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IDWARD BAXTER PERRY
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
PHILADELPHIA. .. 1712 Chestnut St.. PRESSER CO.STORIES OF STANDARD TEACHING PIECES CONTAINING EDUCATIONAL NOTES AND LEGENDS PERTAINING TO THE BEST KNOWN AND MOST USEFUL PIANOFORTE COMPOSITIONS IN GENERAL USE BY STUDENTS OF MUSIC AND DESIGNED AS A COMPANION VOLUME TO THE AUTHOR'S "DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES OF PIANOFORTE COMPOSITIONS" X X X X BY EDWARD BAXTER PERRY THEO. PA.
. by fheo. 1910.Copyright. British Rights Secured. Preset Co.
by Schumann Schumann's Romance in F Sharp Schumann's Cradle Song in E Flat Schumann's Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet) Some Familiar Compositions by Franz Liszt Compositions by Godard L'Indienne. The Arabesque. by Schumann Schumann's Nachstiick in F Major The Traumerei.Contents Introduction BMB 11 Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils Six Easy Classics for Students Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn Robert Schumann's Carnaval 15 21 31 47 Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. by Godard Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material Nevin's Compositions 64 74 78 81 83 86 88 90 93 105 110 112 116 119 127 Modern Compositions Teaching Pieces for Second and Third Grades Miscellaneous Inflection in Music 132 166 179 DANCE FORMS The The The The The The Story Story Story Story Story Story Waltz of the March of the of the Polonaise of the 183 190 205 Gavotte of the Tarantelle of the Minuet 216 218 221 229 233 Composers' Index Alphabetical Index . by Godard Trilby. Opus 12 Schumann's Novelletten. by Godard Pan's Flute.
Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. some years ago. imaginative viz. and suggestive elements in emotional. dealing with an easier grade of compositions suited to the needs of students. The aim of this work has been the same as in the former volume. there has my been a general and growing demand. It contains analyses of one hundred pieces available for teaching purposes. [INCH the of publication. "Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. for a volume of similar analyses. It is in response to this request that this book has been prepared. Introduction. while the other volume dealt almost exclusively with the artist's repertoire. emphasize the descriptive." and the gratifying reception accorded it by the public. : to ti . especially among teachers.
or a means of vain display. becoming more and more fully recognized as a subtle but powerful factor in the upbuilding of human character. appealing to the intelligence. not a mere pleasant pastime. a parlor decoration. a mood. which is the balance-wheel of the whole life mechanism. It that good music cannot be too often or too forcefully reiterated is a form of ART. the constituent elements of which A good composition cases. which is the mainspring of action. the compositions treated. a medium of expres- sion. cannot be ignored and should not be such. or. from its inner and more profoundly significant. our careful study. and the imagination. It is an important element in education.12 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. If it serves this purpose the object of the writer will be attained. . melody and harmony. in the development of emotional force. not It is a competitive exhibition of mechanical skill. and of self-control. But the form merely as the means of expression. treated merely as a pretty toy. not merely to the ear. the emotions. That is the sole purpose and aim of this book. in a scene. capacity and perceptive faculty. but should demand our serious attention. rather than their mechanical structure or technical details. is a thought. expressed or embodied in a beautiful form. an ethical and cultural force. not its sensuous and As it superficial side. and his labor repaid. some are exists rhythm. Hence any effort to focus the mind of the player or listener upon this inner meaning is legitimate and helpful if rightly understood.
If. reserving their lighter. I shall be content. 13 The compositions herein discussed are. along this line may EDWARD BAXTER PERRY. less dramatic themes for their smaller compositions. technically. book will hence it is hoped the prove of greater practical value to the average teacher and student. . as reading matter. of a much easier grade. by chance. I have only gathered a few shining pebbles and bright shells scattered on the shore of this great ocean. my readers find a few pearls among them. I purely literary standpoint. or even any twenty such books. historical. It must be remembered.Introduction. legendary and personal data concerning them has been the more difficult. It must also be borne in mind that the subject matter is too vast to be entirely covered by any two. than those in the former volume. The great composers naturally put their best efforts and embodied their most important subjects in their larger works. it has difficult to maintain the same standard can only hope that any deficiencies be compensated for by the greater pedagogic usefulness of this second volume. with few exceptions. however. which I offer for whatever they may be worth. so that from a been extremely of interest. I have done what I could and hope still to continue the work. that for that very reason the collection of authentic.
^Esthetic analysis deals with the principles of aesthetics. of mechanical resources. from which every art product is evolved. It is the analysis of essences or properties the last crucial test of the musical chemist. order the more fully to understand and utilize value. which be good or bad according to the amount of skill. the architectural structure and details of a composition. This latter concerns itself exclusively with the form and workmanship. rather with the matter expressed than with the will the command manner of its expression. that 15 . reducing a work to its simple elements. its real power and influence in human life. possessed by the composer. that common and necessary branch of instruction more or less efficiently dwelt upon by all the advanced teachers of the age. in . Y aesthetic analysis I do not mean musi- cal analysis. JSsthetic analysis concerns itself with the spiritual germ. has to do rather with the essence than with the substance.Aesthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. which are back of all mechaniIt cal means and underlie every form of art work.
and alone Let us take for illustration an example of objective stimulus to the artistic activity of a person fittingly constituted and endowed. Suppose some grand and inspiring but not uncommon event. and the corpses drifting shoreward in the wan light of a murky dawn. because the sources of subjective stimulus are more difficult to trace and expound. just disappearing beneath a sheet of foam. such as a storm at sea. be experienced by a poet. and gives us in an expressive tableau. a painter. the wild winds and weltering waters. His canvas shows us a pall of cloud above a heaving waste of sea. and the activity thus engendered seeks to find vent in material expression along the channel familiar to it. from which we must infer what has gone before and what will inevitably follow. though in different departments. which may be either objective or subjective. resulting in an art product. all of whom are endowed with the artistic temperament and talent. and the tossing arms and blanched faces The composer. applied to his imagination and emotions. vitalizes such material when embodied. in seizes one climactic whole. Each is stirred to his being's core. and all laborers in the domain of art. a dismantled ship. The poet describes to us in words the terror of the tempest-torn deep. of her crew in their last brief struggle. and a musician. which conception must always exist prior to any material embodiment. evoked from nihility by the creative power of the composer. . this one single significant situation. The painter moment as characteristic of the colors. through a stimulus. conception.1 6 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. the vain struggles of wrecked mariners.
and the struggle. with the remorseful sobbing of the closing. embodying different in different material. which agitated the breast of the artist at the time of the conception of his work. Words and colors are so universally familiar that all perceive more or less clearly. but subjecting it to the inherent laws of his it own peculiar medium. the artistic intention of poet and painter. restricted to the 17 medium of tone. surges. perhaps. and the crash Bach has treated the theme from a different standpoint.^Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. none of which can be found to figure at aesthetic analysis all in either of the others. the would be precisely identical in every instance. upon a wreck-strewn shore. aiming at the same results and effects. the mighty sweep of mam- moth of shattering timbers. however ignorant of the technical means used to embody it. the roar of answering billows. according to temperament. the quickened and intensified life. But it is the appeal dread spirit of the storm. Now. the shriek of the gale. which they have caught and imprisoned in every case. while the technical analysis of these different art products would be radically diverse. but tone is to so new and strange a medium of expression that they are susceptible only to the sensuous effect many . and in each case is wholly concerned with elements. gives us all the dis- cordant minor voices of the storm and its impetuous and resistless movement. in its subsiding fury. and feel more or less keenly. and which thrills us with its terrific presence. aroused by the storm. the fury. sea. and would lead us directly to the fear. and emphasizing component elements and their to various faculties and senses.
I have selected a simple incident in nature to idea. successfully and which. some purely subjective experience of the must be sought as the impulse which quickened his artistic activity to fruition. and musician. and among the most important. of music. ethereal. the true meaning of a . and intelligible answer. and catch only the rhythmic jingle of a poem. painter. a deathbed.1 8 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. a religious ceremony any one of the thousand trate A episodes of which awake emotion and quicken imagination might have been equally well chosen as furnishing inspiration to poet. by means of the proper tone. life still. Oftener composer himself This inner meaning is often vague. and inflection. with which music deals more and satisfactorily than any other language. which it is teacher to discover and the duty and privilege of the artist or the make plain to others by any and every possible means. a love-scene. subtle. expression in piano playing? and how shall I acquire it?" are perhaps the most frequent ques- "What is tions asked by all music students. illus- my battle-field. baffles every resource. concise. emphasis. It consists in making unmistakably clear to the listener. a shadowy emanation from that mysterious underworld of consciousness. Expression in playing is precisely the same as in reading or declamation. just as a savage would see only a blaze of color in a painting. to which the teacher are certainly is ex- pected to give a ready. in its ultimate perfection of utterIt is this inner meaning ance. and will be found in his perfected work by those who have eyes to see and ears to hear. in fact.
a hunt or a cradle song. exhilarating hours of . to the bright. either improvised. a battle-field or a ball-room. The pupil should be led by easy stages. and then. cheerful or sad. by judicious questions. 19 composition. The first essential step toward acquiring the ability to do this is which to grasp clearly and feel vividly for oneself the meaning is to be impressed upon others. to seek and recognize the intention and effect of every strain of music. be sure that more than he or she does not understand its artistic import any if it were a poem in Choctaw. and will be equally unable to make others comprehend it. In addition to the works he is himself studying. whether the music is fast or slow. To be able to express the significance of a composition. for instance. to separate this meaning from the merely sensuous beauty of the medium and ornamental elaboration of the form in which it is embodied.^Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. in doing so will develop it amazingly. a player has no more definite idea of a compo- tion of and can give no more comprehensible descripit. even the simplest. at least the pith of it. or taken from compositions with which the pupil is unfamiliar. the teacher should frequently play for him short musical periods of a distinct but widely varied character. whether musical or literary. from the very beginning. To tell. he should be trained to think and talk about the impressions so produced upon him. and practice When sition. than that it is a pretty piece. briefly and plainly in one's own words is always proof of this power already possessed to considerable ex- tent. exciting or soothing. whether he thinks it would be suited for a wedding or a funeral. major or minor.
in culti- vating imagination and perception. who are about as rare and as much needed in our concert-rooms as are good performers. The tendency . supplemented by hints and suggestions from the teacher. and in establishing that instantaneous and sympathetic connection between the merely physical effect of music on the ear and the responsive echoes of thought and mood within. in stimulating activity of feeling and fancy. even with the most unpromising pupils. Object lessons of this kind. with bright pupils. From this cultivation of perception and appreciation an improvement in interpretation follows as a matter of course. of this training. is to make better listeners. Let him select an appropriate name for the strain. and in every possible descriptive way characterize it as a distinct entity in its appeal to his own nature. and almost always with results as surprising as they are The teacher will be astonished to find how gratifying. or the gloom of winter midnight. upon which connection music must base its only just claim to be called an art. and there will be no more trouble from rushing a gallop funeral down march into a quickstep.2O Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. moreover. morning. continued and gradually increasing in comprehensiveness and delicacy of discrimination. or dragging a hunting to the amble of a tired cart-horse. will work wonders. by the study of writers on music and of the works of the best composers. much may be done in a few months. the dreamy twilight of evening. having tried the plan many times. What is felt will be expressed the moment the pupil has the technical power of expression necessary. I speak from experience.
and But the old standard names carry a certain weight and dignity and the student's education is incomplete without some acquaintance with the old forms and methods of expression and the various stages of evolution through which the art of music has passed. Not that these compositions are any better than the best modern works. and let them serve as landmarks in musical history in the memory of the pupil. insist on a careful study of them. The permanent impression made upon the mind of the child by pieces of this kind is of utmost importance.Six Easy Classics for Students. It is well to select a few of the best and most disintrinsically tinctively representative of these old. as well as typical specimens of the forms and manner of musical thought in those earlier days. LL intelligent teachers recognize the importance of familiarizing pupils with the names and works of the old masters. of moderate technical difficulty. in fact many of them are really less interesting and musical no whit better made. The first choice of half a dozen such works would most naturally include the following: 21 . time-honored works.
This is decidedly the most famous of all Handel's works for the piano. cheerful theme with several increasingly much used. by Handel. a form once very vogue but now rather antiquated and seldom It is said to have been conceived under the . The Largo This is in G. is distinctly religious in character serious. The very term largo. is too hurried and impetuous for such a style.22 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and also in a grave dignified style of playing seldom demanded by the modern works. melodic phrasing. where the reverential hush. with a sussonorous. even appearing at times on the concert programs of prominent artists. or in other words massive and very slow. broad. and still holds its own to some extent in popular favor. and should be given with a It suggests the vast almost devotional dim aisles. was formerly in universal use. in difficult variations. Handel. like our manner of living. clean-cut finger work. and vague awe of bygone generations and dead ages seem to linger in the air like the faint odor of incense. of some solemn cathedral. It is a good study in clear. the lofty vaulted dome. which means large. study in the production of a broad. mellow tone in full chords. Most of our modern music. It consists of a simple. This composition spirit. and the lightest footfall echoes weirdly above the tombs of the forgotten dead. and crisp. the stately pillars. is seldom seen now. yet a fine tained melody which must be given special prominence. The Harmonious Blacksmith.
medocrity has been avoided. following circumstances. Even Bach in his The fact dance forms was pictorial. ment This lusty. as well as the general idea for this com- This picture of simple village life and honest cheerful toil in old England should be borne clearly in mind by the player. The sturdy. note for note. England at the time. The sparks. Alas of the old for the hearty. happy yeoman it recalls The type is welldays ! whom ! nigh obsolete in our time. are obvious and unmistakable. was on his who was living in way one summer afternoon to the chapel at Cannons to use the organ. The melody is supposed to be the song of the smith. is that its beginnings are to be found even the works of Handel. as he sang rhythmic hammer flying and the suggestions of and clanging anvil. it. He was caught in a sudden thunder shower and took temporary refuge in the village smithy. jovial song. music. and its mood reproduced in the position. Haydn. to the fitting accompaniof the hammer strokes on the iron. though written at a time when descriptive music was supposed to be unknown or disdained. but at the same time.Six Easy Classics for Students. keeping time with the ringing rhythmic blows of the hammer. This work is a bit of avowed realism. cheery smith was hard at work at his anvil and sang to himself as he worked. 23 Handel. atmosphere of the forge has been retained. healthy. . furnished Handel with the actual theme. and strokes. while the sparks flew in bright showers and the ruddy forge-fire glowed in the background. and most of the among other so-called severe classicists.
interestingly worked out The student's approach to these heavier. do not teach geometry in a kindergarten. but somewhat ponderous. is not attractive to most young students in in the beginning. The Loure is an antique rustic dance originating It is somewhat slower than the jig in Normandy. neither should we try to cram a fugue into the immature because there them We brain of a musical infant. scholarly. to be appreciated. problem. The Loure in G. but whom it is not possible or desirable to ignore in the study of the art in which he ranks as one of the greatest.24 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The and of which he immeasurably excelled all other writers any age. polyphonic style of music. and the powerful. and was named after the Loure. the realm of tone. should be gradual and . minds which produced them. by Bach. involved. so much in vogue in his time. them and ought not to be expected in is no developed faculty as yet which grasps or responds to it. appealing chiefly to the intellect and the sense of mathematical relation and proportion. more depth and gravity of thought sight and mood than they have at command. a local form of bagpipe which usually furnished the music for the dancI have found this composition one of the most ing. whose very name is a terror to most pupils at first. more com- plex forms. It does not interest to. It demands more intelligent ininto form. useful and practicable teaching ponderous giant in pieces by this old. for a fugue rical is only a geometin tone.
We enjoy and assimilate only what we can understand at a given time. by Haydn. to be affectionate reverence for the name this tation. stately lusty vigor and rude jollity of a simple. as he finds that he must educate his public as well as his pupils. hence it seems to me wise to begin the study of Bach with some of his lighter. but all the more humorous for that. full of the dance. is a stock piece in the repertory of every teacher. Probably no composition of the old school is so It universally known and used as the Gipsy Rondo. not with weariness and detesis True education the drawing out of latent capacity. which is always gratified. rustic but cheerful and bright. like an elephant dancing a skirt dance. rather than a painful. This is a point worth considering by the progressive teacher. Much is gained duction to Bach can be made a the player's intropleasurable. after all. perhaps. rough hilarity. if 25 carefully guided. is a very old. a . and The "Loure" bold and brilliant and vivacious. if it finds that it can really enjoy what is called classic music. accustomed to an active "out-of-doors" life and to noisy. not stuffing in of unwelcome material by force. in spite of its prejudices. light-hearted peasantry. remembered with and personality of new acquaintance. more easily grasped forms. now obsolete. experience. It is a little clumsy and grotesque. The Gipsy Rondo. interesting to the pupil and pleasing to an audience.Six Easy Classics for Students.
a big cheerful fire blazing and crackling in the centre. has none of the distinguishing characteristics of the music of that singular race. life. and the like. and none of those wild. as Haydn conceived it. augmented seconds. his easy. and his almost invariable adherence to the simpler major keys. weird minor harmonies which are the ear-marks of their musical productions. full of life and verve. in any It a realistic imitation of gipsy music. known of his small sound classical. cheerful melodious style. The music should be given with dash and a clear. Imagine a gipsy camp. expressing the mood of the gipsy. attractive to all pupils. the bugbear of young players. in the flickering light and shifting shadows. a perfect specimen of the fully developed rondo form. unrestrained hilarity. somewhat rough. conservative classic writer. none of the strange melodic progressions. with the rude tents scattered here and there among the trees. showy. with few of those objectionable accidentals. and primitive. pleasing number." as he was called. crowd of young gipsies bent on a dancing gaily to the brilliancy. study in finger technic. and a bright.26 fine Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. "Old Papa Haydn. But it is bright. out-of-door Its chief element of interest is a pronounced. lying mood is that of joyous youth. a frolic. and with pupils and their friends because he does not This best sense. spirited. crisp tone and well-marked accents. and around it. with his good-natured optimism. while bearing the magical name of classical music by a standard composer. has always been a favorite with teachers because he is a safe. . works is not. Its under- music of fiddle and guitar.
which generally serves the reluctant student as a study in rhythm and finger technic. that mood of restful. unanswered questions and feverish longings of our modern life. 112. and insipid as tepid water. of course. tenderly emotional. gently. pulse-stirring free 27 rhythm. movement. It is like some the finely wrought Greek idyl. the mood of a bright. only the joy of swift. to the . long-suffering little sonata. the vexing. Op. replete with fine ethereally beautiful melody and graceful embellishments. Sonata in C Major. It is more than an etude. without apparent effort. seems flat. valuable along these lines.Six Easy Classics for Students. expressing form. sunny. much-abused. cloudless June day on the upland pastures. the apotheosis of pastoral. that of most present-day human understood by player or hearer rarely and It still more rarely enjoyed. without a trace of passionate intensity or restless agitation. in a form as clear and finely finished as a delicate ivory carving. where happy shepherds watch their peaceful flocks untroubled by the storm and stress. impersonal optimism which is the essence of most of his musical creations. by Mozart. This much-used. perfect in detail. It contains no hint of serious thought or profound emotion. a mood so foreign to the hearts and environments it is beings. and which is. or a mere sample of the strict old sonata It represents Mozart at his best. is nevertheless a musical gem.
and an easy fluent technic. it is The first movement gives us the pastoral scene complete. flute-like notes of the shepherd's pipe. requires the utmost repose and tranof style. The second movement herd. but ever increasingly frequent sigh for peace and tranquil beauty. drifting through the sunlit spaces. fevered lips of the young. the floating shadows of passing mistwreaths across the azure sky. goaded soul achievement in its first . tender but hopeful is like the song of the shep- and contented. and sum- mer breezes softly breathing among swaying grasses and clover-tops. The work . ambition- stormy period of struggle and welcomed as the answer to that inarticulate. but innocent frolic on the village green in the later evening. The last suggests the gay. the green stretches of meadow. an ethereal beauty of tone. the silvery. Throughout the entire continually impressed Mozart's melodic inventiveness and inborn skill. we call the higher It is a backward glimpse into the heart of the golden age. sure of his loving welcome when he wends his leisurely way back to his simple home in the valley as the twilight shadows fall.jaded modern victim of the relentless Juggernaut civilization.28 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and escape from futile strife. but later. by simple folk. passion-driven. soft and quillity pure as the petals of a white rose. not played at labored affectation by the city. movement one is is by The whole with lived in all sincerity a musical picture of the simple life. and vain seeking after lasting happiness.
was originally written as the slow movement in the great C major sonata. This work. figured so prominently during the thirty years' war. The sonata was considered too long by the pubwas so. The work was composed erence to the life.Six Easy Classics for Students. historical importance. as a tribute and with ref- character. by Beethoven. full description of which may be found in my volume of Descriptive Analyses. one of the leading astrologers of his day. its vast inspiring majesty and the deep reflective mood of the solitary beholder alone in b^s observatory. The Andante tions and calm deals with the astrological investigareflective mood of Wallenstein. also as the Aurora sonata. The opening theme portrays the with its quiet starry night hushed solemnity. . the whole work was dedicated who to the Count Waldstein of Vienna. at the same time. rather than with the more active stirring episodes of his public life. the student of the heavens. known as the Waldstein. and a brief. among all classes of players. now published separately. and is so still. and personal peculiarities of this great field-marshal who was. 29 Andante Favori. or Wallenstein. the world over. As there stated. a descendant of the famous general and statesman Waldstein. unimportant introduction to the Rondo lishers. The Andante was cut out and published separately. and popular. in fact substituted in its place.
