for power system with sophisticated and reliability is also immense. Power device employing the transistors are being used to cope up the needs of the sophisticated systems. This project deals with the design and lubrication of 50 H Z inverter using power transistors. The report induce the step by step designed of electronic control circuit. The results are so obtained the modifications needed for further improving the performances are also discussed.

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Inverter Cum Charger

INTRODUCTION
Inverter is a circuit use to convert a D.C. power into A.C. power at a designed output voltage and frequency. This conversion can be achieved either by controlling ON and OFF devices [ eg. BJTs MOSFETs IGBTs, SITs, GTOs etc.] or by forced commutations thyristors, depending on application. The output

frequency of an inverter is determined by the rate at which the semiconductor devices are switched ON and OFF by inverter control circuitry. At present, most power supply system available in the market provides square wave output, which is unsuitable for powering those equipment which has rotating machinery such as in induction motors and blowers also for computer system, which make use of linear power supplies. Since wave (230 V AC at 50 HZ) inverter (230 V AC at 50 HZ) is the ideal choice for powering devices such as cordless phone, medical electronics equipments and even T.V., V.C.R. and Computer etc. during mains failure. In this report project, a push-pull half bridge inverter is used. The power transistors are used for switching purpose. During each half cycle only one of two power transistors conduct and drives the current through half of the primary winding of output transformer in opposite direction. Thus the alternating current flows through the primary and also through the secondary of transformer. And this A.C. output is converted into pure sine wave using OTT filter and sine wave output of OTT filter is given to A.C.load.
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IMPORTANCE OF INVERTER
An inverter circuit is used to convert DC power to AC power. This conversion can be achieved. Either by transistors or by SCR's. For low and medium power inputs, transistorized inverters are suitable but for high power outputs, SCR's should be used. For low power self-oscillating transistor inverters are suitable but for high power outputs, driven inverters are more common than self-oscillating one. Moreover for multiphase Ac output there is no alternative other than better frequency stability because a separator master oscillator is used for the purpose for the application in invertors, transistors have some Advantages over SCR's regarding the switching speed, simplicity in control circuit higher efficiency and greater reliability. This is mainly due to the fact that SCR's inverters requires extra circuits to turn SCR's off, moreover additional complex logic circuits may be required to prevent false, triggering and provide proper commutation. Transistor invertors are useful in wide variety of applications. They provide power to the complicated electronic system. They are useful in the

operation and various airbone equipment. More over they find wide applications in a Ac to Dc converter.

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CLASSIFICATION OF INVERTERS
The inverter are classified into two groups namely, voltage source inverters and current source inverters. Voltage source inverter is one in which the source has small and negligible impedance, because of low, impedance, the terminal voltage of VSI remains substainly constant with variations in load. It is therefore, equally

suitable to single motor and multi motor drives. On the other hand the current sources inverters is supplied with a controlled current from DC source of high impedance. Typically a phase controlled SCR's feeds the inverter with revaluated current through series inductor. Some of important industrial applications of CSI are in variable speed AC motor drives, HVDC transmission lines, etc. According to number of phases of load, inverter are classified as single phase inverter and three phase invertors. Single phase bridge inverter are again classified as half bridge and full bridge inverter. 3.1 shows half bridge inverter and figure 3.2 shows full bridge inverter are classified according to semiconductor devices used, Such as thyristorised, inverter, transistorized MOSFET based inverter. The thyristorised inverter are further classified as series inverter, parallel inverter. Load commutated inverter and force commutated inverter. The force-commutated inverter are classified again as McMurray and McMurray. Bed ford inverter. The classification of inverters is summarized in table.
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Inverter Cum Charger CLASSIFICATION OF THE INVERTERS Inverter

VSI inverter

CSI inverter

Single Phase inverter

Three Phase Inverter

Half Bridge inverters

Single phase Bridge inverter

Three Phase Bridge Inverter

Thyristorised

Transistorised

MOSFET Based

Series Inverter

Parallel Inverter

Load commutation inverters

Forced commutation inverter

MC Murray

MC Murrary Bedford

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THEORY OF TRANSISTOR
Power transistors have controlled turn ON and turn off

characteristics. The transistors, which are used as switching elements are operated in the saturation region, resulting in a low on state voltage drop. The switching

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speed of modern transistors in much higher than that of thyristors and they are extensively employed in dc-dc and ac-ac converter, with inverse parallel connected diodes to provide bi-directional current flows. The power transistors can be classified broadly in to four categories :1) Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) 2) Metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs) 3) Static induction transistors (SITs) 4) Insulated-gate, bipolar transistors (IGBTs) BJT, or MOSFET's, SIT's or IGBT's can the assumed as ideal switches to explain the power conversion techniques. A transistors switch is much simpler then a forward commuted thyristor switch.