30 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. yet with a certain repressed intensity. How. and whence and why? The true musician will render this work with extreme gravity. and its slow. the old unanswered questions. suggesting the growing. gleaming through immeasurable spaces. indicate his memories of the stormy. hesitating. fully believes. broadening current of thoughts induced by the sublime. eventful hours in his own life. thoughtful tranquillity. and ultimate outcome he is striving to discover from these mighty. inscrutable arbiters of his fate. one more voice added to the volume of that great human chorus that. the other planets. reverent. The heavier. lands. wheeling in silent splendor. as he upon and destiny. significance. or rather a Then follows a series of variations. including his own. The close is eminently reflective. more agitated octave passages later in the work. with serious. whose origin. exercising all. from all times and comes echoing down the ages the same refrain. with their struggles and conflicts and victories or defeats. sorrow-fraught minor cadences show his long- an irresistible influence human life ing for the ever-sought but never found solution of life's great problem. the limitless host of inconceivably distant stars. progressive development of the theme. .
the uncompromising directness of the giant. rather than the fine frenzy of that genius which to madness is allied.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. cians. blandly complacent optimism. the social favorite. and not without a certain excuse. or the subtle mysticism and rugged force of the dual Schumann. His unvarying. Beethoven. and his occasional unblushing use of pleasing but century-old musical platitudes are all out of keeping with the intensity and complexity of modern thought and feeling and cannot but remind us of a very slender-waisted gentleman in full evening dress. his graceful. or the fervid emotionality of Chopin. Mendelssohn's style and prevalent mood suggest the perfect manners of the cultured man of the world. and to relegate them more and more to oblivion. his smoothly rounded periods. T has come to be quite the fashion of among a large class of musi- late years. but never profound ideas. to sneer at the piano compositions of Mendelssohn as shallow and superficial. Compared with the vigor and variety. 31 .
To these. hysterical. above all. To some unworthy. its tempests unanswered questions and unsatisconflicts. of gentle moods. Mozart. even vulgar. of symmetry and finish. and drift smoothly on the stream of chance with shipped oars and slackened sails. with the will dozing beside the helm. natures. at such moments. seems unreal. which pleasantly occupies without violently arousing the mind. . of which abstract beauty of form. fied longings. even to these there come moments of lassitude when weary alike of the heights of fevered ecstasy and the depths of despair they sigh for the Moments when it seems better quiet valley of repose. But and they are not few nor the most extreme emotion. strongest possible expression of life as its stress and strife. to give over the struggle and the protest. this constitute his peculiar very happy serenity and polished elegance charm and one which has its legitimate place and use in the realm of music and should not be ignored. all while to those more richly though perhaps less for- tunately endowed emotionally. delirious. which they are not so constituted as to share or even understand. and Mendelssohn stand they know it. Haydn. and ambition gagged and fettered in the hold. and its unveiled embodiment in art strikes them as indelicate. of delicate fancy. with and its as the exponents of restful content. which lightly touch the surface of emotion as a swallow skims the sunlit lake without disturbing its darker depths.32 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. who demand in art the fullest. gratifies the taste without exciting the feelings or arousing the intellect. and to the former class at all times.
the infinitely varied phases of human life and extrue music. they never delssohn flavor. restful but satisfactory. Their symmetry is perfect. Although these of pure musical of Mendelssohn. As well say that Wordsworth and Longfellow wrote the only It is merely the expression of one of true poetry. definite and well-balanced. and the first duty of the musician is to learn to recognize and appreciate all forms and shades of experience as expressed in music. perience more or to less persistent or recurrent ac- cording stances. 33 There are those who claim that this is the only which is manifestly absurd." are unequaled. 3 . lose the unforgetable Men- His periods are clear-cut. would be render them An art limited indeed ! form the compositions Songs Without Words. and to all with equal fidelity and sympathy. which met only the needs of a certain limited class. or of certain special occasions. free from elaborate embellishment and confusing complexity reminding one of the earlier Greek architecture. especially his As a study " compositions are written in a great variety of rhythms and meters. its individual temperament and circum- It is not the highest or the best. and although the harmonies are distinctive and individual. One may select almost at random any one of these wordless songs to illustrate to a class the distinct eight-measure period. with the thesis and antithesis. and there are few episodical or parenthetical passages and almost no interpolated cadenzas to distract the attention from the general outline.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. easily grasped by the student. but it has place and use. though simple.
The first. rustling leaves. pouring forth its overflowing delight in a shower of golden notes like sunbeams made audible. it soars and floats in the upper air. joyous prevalent expresses life and a mild. England sees. This is Without Words/' and happiest vein. That the lowest boughs and the brushwood's sheaf And whoever wakes Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough In England now! the white-throat builds. pleasurwas written in London on the first day of June. . The Spring Song. thrilling with exuberant gladness tuned to harmonious accord with the manifold voices of nature. where my blossomed pear tree in the hedge Leans to the field and scatters on the clover Blossoms and dew drops at the bent spray's edge That's the wise thrush He sings each song twice over Lest you should think he never could recapture : And And after April when May follows. careless rapture! The melody is a pure lyric suggesting a fresh young soprano voice. and all the swallows! Hark. to be in England by Browning in in the lines: now that April's there. and is a perfect embodiment of the composer's impressions of an English spring. leaf. fine. 1842. Like the English skylark.34 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. It so well described Oh. full of love of able exhilaration. some morning unaware. and jubilant bird calls. and hopeful. probably the most famous of the "Songs is written in Mendelssohn's it The mood with his is thoroughly in keeping mental attitude sunny. wakening from their long winter silence in bubbling brooks.
as well as of tuneful melodic writing. Every spinning song contains two distinct elements. The whole composition only fully appreciated is instinct grace. on account of the tempting facility with which the idea can be expressed on the piano and the variety of moods which may be coupled with it.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. in Schubert's "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel. yet with a certain joyous with delicate freedom and abandon is "when the heart young." The Spinning Song. 35 The light rippling arpeggio chords of the accompaniment should simulate the swaying branches. This melody may vary in mood through all the of feeling from rapture to despair. according to the emotional state of the supposed singer which it is gamut intended to indicate. "The Spinning Song" has always been a familiar and much-used subject among piano composers. light- . nodding their cheery greeting to the passing breeze or the white fleecy clouds adrift upon an azure sky." the heart of the singer is breaking. while the very wheel drones sympaIn this one by Mendelsthetically in the minor key. the literal imitation of the buzz and hum of the spinning wheel in the accompaniment and the lyric melody representing the song of the maiden or matron who sings at her work. One of the universal favorites is "The Spinning Song. for example. and every throb of anguish quivers through the song." a very clever bit of realism. sohn the mood is quite the reverse careless. As.
active foot. while her gay voice vies with the nesting robins in the blossoming apple or cherry outside. The Hunting Song. most joyous composi- tions.36 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. with the sunshine of youth's morning brightit. and expresses throughout the buoyancy and elation. This is one of his brightest. but not irksome task. One can feel in it the bounding pulses and superabundant vitality of youth and health. and a fine piece of suggestive symbolic writing. The whole mood a mood which we are the better and more cheerful to have shared even though only for a moment. singular that It is men are never so hilariously . Fancy a young. of spinning. is as riotously gay as the May as happy as the untried heart of innocence. the careless joy in life and action always naturally associated with a hunting scene. sanguine peasant maiden sitting at her open cottage door on a bright May at her daily. morning. thoroughly characteristic of his prevalent mood. morning The wheel hums and b-r-r-s at great speed under her supple. the stirring of the blood in answer to the voice of nature. as fresh as the May breezes which toss the white boughs over all till they scatter blossom bells of the appleperfume music in sweet showers the country side. the call of the wild. It breathes the freshness and of the dewy aromatic fragrance woodland at daybreak. in a tripping lilt as light and free and joyous as the voice of the linnet. ening hearted.
appropriate symbol of a hunting scene. The sound of the bugle or horn through the cool green aisles of the forest is always associated with the idea of the hunt.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. aggressive English bugle. it is a fearful commentary on the life and cowardice of the human race. as the . an instrument of lower register and more mellow yet resonant quality of tone and Mendelssohn uses two. not with the ideal conception of what it cruelty might be. The various horn signals tell of the progress of the hunt. as it is. etc. or in sight. and has no place here. is usual in such works. now fainter. the common device of imitating the hunting-horn in the theme or melody is As in this work. In indicate that the game is afoot. but the German Wald-horn (forest horn). his or retaliation in the unequal battle. 37 gay as when starting out to inflict suffering and death upon their innocent brothers of the forest. no chance for in ments firearms. who never did them any harm and are as fond of life as they. In this case it is not the shrill. To one who reflects. writing his horn melody in the form of a duet most of the time. now stronger. But that is an ethical rather than an artistic conArt deals with life sideration. supplemented by finding all the latest improvekeenest pleasure in mutilating and murdering a deer that has committed no wrong. music the imitation of the horn is universally em- employed ployed as the most suggestive. Think of a man with all the resources of his trained intelligence. or feels. and the rich sonorous theme rings through the forest glades. and has no means of defense.
The rubato indicates agitation and emotional intensity. Mendelssohn was not a friend of the excessive rubato and it is not in place in his music. so much so that one is tempted to believe that it was not written by him. No. so that the ideas can be clearly expressed and easily grasped. to preserve the artistic illusion of the continu- ous change of location on the part of the huntsmen. The power must vary constantly. The Gondola forms an exception Mendelssohn's usual any general style and mood. The tempo ought to vary but little. hunt winds nearer or further away. .38 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. tangled elder and weeping-willow. both foreign to his nature and style. even morbid. Venetian Gondola Song. The whole should be given at a moderate tempo. At the close we seem to linger by a bubbling woodland stream which gurgles and tinkles along its rocky bed. while the receding horn theme in the left should be made markedly realistic. Far from expressing his ordinary cheerful easy-going optimism it is sad. and through a considerable range. Opus to 30. half hidden beneath a profusion of fern and brake. while the music of the horn gradually recedes and at last dies in the distance. The ripple of the flowing water is distinctly given in the right hand accompaniment. It is usually played much too fast. characterization of 6.
was written and a certain mood. and subject. composed. which may vary from transport to tragedy.. just as in the spinning song. The gondola is exclusively associated with Venice. Fanny Mendelssohn. there are two distinct elements the realistic on which the idea element. but it may be Venice smiling under the azure sky and glorious radiance of summer noon. It is or in any other capacity especially of these among not definitely known which works so originated. at times. or the discarded and jealous suitor . to attribute more intense and passionate character than the majority. suggesting the physical conditions is based the rocking of the boat. I fully believe that the work in question This is indicated its Mendelssohn's usual clarity of outline. This picturesqueness appealed very strongly to the beautyloving Mendelssohn. however. as it was not considered "good form" for a lady of high social position to figure publicly as a composer the Jews. by by vague indistinctiveness of form so different from her. the rhythmic swing of the oar. etc. or sulking in the dark phantom-shrouding fogs of late November. to moments of depression. In every gondola song and barcarole.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. and the emotional element expressed in the song of the boatman. and published under her brother's name. to her those of a We are inclined. the splash of water. a number of songs and piano pieces now included among his works. The singer may be the happy lover serenading his promised bride. 39 It is well known that his sister. as her nature was far deeper and more emotional than that of her brother. .
Along that wilderness of glass. of tragedies hidden in its depths. and . murky midnight work the mood to assassi In the case of this is little of the singer that of dull. voices in minor melody the spirit of the night. waiting in the gloom of a nate his rival. For no ripples curl. is Venice on a misty sullen evening in the autumn. in muffled monotone. discouragement and profound sorrow. sadly pensive depression. subdued and plaintive. which it is more than probable was written by Fanny Mendelssohn. The sky and water are leaden grey. sounding in every phrase. not new and keen. the water whispers darkly. alas.40 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The boat onward like a spent sea-gull. but old and wearily familiar. 2. the outlines of churches and palaces blurred by the heavy sluggish glides wearily masses of fog rolling in from the Adriatic. with no cheerful splash or silvery ripple to break the oppressive monotony. No swellings tell that winds may be Upon some far-off happier sea No heavings hint that winds have been On seas less hideously serene. The very unusual mood here portrayed is exactly duplicated by Edgar Allan Poe in the following lines from "The City in the Sea": Relentlessly beneath the sky The melancholy waters lie. Another of these little works. Opus 53. while the song of the boatman. rocking slowly on the long tide-swells. The scene which forms its fitting background. No.
41 which is one of the most beautiful in the collection. The solution of the puzzle trouble. without any elaborate cadenzas or technical difficulties it is The as the music complexities. It is is easy when clearly divide comprehended. 53. presents are purely rhythmical. in the uncertainty and restless agitation. and once grasped. dealing with emotion merely an impassioned love-song. giving two to each note of the triplet and three to each even eighth. otherwise simple and easily understood. 2. (At half past two by the accompaniment. is one of the most valuable and helpful of the "Songs Without Words" to both teacher and student. in the melody. gives no further only necessary to the beat mentally into six equal parts. against even eighths. as presented in this work throughout its entire length. is a very important one and should be mastered early in the study of the piano. expressed accompaniment by triplet chords. hence this composition. fervor and ardent longing. Op. apart from its musical interest. pianist. of playing This rhythmic problem. is the No. No student's training is complete without a . with a marked undertone of impatience.) That so few players are able to do this easily shows that they depend more upon the hands and good luck than upon the the second and third of the head.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. It is a pure lyric with no realistic suggestion in it. so to speak. full of tenderness. thus bringing the second of the two exactly half way between three. so trying to the amateur evenly and accurately two notes in one hand against three in the other.
not thine. full. No. 9. mastered it. and sleep. It is a fine study in sustained. and in the production of a yet mellow quality of tone in full chords like that of the organ. Though technically simple and devoid of any very profound musical significance. without difficulty. smoothly connected chord playing. It tion of these tion of would be impossible to pass from a considera"Songs Without Words" without men- "The Consolation" in B major. my soul. reposeful almost hopeful submission to a superior will and wisdom. of lassitude and soothing to many minds amid the stress and struggle little of It reminds one of the verses which were so popular with a certain class of readers a few years ago: Be still. which renders in it restful moments life. it has endeared possesses a certain individual quiet charm which it to many hearts the world over. and this rhythm is a comcareful study of this work. mon and agitation device with modern writers. It expresses simply and directly a tranquil resignation to the inevitable. prob- ably the best known and most often played of any of the set. Consolation. be still sleep. be still and The storm is raging on God's God's deep. Having once thoroughly he will always be able to play longer or shorter passages of two against three wherever they appear.42 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. . a trustful. deep. to express unrest emotional stress of any kind.
maintaining a degree of independence. suggesting . not thine. while remaining in the main subordinate to the other. Both must stand out clearly. II "II Duetto" It is Duetto. intended to simulate a vocal duet between soprano and tenor is in the flowing. It attractive to pupils and is an excellent study in melody playing. mellow quality of tone. 43 Be still. and might better have been omitted. are so neglected and so rarely well given? Have we no time or taste for anything but hurry up music. Be still and sleep. be still and sleep. because we travel by express train and do business by wire? Must we also have . God's heaven and thine. Be still. melodious Italian style. which form one of its most attractive and beautiful features. like embossed figures in rich red gold on a soft azure field. and dynamic values. my soul. full. God's hand. neutral background of the accompaniment. and accurate balance of parts for the tenor theme must be brought out distinctly. be still and sleep. and carefully phrased. the Why is it that these purely lyric effects in piano playing. be still and sleep. is a composition that explains itself. God's hand shall stay the tempest's sweep. God's heaven shall comfort those who weep. wholly irrelevant. with a warm.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. my soul. The brief arpeggio passage used as introduction and coda serves little purpose other than to establish the It is tonality and make a beginning and ending. human voice against the quiet.
like. winning final victory through suffering fine and struggle. resolution. ref- This article would not be complete without a erence in closing to the most thetgpndo Capriccioso. but is. one of the strongest things he has done. vigorous. our music ground out. in which truth. It is not of the first magnitude musically or technically. manly strength and noble purpose. It might be the musical introduction to the principal act in some heroic drama. played by eHsh the greatest . is it works of Mendelssohn. on high-speed gearing and served against time. The Rondo Capriccioso. machine. nevertheless.44 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. It is a broad. like hash at a depot lunch counter? What wonder that our people have musical indigestion! Prelude in One far less of the small E Minor. register. which deserves to be. known and used than expressing courage. is the Prelude in B Minor. It is a thankful program number and a study in the production of a large. resolute melody tone. baritone melody. which suggests the quality and color of bronze from which the statues of heroes are made and predominates over a rapid. bravery and fidelity triumph over fraud and crime. stormy accompaniment in a higher It is a good example of the noble lyric. widely and favorably known of Mendelssohn's larger works for the piano. a world- famous concert number.
which should be played at a very moderate tempo. tender. or even traditional. outside of the intrinsic quality of the music. If called upon to give . most original work was on the style of depicting the half-playful. as in the music to the "Midsummer Night's Dream.Y I have not been able to find any authentic historical." which was one of his earliest and most famous productions. It may fairly be considered one of his best productions. his happy. as it contains no insurmountable difficulties for the fairly equipped pianist and Its musical merit is always pleasing to an audience. a tone painter He was who succeeded best in flower pieces rather than in scenes of battle or tempest. hopeful optimism. 4^ artists^and very popular as a recital piece for advancea students in graduation programs. with a warm sustained tone. dainty. This style is exemplified in the rondo movement referred to. poetic sentiment and delicate grace. shows Mendelssohn at his best in the lyric vein and is more> significant in content than most of his lyrics. yet playful and sparkling rondo that follows manifests to the full The his capricious. characteristic of its is author. half -fanciful side of life and nature. and is full of quiet. and he was especially happy in his occasional incursions into the realm of elves and fairies. but that is uneqai vocally suggestive. in and I lies in its charm and grace rather than any great strength or depth. J introductory movement. Mendelssohn's best. airy fancy. foundation for my idea. whilaljhe bright.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn.
at least. The sun is slowly sinking in the west. as I conceive the work. but gently drawing behind him the soft violet. Occasionally. amber and pearl-gray curtains of his night pavilion. can be heard the good-night call of a bird. though it' is not ostensibly title "program music" and has no descriptive the fancy. and her black wings fold over the scene. seeking rest after his day's journey. the dainty little elves emerge from the shadows of the forest and begin their as if silence nightly dance and frolic upon the open meadow.46 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the dance of the elves becomes more wild and unrestrained and their fantastic pranks more daring. As the sheltering darkness closes in. or a few distant notes from the horn of a belated hunter wending homeward. not in gorgeous flaming splendor triumphing in his conquest over the broken flying host of thunderclouds. to guide . As the and the twilight deepen. gentle slope of velvet green meadow rising gradually to a line of forest which forms the darker background. At the close the first chill wind of night sweeps through the tree-tops with a boisterous rush. from the depths of the wood. \ This is. / I a word-picture allegorically representing this com position I should do it somewhat after this fashion: /0/f\SLimagin< V long.
work thoroughly and Schumannesque. replete with all the kaleidoscopic variety of tone color and harmonic effect. The trained pianist finds this refreshingly fancies." This ap- parently contradictory statement may readily be accounted for on the following grounds. all acteristic the symbolic and realistic suggestiveness. as the "Carnaval Scenes. full of all the subtle droll humor and originalities of treatment peculiar to this composer.47 to the spe- . none is more frequently played.Robert Schumann's Carnaval SCENES MIGNONNES SUR 4 NOTES. With the fatuous assumption. charof the romantic school. of which Schu- mann was one of the ablest and most enthusiastic Hence he finds it a fascinating study champions. or generally speaking so little enjoyed. SCENES ON FOUR NOTES. and regards it as an effective number for the con- cert stage.) (LITTLE MONO Schumann's larger works for the piano. common . and thereby incidentally an important lesson learned.
about the subject-matter in question. hear only a succession of incoherent. and see and appreciate at a first fleeting glance : that which has taken him. and one of them is to know "what and where the player is at. that every one knows. with no logical sequence. ignorant usually of the composer's meaning and intention. Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. An audience has some rights. the professional musician." to use Susie plays at home. The listeners. and it is no wonder they do. and often failing to comprehend the names designating some of the sections. easily grasped and affording at least a sort of superficial sensuous pleasure. he simply discharges this piece at the heads of his unoffending audience. or ought to know. in a series of fragments. bored." they greatly its prefer the kind marked dance rhythms and simple melodies.48 cialist. like scrap-iron from a fast-firing machine gun. dram- development or emotional continuity. without even a pause to show where one fragment ends and the next begins. fondly imagining that his hearers will catch them as they fly. and naturally conclude that if this is "high-class music artisatic tically performed. for its money. They are confused. on the other hand. apparently irrelevant musical scraps. with the same rap dity and general inaccuracy of aim. except that in some vague way the work probably has to do foreign with a carnival. months of study to perceive and value properly. on the hit-or-miss plan. with a colloquialism. Another is to get something in return The following simple but accurate explanation may aid students and others who may chance to read it .
one of Schumann's most intimate lady friends at the time of composing this music (1834 and 1835). also repre- sent the only letters in Schumann's own name. C and B natural. and B natural is called H. at least in outline. E flat. but in German E flat is called es (pronounced S). was quite in vogue with musicians of Schumann's and preceding genera- Bach was guilty of building his a theme B-A-C-H. A-S-C-H. Sebastian into own name 4 . which consisted in cleverly working the letters of some proper name into the theme of a composition. spell the name of the little village of Asch in Bohemia. based on a curious and very inadequately sustained conceit on the part of Schumann. 49 in arriving at this desirable state of pre-knowledge concerning the work in question. The same notes. either by word of mouth or in print upon the program. his Op. namely. In English nomenclature this would spell nothing. the home of Fraulein Ernestine von Fricken. as the initial theme in several of the numbers. i. by every pianist who presents the composition. S-C-H-A. so that the four letters." is partial justification in the music. The secondary with its title. "Little Scenes on Four Notes. the use of the letters.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. and he seems to have never tired of playing upon and with them in his compositions. Some such analysis or description ought to be supplied. This form of musical joke. of which the theme is formed of the tions. and Schumann employed the same device in his very first composition. A. which are used in musical notation.
50 letters Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. so has little value or idea is signifi- cance from a musical or any other standpoint. though it is not so done in the printed score. is The later not fully carried out even there. represents scenes and characters at a masked ball. originally intended " Carnaval to consist of some grouping of the musical notes represented by the letters in the name Asch. and the poetical undercurrent mark the "Carnaval" as a most original work. and I have numbered them here for convenient reference. Op. It is ters of the Carnival and characmasquerade and procession. He later u:>ed Gade's name. merely a droll passing whim. Aside from this Carnaval. and abandoned altogether. A-B-E-G-G. . and the woman's name Beda in a similar way. Op. The masquerade idea seems to have had a very strong hold upon Schumann. Op. of Mannheim. the spirit of frolic. but these notes in that order appear only a few times as the opening phrase It is possible that Schumann " all the numbers of the of the melody in some of the earlier sketches. moods and portray some is intended to express the Carnival. common in all the Catholic European cities on Mardi Gras. and witnessed repeatedly by Schumann in Vienna in his early life. the Papillons. as a whole. 2. spelling the i^ name of Meta Abegg. 9. and the Faschingsschwank. The work we are considering consists of twentytwo musical sketches. depicts the Viennese of the scenes The work. for three of his most notable and popular piano works are based upon it. 26. The spontaneity of the minute.
the latter occurring on the single notes of the somerset marked These forte in the midst of piano passages. to the great amuse- ment of the spectators. expressing the mood of the time. Pierrot. clumsy Teutonic humor. but the street procession which precedes it.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. number is (Preamble. This 1. complete abandonrough fun. For this composition depicts. supto be played by the band at the head of the posed procession.) a musical introduction. but turning a sudden grotesque somerset or handspring at frequent intervals. a personification of In this case he rough.) a name quite generally adopted throughout Europe to designate a clown or tumbler of the oldfashioned uncouth German type. interspersed with typical incidents and an occasional band number. with its first excitement and anticipation. preserving a wondrous pompous dignity and a ludicrous solemnity. stalking down the street. pretending to be master of ceremonies. should burst out so as to startle the listener and . often No. not the masked ball on the evening of Mardi Gras. This is 2. its ment to hilarious gaiety and rollicking. It is followed by a representation of a number of the maskers in the procession. heads the procession. The mood of farcical gravity and effect also the realistic are graphically portrayed in the music. (Clown. Preambule. 51 No.
(Harlequin. which he snaps occasionally in the faces of the bystanders. 3. presumably heard at a greater distance. with a snapping accent on the sixteenth which precedes the rest. instantly relapse into solemnity as does the circus clown. but really to startle and annoy them. Arlequin. No. He carries in his hand a long whip.) This is another impersonation of the buffoon. should be given very staccato.52 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. Eusebius. This number and the one immediately following are interesting creations of Schumann's own Here they are fictitious characters. Valse Noble. a harlequin of the fantastic mercurial French type. This is 4. ostensibly to clear the street. and create merriment at their expense. at No. it. but supposed . somewhat more subdued and another composition played by the band. This number should be as animated as the former was solemn. Florestan. graceful than the intro- duction. but distinctly music in the carnival vein. dressed in a vivid striped costume of many colors. and It intervals of every few measures afterward. No. and the cracking of the whip is unmistakable. imagination. occurring in the first and third measure. 5. to be taking part in the procession.
the writer of delicate lyrics and involved mystical harmonies. and sometimes both together to his musical compositions. It must be remembered that Schumann's representation of his dual personality is not confined to his musical compositions. as in the case of the great Sonata. No. Florestan just the re- verse of Eusebius. musical or otherwise. this As suggested above. Florestan was the organizer and leader of the Davidsbundler or hosts of David. Florestan. turbulent. Op. which typify two phases of his character and genius. Florestan and Eusebius. was Schumann's own is for his sterner self. name 6." by Goethe's oft-quoted statement that two souls dwell in very breast was distinctly true of Schumann. but continually appeared in his writings as well. who to quote his own words are "youths and men destined to slay all the Philis- tines. the 53 life names are familiar to all students of his and is works during early manhood. signed to a large One or the other number of his critiques and liter- ary articles. fighting with fierce joy for his ideals. II. and yet with a certain rollicking gaiety which suggests the college boy out for a lark. which was "Dedicated to Clara. who himself recognized the duplex personality under the two names referred different to. Eusebius represents the poetic metaphysical side of his nature. the introspective impractical dreamer. aggressive. fighting if neces- sary with a club." .Robert Schumann's Carnaval. bold.
9. This analysis. upon which the good-natured It contains . No. It embodies in a musical form. It has no musical significance. have tried their hands first or last at depicting this type of the eternal feminine. witch. This number can hardly have been intended to be played. siren. Sphinxes. a sort of echo or reply to the blandishments of the foregoing. This is merely a brief phrase. but is a jest in the form of a riddle.54 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. No. but the parallel bars which take the place of them are seen on examination to occupy places on the staff corresponding to the four letters already referred to. It is another of Schu- mann's leries. admirably The name suggestive sketch hardly needs tells the story. Lorelei. addressed only to one who is reading the score. Replique. the familiar and famous coMost composers quette. 8. 7. under titles containing the coquette. but I music which has been produced. and regard this as a peculiarly happy effort and one of the best examples of portrait painting in the words like. Coquette. No. fascinating but unreliable. but rather awkward drolno notes. replete with dainty witchery and capricious archness. flirt. touched here and there with seductive tenderness.
an intimate No. good deal of and vanish amid They pass quickly and indulging in a the crowd of revellers. S. none too sober. (Butterflies. C. the letters from the name Schumann which occur in music. C. but the actual musical In some modern pantoeffect not very satisfactory. A.) any sense the The music does not represent in light-winged vagrants of the summer field. . C. by the village previously mentioned as the home town of lated friend. 11. H. but forgetting their role in the excite- ment of the occasion noisy merriment. It suggests rather a group of maskers dressed to represent butterflies. which are here made to dance and tumble boisterously before us like veritable living entities. A. The idea is ingenious. C. The first represents the notes S-C-H-A. The third is the name Asch. S. Papillons..Robert Schumann's Carnaval. H. a play upon the letters A. Lettres Dansantes. and S. "little 55 scenes" are supposed to be built.) Here we have another recurrence of the quaint conceit already referred to. an interjection in German transour word Alas. 10. H S. or a species of roguish kobald whose antics are supposed to be very amusing. No. A. The second spells the word Ach. (Dancing Letters. H. mimes the idea has been presented on the stage with dancers holding huge letters.
in which Chopin excelled all other composers. Chiara is 12. the diminutive. constantly reiterated. famous the world over as Clara the composer was deeply atSchumann.. It might easily be mistaken for Chopin's .56 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. in different positions but with the same accent and inflection. No. is an exquisite specimen of the Nocturne. He has here done an exceedingly clever bit of imitation of the Polish composer's most familiar and characteristic form of writing. and in connection with his waltzes. sists of a little phrase of four notes. Chopin. became widely known to the musical world. a tender lyric melody with a certain plaintive undertone and a flowing arpeggio accompani- This number ment. for whom Schumann felt and expressed profound admiration. and Chiarina. he first by means of which. is The next character represented the well-known composer Frederic Chopin. No. and to whom he was secretly betrothed at the time this work was afterward to whom written. the Nocturne. the charming and gifted young artist. tached from her fourteenth year. viz. the Italian for Clara. Chiarina. so as to simulate the syllables of the name Chiarina. was a favorite pet name of Schumann for Clara Wieck. He pays a delicate tribute to her charming The melody conpersonality in this dainty lyric. 13.
In this case. as well as her participation in the masquerade. was a romantic name applied by SchuErnestine von Fricken. manifested in intention. a gifted and attractive young lady residing at Asch. as to general fact. Reconnaissance. Although bordering upon to reflect a the impossible. the music indicates the feeling of glad surprise arising from the recognition of two of the maskers of each other's identity. No. Chopin's personality seems which of course was the composer's No. 57 details of own work.) Schumann has endeavored this portions of work to express not only the general mood of the Carnival time and some of the characters in the masquerade. mann to Frl. 15. but also special emotions and incidents connected with some of its phases. in the midst of the rollicking crowd. for example. the sudden pleasure of coming in contact with the familiar personality of friend or lover in noisy. with whom the composer at the time of writing the Carnaval was on the closest terms of friendly intimacy. Schumann has attempted mood which only depict. in certain (Recognition. both construction. Estrella.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. by this very winning bit of music. mood and In it. Her personality is indicated. Estrella 14. spite of the disguise. the most sensitive tone-poet would .
Another number by the band. Valse Allemande. It for one who has not experienced the Car- nival spirit to appreciate the of the convivial crowds. 16. abandon and effervescence No. and the two characters figure largely in the pantomimes of all are to imagine them passing in this countries. of a graceful but rather slow and stately character. 17. an old-fashioned German waltz. Pantaleone. The name It is derived from the patron saint of Venice.58 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. is quite used by other Italians as a nickname for one of whom they wish to make sport. . We It may seem to that Schumann has given the player of this composition quite too much time and prominence to the clown in various types. the distinguishing feafantastically ture of whose costume is that trousers and stockings are all Pantalon of one piece. and is a common generally one among the Venetians. No. But any one who has lived through the Carnival season in one of the German Catholic cities knows by experience that the streets are full of masked clowns on Mardi Gras. a dressed buffoon. the harlequin of Italian comedy. particularly if a Venetian. even in broad daylight. and they form the favorite disguise in is difficult all processions and balls. is Pantalon et Colombine. Colombine is the sweetheart of Pantalon. procession hand in hand.
No. a series of crisp intricate staccato passages for both by technic brilliant. made under cover of the confusion and the concealment of the masks. No. 19. .Robert Schumann's Carnaval." which is nowhere more complete than in the midst of a crowd where each is engrossed in his own amusements. both and composer. from the tender pleading character of the music. 59 No. Paganini. This celebrated violinist was noted throughout Europe as the superior of all players of his time in technical mastery of his instrument. has introduced and unmistakably identified the personality he wishes to have pass before our mental vision. known hands. Again a musical fragment for the band.) Evidently an avowal of love. 20. original not particularly melodious. and strikingly characteristic. Aveu. effects which he produced along this line have never been equalled before or Hence he is very naturally represented here since. Promenade. (Avowal. in the mood and movement indicated by the name. in what the Germans call "A solitude for two. almost demoniac. 18. but particularly in the special form of as player The startlingly as staccato bowing. by means of an ingenious imitation of one of the best-known and distinctive Here again Schumann characteristics of Paganini's style. but interesting.
(March This it of the Hosts of David Against the Philistines. which however is not apparent. This odd conceit has undoubtedly some humorous and symbolic meaning. halting fashion. unless in a sort of hopping. dashing and at times humorous composition. to which it is obviously impossible to march. The name 21. Marche des Davidsbiindler Contre les Philistins. Again Philister or Philistine is a term which for generations past has been contemptuously used by . written in threefour time. rather impetuous music so designated. Pause. were a people of Palestine continually at war with the Jews. The title of this number has a double significance. No. as all know.60 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. as varied points of interest. King David won signal victories over them and compelled them to pay tribute to himself and his successors. No. 22. implies a pause in the progress of the but the idea is not carried out in the procession. and its precise significance is not clear. at least to the writer. in an almost frivolously jolly mood. The Philistines. like a man with one leg longer than the other.) number is the longest and most pretenwork and demands special attention. It is final tious of the contains many and a bold.
the students of the 61 to desigfelt German universities. Matthew Arnold has best summed up the feelhaps and ing in the following sentence: "On the side of beauty taste. and has come to be very generally adopted by the "younger blood" among poets. It represents Schumann's creative genius as champion of the romantic school of music. around the standard it forward in his musi- Schumann the enemies of the ro- mantic movement. the opponents of progress. on the side of morals and feel- ing. were helped bear achieved. somewhat pedantic advocates of the fast degenerating his classical school. unin- telligence. Bundler is the German word for band or company. adherents It stands here. was from Bund. who of rallied under his leadership Modern Romanticism and to the victory which was later The Philistines." The David in the title as used by Schumann is one of the allegorical personifications of which he so fond. which means a league or union. as used by cal and literary works. coarseness. he ultimately compelled own genius and to the the Romantic School of Music. for a little band and allies of Schumann. the conservative. retained to It was by Schumann long after passing his college years. as in several other of his works. musicians and Perartists. nate the townspeople and other outsiders be antagonistic to the student life and spirit. of faithful friends. associates Against them waged perpetual war- and to like them pay dynasty of King David. this is Philistinism. to denote conservatism and mediocrity. Hence tribute to his .Robert Schumann's Carnavai. on the side of mind and spirit. vulgarity. Schumann and fare.
now in big pompous octaves. irresponsible mood of the Davidites and their contempt for the conventions. The accent and rhythm of these words exactly match those of the musical notes. And his father he dreamt that Tim Doolan was dead. in the spirit of pure fun and bravado. and appears in several of Schumann's works. of the Davidites To emphasize the careless. and a favorite It was college song at the also adopted in this country and is familiar to those whose memories reach back over half a century. known cleverly throughout Germany as the Grossvatertanz (Grand- Schumann has woven father-dance). The "Carnival" as a whole presents Schumann's .62 Stories of Standard title Teaching March Pieces. The march closes with a spirited finale like a joyoua defiance hurled at the foe. always appearing in a new key when least expected. German universities. traditions and critical standards of the Philistines. into the march very a quaint old tune of the iyth century. And Tim Doolan was dead And his father was dead And Tim Doolan he dreamt that his father was dead. This old tune seems to have been a sort of battlehymn or rallying cry of the Davidsbiindler. sung to the following doggerel: Tim Doolan he dreamt that his father was dead. now in playful staccato effects. passing it about from one hand to the other. He seems to flaunt it deliberately in the faces of his shocked critics. In this march he plays it with a real facetious gusto. the significance of the against the Philistines.
" . 63 genius. of exuberant fancy and It is fertility of suggestive symbolism. The work is replete with graphic realism and recalls Schumann's own words of his earlier compositions: "At that time the man and the musician in me were always trying to speak at once. but in its flood-tide of youthful vivacity. not in its most profound and strictly musical aspect.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. expression best characterized for by the German Geistreich. but which means rich in mentality. which we have no English synonym.
as Robert flight of the butterfly or the grotesque pranks of the carnival clown. In spite of the manifold variety of his forms and diversity of his subjects. with the possible exception of Chopin. . Opus MONG 12. and a certain vagueness of expression. which renders them hard to grasp. not by any possibility to be mistaken for anybody else. a strain of his may be recognized anywhere without hesitation by any one at with his work. almost primitive intensity of emotional content. in any Whether he is portraying the graceful single period. wholly unembellished. an indistinctness of outline in his periods.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. though not wholly. to two leading characteristics: a plain. the dreams of a child or the stern ambition of a hero. he is always Schumann. who possesses such a remarkable and unmis- takable individuality of style and such pronounced subjectivity in all his work Schumann. It is the former that so endears him to musicians and the latter which is responsible for his unpopularity with the public. all familiar This distinctive peculiarity of style is due mainly. all composers there is none.
for a serious defect will it unquestionably is." a powerful treatment in music of the idea of human The ambition. 5 . too rapidly depths to solidify into separate forms.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. overlapping and blurring each other. defying dangers. full of the richest. inherent strength toward the summits of fame and achievement. apparent in his shorter compositions. most vivid fancy and it is less striking originality. all his scorn of mere external refinements and graces. ignoring temptations. directness and for calling things exactly by their right names. his ideas are Or rather poured forth from the volcanic perhaps of his genius. his inability to formulate with clearness. This defect." His thoughts seem at times too big for his musical vocabulary. 1 2 are among the most effective and widely known. strongest of this set is the "Aufschwung. and clearer. always prevent Schumann's works from being universally understood and appreciated but naturally . form Aufschwung. Of these. if fondness for rugged. even rough. the Fantasy Pieces Op. in a molten state. more definite in than the majority of Schumann's works. 65 He all his has all the typical German's force and depth. mounting with irresistible. for all. but on the other hand he has. more than man's involved obscurity of expression. His grandest visions of beauty are apparently seen "as through a glass. but intermingle. scorning obstacles. Opus 12. the Ger- his fondness shadowy mysticism. darkly. They are very varied in mood.
The bold opening theme celsior in B flat minor is the Ex- cry of the poem. it is often a help to have it well read to an audience before playing the number in public. for ambition is the avowed and deadly foe of follow successively. increasing in intensity with each repetition. The sections which follow must be treated with the utmost diversity of shading and tone coloring. the warning. courage. while the superb trivial . as answer to each and all. suggestions of the various difficulties. the enunciation of pride. each expressing its own particular mood and suggestion." But.66 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. sweeping onward with the overwhelming force of a tidal wave toward in its goal. It easily may be and too often is made by excess of speed. comes the reiterated ringing shout. yet of a stern sadness withal. The player should study that this poem carefully in connection with composition. and reproduce its thoughts and moods in the music. It is the same idea precisely that is so ably handled Longfellow's famous poem Excelsior. love. as in the poem. and the soft allurements of easier paths. the seductions of happiness. temptations and dangers that beset the upward path. the peace and the growing terror of resignation proffered by religion. the ever darker and lonelier way. grand but destructive in its might. resolution. "Excelsior!" This first theme should be given always with great strength and dignity. aspiration. the allurements of home and " Beware the pinetree's withered branch. Beware the awful avalanche. Then rest.
It expresses but one of emotional experience. strong. But that word fails entirely to convey the meaning of the original. the ominous approach and the deafening crash of the on- coming avalanche. entitled Des Abends (Evening).Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. the quiet. Des Abends. but never to a bird. not the joyous rise of the skylark into the blue. should begin slowly and very softly and steadily. Opus 12. This little work. one of the most perfect of Schumann's productions. restful contrast to the Auf- schwung. dreamy mood phase of the twilight hour. if played immediately after it. with the scale passages in the left hand. The forms a beautiful and exquisite lyric. English synonym. with the implied sense of great power and weight. It might be applied to the movement of a battleship under full headway. is just what its name implies." and so appears in many editions. like the threatening whisper. with just a touch of wistful long- . it should be the bold. It has been improperly translated "Soaring. "Auf" means upward and "Schwung" signifies swing or sweep. Or. a delicate picture in shades of violet and pearl. if we translate the title "Soaring" at all. increasing in power and speed to the final reiteration of the first theme. as of some heavy body in swift motion with resistless momentum. This work is a fine concert number and an invaluable study in dynamic proportions and varied tone The name "Aufschwung" has no adequate qualities. 67 climax in chords. majestic flight of the eagle that we have in mind.