POWER BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
A bipolar junction transistor is a three layer device with emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C) regions. The term bipolar indicates that current flow consists of a movement of both positive and negative charges, that is holes and electrons.
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As indicated in figure the N-Type material, separated by a p-type base region. This is the N-P-N transistor which has the circuit symbol shown. For high voltage and high current applications. N-P-N transistors are more widely used because they are easy to manufacture and cheaper.

For a normal transistor operation the base-emitter junction is forward bias and the emitter acts as a source of mobile carriers which enter the base region, these injected carriers are electrons in the N-P-N transistor. In general, the emitter region is made of heavily doped material to increase the number of injected carriers, which become minority carries when they enter the base. Most of these minority carriers diffuse through the base region, which is very narrow and arrive at the collector base junction. This junction is reversed by an external voltage and hence, the minority base carriers injected by the emitter are swept into the collector region by the electric field at the collector base junction. Figure shows

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the diagrammatic representation of the electron current flow in an N-P-N transistor. Some electron recombine in the base region and do not reach the

collector. Hence, collector current, IC is slightly less than emitter current, I E. The difference between these currents is responsible for the small base current IB.

O/P TRANSISFORME R 12-0-12

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V/230V

OTT FILTER

230 V AC LOAD

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12 V BATTERY

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATO R OR USING IC 555

JK FILP FLOP USING IC 7473

POWER TRANSISTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT

O/P POWER STATE USING POWER TRANSISTOR

BLOK DIAGRAM OF INVERTER

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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
A) Inverter control circuit :It uses the basic square wave (astable multivibrator) oscillator employing IC555, with 5.1 supply voltage derived from 12 v. battery by using 5.1v zener ZD1 in series with a resistance R 1. A stable multivibrator is designed for a

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frequency of 100 HZ, which can be varied above or below 100 HZ using preset PR2. The frequency 'f' or of a stable multivibrator is given by the relationship. f = 1.44/ (RA + 2RB)C HZ. Where RB = circuit resistance of preset PR1 If RA = 220 Ohms and RB = 15 Kilo-ohms then frequency = 100 HZ. Due to the tolerance of the component values. Observed frequency may not be exactly equal to 100 HZ and therefore preset PR1 may need to be suitably adjusted.

I/P to pin no. 5 of IC - 7473

The output of the a stable multivibrator is given to pin no-5 the IC 7473, which produces the two 50 H Z square wave outputs at its pin 8 and 9 with a phase difference of 180 degrees between the two. One of outputs is coupled to the base of transistor T2 through diode D1 and limiting resistor R4 while the second output is given to the base of transistor T1 through diode D2 and series resistor R5.

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B) Power Output Stage :The power stage includes transistors, output transformer and filters. The transistors are used in switching applications because of there inherent high speed turn - ON and turn OFF capabilities. The output pulses

generated from pin no.8 and pin no.9. of IC 7473 are applied to the base of transistor T1 and T2 which works as a driver circuit for power transistor. During half cycle, only one of the two transistors, conducts and drives the current through half the primary winding of transformer. Thus overall efficiency of inverter is quite high. The efficiency is further reduced if transformer losses are taken into consideration. C) Ott Filter :The output of the secondary transformer is square wave. In order to attenuate the harmonic contents. It is necessary to pass them through filter. The OTT filter performs following important functions. 1) It provides sine wave output, thus the essential elimination of harmonic content to the load. 2) It maintains a capacitive load to the inverter overlarge range of load power factor. However it suffers from the disadvantage that the voltage drop across the circuit is more.