'* which it so aptly fits. and no intensity of in- flection. then merge into the shadows. Each flower the dews have lightly wet. And in the sky the stars are met. and which Schumann sings here in as true and flawless a strain as was ever penned. I never play it without thinking of the opening lines of Byron's "Parisina. caressing pressure touch. And in the heaven that clear obscure. It is the lovers idealize. when the glory of the sunset has departed.68 ing. with little agitating rubato. like the soft. Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. that linger for a time as faint echoes of that symphony of color. the hour when lovers' vows Seem sweet in every whispered word. slowly fading tints in the western sky." nightingale's high note is The composition should be given with the utmost tranquillity. And on the wave is deeper blue. So softly dark and darkly pure. mann been claimed that the form chosen by Schuthis work was unfortunate and metrically incorrect. And on the leaf a browner hue . As twilight melts beneath the moon away. "It It is the hour when from the boughs The is heard . Which follows the decline of day. that it should have been written in three It has in eight instead of two-eight measure. a hint of tenderness in it. And gentle winds and waters near Make music to the listening ear. thus making plain eighth notes of the sustained melody and alternate six- . hour and mood which idealists love and which poets have sung in all ages. with a gentle. faint memories of the stronger emotions of the day.
of the group of "Fantasy Pieces" is the Traumeswirren. Opus 12. in which a host of dainty. all luminous color and swift motion. Perhaps the most original. slow. Pieces." Then . and the natural lessening of stress on the alternate melody notes falling on unaccented parts of the measure. as in some playful The middle movement in chords brings a startling It seems to contrast. It must be just perceptibly indicated but by no means emphasized. if properly handled. as it should be. add materially of the music. flashing hither dance of the sprites.Schumann's Fantasy This a mistake. circling." It is a fanciful attempt to portray in music the capricious vagaries of a bright and happy dream. indicate the moment when the sleeper half awakes and gazes about his darkened room in vain search for the bright visions that have haunted his slumbers. distinctly sustained. 69 teenth rests and sixteenth notes in the lower voice. and certainly the most technically difficult. is Schumann knew what he wanted and how to produce effect of it. The ear must recognize it uncon- sciously without its being distinctly heard. or "Dream Tangles" which we might translate "The Confusion of a Dream. floating. Traumeswirren. wistful charm triplet rhythm is there for a pur- pose. "I've been dreaming. sombre and impressive. The to the wavering. But soon he realizes the situation and you can almost hear him say to himself. appear and disappear. Just that slightly swaying the triplet rhythm. fairy-like figures. even though the melody is. and thither.
the best of whole group is the Warum? (Why?) It is very brief. expressing the question which the name implies. back again and little by little the dream god This is and fifth fingers and as such may be used by students. reasserts his sway. who. Wieck. a lyric of the warm. a fine study for the fourth Warum? The most famous and. It was inspired by and written for and to his be- loved Clara. to make it effective as a program number. Through his piano lessons of Prof.70 he Stories of settles quietly Standard Teaching Pieces. with an undertone of sorrowful pleading and restless longing. impassioned type. supremely beautiful and technically very easy. but no prominence as yet. and had won fame and success in all the musical centres of the old world. but it requires extreme flexibility. and of most meagre income. In fact. in the days of alternate hope and doubt and torturing uncertainty before their engagement. delicacy and speed. and already a composer of promise. In those early days Schumann was an obscure but aspiring student at Leipsic. he had fallen desperately in love with the Professor's daughter. very intense. in all piano literature. then the leading teacher in Europe. Clara. She . more fully and forcibly than is elsewhere to be found in music. it is one of the most difficult things of its size of the right hand. was already recognized as the first lady pianist of her time. though still very young. and consequent intimacy in that family. this in some respects.
conscious at once of its own power and future possibilities. shown the door and requested not to re-enter it in most unequivocal terms. 71 was an artist of prominence. The marriage finally took place in 1840. courtship and struggle. A wine card lay before him. including the one in question. a soiled. after five years of love. this perfect gem of purest art was born. were written. cannot vouch for its accuracy. In any event the legend is an interesting one. in fact. though Clara seems to have favored it from the first. He himself confesses that they reveal and depict much of the personal experiences and feelings of his long and agitated courtship. later notes upon the lines. and soon he began to pencil lines on the back of it. Opus 12. The following legend is afloat concerning this particular composition. drink-stained table. It is the questioning cry of a soul. having been most rudely repulsed by the irate Professor. during which period most of Schumann's leading pianoforte works. One evening Schumann. and there. Next morning the card was sent to Clara. and quite naturally the proud father decidedly opposed his suit. . amid those vulgar surroundings. wandered away humiliated and disconsolate to one of the many beer saloons where students conHe sat him down in an obscure corner at gregated. So much is fact. singularly free from the bitterness and anger that might have been expected under the circumstances. which seems to be borne out by the internal evidence of the music and has at though I least all the probabilities in its favor. he an unknown student. and is and of its present pain and piteous helplessness.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces.
indeed. like the motive of kobold and fairy. Their marriage was an unusually happy one till darkened by the great and growing shadow of his developing insanity and ended by the tragedy of his death. while the exceptionally affords a poetic and attractive trio theme most effective contrast. Robert Schumann. shared his life and labors. of the set deserves special attention. whose imperfect verse showed a decided tendency to limp. by which I refer to the suggested." a most whimsical. recalls the swing of the gavotte and suggests a jolly but clumsy country dance. Grillen. usually translated "Whims. bastic. full of surprises One more and abrupt contrasts. The opening subject." much read in The work Schumann's time. it was very possibly one in which a rather bom- would-be poet of that day. of odd harmonies. as a whole. seemingly misplaced accents. The noble woman. with its startling. as a protest and an appeal in language which she as none other would understand. capricious composition. interpreted and edited his works.72 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. entitled "Dreams. in chords. finally lived to be chiefly known to fame. Grillen. not as Clara Wieck. the celebrated pianist. unexof pected modulations and particularly fantastic rhythms. the It is. who devotedly returned his affection. both in conception and execution. but as the wife of the great composer. was satirized . reminds us strongly of one of those fantastic sketches by Hartmann.
"and that is the end of the song. seems rather trivial and commonplace and played. Indeed. signifying the close of a or experience. an anecdote. an argument. just as "Once upon a time" is our story stock phrase in English for beginning such. with good reason. in the sparkle of true wit. which we should translate the of the Song. The jocose would readily appeal to Schumann. making his clumsy advances to the muse of poesy." "End This phrase is a common conver- sational idiom in Germany. Opus 12." help feeling that it would have been better in this case if the song had ended before this last verse One cannot had been written. he was quite given in cerof the conceit for humor tain moods to a sort of broad drollery. For the composition so designated contains little of the originality and power usually so plentiful in Schumann's works. a joke. is dismissed with the words. anything brought to a finish. in fact. though wholly lacking. 73 in the person of a particularly grotesque Earth-Giant. is rarel> . Lied. as are all Germans. with one leg much shorter than the other. a yarn. The last of the series bears a somewhat curious Ende vom Lied. Ende vom title.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces.
and dramatic effect of points. a number of German writers of romantic school. in a few bold. inaugurated a new departure in the realm of national literature. actions and personalities of their florid characters. In spite of the thousands of inferior imitations which pass current too freely today. submerged. and to portray the life and love. feelings. and to concentrate their efforts on the plot and movement of the story. the full-length novel. and Robert Schumann. the thoughts. omitting all needless detail and all description. led by Paul Heise. broad. with which our literary market is now well-nigh ette.Schumann's Novelletten. interest. It was their aim to condense into from fiction of the fifty to a hundred pages all the salient the force. and became very popular. the form when well handled has much to recommend it. |N the earlier part of the nineteenth century. all mere "fine writing" so called. It fell into line with the modern tendency toward concentration and epigrammatic brevIt was the beginning of the flood of short stories ity. This new product was named the Novelle or Novel- meaning simply a miniature novel. who was one of the staunchest ablest champions of the romantic school in mu74 . telling strokes.
which. their transient strifes and differences. while his grasp of logical sequence and symmetrical relations seems more fully adequate than it sometimes appears in works of larger proportion. in passing that Schumann seems. blend into a happy artistic unity. nevertheless. to the present writer. feminine element. bold. most completely master of himself and his resources." and personified in books in the heroine. In most of them he has adhered strictly to the original conception. spoken of so often in German as the "eternal feminine. always most thoroughly at home. sic. many He wrote nearly a score of Novelletten for the piano. graceful. masculine element. it may be remarked for that instrument. and final reconciliations. and to adapt to his own art. and over-elaboration of the old formal school. represented in fiction by the hero. which was to embody clearly and forcefully in small compass the simple elementary factors which That are the life and substance of every good story. 75 and an inveterate foe of the pedantry. to appreciate its it advantages. and the difficulties and struggles which they meet along tHe path of true love. in the smaller forms. was quick to catch this new idea. sometimes even rough. tender. His pronounced tendency toward vague and inconsequential wandering into the nebumysticism lous regions of thought has here less time and space to manifest itself. some of which are among his very best productions In fact. prolixity. which we are told . the strong. The striking contrasts in their natures. and the sweet. is.Schumann's Novelletten. In these Novelletten his ideas are admirably balanced and expressed with concise precision.
No. . the heroine is a mild-eyed. with more polish. without a single superfluous phrase or irrelevant ornament. manly qualities. Op. No. a good specimen " of the steel-engraving lady. domestically inclined Fraulein. though with a genial heart and many To judge from the second sterling. is the best known and most used. loving and lovable. 2 1 in F. hacking his way to victory and love with a mighty two- handed sword. indeed with something of the but not less of courage and prowess. Novellette in F. in E. 21. never runs smoothly these make up the details and It is a brief. fill in the picture. 1. and one of the most satisfactory. and the character of the hero it suggests is that of a rugged German baron of the fighting half-brigand class. ing. 7. is almost identical with the above in general style and form. The first Novellette. but the characters are different. graceful. but a tender heart. in solid plate mail. 7. 21. This time the hero is a dashing cavalier. Novellette in E. Op." perhaps a knight of Charlemagne's court. manifesting a refreshing scorn of mere sensuous effect and technical display. charmwith many a dainty air and winsome witchery. is in gavotte movement. while the lady is unmistakably a court dame. Op. The stirring first subject. terse." refined. vigorous sketch. . subject. in chords and octaves. with a marked religious trend of mind.76 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The No. "grand manner.
. 77 Novellette in The No. The above will serve as representative examples of the Schumann Novelletten and the general lines on which they should be understood and interpreted. in F sharp minor. is not so easily analyzed. No. It contains much sion. which undoubtedly greatest of them all. Novellette in but B minor. and containing less of the distinctly human element. filling the quiet woodland twilight with rich. solemn harmonies. much of of vain psychological struggle. The Opus 99 contains a charming Novellette little known. outlines are less clear and simple. Op.Schumann's Novelletten. but with sylvan solitudes and their imaginary denizens. of mediaeval mysticism. 21. that the end of the story was tragic. while I infer. the 8. F The tent 8. and the con- more complex and metaphysical. To quote Kullak: "It suggests the sprightly dance and frolic of forest elves about a secluded chapel. yet very attractive. little 99. ended." The Trio gives us the organ and choir within the chapel. while the evening wind in the tops tree- murmurs Nature's dreamy is service When the obligate. from the close. It differs from most of the others in being more delicate and fanciful. Op. Its first subject deals not with the story of love and life and struggle. thwarted pas- and infinitely tender sadness and pleading. is sharp minor. which they have suspended apparently to listen. the elves resume their dance.
their sacred book. but among the who were Mohammedans of Arab and later con- who quered the greater part degree of civilization. They considered it sacrilegious to attempt to copy God's handiwork. which is known to the world as the Arabesque. and. to Consequently they produced nothart. attaining a high for that period. moods and qualities in their abstract 78 . it the manner The peculiar form of art is which the its designates Mohammedan a direct product of religion and reached highest development settled in Morocco. The aim and effort of this form of art are to express or suggest ideas. or statue. descent. strictly forbidden of Spain. or any sort of representation of any human or animal form. handicapped by this restriction. Moors. or any scene in nature. by Schumann. ing along the line of plastic beauty-loving people with a strong instinct for artistic expression. during their The Mohammedans were by make any picture. The Moors were an imaginative. the Koran. or after the Arabs. were forced to develop along new lines and create a new form of art.The Arabesque. |HB term Arabesque is derived from Arab and of. occupation of that country. signifies like.
In music the idea of duplicating the peculiar charm Arabesque has been occasionally used. corresponding to the vowels and consonants of speech. The first subject. viz. or the different lyric by means of repose. are similar to symmetry those found in architecture and based on the same mathematical relawhich Pythagoras declared to be the fundamental tion. are embodied by means of symbolic forms. three principle. only two dimensions are employed. which is decidedly the best and most characteristic. The simple elements of this art are the straight and curved line. The best example is found in "The Arabesque for piano" by Schumann. possessing more or less intrinsic suggestiveness and becoming. with study and familiarity. the significance of are used. essence.. while in architecture. strength and grace. majesty The intelligent eye delights in poetry. and in painting the third is suggested by means of the of perspective. law of the universe.The Arabesque. these intricate convolutions. elation or depression.. the relation and correspondence of the different parts and in finding the subtle symbolic suggestion they contain. its . These are combined into an infinite variety of complex designs and elaborate patterns like sentences and paragraphs. etc. the delicate interwoven tracery simulated in tonal effects. But in the Arabesque. and the kind of pleasure derived. a definite and intelligible medium of expression. by Schumann. like the audible symbols which form our spoken language. Movement and and charm. 79 form symbolism. is inimitable in its airy grace. in tracing the following forms of of proportion. The effect produced.
which is in Rondo form. quite finished or vandal hand of Arabesque work which had never been was in part broken or defaced by the as well as greatly to the difficulty of its clear grasp of musical form. we might expect a similar result to that here produced by Schumann. a and a touch like the fall of interpretation. The second and third subjects of this work. They are more vague in content and less clear distinct in form. and and there are passages where the pattern seems broken or incomplete. are less beautiful but not less suggestive. If the dainty tracery on those wonderful friezes hi the Alhambra could be dissolved in the fervid molten gold of that southern sunlight and transmuted into music.80 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces lines smoothly flowing as real as if and warmly sensuous curves. . with a hint of oriental mysticism. But these seeming add to the subtle fascination of the comimperfections position. as if the composer had in mind some beautiful piece of man or time. fluent finger technic. drawn in visible outline instead of fluent sound. rose leaves. The work demands a light.
any scene or inci- dent or emotion which might conceivably form part of a nocturnal experience. like the Nocturne. reposeful character. or incident associated with the night. to justify its title. The music describes no scene or incident. night-piece or scene.Schumann's Nachtstiick F Major. must deal with some mood. restful. of which the Serenade is the most frequent. [HE term Nachtstiick in means literally and. This is the case with the composition referred to by Schumann. broad and vast and impressive as : 6 81 . from a love-tryst to a murder. gravely pensive mood. might legitimately be used as the subject of a Nachtstiick. a piece of music so designated. is in no sense realistic. themes of a tranquil. Strictly speaking. but usually themes are chosen which are more commonly and naturally identified with the night. but embodies perfectly the mood of the summer night a quiet. from a moonlight boat-ride to a tempest and shipwreck. deep and solemn and mysterious as the dusky vault of heaven where the storm-winds sleep.
which. . oft-quoted. In the forest boughs stirs scarce a breath. with infinite capacities for tempestuous emotion but in its hour of restful introspective revery and finding a its sympathetic environment and symbolic expression of own solemn peace in the kindred silence of the summer night. The rolled chords should be played throughout with quiet deliberation and a clinging legato touch and the pedal must be constantly and most judiciously used. in free translation might read: "Above all summits there is peace. and oft-misconstrued lines. so that the upper tones shall form a continuous. wanderer. thou too shalt restr in death." The character of the harmonies suggests the rich. the latter forming the chief difficulty. and smoothly flowing melody.82 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The mood is that so ably expressed in Goethe's famous. Wait awhile. It is a fine study in tone quality and pedal effects. mellow effects of the organ. its the slumbering sea with vague hint of limitless power in repose. sustained. It is the mood of a great and noble human heart.
large or small. and intended to appeal. I and musical insight. with very few ex- ceptions. to appreciate or do not believe it can be well played by It represents not at all any child under fifteen. which the wise teacher must take into con. but really appealing. but which. has attained the same universal popularity with the musical and unmusical public of all lands as the Traumerei. The Traumerei is an example in point. are. ostensibly written for children. by Schumann. as well as the mechanical ability of students. The name means revery. though technically easy. It requires a certain degree of maturity both of poetic perception render it. |O composition by Schumann. has its limitations. sideration. by children for the musical intelligence. 83 . or felt. practically unusable for teaching purposes.The Traumerei. to more adult minds. It some excellent little poems by Field and is like others. being musically too subtle and abstruse to be under- stood. It is one of the "Childhood Scenes for Piano" written for young players.
with its untried abilities for joy and suffer- ing and achievement. unanalyzable quality possessed by a few poems and compositions and by a few only. and unquestioned. There is. It recalls the mood of that wonderful mystical when alone with the silent beauty and suggestive mystery of the summer night. with vague regret for its bygone. a "waking dream" than fleeting joys. which is not to be had by seeking. The Traumerei softest. when with nascent than definitely rather thought.84 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. rather that of a child. least intense perfectly embodies this mood in its and most attractive aspect. tho' the word Traum. This is one secret of its world-wide popularity. "I ful. that nameless. beautibut secretly terrible nature around me". seemingly trivial but very real and poignant at the time. our individual sentient hour. a part of this vast. which means a dream. another which is. am and I am experience which comes to every intelligent human being soon or late. It is a derived from dream in the poetic sense of a mind awake It is but tranquil and inclined to pensive re very. by means of which they find at once. however. an art secret. of childhood in after years. and of which music affords the only full and fitting expression. a mood universally too introspective for the real child mind. an I. but is rarely put into words. is the dream of one asleep. though perhaps not intelligently analyzed by older listeners. we first dimly realized our own identity. and must always remain. existence. pathy for its transient sorrows. . we self -consciousness the hour felt. but felt. and tolerant though half-smiling symnow.
their this line. in nor the the best There are a few notable exceptions. a welcome alike from the uncultivated and those of the most highly trained and fastidious taste. 85 the open door to all hearts. of translucent simplicity. . failed. Many of the great composers have done their best to strike just this vein and produce music at once worthy and popular. pleasing neither the musical public music.The Traumerei. of which one of is Schumann's Traumerei. by Schumann. Shall we say it is the happy blending in equal proportions. Most of them have signally masses. and emotional significance? This might hint at. but not really furnish the solution of the problem. sensuous beauty.
without a measure. beyond question.Schumann's Romance. of which the beautiful and profound She was gifted Clara Wieck is the object. It is as grave and deep as any Adagio by Beethoven. HIS Romance in is. F Sharp. Schumann's only and life-long passion. in the hands of an a true and manly love. as warm and impassioned as any Nocturne by Chopin. the local 86 name for the Viennese . a masterpiece in miniature. faultless in form and rich in content. strong. flippant hilarity of the It is the expression of Faschingsschwank. wildly incoherent. uninteresting or superfluous and melodically clear and the student. It is single dry. trifle becomes. except for a few readily grasped by measures in the climax. for a moment. and enduring. where in an outburst of pastechnically easy sionate emotion it impetuous and a amateur. the and noblest lyric from Schubroadest mann's pen. He is from her in Vienna at the time. in the midst of away the mad pranks and frantic. of course.
like the pleading tones of a lover's serenade to his doubtful mistress. but written throughout in the form of a full. I wait.Schumann's Romance. deeper things of life. .voiced duet. realize what her love and companionship meant to him. of which his love and his Clara are the truest and the deepest. like and the Romance seems spirit of the place a grave protest against the foolish mocking and time. but am not dismayed or Love is disconcerted. and long and hunger. and love is mine. can. 87 of by him in the first movement composition bearing this title. with occasional of interweaving counterpoint. till fate ended the duet with cruel discord. portrayed his in F Sharp. It says to the jesters: "Whereto is all this noisy striving after a factitious gaiety. shattering his bits reason and her happiness by a blow. and hear her play this romance. Carnival. an outcry of the heart for the truer. nor is my spirit in the least diverted from its true and ultimate goal by the meaningless madness of this wild rout. suggesting the complete blending and interdependent harmony of two united lives. and speak of him in the after years. so characteristic of his perfect union with his beloved Clara through all the later years. in some measure. and sure as the sun in the heavens. in which neither the brain nor the heart of a real man can take any part or pleasure? the only thing worth while. though clouded now by absence." It should be noted as significant that the melody is not in single notes. Those of us who were fortunate enough to know her personally. enduring as strong the everlasting hills.
with its general theme of world-wide significance. suggestions of rocking cradle and lullaby melody. making no attempt to express 88 . con- taining neither technical difficulties nor musical subtleties beyond the grasp of the ordinary pupil. straight-forward. for e very-day household use. French. either as regards ingenuity of structure. in E |HE Flat. There are few or less success. is who have not utilized it with more The one by Schumann referred to not a great work. and hence the more valuable as a practical teaching piece. swaying movement of the cradle accompaniment clearly imitates the rocking of the and is easily understood and maintained by the young player. Schlummer Lied. reposeful. The gentle. so to speak. Cradle Song (German. unpretentious cradle song. maternal love.Schumann's Cradle Song. watching and soothing the and with its realistic sleep of infancy. or depth and complexity of the moods it expresses. quietly beautiful lullaby-song. has always been a facile and fruitful subject for piano composers. It is just a simple. Berceuse). while the melody is a tender.
clear phrasing. per- haps. the work is tranquillity of style. a brief vague only terror of the unknown. while it writes club papers on Hindu philosophy with the other. an excellent and helpful study in sustained melody playing. rather old fashioned. and whose preferences. the future of the little life. in E Flat. if less piquant. The short middle movement.Schumann's Cradle Song. gives scope for a little more dramatic intensity. or the involved psychological problems of our modern emotional life. as well as duties. with its hint of secret fears and lurking dangers for now so carefully guarded. simple-hearted. a passing thought. which rocks the cradle absently with one hand. but possibly more restful. in the minor key. whose r/. say that Schumann was altogether wrong in this conception of what the true cradle song should be? It is a Who homelike picture. are summed up shall in the one ideal of selfless motherhood. and all At events. It might well be the nursery song of any modest. soon submerged again in the soft. with its suggestion of the gathering darkness of the coming night. But it is . 89 even indirectly the stress and agitation. which for that peaceful hour fills the universe for the heart of the young mother. German mother. than that of the modern ideal of maternity. pressing close against the curtained windows.cntal and emotional horizon is bounded by the walls of her village home. warm flood of love.
and imputes to this bird-music a deeper. gives us. It combines in a rare degree the openly avowed realism of the modern descriptive school of composition. in this work. if one may so call that reaction and revolt from the old "cut-and-dried" traditions of form and subject. |HIS is one of Schumann's ethereally delicate and fancifully suggestive smaller numbers. and the more subtly poetic romanticism of the earlier period of musical reformation. perched high in the swaying branches and pouring out his little shine. not only a most dainty and fascinating musical imitation of the twittering bubbling song of some forest warbler.Schumann's Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet). and wider liberty of fancy in musical creation. decidedly the best of his " Forest Scenes. which took place in the last century. a subtler sig- 90 . double meaning. heart in liquid golden notes like audible sunbut goes a step further into the realm of mysti- imaginative suggestion." and a great favorite with concert pianists. cal. and the opening up of newer and richer fields of emotional expression. Schumann.
and love. to find in the music of wind and wave. still marks inexorably. The belief that birds . with prophetic voice. foretelling. tne winter and the night must come. time for that dead march toward The tion. bearing future of the listener. first idea is The rippling. perceived or imagined by the listener to underlie the whole. through all its transient hours of deceptively tranquil happiness and fevered its brief moments eternally. care-free. when no flower shall bloom. carried out perfectly in this composimelodious arpeggio effects of the subject unmistakably simulate the bird music. the falling leaf. It is on the and not merely a bird that sings to us in joyous. when joy. however seemingly joyous. as in fact of every profoundly poetic nature. gladness. and It life itself will be for him as a forgotten dream. springtime rapture. an underlying minor tonality. in this mo- ment coming change. it is the embodied spirit of the ancient wisdom of the forest that. and warning the listening mortal that. the deadly frost. of bird and bubbling brook. of ecstasy. a throbbing pulse-beat of that great heart of nature which. more sombre and pathetic second subject indicates the more serious vein of thought and the dark prophetic meaning. no bird shall sing. the slow but inevitable circle of the years. the dissolution. of present hints of the gathering gloom and silence of the winter nights. a half-hidden prophetic import. The slower. so to speak. to perceive this undertone of serious suggestion in every sight or sound of nature. for him also. 91 life nificance of prophetic import.Schumann's Vogel als Prophet. was characteristic of Schumann.
references to it in the Nibelungen Lied and other ancient epics. if bird or devil." and Schumann cheerful composition. a fire in the forest. or that a neighboring tribe was preparing to take the war path. so that Poe in his melancholy poem "The Raven. convey warnings and prophecies to mankind in their There are constant songs is older than history. are but voicing in modern art this age-old superstition." which he calls "prophet in this more still.92 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. . and even our own American Indians often stated that "singing birds" told them of an approaching storm.
by Franz [HERE tions are very few of Liszt's composiwhich are technically within the possible reach of the average piano student. and the piece for the piano." As a consequence he has little regard for the mechanical limitations of other players. very aptly. none which may be called easy. they are not easy. of one of a set of 93 . common As intimated. Schubert-Liszt. 6. of Liszt: "The rest of us overcome difficulties. he never found any. Billow once said. Dignifies an elaborate setting evenings at Vienna. But the works referred to are possible for students. much used. advanced Soiree de Vienne The narre is No.Some Familiar Compositions Liszt. well-nigh threadbare works of this "wizard of the piano" which forms a part of the working repertoire of every teacher and serves to introduce the pupil to the peculiar style and special technical difficulties to Liszt's productions. but there is a very limited group of much prized.
fully mistress of herself and the situation. stately. of dainty suggestions of those Viennese drawing-rooms. as dance music. perhaps. charmingly melodious waltzes by once much in vogue in the aristocratic of that second Paris. yet viva- cious step and gliding. and the honor he is conferring upon his prospective partner. is symbolized in the second theme. seems to present pous passage the lordly. of the flutter of laces and They ribbons and the witchery of smiles and glances. while she. half tender mood of the dance in those early days when the waltz was young and of novelty. more than sufficiently impressed with his own dignity. give fullest expression to the half coquettish. movement which they are full. This particular waltz. of shifting. These waltzes by Schubert. The two airy. in Liszt's arrangement for the piano. with The first. circling were written to accompany. in octaves and chords. a pomits two strongly contrasting themes. assumes the proportions not only of a full-developed and well-rounded concert solo. the fascination of bright costumes. exquisite Viennese belle. circles Stories of graceful. kaleidoscopic colors. Standard Teaching Pieces. a dainty. gold lace and orders. a thoroughly equipped coquette. too. still possessed the charm also to the graceful. Schubert. but also of a com- and quite elaborate picture of a ball-room scene. the sparkle of lights elegant and jewels.94 simple. stalwart. assertive. self-important cavalier in all the splendor of uniform. though simple and unpretentious in form. an officer of the Imperial guard. drawn with the distinct personality of at least two of plete the dancers clearly portrayed in the introduction. capricious pictures are as clearly drawn .
chromatic also includes one of the long. after contrast between which the waltz melody is repeated entire. The composition closes with a clever Coda in which " the waltz theme and the leit" motive of the lady are both utilized. every feature. and even shade of expression. The effect. the despair of young players. reminds one of that famous statue of the veiled bride. intricate embellishments flowing around and among the notes of the melody. When played. but this time half disguised and greatly enhanced in beauty by a continuous series of delicate. of the lovely face is clearly visible through the fine meshes of the long flowing bridal veil which drapes the whole. chiseled from a single block of marble. like a fair face through the fluttering folds of a delicate veil. so common in Liszt's works. cadenzas. and the individuality of each and the marked them must be strongly emphasized the player. the melody should remain distinct to the ear. as light and transparent as a fall of the finest lace. in which every line of the perfect form. or the sunlit spray of a fountain. 95 here in tone as they could be on canvas by a master painter. when properly produced. with carefully all its rhythm.Some Familiar Compositions by Liszt. Then comes the alluring but simple by little waltz practically as Schubert wrote it. and which tricky. . accents and phrasing preserved and apparent through the silvery ripple of the embellishments.
self-reliant dignity. 3 in A flat. . restraining grip on himself. a stern. in which Liszt enIt is deavored to express in this musical form precisely his as a poet might have done in a group of sonnets idea of the different kinds and phases of human love. a clear and altar of his ideals. a strong. The No. a man tempered in the fires of experi- by the constant preserving through all. set. ever-renewed struggle beof its tween the raging tide of emotion and the rock dominant will is the fundamental idea of the work. wave of passion surging about will or disturb his him shall not overwhelm his This mastery of the intense. hence especially valuable to the teacher. inmost heart. its struggles fleeting ence. one of a set of lyrics for the piano entitled "Liebes Traume" (love dreams). education and environment. a man familiar with vicissitudes. Liebes Traum. as experienced by various individuals. by the divergencies of temperament. by is Liszt one of the very few original compositions which are at all available for students. or types. yet with a certain grave reserve. modified. its transient joys and hopes.96 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. with emotional vigor of his life's own prime. which is the best known of the deals. in each case. yet in the secret temple of his deathless votive flame on the all He loves with the strength of being. This is 3. his bufferings of fate. passionately. profoundly. Liszt. hardened and disappointments. determined that the tidal situation. No. intensely. according to Liszt's the love of a mature man in the statement.
the composition is a love song without words. closes with a passage of soft. This is 6. The work love's ful harmonies. mainly for baritone voice. a hint of the summer night in which the singer stands the summer night with its hush and mystery. of The player should avoid the common mistake accenting the running notes of the accompaniment in triplets instead of in groups of six as intended. sweet. its wavering shadows and half-revealing star-gleams and the sense of indefinite longing and expectancy. which. 97 but is an element not always grasped by the casual listener. In the last repetition of the melody. Liszt. giving us a fleeting glimpse of the physical environment. which destroys the effect and their proper rhythmic relation to the melody Consolation No. moderate 7 difficulty an original composition from his pen. tranquil mood and earnest. Twice in the course of the work the melody is interrupted by a brief interlude between the verses. of and possessing much simple melodic its charm. Superficially considered. resta sigh of content in the final fruition of dream. cast in the form of a serenade. so to speak. its subtle perfumes and vague whisperings. as it would seem. which are its very breath. by grave.Some Familiar Compositions by esoteric significance. . with harp or guitar accom- paniment. tranquilizing influence of the feminine element. is introduced the suggestion of the soothing. Liszt. in the soprano register.
for a and under the domination it of religious enthusiasm very genuine while lasted Liszt aban- doned time his phenomenally brilliant artistic career before the public and retired into monastic seclusion of the most strict and rigorous type in the Vatican at Rome. Some of his best original works date from this period.gS Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and for five years devoted himself cises to religious study. (It was at this time he received the title of Abbe. many of them texts or incidents from the Bible. the Pope. appeals to a religious turn of mind. devotional spirit. They are especially valuable to the student in that they afford a glimpse into that phase of the composer's life and experience. meditation. The No. is distinctly religious character during a peculiar episode in Liszt's varied and erratic career. tired of the world. many. They are small. its exhausting. cloying successes and unsatisfying excitements its and dissipations.) The "Consolations" were written at that time. devotional exerand the creation of serious compositions based upon religious themes. pretentious works all of a especially those of one and probably the pieces entitled "Consola- with many other more In 1856. where he was the honored guest of his holiness. 6. It best one of a set of piano tions" which were written. but are of considerable intrinsic beauty and are interesting because of the peculiar conditions under which they were written and of the un- usual spirit they embody. pleasures. expresses . others upon spiritual experiences of his own. which is the most familiar. comparatively unimportant productions.
by same author. sea. like "Der Erlkonig. Liszt. 99 come repose contemplative twilight mood. which may be beautiful. But there are a few equally in a more quiet vein. It is a love-song of the warmest * For full description see Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. ."* "Auf dem Wasser zu Singen." every measure of which is replete with exquisite tenderness and idealized passion. though safely attempted by fourth and excellent fifth grade pupils. and production furnish phrasing. are literature far beyond the reach of the student and only avail- able for a concert pianist. Serenade." "Gretchen am Spinnrade" and others. but softened and subdued like the sound of a distant sobbing itself to sleep in some sheltering cave as the hush of evening falls after a wild day of futile But the idea which forms the keynote of the fury. Some of the most famous of these. Among Liszt's Schubert-Liszt. of doubt and rage and questionings.Some Familiar Compositions by a tranquil. of a large number of arrangements. studies in tone and First among these is to be mentioned Schubert's world-famous and immortally lovely "Serenade. the welof a soul that has found rest and peace in the Faith after the storms and struggles and feverish of a strenuous and not wholly sinless life. Schubert's songs. agitation It contains certain hints and echoes of bygone tempests. work is final and complete reconciliation. valuable contributions most to pianoforte may be classed his masterly as piano solos.
Du Bist Die Ruh. which will speak to the hearts of all all lands and in every age as long as love its endures and music remains propriate language. or too strongly emphasized. ally all in adjusting the accompaniment to the but occurs occasionthrough it. head and heart. or. which is more confusing. viz. reposeful character in which the beloved is apostrophized as the embodiment of rest and peace. technic. Schubert-Liszt. algebra. the solace after pain. It cannot be too frequently repeated. in other words. but of a tender. the twilight dream of a quiet heaven after a day of earth's heat and hurry and fretting turmoil .loo Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.: the old puzzling problem of playing two notes against three with smoothness and accuracy melody. lovers in yet purest type. This is a charming and comparatively easy lyric from the same collection of Schubert's songs transcribed by Liszt. It also is a love song. but it can be solved with careful and intelligent study and is good mental training as much so as a problem in It is not continuous. This composition presents one serious difficulty to the young player. that three factors go to the making of the artistic pianist hands. most perfect and ap- This will prove an invaluable study for all who recognize the fact that the imagination and the emotional capacity of the player must be developed as carefully as his muscles. the calm after storm. intelligence and emotion.
Wagner-Liszt. In this "Evening Star" aria love is extolled as the highest and purest sentiment of the heart. self -abasearthly considerations. It is singular that this exquisite little work is so sel- dom used. ing reverential devotion. enshrined within a sacred temple. lyric Another beautiful love piano arrangement has made available for ately advanced players is this from Wagner's opera of Tannhduser. wherein each singer treats the great theme of love from a different standpoint. a man of noble and self-sacrificing nature. Evening Star. the guide and inspiration of the singer's existence. who secretly and vainly loves Elizabeth. the various expressions of the same general idea making of this scene a profound psychological study.Some Familiar Compositions by Liszt. who in turn. It should be familiar in every studio. tranquil mood the very essence of perfect trust and ideal devotion. It is sung in the third act of the opera by Wolfram. one of the ablest which Liszt in his moder"Evening Star" aria manifestations of Wagner's colossal genius. The lady is symbolized by the bright but unattainable evening star. loves and is beloved by Tannhauser. remote from all selfish and a self -forgetting. . 101 Both melody and accompanying harmonies are wonderfully expressive of this soothing. the heroine. to be guarded and cherished with a sort of religious ecstacy. the knightly Wolfram and Tannhauser have previously minstrel. taken part in the famous singing contest at the Wartburg.
and rather cheap facile by this old not to once a great favorite in the Any girl in the fifth grade.IO2 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The melody is for baritone voice. namely. a wonderfully accurate expression of the intended mood. rich and full and warm. the fantasies on operatic airs. worthy the consideration of the serious musician. of course. in spite of the facility with which lends itself to such use or misuse the work is not without real musical merit and beauty of its own special sort. which appears to be in the opinion of pieces exist. literally reproduced. as was the case with all singers of that early time. It is now . possibilities for display afforded Verdi-Liszt. but very much in fashion fifty years ago. the songs of the minstrels or minneand the harp effects are simulated. accompanied by the harp. a fine specimen of a class of pianoforte works. Rigoletto Fantasie. in the piano accompaniment. with lively fingers and a supple wrist. but subdued and dignified. it many the sole purpose for which such Nevertheless. It is. can scramble through the brilliant runs and toss off the octave passages with which this work is so lavishly decorated. practically obsolete. or rather. in a manner to tickle the fond vanity of admiring parents and friends and to score a point for the technical training received from her professor. Every teacher knows the say hackneyed number concert room.
The harmonization was richer. 103 and played by most of the leading pianists of that earlier day. The "Rigoletto Fantasie" is one of his best efforts and though its charm is somewhat superficial and sensuous. In the hands of Liszt. emotional. The melodies were better chosen and better arranged. but very little creative ability. . however. with some regard for musical character and contrast. the resources of the instrument the result more fully utilized. according to the ability of the compiler. the aim being merely to present a series of pleasing melodies. Italian type. fuller and more varied. as must be admitted. in this line. to form a sort of idealized medley more or less cleverly elaborated and highly embellished. demanding some ingenuity. like all his transcriptions. . some telling cadenzas. and which held a high place in popular favor. It was merely to select and combine several of the most attractive melodies in a given opera. this class of composition.The general form of the work and character of the ornamentations had usually no reference to any dramatic development or logical sequence of ideas. received more than the usual care and finish. The work contains several fine bits of melody of the warm. and one superb climax at the close. The plan of construction was simple. decorated with pianistic fireworks. and was the production of something more nearly resembling a genuine art form. it is real and lasting of its kind. the embellishments more significant and effective.Some Familiar Compositions by scores of which were written Liszt.
The opera of Rigoletto. though moral and the Liszt has selected three of the most prominent and the characteristic airs for the Fantasie in question: pleading. intensely. who dies by the dagger of the hired assassin. seductive tenor air of the heartless. a flippant song on his lips. possessing the merit of showing for all. moment when unconscious of his peril or her devotion. These three representative and strongly contrasting melodies Liszt has ingeniously woven together. "Le Roi s'amuse. melody who is the recklessly rollicking conof the mirthfully vicious siren of the indirectly the cause of the final tragedy. and innocence." trend. appreciate fully the mood of each and to realize the dramatic situation. is founded on that thril- much lingly. tralto story. it is worth. one of the strongest productions of Verdi's prime. pathetically tragic drama is by Victor Hugo. a voluntary sacrifice to save her unworthy the fatal lover. whose place she . of and the impassioned soprano lament the heart- broken heroine. secretly takes at her father's just vengeance was about to be consummated while the duke escapes.IO4 It is Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. forsaken. plot but of questionable useless. as it The gruesomely interesting. yet loving still with unreasoning devotion. perhaps appreciated more than all. pleasure-loving duke. hopeless sacrifice of virtue exemplifies the triumphs of evil. ruined. . an effective concert number. closing with a stirring climax in which the last two referred to are combined as in the final act of the opera. the student should read the To libretto or better the drama by Victor Hugo.
" critic. in which the element of tuneful melody still far predominates. which raise them above the commonplace. Despite his occasional digressions into the realm of the fantastic. " " Godard. will long remain a stock selection in the class-room and in pupils' recital 105 .Compositions by Godard. they do not. and introducing many startling and novel effects. both in melody and nality toire. harmonic treatment. belong to the ultra-realistic modern French school. MONG the best modern teaching pieces of excellent musical quality but moderate difficulty are those which Godard has contributed to the students' reper- Though possessing great origiand freshness. His Second Mazurka is probably the best known and most widely used of all his compositions. and though rather hackneyed to-day. Godard may be said to be one of the few who. but to a somewhat earlier style of composition. to use the words of a Boston "still remember that the piano was once considered a musical instrument. Second Mazurka. for the most part.
all for grace. as they are sometimes called. and fascinaand these are Liszt was greatly enamored fire of Europe. charm. The Polonaise may be con- marked contrasts ceived as representing the masculine Polish type. con- siderably slower than the waltz. sensuous. vivid harmonic combinations. The Mazurka is the characteristic local dance of the Masures or Masurvians. and the Mazurka the feminine. but with occasional sudden outbursts of fierce Slavonic fire and passion. the Polonaise and the Mazurka. The Polish ladies are renowned tion. always an interesting and If well given it is effective some rather puzzling a number of attractive melodies. Both are most admirably exemplified in the works of the leading Polish composer. also the sudden of mood. perhaps more susceptible of truly musical treatment than any of the others. and is a fine study in tone quality and contrast. who is inclined to play everything as if all music were or ought to be a slumber song. beyond any other women found in the Mazurka. most versatile and dignified dance forms. . the peasants of one of the former provinces of Poland. many rich and warm. Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Chopin. lackadaisical number. its distinguishing feature being that the accent falls. Music owes to Poland two of its finest. pupil. languorous. coquettish dance. generally speaking. It is a graceful. the middle movement in octaves and chords affords opportunity for arousing the dormant fire and energy of the sleepy. It contains rhythmic problems for the student. This should be kept in mind by the player and this rhythmic peculiarity made apparent. tenderness. on the second beat of the measure.Io6 work.
Another number of Godard. and much picturesque language concerning it may be found in his little work on Chopin. as finely finished a bit of graceful lyric as can be found on the music shelves. Their soft notes sound far and clear through the hush of dawn. This is technically easier than the "Second Mazurka. the tender yet radiant beauty of the summer morning. Then the whole composition. harmonic coloring." but musically of a higher grade." Au Matin.Compositions by Godard. These measures should be taken very slowly and ad libitum. then fade away into silence. the joyous bird notes wel- . like it a distant bell. while the changing harmonies below are kept very subdued. which should be read by all v/ho would understand the true mood and meaning of the Mazurka as seen "on its native heath. is the 4< Au Matin" (To the Morning). ringing in the new day. should be made to suggest the freshness. t its with the gentle sway of branches in the light and newly awakened breeze. Godard. and seem like an answer from the pulsing strings of the great harp of Nature to the touch of Aurora's rosy fingers. which no well-equipped teacher can afford to ignore. of the Polish 107 Mazurka as danced by the Polish ladies. with its dainty swing sweet dreamy melody. The introductory measures simulate very literally the distant chimes of matin bells. warm. also well known. the sustained B flat being allowed to vibrate as long as it will. its soft.
now rebellious. now tearful. because more readily in music appeals far grasped. of "The grace of the bending grasses. This form of composition is always interesting to an audience. We of restless longing and half-suppressed pain. and above it the song of the spinning maiden.lo8 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. tell. The song is plaintive and pathetic. heavy." At An the Spinning Wheel. is the "Cavalier Fantastique." which. The realistic more to the average listener than the emotional or the symbolic. who is evidently in a mournful mood. It should those exquisite lines of Lucy Larcom. in the accompaniment. because easily comprehended. excellent study in finger technic and at the same time in sustained melody is Godard's "At the Spinning Wheel. like coming the growing golden light. One of the strongest things from Godard's pen. though not much used. but always with an undertone of impatient questioning of fate. The scent that lingers and passes. Cavalier Fantastique. broad. 85. When the loitering wind goes by. dramatic and a fine study in chords and octave playThis is one of ing. Here we find the usual device. Op. wish we might know the personal history of the singer. Godard. The flush of the dawn-lit sky." . a work very different from the foregoing. is an effective recital number. a literal imitation of the sound of the spinning wheel.
desperate. his brain in a tumult of frenzied rage. . reck- away at headlong gallop on armored charger. no hope. across the echoing drawbridge and down the steep. shot with lurid flashes of passion and a masterpiece of its kind. toward the close. his departures into the fantastic referred to. away and ever away. It represents a knight of the olden times. it taxes to the limit the strength and endurance less. into a world that holds no joy. pounding his heavily of the player. disappointed in love or defeated at arms. vengeful. Though short. away into the chill and gloom of a winter night. and a firm dramatic quality of tone verging. on the harsh and strident. stony bridle-path from the great forbidding feudal stronghold that looms dark behind him. all 109 but for that a most original and fascinating number. It is a study in black.Compositions by Godard. his heart in a flame. but to escape what lies behind. no definite purpose for him. It must be given with limitless dash and abandon.