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E) Testing and Performance :Suitable actual size sided PCB for the circuit of figure (T) is manufactured and all the component with expect transistors are accommodate on the PCB the two transistors are to be mounted on appropriate heat sink. A single heat sink may be used but the transistors should be insulated from the heat sink

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using mica insulator and secured using either IC screw/nuts or appropriate Teflon washers ensuring that the body is not shorted to heat sink. Also use heat sink compound between the TRANSISTORS body and mica insulators as well as between mica insulators and heat sink. Precaution by way shorting all three

terminates of transistor together using a thin copper stand and during together may be taken. When the item is being handled during the assembly. Remove this shorting only after the assembly and the computer using is over. We have readymade transformer with primary voltage specifications of 12VAC-012VAC (05 amp. Current rating) and secondary voltage rating of 230 V ( 750 MA or higher current ) the supply for the circuit is taken from a single 12V.07 Ah battery which is adequate for supplying about 200 W/load for 2 hours in absence of main supply. Higher ampere hour battery could be used for

obtaining longer stand by capacity/period. Figure shows the wiring diagram of different parts of inverter. Multi stand Teflon isolated wires of suitable current handling capacity for extending the connection from battery as well as transformer X1 to the transistor terminal the PCB should be fully tested before connecting the final collector output to transistors. The OTT filter which is designed is connected across the secondary transformer and across the output of OTT filter the load is connected.

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In this way all the connections are made by following certain precautions and circuit is tested.

F) Charger Circuit and Description :For charging purpose the supply from the A.C. main is given to the step down transformer (9-0-9) which steps down the 230 V of A.C. supply to 12 volt. A.C. from the secondary of the step down transformer is given to the diode

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rectifier circuit which converts the A.C. to D.C. (12V). This 12 V. D.C. supply is used for charging the battery. In rectifier circuit the current limiting resistor is placed to protect the battery from overcharging.

CHARGER CIRCUIT

List of Components
No. Components 1. Inverter xmer Specification 12-0-12 v 5 amp (Step-up xmer)
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Quantity 1

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Charger xmer Power transistor Driver transistor IC LED Capacitor Zener diode Preset Resistors Heat sink or

0.9

1 amp

1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 As per requirement.

step-down - xmer 2 N 3055 SL 100 or CL 100 555 and 7473 0.47 µF, 100v. 0.01 µF, 100 v, 5v 22k 100 r 1 r & 80 r Heat (Metal plate of Aluminium) 1N 4007 2 W, 0.68 r 1N - 4148 connecting wire, soldering g rease, PCB (6 x 4" ),

absorber Diode for rectification Resistor Diode Miscellaneous material

CHARACTERISTICS OF INVERTER
Characteristics of inverter are as follows :1) Provision for over current protection. 2) Capacity to operation inductive load 3) Controlled output 4) Must have sinusoidal output 5) Must be able to work even when load is disconnected.

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APPLICATION AND ADVANTAGES
Inverter are used in various applications such as 1. In UPS [ uninterruptible power supplies ] systems. 2. For operating GYROS and airborne equipment. 3. For providing power to complex electronics system of a satellite and cool astronauts suits. 4. It is useful in luxury buses and car. 5. Very useful in domestic use when supply in off. 6. Variable speed motor AC drives 7. Induction heating wring AC supply. 8. Inverter can used in household application as AC power source. 9. Sine wave inverter is ideal choice for powering devices such as cordless phase, medical, electronics equipment and even TV, VCR, etc. during mains failure.

FUTURE TRENDS AND MODIFICATIONS
1. With better layout techniques, switching losses can be further minimized, thus reducing losses on switching transistors. 2. The regulation of the inverter can be improved by using feed back techniques.

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3. If higher switching frequency is used, size of output and filter components will get reduced, response will be better and correction time will be fast and also improved step load performance is achieved. 4. The inverter circuitry can made more smart by adding extra circuitry such as battery deep discharge and no load over load cutoff and battery changing circuitry. 5. Relays can be used to protect the device.

RESULT AND CONCLUSION
Transistor based inverter is tested and no load voltage is found to be 228 V, A. C. from given input of 12 V, D. C. The output waveform is found to be quasi square wave and it is further improved by using OTT filter.
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This circuit can be used for a load up to 100 watts. Now a days, generally this is used in luxury travels and also be use for emergency light when battery of 12 V. D.C. is available.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Singh and Khanchandani, " Power Electronics" Tata McGraw Hill ( Pg. 265, 603 ) 2) Goyal N. C. and Khetan R. K. "A Monograph on Electronics Design Principles" Pg. 199
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3)

Khanna Publishers Rashid M. H., " Power Electronics circuit Devices and Applications". Printice Hall Page. 540

4)

"Power Electronics" P.C. Sen.

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