The great branches bend and twist and aspect. The if in acute agony. but it is. by Godard. which was exhibited in a number of galleries of a sombre and forbidding writhing in the torturing grip of a furious tempest. whose name I have. |NE " of the strongest. reel monster trunks and shiver in the shock of the blast. some years ago. forgotten and cannot now find. and the almost violent Two contrast of an immovable calm in the midst of that no . It was suggested by a remarkably strange and powerful picture. for these original compositions very reasons. It will never become generally popular on account of its peculiar form and its very unusual mood. bearing the same title. most in strikingly Godard's Magic Lantern" series. The scene is a giant forest. by a painter.L'Indienne. figures in the foreground give the needed touch of human interest to the scene. of great and novel interest to musicians. is entitled "L'Indienne" (The Indian). unfortunately. entwine as hear The beholder can almost them moaning and shrieking in their pain. is The whole vivid impression one of fierce turmoil and almost supernatural terror.
of subdued power. in wild agitation one in the stillness of death. at its repetition later. mammoth rude bier. war paint and feathers. by Godard. absorbed in his mighty struggle with this strong. sullen grief. his pose is sign of weakness. that of a bronze statue. but shall not wring from the proud warrior the smallest His face is sternly set. The whole conception is gloomily grand. unfamiliar foe. the other At the foot of one of the in that of frozen despair. this Godard' s music faithfully and forcefully reproduces impression of silent. The wind plays mad pranks with his fluttering garments and streaming hair. portrays warrior. stoicism. The first theme. hopeless. with folded arms. of gloomy. . met by passive resistance. gazing down. and. indifferent to passing time or outward conditions. a great grief. The composi- by proud tion will prove of exceptional interest to those who are in search of novel impressions in music. but uncomplaining loneliness. stands motionless. but he neither heeds nor knows it. which grips him cruelly. the storm effects are introduced with startling realism. with its sombre the personality and mood of the setting. almost sinister in its ominous repose of suppressed passion. still face of her who was evidently his bride. threatening to tear them from his body. tearless sorrow on the fair.L'Indienne. of elemental rage. trees a beautiful Indian girl lies dead on a in full Above her a stalwart young brave. and to whom the dramatic element in tonal art appeals more strongly than mere sensuous beauty. in wordless.
of Trilby. presenting a variety of strongly contrasting effects. and appealing forcefully to the imagination of player and listener. some of which are most novel and original. where Godard derived his The legend subject and inspiration. by one of the realistic French School of ComIt is present day. very known. was a 112 . beyond a chance similarity of name. briefly outlined. in this country. the fantastic is. HIS a most interesting. but with which this composition has absolutely no connection. indeed hardly even used. with which it deals and which be found best told in the exquisitely poetic French may prose of Charles Gautier. but will be found to be a valuable study and a grateful and attractive concert position of the little number.Trilby. Trilby. which was so universally read and generally popular in this country some years ago. piano. fanciful and strikingly descriptive sketch for the is of the best modern French and an excellent example composers. The name "Trilby" most American readers of Trilby is somewhat misleading to by Du suggesting at once the story Maurier. as follows: little hero of the story. by Godard.
Trilby. was the most she would ever accord him. on the shore of a Highland loch in Scotland. fire-sprite." He wore a variegated Tartan plaid of deftly woven flames. who sat by the evening fire Poor little Trilby. mere sprite though he was. Then Trilby. But she cared little enough for him. his long awaited opportunity comes. kept time with their little clattering castanets. dance his best and prettiest. perchance of some mortal lover. An amused smile. for it harmonizes with her grave thoughts. to spin. and play his winsome or mischievous pranks about the room to attract the attention of the fisherman's fair daughter. weird. and his brothers. in despair. such as one gives to the pretty antics of a kitten. but plaintive little love song of Spriteland origin. 113 who dwelt in the cozy chimney nook in a fisherman's cottage. in a teasing mood. then relapse into her fireside dreams of more serious things. At last. so he returns to his dancing. and a very small sprite at that. and but charms her into deeper reverie. back in that vaguely indefinite period conveniently designated by the romancers. while the green back-log hummed a low accompaniment. and a jaunty little cap of blue smoke. But the song serves his purpose less than the dance. the sparks. as "once upon a time. and used to dance and frolic amid the flying sparks and cheery crackle of the fire. or a half-playful scolding when he tangled her thread. was very much in love with the fisherman's daughter and did his best to win her favor. as he 8 . would give up his dancing and try singing to her a quaint. by Godard. or unfastened and let down her hair.
gratitude. our heroine was in imminent danger. while the storm. for the purpose of securing her She is very indignant and vows that she gratitude. Alone in her tossing skiff. she must herself attend to the fishing nets spread in the lake near by. that lie like wakeful watch-dogs among the crags and cliffs around. But is to be disappointed. shadowing the little loch with its wings of darkness. still in keeping with his character. if not affection. at the mercy of wind and wave. to be of real service to her and insure her Her father being away at a distant town. being a sprite. and arousing echoes. now Again he to frighten her. with crash of thunder and shriek of storm-wind and war of angry waves. expects gratitude. in the guise of a will o' the wisp. he has control of the elements. which come swooping down from the peaks above like a black bird of prey. he dances across the foaming billows to her side. the mutterings of its baffled rage dying away behind the encircling hills. half draws the boat back to Then its moorings. . when little Trilby comes gallantly to the rescue. and give himself the chance for seemingly heroic rescue. thinks. bewildered by the alternate gloom and lightning glare. She thinks that. but is hardly well afloat before she is caught in one of those sudden violent mountain tempests. and that the storm is only one of his tricks. so common to the Highlands. its brief fury spent. and she is saved. to furious answering chorus. he accompanies her back to the cottage. singing again his pathetic little love song. So she looses the skiff from its moorings and puts off. recedes into the distance. called up especially Trilby no.1 14 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. gives her the much needed light and half guides.
piquant. half his old fire-dance before is he is touching in relentlessly its half humorous suggestiveness. sparkling.Trilby. spritely. veritably darkness made audible. Gautier. dark forest. yet dainty and which is twice repeated. Third. Second. is The whole fanciful in the extreme and admirably in keeping with the playful. terrified attempt to repeat driven off up the chimney. and drives him out into the cold. where he dies of damp and chill and loneliness. and its ominous receding whisper at the close. pathetic. his muttered formulas and his cruel holy-water. like threats of future vengeance. with its most realistic thunder. and the more odd and uncanny. First. by Godard. Trilby's last. tender mood of the legend as given in the French version of M. the love and plaintive beauty. who soon comes with his sacred book and symbols. 115 will endure his persecution no longer. brief but exceedingly strong and graphic. This composition treats the story in three distinct and very realistic movements. one of the very few really artistic and song. full of novel. the flames. its shuddering chromatic progressions. short. flurried. for being written in five-four time. . So she goes at once for the good priest of the district. the dance among fantastic. the tempest. fascinating in musical examples of this extremely unusual rhythm piano literature. and exorcises poor little Trilby from his safe cozy nook in the warm chimney.
by means of which he might. He was supposed to be specially enamored of the nymph. or shepherd's pipe. soft but rich. 116 . This great players little composition purports to be one of Pan's capricious improvisations. of pastoral life and rustic also.Pan's Flute. symbolizes the forest. Hence the frequent references to the pipe of Pan. cleverly embodying the idea suggested will by the name. Pan. He was according to Greek mythology. and it is intimated that her fondness for sweet sounds and readiness to respond to them first gave him the idea and incentive for the devising of this instrument." the most coy and unapproachable of all the fair denizens of mountain and forest. scenes and pleasures. and of very ingenious harmonic texture. do his wooing in melody. like the birds. so familiar to readers of classic literature. was the Greek god field of Nature. the inventor of the flute. in slow. it be remembered. the special divinity of and forest. and the first of the world's upon this typically pastoral instrument. the accompaniment. by HIS is Godard a small but daintily exquisite composition. "Echo. on the edge of which we may fancy him standing. reposeful. yet sonorous chords.
117 just at evening. Plan a series of informal pupils' recitals. restful depths. in fuller. experimenting with his new-found instrument and registers. as hinted at the close. each devoted to some particular composer. and with a busy. to be followed the next sonatas. echo-like sequences I have a suggestion to make to conscientious teachers in small earnest. swifter as assurance grows and with it the desire cadences. its dreaming shadows and the occasional organ-like swell of its solemn voice when stirred in its slumber by the passing wind. to win an answer from the faint. In this connection the many communities. fitfully at first. with brief programs. sweet voice so fondly in various keys awaited.Pan's Flute. do. but will instead have given your patrons a practical demonstration of their is theories that classical music previously vague always a bore. ful. in a measure. administered without a week by five Beethoven word of enlighten- ment. Now do not. If you third meeting. but distinct in the right hand. and you will not have accomplished your purpose. with its dark. in a frenzy of enthusiasm for educating the public. the forest. Pan's flute piping its as if dainty pastoral melody. who have had few ad- vantages for general musical culture. reiterated. superficial and rather indifferent public. your audience will not survive to the your course will come to an untimely end. In this he would seem. gazing across toward the hillside home of his beloved Echo. then. delicate. begin with an entire program of Bach fugues. Above this accompaniment. by Godard. own . struggling patiently with a class of not overly well-endowed pupils. successby the soft.
Then precede each of the selections rendered by the pupils with a short description such as I have written. Select some always standard and meritorious but rather comprehensible and melodic composer. indigestible pupils' program. for instance. them 6. Trilby. in the following order: 3. recitals as often as you yourself can prepare the sketches and your pupils the pieces. 4. but graphic and interesting. Write yourself a brief. or other and better ones if you have them at hand. Occasionally you will have the satisfaction of awakening a taste for music and love of it hitherto dormant. Au Matin. . like Godard. Give such do much to arouse the interest and enthusiasm of your students and to keep them at their practice faithfully. All of which makes for general musical culture in a community. In this way you will laneous. 5. The Mazurka. good enunciation and intelligent delivery. and lightens the labors and increases the success of the music teacher. six of the compositions enum- erated above and give i. and you will find that you have insinuated unawares into your public pianoforte literature much information concerning and many miscellaneous musical ideas. which you will either read yourself as prelude to the program. of a You will find such a lecture-recital much more success with your audience than the ordinary miscel- incoherent. presenting a new composer each time. or have read by some pupil who has a pleasant voice. Pan's Flute. Spinning Song. Take. 2. sketch of the composer and his work. Cavalier Fantastique.Il8 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.
His family Finland. none offers to the musical world a richer. more varied selection of genuinely meritorious small compositions. Godard. Like that of Rubinstein. though very early. but he has more breadth and versatility. than Schytte. grotesque suggestions of winter-midnight dreams of troll and werewolf. none of the weird. is said to The Finns have originally come from are of pure. more melodic spontaneity than either. 119 . his music may be said to be cosmopolitan. available for teaching purposes.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material MONG the romantic composers of the present day. he has none of the distinctively Norse characteristics so pronounced in Grieg. neither has he the strik- and odd piquancy of his popular French contemporary. which one might expect to find in his music as a sort of racial birthmark. Though Scandinavian by birth and early education. or the recent past. rather than national or strongly indiing. bizarre originality vidual.
evening hour and are full of In this. It is more difficult for young players than at first appears. on account of the inand occasionally interrupted figures of the terlocking accompaniment. coupled with his thorough German musical training. as also for the notable leaning toward the fairly conservative in his work. hazy evening in September. its . though neither vividly local in color nor narrowly personal in tone. in spite of its seeming simplicity. The mood is distinctly different from that in the wellknown Des Abends by Schumann. dreamful. warm. if it be such. and sensuously beautiful. the its subtle tenderness and veiled pathos. Standard Teaching Pieces. but resembling them more nearly than they do the Teutons or the Slavs. although both deal with the quiet. This fact. composer has evidentlv in mind a still. German school Nevertheless. At Evening. his creations. The following selected from among his easier things will be found of special interest to the teacher. This is Schytte. would account for the lack of Norse traits in his productions. Aryan its a division of that race which began migrations even prior to the Celts. possess an originality mastery of and freshness all their own and show a form and a command of melodic and harmonic material manifested by few modern writers. exquisitely melodious.I2O Stories of stock. though somewhat sad. a pure lyric. with its sense of vague depression. but it is a fine study in sustained melody playing and dynamic balance of parts.
" mark the time is for the steps of the mazy dance. works a shifting fairy patchwork on the mossy carpet and the "horns of Elfland. 121 faint floating odors of fading flowers and falling leaves. In notable contrast to the foregoing Wald night frolic in the cool. while a silver shower of moonbeams. intensely vitalized. and one's on the thoughts like withered leaves drift aimlessly memory. keenly. no nervous slighting of notes. mechanism. one of the most difficult achievements of It demands great speed. soft summer sluggish current of days." ' recalling the fair blossoms of hope. the utmost crispness and lightness of Above touch. a perfect control of motor nerves and muscular piano-playing. or fearsome of muscles.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. joyously alive. is the bright. The player must be as the music should sound. perfectly cool. united with certainty and flexibility. playful. yet There must be no feverish flurry. and Nature's pulses perceptibly slowing down for the long winter's sleep. capricious Schytte. falling through the leaves. stiffening The apparent careless effervescence of . without apparent hurry. faintly blowing. full of sparkling fun and dainty tricksy roguery. now faded. a scherzo of the most Here we have the elves at their midperfect type. Elfen. An hour when one half unconsciously sighs for the 'might have been. Forest Elves. all. with the feeble breath of the dying summer just stirring the branches. This a splendid study in combined lightness and accuracy. The closing measures are an unmistakable good-bye to the long. darksome glades of the forest.
the soothing yet sensuous melody breathes the warmth and tenderness of maternal love. I regard this as far the best cradle song ever written for the piano. the scene some vine-wreathed villa in a rose garden of the far East. but intense. the singer perhaps a fair Georgian. must be carefully studied and though not apparently. is simple. like . It is perfect in form and of the detail. Schytte. or any composer With the exception of since Chopin. a tone the heart of a crimson rose. engendering the idea that the environment is tropical and Oriental. while a certain rich glow and passionate fervor in the harmonic coloring stir the imagination. is the Berceuse. intelli- hilarious spirits gently. deep. One of the most melodically beautiful and charmingly winsome compositions by Schytte. the intoxicating perfumes. whose flowing garments and loosened hair exhale the scent of myrrh and sandalwood. but velvet soft. like her emotions. whose voice has caught the melting cadences from the tones of the nightingale. is Her song. The swaying rhythm accompaniment suggests throughout the rocking cradle.122 Stories ot Standard Teaching Pieces. controlled. and whose dreams of the future of her child are woven of the fervid tints. Berceuse (Cradle Song). The utmost warmth and richness of tone quality here demanded full. of the only world she knows. the inimitable and exquisite Chopin Berceuse. the peace and quiet of the summer twilight.
sullenly. Schytte. his heart filled with a sombre fatalistic mood. The Russian steppes are to our prairies what the North Sea is to Lake Champlain. rider is The wild. sombre. for he wrist. or a sporting gentleman from New York. also a study in rapid. He rides at break-neck speed. but as a Tartar horseman. This work demands. enveloped much of the year in almost perpetual This is a composition little darkness.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. and always . a dash for life into the frost-laden wind from rider The the Ural Mountains. by Schytte which is comparabut is one of the most useful for known. tively teaching purposes and one of the most original of his smaller works. in the red and black uniform of the race. must be imagined. very effective with an audience. half -broken steed. The ride is a fast and furious gallop over the Russian steppes. originated in the minds of the Greeks the legend of the Centaur. fighting animal from the northern wilds. 123 Across the Steppes. much needed by certain pupils. savagely. stormswept. a strong. half horse. one and indivisible. vast. far back in the dim mythological past. and develops. that fierce. born to the saddle and seems a part of his is a son of that race whose ancestors. not as a cow-boy. sustained wrist movement and a fine recital number. half man. supple It must be given with an impetuous abandon of style. as dark as the night that closes in around him.
and poet). till only his head remained in sight. the old and famous champion of Finland (also equipped as soldier. according to the legend. a much broader. It in rich in musical content. the hero. and the claim has been made that the latter was a deliberate plagiarism on the part of Longfellow.124 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. challenged to mortal combat. She. In vain he offered all his worldly goods for life and . only recently translated into English. especially the first movement. the Kalevala. but that is irrelevant here. the Rune entitled The Fate of Aino. It has. with the magic weapons of enchantment and incantation. well repay careful study. and shows masterly skill thematic development. and was completely overthrown and found himself sinking deeper and deeper in the freezing morass. The allegro deals only with a part of the poem. only to be handled any thus For such. It is founded on the old mythological epic of Finland. under the relentless spells of his conqueror. it will successfully by advanced players. sonata of considerable magnitude. it is a fully developed far referred to. Incidentally it is worthy of note that the Kalevala is in form and rhythm identical in every particular with Hiawatha. namely. 53. Allegro from Sonata. more pretentious work than In fact. in over-confidence. Op. He. poet and magician of Lapland. This is Schytte. magician. moreover. is probably the oldest epic poem in existence. a most interesting literary background. was the sister of Youkahainen.
In the caverns of the salmon. terrified and despairing. of the opening theme triumphant approach of the victorious bridegroom. his pride and power. to claim his bride. And the friend of nimble fishes. at his approach. old. Falls upon the very bottom Of the deep and boundless blue-sea. With the stone of rainbow colors Falls the weeping maiden Aino. He. grizzled. sends an earthquake. Wainamoinen. Sleeping on the very bottom. but formidable wizard of Finland. 125 till in despair he bethought him of his sister. fairest of the Lapland maidens. to make the bride hastens is Youkahainen is released and home the sacrifice. while known his defeat. and the rock and the maiden sink to the bottom of the sea with crashing of thunder and mighty surging of billows "With a crash and : roar of waters Falls the stone of many colors. pompous character of the sonata indicates the old. in answer. Aino." This short quotation from the Kalevala gives the mood and the rhythm of the ancient poem. and accepted. and later of the united lament of . Her he offers as bride to his tormentor. There to be the mermaid's sister. the relief. flies to the white temple of the sea-god on a rock in the sea and with prays to the god for protection. pomp and splendor. the lovely Aino. and the tramp of the score of reindeers which draw his magnificent sleigh. supposed to be more than three thousand years The bold. The plaintive second theme tells of the sorrow of Aino and her friends.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. and prepare Wainamoinen follows more slowly.
or but the ele- ments are all brought vividly before us. which rescues. not told consecutively in the music. by destroying the heroine. . The two remaining movements of the Sonata. Intermezzo and Finale. The story is with definite sequence of events in detail. are musically inferior to the Allegro and are rarely played.ia6 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the sea and forest. while the great ponderous climax portrays unmistakably the thunder crash of the catastrophe.
The Narcissus. the Narcissus undoubtedly stands first. saw for the first time his own reflection in the mirror-like depths of the water. Nevin. on account of a certain rhythmic swing and easy flow of melody. named for him. it to be the face of a water cissus flower. From his grave upon the bank sprang the first Narit. its Its pure delicate white sweet seductive perfume. until he died of love and longing. a youth of surpassing beauty. quite in harmony with the old familiar legend from which its name is derived. fell deeply and lingered there day after day to watch and woo. MONO Nevin's compositions for piano. sometimes misleading to musicians in their estimate of its real merit.Nevin's Compositions. have all a place in the hearts of 127 races in all ages. wandering by the side of a quiet stream. lie supposed in love with nymph. and gold insured it loveliness. which give it a semi-popular air. as . In the golden days when myths were born of the first love between man's imagination and the charms of Nature. It has the direct unaffected sweetness and classic simplicity of a Greek pastoral.
in his charming. though by no means so widely known. even though he was "only an American. a dried wreath of narcissus is sometimes found about its neck. The Romans crowned their gods with garlands ol narcissus and even the war. A later Greek legend tells us that it was while gathering the narcissus or asphodel that Persephone.like Mohammed writes in the Koran: "He that has two cakes of bread. Nevin. This composition." The Barcarolle. asphodel into Affodyle and then Daffodil. which designates today a certain type of narcissus in England and America. deserves especial . The Egyptians placed wreaths about the embalmed dead. daughter of Ceres. as with the orientals in prehistoric ages it stood for imof it when a The British corrupted the ancient name mortality. sweet. Nevin. from the same set as the Narcissus. has embodied certainly the spiritual essence if not the actual story of the Greek myth. the symbol of a love stronger than life itself. and it deserves a place in piano literature with Mendelssohn's Spring Song and Schumann's Traumerei. but the narcissus is food for the soul." In feudal days the narcissus stood for chivalry. the flowers of which bloomed more than two thousand years ago. was captured and borne away to the infernal India and China regions to be the bride of Pluto. let him sell one of them for flowers of the narcissus: for bread is food for the body. simple little work. so that even now mummy is opened.128 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. revered the narcissus.
Nevin. though not so dis- tinctively Italian in character as in Rubinstein's works It depicts a of this type. the soft ripple of the placid water. full of sparkle and dainty witchery. with the rhythmic accompaniment of oars and murmur of the waves. the approaching. Another exquisite little musical sketch from Nevin's hand is the Dragon Fly. and is without doubt the best thing of its kind yet written by an American. flashing hither and skimming the surface of a shallow stream. it is true. but closely perfection. and requires a light crisp touch and easy. The swing and splash of the oars. The music is thoroughly representative in its playful vagaries. In this respect it is in the thither. is the Neapolitan boatman's song. The Barcarolle. It is a graceful. fluent technic. 129 mention. realistic effects and finished famous Barcarolles by Rubinstein. calm. and as bright and rapid as the scintillations of The piece is more difficult than swift iridescent wings. as if storm and disaster. are all deftly simulated in Nevin's composition.Nevin's Compositions. a boat. suggesting the capricious flight of this erratic wanderer. The Dragon Fly. is eminently suggestive. from Barca. 9 . smoothly flowing. in beauty. the rocking of the boat. the others mentioned. tides of the heart. not equalling. where happy lovers glide and dream. in pursuit of who knows what elfish sport or purpose. winsomely melodious work of no great difficulty. whether on southern seas or in the emotional were things unknown and impossible. while the melody. lovely moonlight scene on the blue Vesuvian bay. a fantastic composition.
Impromptus. and a slow pathetic minor trio or rather interlude. one of Nevin's most fascinating and thankful compositions for the piano and but surprisingly little It is constructed on the plan of the Chopin used. emotional. This little work for piano is invaluable as a study of tone production and phrasing. In This My is Neighbor's Garden. In the interlude the mood changes suddenly to one of pensive depression and lonely longing. class same with Grieg's Butterfly and Schumann's Bird as Prophet. without becoming violent or hysterical. fluttering wings. rich and resonant but never explosive. that would warm and brighten a life. some presence . without consuming It demands a quality of tone like that of the 'cello. and silvery bird notes. Evidently there is something lacking in that spring. a love song in a broad. Nevin. like a fire it. warm and impassioned. with a rapid sparkling first movement. It sings the love of a deep strong but well-poised nature. grave. Nevin. faithful and true but devoid of frenzy. deep. It is one of Nevin' s best lyrics. The Love Song. for it is hardly long enough to be properly designated as trio. the very breath of the spring garden and the jubilant ecstasy of mating birds. manly vein.130 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. The opening movement is full of rustling leaves.
which is tricky and difficult. like an irrepressible spring of gladness. and the mood of Nature dominates the personal grief in a repetition of the first movement with some slight modifications. and the piece ends in a fountain.Nevin's Compositions. But the sun shines on. . 131 missing in that garden. A facile dexterous finger technic is absolutely essential for this work. the bright blossoms nod to the passing breeze. but must sound easy. The flowers and birds seem a sad mockery to the hungry heart.like spray of joyously ascending notes. the bird's wild rapture continues.
" which democratically means widespread but mediocre achievement. has become in a manner of speaking common property. These exceptional products come. with like a giant commanding individuality among pigmies composi. and they not always nor often. This is an age.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. of what Walt Whitman "divine averages. but seem to be sporadic growths in our overworked latter-day musical soil. where the all too abundant crop runs mostly to excessive leafage rather than to fruit. 132 . MID the mass of mostly insignificant compositions with which scores of would-be composers are flooding the market. with something new and forceful to say for themselves as an excuse for being. Almost any one can write music. there is occasionally one that stands forth bold. not of genius but of generally diffused ability. tions of real solid worth and originality. like that of piano playing. especially extols as along all lines of artistic creation. The technic of composition. but few can write something worth writing. not from any one pen or nation.
the torch applied by the hands of fiercely sullen inhabitants. . It is worthy of note. original in every line. 2.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. how taste and percepquickly and how almost universally such efforts are appreciated and such productions welcomed by the musical world. in the midst of its illimitable snow-clad plains. its suming to ashes. Rachmaninoff. and Napoleon's long cherished. the vanquished. all but fulfilled hope of safety and comfort for his vast army through the long winter. in view of the abuse which tion of is lavished upon the the general public. half -barbaric race. This is one of the strongest productions of the new Russian school. going up in smoke before his eyes. They mark the extreme high-water line of the rare flood-tides in such men's experiences. while the ponderous deep-throated bell of the Kremlin. its costly cosy vast accumulation of military stores con- palaces. to result 133 The works referred from the specially stimulated efforts of exceptional men in exceptional moments. its its homes. 3. Prelude. not their normal level. the proud. in the first depressing gloom of the long winter night. The scene is Moscow. No. on which he has staked his all. Moscow. vital with the essence of a tremendous historic situation. Op. and leaving four hundred thousand invading Frenchmen without food or shelter in the heart of a frozen desert. uncompromising passions of a newly wakened. Slavonic to its very marrow. mighty with the untamed. its desolate streets resounding to the stern tread of Napoleon's victorious troops. suddenly ablaze in every part.
D' Albert has given us a composition entitled "Melody. and still more because it deals apparently with purely abstract emotions in their elemental simplicity. the crash of falling buildings. the desperate. and all the confused terror and frenzy of destruction. the fire. the hushed voice of uttermost darkness and desolation. Through it all one feels the mingled triumph and despair. In the closing chords one hears the slowly dying sigh of spent fury." of intrinsic merit and originality almost equal to the one just discussed. it belongs to the class . booms on above the rush and roar of the flames. the shrieks of the wounded. burned alive in the hospitals. sounding the alarm. with no attempt to localize them or give to them any special personification or natural setting. D 'Albert. by means of this fearful ally. savage exultation of the Russian people.134 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. in their own heroic sacrifice. ing of elemental passions slumbering in us all. In other words. till the eruption comes and the lava stream pours its molten destruction over all. depths all-devouring concealed by the pleasant observances and peaceful seeming of our superficial civilization. who have turned the foe's victory into worse than defeat. as the treacherous slopes of Vesuvius have been covered by orchard and vineyard and garden. though with breakIt stirs the hearts. which however for some reason has not as yet received the general recognition it deserves. and who glory. Melodie. perhaps because of the very wild and unfamiliar mood which it expresses.
and we welcome any realistic suggestions that will tend to localize the scene and connect the mood with some concrete human experience. also that in most cases the introduction of the imitative element. In cases where such definite data and realistic hints are wholly wanting. it is helpful and interesting to allow the imagination to find its own way back from . the quality.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. In fact. not to that usually called descriptive. we sympathize with the love of Juliet more readily and more warmly than with love. all way as that which delineates a scene human life. than if For example. some form. So in music we are eager for any definite data bearing upon the personal origin or application of the fully and deeply if assodefinite person in some particular merely presented in an abstract moods we find expressed. is intended only to supplement and intensify the emotional effect. The difference lies merely in the character of the thing described. still it is equally true that most persons. since music which expresses or portrays an emotion is just as That distinction general that we descriptive in its in nature or in ing. though so are forced to recognize it. grasp and feel an emotion more ciated with situation. such as the suggestion of storm or battle. musicians as well as public. is entirely erroneous. tolling bells or rippling water. put before us as an abstraction. Now while it is an undoubted fact that music is primarily the language of the emotions and always at its best when describing or expressing them. 135 of compositions known as emotional. strictly speakmusic worthy of the name is descriptive.
sustained. It is a fierce yet gloomy courage. a background of midnight darkness through which is felt the ominous threat of storm and the breath of an The only realistic suggestion is a hint of icy cold. setting and action . inflexible deter- mination. Let us try it with the work by D' Albert referred to. dominating mood. silently. Now suppose you were a painter and were called upon to reproduce that mood and general impression in a picture. dark. from the mood expressed to the probable or possible conditions which produced it to picture the approximate scene. by means of the representative symbolism employed in that art. the wild joy of battle. The habit such aesthetic analysis once formed is a wonderful aid in the appreciation and interpretation of of every style of composition. not courage that riots and exults under the stimulus of action. The mood must be personified in an actual man placed in a situation where it would be appropriate and probable. defying itself. acter What char- and setting would you select for the purpose? . foam-flecked waves in the agitated accompani- ment. invincible strength and stern. That impression of cold and darkness and agitation must be given by a setting that includes those elements. with no guide but the internal evidence of the music throughout. a waiting menace The setting is to the foes it scorns yet longs to meet. of which this mood is or might be the distilled essence. bides its time. rushing. a strong. unmistakable. Here we find one mood man and the elements. but courage that sullenly. in the consciousness of rugged. pronounced.136 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. the general to the specific.
daring the night and the gathering tempest on some reckless quest of spoil or vengeance. and in her prow the figure of the Viking fully armed. In the other the emotions are directly expressed and the imagination fills in the probable scene and causal conditions. instinct with intensest life. lit by flaring torches. and so appropriate in that setting. the danger. and endurance. that synonym darkness. standing stern and motionless. strength. storm. you could neither express the emotion as directly as in music. the embodiment of courage and confident power. describing the conditions and details as vividly as possible. as the Norse Viking on his warship.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions- 137 What for scene so fitting as the North Sea.torn clouds? You would paint a Danish war galley. If you were a poet striving to produce the same impressions. ention of the familiar hanced by all the special resources of the poet's art at . and mysterious terror? What character so suitable as that type of courage. And if you were a great painter you would make the beholder feel ment and expectancy of the situation. breasting the great seas with the foam flying from her cutwater. the bitter cold. nor present the scene as vividly as in painting. but would have to reach the imagina- and the emotions through the intellect by means symbolism of language. Your work would take the form of a story told in verse. wind. against a background of tumbling waves and black. but alert and watchful. makes us feel them in his music. the suppressed exciteas D' Albert In the one case the scene is represented and the imagination supplies the resultant emotions.
And laughs his disdain In the teeth of the weather. To the present writer more interesting or more illuminating than to analyze and compare the laws underlying the different arts and see how the same subject matter is treated in the different forms. bearing always in mind that all the arts are but different mediums of expression. unlike the writer. and that the soul of every art work is its content. On The good stern joy of combat His nostrils dilate. more finished and more complete. Too many artists are inclined to deify nothing is . With the swoop of the hawk And He'll descend on his prey. a great poet. vein: You might write something in this the white-breasted billows ship doth ride. As he stands. Through the storm and the night. If you are. the peculiar beauty and fascination inherent in the material and form of each special art should be of only secondary importance. and this will serve as illustration. your command. but the method employed would be the same. And her decks are awash With the spume of the tide. At the prow stands the Viking In sea coat of leather. How bitter the blast! 'Tis the iceberg's keen breath. the embodied But with Defiance of fate.138 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. And with axe burnished He waits for the dawn bright. the poem would be much stronger. And the surges are singing Of danger and death. With broadsword at belt. his blade will drip blood At the breaking of day.
gentle. But it does express just such a mood as I have described. a short. It is soft. simple poem in a tranquil. of which this is perhaps the The mood suggested by his chosen Greek model in verse has been admirably expressed by the composer in this music. playing upon the flute. even on casual examination. but without sadness or more intense moments to break its It possesses. The imagination of the listener readily supplies the rustic scene as a fitting background for the tonepicture. Raff. and pensive. singing and name and best. Eclogue in This is G Flat. The word eclogue was the Greek name of a certain type of pastoral poem. a sunlit mountain slope. its green expanses dotted with grazing sheep. a pronounced restful placidity. the idiomatic charm of a dialect. which is only an adjunct. too. which might be accounted for or produced in the manner suggested. in the fluently melodious vein in which Ran was always at his best. reality it is but a means to a much broader end. since time . But to return to the D'Albert "Melody. pastoral character." shall we assume that it actually describes some such scene as I have outlined ? Not necessarily. of about the fifth ficulty. Raff has cleverly utilized the the idea in connection with several short compositions for the piano. tender mood. which have been. making that paramount. describing rural scenes in which shepherds appeared. not a vital factor.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. 139 when in like the technic of their specialty. grade of dif7 a pure lyric.
sings a simple. perfectly legato. left illusion of the effect of harp or guitar. like dewdrops shaken from wind-tossed branches. It should be demi-staccato. of course. in the of a little grove a party of shepherds resting. shadow began. it One be may guitar or zither. so as to embellish. . It should be given with a firm. runs in the upper register should be light as a breath. and is a grateful number for the player. watching their flocks and whiling away the long hours of the summer afternoon with simple music of their own making. The piece affords opportunities for study in relative dynamic effects and various tonequalities. with equal distinctness at the repetition. the symbols of rural peace and plenty. and be well sustained. to a mere harmonious murmur. It should sound full. played with the very tips of wellcurved fingers. the melody. tender song a love to the quiet accompaniment of the Another contributes a delicate flute obligato. the light notes falling in a crystal shower above and around the sustained tones of the melody. when the flute-like obligato is added. and very This phrasing must be maintained clearly phrased. so that it may be easily The quiet arpeggio accompaniment in the hand must be subdued. but not clinging pressure touch. yet clear as crystal. song. The flute without in the least obscuring. The song-like theme in the right hand suggests the voice of the shepherd.140 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. loud. producing as nearly as possible the followed.
But the light of the whole world With the dying sun. by Ferdinand Dewey. and inflection. common order on the memory as well as the finger dexterity. 141 The Night has Thousand Eyes. very reason furnish an excellent left-hand study. These for that and . though written lines are The beauty. The mind has a thousand eyes. whose and more justly awarded than this composition has few equals in place in the hearts of his sorrowing friends is far larger in the temple of fame. in its line from any pen any The melody. enhancing and enriching the effect of the melody. though admirably written. and as universally appealing as the thought in the lines which It is another fine study in tone-quality inspired it.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. as simple. as concise. The day but one. a song of the heart." tenderness. and pathos of these brief reproduced in the music with a fidelity and finish worthy of a Chopin. The figures are involved and unusual. a tax of no The accompaniment. In fact. by a comparatively obscure American musician. if well rendered. well up in the sixth grade. When love is done. considered with land. offers a problem in left-hand technic not too easily solved even by the professional artist. a dies "The night has a thousand eyes. The heart but one But the light of the whole life dies . is or without the words.
interwoven runs. of expres- and a delicate. with no great profundity and no startling originality of conceptions. This composition. simple grace which characteristically express the personality it is intended to suggest. reminding one of the soft. a veritable chiaro-oscuro of sound. Jensen's work is occasionally as refreshing and restful as the pearl grey tints and fernscented coolness of some rock-shadowed grotto in the heart of a sun-flooded. starry summer night lines in reference to the Pleiades : and of Tennyson's "Like a swarm of golden fire-flies Tangled in a silver braid. In the midst of the fervid intensity most modern music. elusive effect. but with a manner genial. fluent and often remarkably clever sion. sinuous. The Dryad. with their subtle. The Dryad is one of a charming set of Idyls for the by Jensen. Jensen. to be the Dryad's realistic standpoint we may fancy this life .142 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. in form a song without words. in that most optimistic of keys G major has a breezy freshness. by Piano. a Greek nymph of the forest. chromatic modulations and their shadowy suggestions of halfveiled bits of counterpoint. refined mend him of to a fancy which should commore general recognition than he seems at present to enjoy. tropical rose-garden." The Dryad. one of Pan's court and one of the most unsophisticated and simple of all those joyous children of nature. its vital principle or soul. was a personification of the From a of the tree. produce a dreamy. a natural. a modern German writer of the romantic school.
This whispermurmurous effect. constitute the chief difficulty of the work. The "Dance of the Elves. but given to droll humor and tricky pranks. a pupil and proteg6 of Mme. characteristic The and Dance of the Elves. harmless. and should receive special attention from the player with this idea in mind. though roguish little dweller of the green." by Sapellnikoff. child-like individuality. especially as Black Forest. is given in the left hand continuously throughout the piece. a little vesper hymn of praise to the setting sun. almost as dainty and winsome as the fairy. carried by the right hand. of her own fresh. Sapellnikoff. 143 song. is a far found in the depths of the more fearsome apparition. sung in quiet.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. his frequently appearing on own concert programs. himself a concert pianist of growing fame. happy confidence to the accompaniment murmuring leaves above her head. full may be supposed to typify the Dryad's voice.wood. The soprano melody. The Ger- man Elf. as of leaves and branches stirred ing. is one of his brightest and most popular works. is a merry. mood of the whole replete work is eminently with woodland witcheries. for instance. The rapidity and delicacy of the left-hand passages. The English Elf. The conception of the character and attributes of the Elf varies widely in the mythologies of different lands and races. one of the most gifted and promising of the many Russian composers of the day. of much greater stature and power and more intense and . by the evening breezes. with of the their proper shading. Sophia Menter.
or narrates some legend of Elf-land. siren-like being. crisp. stand as stately chivalrous In the centre of the dancers the Elf Queen stands. Ice-covered trees like knights in silver armor spectators of the festival. who figures weird German ballads. wielding the sinister personality. and once in the midst of the dance she brings all to a stand and holds their attention for a moment while she makes what seems to be a it little address of welcome. the dance floor. frolicsome child of this North land and the Winter. but the whole frost-embroidered scene cold. is The a winter night. sometimes found in Art. may be. again the Elf is the gleesome. the embodied spirit of the swift. sparkling hail shower and the flying snow-flakes. usually obtained through . the place a moon-lit forest glade. It is he who piles the drifts in such fantastical shape. dazzling. but wicked. The music graphically portrays not only the mood and movement of the dance. power of life and death over mortals. It is one of those singular transmutations. with all its spirit and sparkle. or of warning. while his Queen is a most beautiful. in so Notably the Elf King. who festoons the drooping pines with countless ice crystals. which glitter like prisms in the light and tingle like fairy sleigh-bells when swung by the laughing North wind. is a potent and vinmany dictive monarch of the gloomy solitudes. setting of the scene is unbroken white. where the impressions. dangerous In Russia to the souls as well as the bodies of men.144 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. after which the dance is resumed with increased vivacity. This composition pictures a dance by these blythe little snow-sprites. The time . traces those wondrous pictures on the frosted who window-pane. the level-frozen snow.
glowing. and its broken irregular coast line. its snow-covered mountains. pine forests. its wild rock-ribbed. where. It is a recognized fact that all composers. are carried over into the realm commonly appertaining to another. as well by This their racial heredity. is especially true of the Scandinavian composers. yet fascinating scenery. its sharp contrasts of frozen winter midnight and fervid. Grieg and Sinding. their geographical and climatic surroundings. where the result might almost be called audible frost-work. probably because of the strikingly prominent and individual characteristics of their native land. 145 one sense. for instance. In these Northern latitudes the spring conies swiftly. Bjornson. not less than authors. effects generally recognized only by the eyes are made. - suddenly. Sinding. by as habit of thought. are materially influenced in temperament. general style and choice of subject. with an impetuous rush. 10 The ardent blus- tering south-wind sweeps triumphantly over the icy . They are. perceptible to the ear. in part at least.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. white with the flying foam of restless breakers. with its rugged. summer days all of which cannot fail of their effect on the imagination. Rustle of Spring. to some extent. sombre tumbling streams. responsible for the unusual type of genius of such men as Ibsen. to the ancient mythology and to the more recent art products of the Northland their peculiarly original stamp. by Ch. as in this case. its its smiling valleys. Such environment and conditions have helped to give flashing.
was the spring. the Fairy Prince. . phenomenon. which tell of the quickening of new life throughout all nature. at a touch. in past centuries. to prepare for her bridal with the coming Spring. the subtle blending of joy and sadness. welcoming forests. This ever-recurring gave rise to the beau- tiful allegorical legend of the Sleeping Beauty. is represented in this compowhich is justly one of the most popular of recent works for the piano. who wakes her with a kiss to life and love. with his jubilant voice.146 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. with their constantly recurring sevenths and ninths and frequent suspensions. battlements of the frost-king's defences. representing the Northland in its winter trance under the spell of Jack Frost. the indefinable unrest. that enchanted lady in the dread castle of sleep. It literally imitates the gusty rush of spring-winds. the thrilling of her pulses at the revivifying kiss of spring. half mystical. the all-pervading stir and rustle and murmur. suggest the vague. His impatient approach. guarded by her stern jailor. breaking. the chatter of wayward brooks. half passionate longings. sensuous harmonies. while her rescuing lover. the ripple of glad waters and the murof mur sition. which wake and stir and swell and surge in the human heart at the voice of spring. the fetters of the mountain torrents. while the warm emotional character of the melody and the rich. waking the flowers from their long winter sleep and arousing nature. accompanied by rushing winds and rustling leaves.
wild as their tempestuous seas. but original melodies. for heighten the illusion and maintain the artistic example. the ancient myths. suggestive harmonies and simple. kindly and given to harmless. The spirit of frolic is not lost in the land of the midnight sun. fantastically named Troldhaugen. merrymaking. yet wholesome. weird. but has introduced several realistic suggestions itive. In this music Grieg has not only expressed the primwhole-hearted gayety and fantastic pranks of the festival. as. This composition. and the . the sound fife of drum and recurrent and unmistakable. The composition is in the march form. trials of strength and various classically antique forms of amusement of the rural sort. who was a typical Norseman at heart. by was written Grieg. for the anniversary celebration of his own wedding day. which means home or stronghold of the Trolls the Gnomes of the Norseland. in Grieg's most characteristic vein. Grieg. traditions and these intimate home- festivals at his country-seat on his wedding anniversary were arranged in keeping with the spirit and habit of the olden days. 147 The Wedding Day. including a revival of the old rude games. rustic festival among the rugged. if rather rude. boisterous as their winter winds. was deeply interested in all and customs of his country. It simulates the music at an old-time. which took place at his country home among the mountains. with strongly marked rhythms.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. robustly hilarious northern races rough as their mountains. to verities of the tone picture.
in of its many modifications and under different all names. is of the assembled guests to the place of meeting. answer each other as A and words between the bride and groom. It is a brief touch of sentiment. Hence the monotonous drone of the bagpipe.148 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. By True. peculiar droning bass and whining melody characteristic of the bagpipe. that most distinctly rustic instrument. it is a mistake to identify the bagpipe exclusively with the Scottish clans and their music. especially in southern Italy and islands of the Mediterranean. but hint of a stolen exchange of warmer looks genuine. a moment in which they forget the festive scene and noisy company. central idea of this wedding day music is the where and where the games are to take place. the music growing louder and more spirited and impetuous as they approach their destination. as an accompaniment for country dances of all lands. and. however. and almost camp and some field. . including the Scandinavians. there a curious little interlude. old-fashioned in its expression. a quaint bit of rather stilted lyric in "canon" form. is The march common and legitimate. simulated in constantly reiterated fifths in the bass. but the "ancient and honorable" bagpipe. the Scots used the bagpipe in war and peace as their favorite. a plentiful rustic feast is spread under the trees Before this final clamorous outburst. to some extent. by the Latins. was familiarly used by the Teutonic races. ending in an excited burst of rollicking hilarity as some of the more lusty youths break rank and join in a mad race for the goal. the way. where the if voices follow and in a dialogue. as the harp their only instrument of was that of the ladies' bower.
intense. "Doumka. or rather a series of thoughts. It is deeply gloomy reflection and the profound. in- tensely melancholy emotions arising from it. the vague terrors." that is. comparatively unknown quantity" to the majority of American music teachers. constant monotonous reiteration. are strikingly interesting and in the modern frantic scramble for novelties it is a wonder that they are so largely neglected.Miscellaneous engrossed with their story. It is a thought. in theme. cording to his the Germans to the piano. the more specific idea and more personal mood of a rustic funeral scene. In addition to the vast significance. partly because. own old yet eternally 149 love new Doumka. con- cerned with that most serious and solemn. acfantastic. slow. The principal its mournful. by Tschaikowsky. class belongs To this descriptive only in the strictly symbolic sense. they are not strictly what "clavier-massig. as well as most painful of all subjects with which the human mind can grapple. impressive. speaking. it introduces. Modern Compositions. which are not very numerous. in all its sorrow- ful details. "an As a piano composer Tschaikowsky is. in fact. expressing grave. which. the ultimate finality. and his naive dis- regard of pianistic limitations. partly because of the weirdly ultra Russian character of his pianoforte works. the awesome majesty of the subject in the abstract. rep- . death. and dwells upon. adapted in spite of this strong foreign flavor Yet there are some among them." a thought. own call admission.
Standard Teaching Pieces.
resents the death song, or chant, of the mourners, genamong all races from the early Greeks and probably long prior to their time up to a comerally in use
paratively recent epoch, and still in vogue in the rural districts of Russia, a sort of dirge sung sometimes by the friends of the deceased, sometimes by professional
mourners, specially trained for that purpose, but always expressing the mood of the time and the occasion,
but suggesting always by
its persistent iteration
passionately despairing, the
endless hopelessness of the dread event. The steady, solemn march of the procession
cated throughout the composition, symbolically significant of the relentless tread of that inexorable fate which plays so important a part in the beliefs and conceptions
sudden, startling crash of heavy harmonies like the clanging to of the door of a tomb harsh, metallic, as
shuts forever upon hope and effort, joy and love. is autumn, cold and brown and bare, with
The no hint of promise, no touch of color anywhere. mood is the blackest that can be expressed in music, a
Troika en Traineaux, by Tschaikowsky.
This, odd, jolly, half-facetious bit of descriptive writing for the pianoforte shows us the composer in a
playful mood very unusual with him, and it forms the strongest possible contrast to the work just
a Russian vehicle used in the rural two wheels, a rude open body and
It is usually harnessed with three horses springs. abreast, the middle one wearing a string of bells similar to our sleigh bells. They are generally driven at a
furious gallop over the interminable stretches of rough country road, with much shouting and cracking of the
cruel whip, the drivers sparing neither themselves nor their teams, the bells marking their pace with wild
clangor and clash. In winter the wheels are removed from the troika
and the body
fastened upon a sort of sledge, making
a kind of sleigh or traineau. Hence the title "Troika en Traineaux," meaning in its winter guise. In this music the melody simulates a Russian folksong, simple, catching, rollicking; supposed to be sung
by the Russian peasant
Schumann's Happy Farmer, while the horses swing along at a lively pace and the cumbersome troika, on its rude runners, rocks and bumps and slues down the
rutty road, the driver evidently in haste to reach the place of some rustic merry making and jovially hilarious in anticipation of the frolic to come.
In the latter part the sound of the merry
The whole thing is a musical jest, distinctly imitated. full of the rough, simple jollity of the Russian peasant
on one of
his rare holidays, and remarkable, in all its simplicity, for its strong local flavor.
Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.
Cracovienne, by Paderewski.
a sparkling, spirited and eminently charac-
composition, of moderate difficulty and great musical charm one of the best of Paderewski's smaller
works, indeed, fully equal in merit to his famous Menuet though not nearly so well known.
The Cracovienne, or Krakoviak as it is interchangeably called, was originally a rude, wildly impetuous, rustic dance among the peasants of Cracow, formerly a
large and important province of Poland of which Cracow was the capital, also at one time the capital of all
In the good old primitive days, when men had less, less and enjoyed more than at present, when
the ruddy rollicking
in russet coat
wreath came stalking jovially down from the north over the plains of central Europe, bringing to the lusty peasant rest and good cheer after the summer's work
in the fields,
leisure for all sorts of
grain had been harvested and stored, and the dull thunder of the flails was stilled, then came the time
for the great autumn festival, similar to the "harvesthome" of old England and the still earlier " Herbst-
fest" of the Teutons.
of amplest proportions
selected as the
rendezvous, the great threshing-floor was cleared and swept, the rude walls festooned with garlands of bright
and the peasants from
for the festive celebration, the chief feature of
the dancing of the Cracovienne.
and near assembled which was This function com-
the exciting fascination of the usual dance, a peculiar, purely local element rough country all its own, "The strife of torches." Around the walls
unhewn stone and
at regular intervals, several feet from the floor, a large number of flaming torches. In the course of the dance
each couple took its turn in passing around the entire hall next the wall immediately beneath this row of
The man who could extinguish, with his foot, the greatest number of torches (a single high kick being allowed for each), without missing his step in the dance, disconcerting his partner, or losing his balance
and sprawling on the floor, was the champion of the and was awarded as a prize a dance and a kiss
he might choose as the prettiest in the
Naturally, the frantic attempts of the various swains to excel each other, in this rather strenuous feat, and
their frequent failures and ludicrous mishaps, were provocative of the greatest excitement and the most noisy hilarity, and it is highly probable that in the
darkness following the fall of the last torch, many a kiss was taken not strictly in accordance with the rules
of the game.
The Cracovienne, like most ancient dances, has furnished the vital germ for a modern musical art form, elaborated and idealized, but conforming in general
character to the original mood and movement, including the most essential features, as in this instance, for
example, the sudden comical effect of the high kick to be found in every good Cracovienne. The work by Paderewski referred to is a fine speci-
Campbell (one of our rising American writers) will be found to be an interesting and welcome novelty. a thought too much idealized. as well as with the modern style and peculiar atmosphere of Russian music. and Mr. and the noxious vapors from the great witch-cauldron. Campbell's recent sojourn in Russia and his familiarity with its legendary lore. B. Campbell This original and wildly fantastic composition in A minor. and the droll suggestions of the high kicking are frequent and unmistakable. for the rough peasant appears here to have donned an evening suit. perhaps a fraction too dainty and refined. full of odd rhythmic devices and fascinating melodies. Here. of its class. brilliant and playful. as most potent of all the Russian witchwives. either as a concert number or for use with advanced pupils. but the verve and zest and humor are all retained in large measure. eminently fit him to give appropriate expression to the subject in tone. The atmosphere is rather that of the perfumed. It is founded upon an old weird Russian legend. Baba Yaga. wildest and wickedest. Capriccioso by LeRoy B. The music is piquant. the leader of the band. she .154 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. by L. in the depths of a sombre ghoul-haunted forest. in a rude hut on the shore of a black. storm-swept lake. Baba Yaga was the well as the oldest. modern ball-room than the dust and chaff-laden air of the old granary. She dwelt alone. amid the drifting acrid smoke of the fire. men with clean collar and cuffs.
brewed her deadly poisons, muttered her gruesome incantations and danced her frantic spell-working dances; and here any who sought her aid in working secret mischief to a foe, must brave the terrors of the woods at dead of night and seek her. The music is intended to represent the wild sinister
of the scene, the frenzied delirium of the dance,
and even from time to time the blood-curdling shrieks
of the dancer. It should be given with the utmost fire and dash, with a hard, dry quality of tone like the rattle of bones, or wooden castanets, and with a certain rough angularity of outline, indicating the rude, primitive character of
the scene being enacted and the personages taking part
As elsewhere stated in these pages, in connection with Schumann's Nachtstiick, the Nocturne is a nightpiece, properly embodying nocturnal scenes, moods, and experiences, and including within its possible and
legitimate scope a wide range and variety of subjects and emotions, but all associated with the night in its
manifold aspects. This Nocturne by Blose, though written by an American, is a fine specimen of its class, clear and symmetrical in form,
broad and forceful in style, rich in varied and original harmonic coloring and scholarly in thematic
dream of a summer eve, soft and sweet but a strong, bold sketch of an autumn tender, night, in all its sombre majesty; a night of gloom and
Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.
sudden storm, of flying clouds and gusty rain, with moments of hushed suspense, ominous of tragedy, broken by bursts of tempestuous, elemental passion; the fitting symbol and setting for a strong man's sorrow and conflict, and desperate, but courageous wrestlings
with the powers of darkness within and without. The mood is gloomily heroic, suggesting at times the
most dominant element in Scandinavian music. The work is in a sense allegorical, for I know, from
personal acquaintance with the writer, that the night portrayed was that of the spirit, during a transient experience of grief and struggle, rather than of nature; and the tempest one of emotion, not of the elements.
The music is doubly interesting for this dual significance. The brief but beautiful Trio, in the tender lyric vein,
affords the requisite reposeful contrast, suggesting a glint of moon-light through the rifted clouds, a touch
and peace and brightness in the midst of darkness and turmoil, a gleam of the white wings of hope across the stormy sea of emotion. Then the first subject returns and night and tempest again dominate the scene for a time; but the gravely
quiet finale seems to give promise of a tranquil dawn. I have ventured to include here a few of my own
descriptive compositions which have been
ful in concert
most successwork and about which I have received many inquiries. The first four are not too difficult for
sixth grade pupils,
but the advanced players.
Die Lorelei, by Edward Baxter Perry.
air grows cool and it darkens, tranquilly flows the Rhine ; kissed by the glow of sunset peaks of the mountains shine.
o'er the gliding river,
Sits in the golden twilight, And combs her golden hair.
With a golden comb she combs
listener to beguile.
sings a song the while, With a wild and witching melody,
It reaches the ear of the
On the river's And quickens
Of love and
breast below, his heart to a passion longing and woe.
Erect in his fragile vessel, He stands spellbound by its might; He sees not the rocks and the rapids, He gazes alone on the height.
Engulfed by the angry billows,
with her siren singing, The Lorelei hath done.
This composition, like all other "Loreleis," is descriptive, and based upon the most famous of the Rhine
legends, that of the Lorelei Siren.
The fantasy was
Standard Teaching Pieces.
by the writer when approaching and passing by boat the Lorelei rocks on the Rhine, a mass of bare
black boulders, rising abruptly from the water to a height of about 150 feet, at whose base runs the most
dangerous set of rapids on the
sing at twilight, to the boatmen below, who, spellbound by the witchery of her voice and face, forgot to keep midway in the current,
river, and on whose was supposed to perch and the intoxication and destruction of
and perished on the rocks at her feet
supposed to open at some
distance from the Lorelei rock, with a tranquil running accompaniment in the left hand, indicating the twilight flow of the river, with a broken thread of melody, which
occasionally wells to the surface in a single detached by that line of Tennyson's "With an
inner voice the river ran/'
As we draw nearer the
scene of the legend, we catch snatches of the silver laughter of the Siren, mingled with the distant ripple of the water, at the foot of the famous rock. Then rises
clearly the Lorelei's song, sweet and vibrant, but neither passionate nor powerful, alluring rather than compelling, with the running accompaniment of the
water ever present.
held throughout the
of the entire melody, but with a slight increase of strength, a little fuller pulsation, as we are
supposed to approach. At its sudden cessation is heard the boatman's song, a minor theme in strong contrast,
suggestive of the mood and character of the boatman on the river below, of the "love and longing and woe" which "quicken his heart" at sight of the siren and sound of her song. This sinister theme, with its turbu-
A moan. diminishing rapidly to pianissimo. What pleasure have we of our changeful pain? . victim. and finally. the engulfing of boat and boatman at the foot of the Lorelei rock. the "inner voice. when the Lorelei's song again arises. above the roar of the rapids. "But once they set A stringed gourd on the sill. nothing is left but the peaceful with theme in the left hand which formed the introduction of the composition. grows in intensity and passion to a vehement climax. till we hear only broken fragments of the melody and snatches of laughter in the distance as before. We are as ye are. this time jubilant and strong. This subsides as we are supposed to leave the rock behind us. the tranquil flow of the river. It is followed by a few inco- herent phrases of no melodic form. so is mortal life. as she gloats over her and working up to a second climax of vindictive glee. Lo! as the wind is. Baxter Perry. Edw.Miscellaneous lent Modern Compositions. play. there where the wind Could linger o'er its notes and play at will Wild music makes the wind on silver strings And And those who lay around heard only that . a sigh. swirls of the gurgling water where it has opened. "Wherefore and whence we are ye cannot know. ghosts from the inane. But Prince Siddartha heard the Devas to his ears they sang such words as these: "We are the voices of the wandering wind." Aeolienne. which indicates the catastrophe of the legend. a storm. 159 accompaniment. Nor where life springs nor whither life doth go. a strife. Which moan for rest and rest can never find. a sob. ringing out over the river.
as realistically as possible. mysterious murmur of wind-swept strings and secondly. on account of his horse's loose and broken shoe. was hurled over the edge of a precipice while riding at full galop. sometimes a sort of second hearing.160 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. a phenom- . whose chief. and melodic shading. the sentiment of which I have attempted to express through an imitation of Aeolian harp eral as the limitations of the pianoforte sities effects. by means . or rather by the ancient and uncanny Scotch legend about which the plot of his story is ingeniously woven. the descendants of this family for many generations became the victims of a strange and singular hallucination. But life's way is the wind's way. of tone effects listener lines. Edw. player should endeavor firstly to reproduce. to suggest to the the thoughts and moods embodied in the poet's The Portent. plaintive. taking sometimes the form of that second sight so familiar in Scotch folk-lore. "What Nay. the soft. with the unconscious form of his cousin and lady-love over his saddle bow. all these things Are but brief voices breathed on shifting strings. as lit- of and the necesThe musical construction would permit. This composition was suggested by George McDonald's romance of the same name. pleasure hast thou of thy changeless bliss? love lasted. As the result of a peculiarly grewsome tragedy in the history of one of the Highland clans. there were joy in this . Baxter Perry." if From Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia. This composition was suggested by the above lines.
of a strong but sensitive soul struggling with the depressing influences composition but a mood picture. at first distant. One manifestation in particular was most frequent and came to be dreaded as the family Portent. aiming to embody the emotions. 161 enal acuteness of ear. beginning faint and distant. not objectively descriptive. then as rapidly diminishing. then swiftly approaching. ii . which forced them to perceive now sights. half passionately rebellious. crossed now and then by the sinister clank of the broken shoe. when he passes in immediate proximity.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. a fear rather than a sound. Every important catastrophe occurring to any member of this family was heralded by the sound. Autumn This is Reverie. and the fair pale face of the maiden. a jet-black steed. now sounds from the spectral world. till the rhythmic swing of the horse's galop is distinctly audible. then deafening. of a fiercely galoping horse with a loose and clanking It is shoe. this audible Portent that I have endeavored to embody in the following work. is Edw. in a passing spectral glimpse of a wild sight horseman. a plaintive inter- intended to suggest the moment when second asserts itself. fading. rapidly growing. half sad. suspected rather than heard. rising rapidly to the final climax. however. This vision vanishes and the horse's galop is heard faster and fiercer than before. dying into distance and silence. her long dark hair streaming in the wind. After the lude is first impetuous climax. to which all others were oblivious. Baxter Perry. lying across the saddle.
and vanishing hope. however ill-deserved. Woe " What shall I do for The summer round. For all my roses' sweetness.vine and the wild brier marry. my song-birds are dead in their bushes for such things! Robins and linnets and blackbirds and thrushes. without pity or pardon. the futility of effort. Dead.1 62 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. false promises. my garden's divine completeness Of scent and sound? "I will leave Where once was peace. symbolize fleeting joys. And greatly increase. and where roses blow And no not. still Where no birds come. in of a sullen autumnal evening. my garden for winds to harry. Falling and fading flowers. with stiff wings. reflection which it traces a sympathetic leaves of its own moods." Philip Bourke Marsion . " But I will go to a land men know land. the fitful moaning of the wind and the grey cloud-canopy veiling the sky. The following lines are the expression of the same mood in verse: "All my roses are dead in What my garden do? shall I Winds "All in the night. not. trees stand. vain endeavor. and the certainty of sorrow. Came there and slew. Let the bramble. however courageous. A far.
indicated in the composition by a few sweeping. or. dreds there assembled perished. ethereal azure days preceding the storm. intended to portray the mood of the bland. 163 Ballade of Last Island. ominous voice of the sea." It dealt with the destruction of Last Island. Baxter Perry. Hearn's perfect and powerful prose poem. appeared a remarkably graphic sketch by Lafcadio Hearn. It opens with a quiet lyric introduction. monitory to break slowly in whispered thunder upon the strand. of Mr. In Harper's Magazine for April. Edw. A Memory of Last Island: The Legend of L'Ue Derniere. wavelike arpeggios. thronged every season with hundreds of On the aristocratic guests from the Southern States." rollers Then the first mighty precome surging in from the far horizon. 1888.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. almost page for page. . The principal theme of the work. when winds held their breath and slow wavelets caressed the bland brown beach with a sound as of kisses and whispers. entitled "Chita. which the author de- Days born in rose and buried in gold. which follows. the was totally destroyed by a sudden tempest and Every vestige of human habitation was into the Gulf and nearly every soul of the hunswept island tidal wave. loth of August. portrays the rising. formerly a fashionable watering-place in the Gulf of Mexico. at the height of the season. and for weeks no fleck of cloud broke the heaven's scribes as ' ' blue dream of eternity. The composition is a musical transcript. 1856.
as but a moment since the polished floor of the dance hall quivered to the pressure of circling steps. and winds and waves are hushed in suspense." Then the original sea-theme returns. with its sobbing. voices of drowned men. and the very land trembles to this giant tread. mocking strains of waltz music are heard drifting out upon the gloom and terror of that tempestuous night from the ball-room of this the great summer hotel upon the island. bearing the sea. there'll be dancing to a different tune!" In the repetition and development of the waltz-theme. . but a tumult of many voices. till toward midnight. the muttering of the multitudinous dead. in contrast to the light. and the surf breaks higher. Hearn again. which. almost sombre themes and harmonies which precede and follow. to quote Mr. in his arms. and if he takes a notion to whip around south. there is a sudden In lull. merry. moment of tranquillity. the gloom deepens. I have endeavored to depict the moment when the wind veers and "from the south he comes on." Steadily the gale increases. when the storm has nearly reached its climax. all rising to rage against the living at the great witch-call of storms. "Is not one voice. and he exclaims. "Dancing! God help them! for the wind dances with the sea to-night. suggesting the mood as well as the movement of the dancers. a blanched and frightened partner. is drifting down to her inevitable doom amid the breakers. which. dragging three anchors. with the strength of a tornado and the sound of a cannonade. Just here I have introduced a waltz of a flippant character. The incongruous strains reach the ear of the veteran captain of the steamer Morning Star.164 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.
165 surging accompaniment. falling cadences. the same sea and sky. but altered almost o/ beyond recognition by Death. like the storm. the voice of the sea again. out into the black waters of the Gulf. to suggest that it is the same scene. and at the close are a few subdued minor chords. but rising to a shout of warning. like selves to rest repentant surges sobbing themon a wreck-strewn shore. when "Shattered wrecks of buildings. are swept surging together.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. the composition gradually subsides in sad. only given in extension and in the minor key. mingled with uprooted trees and struggling human victims. and the tempest rapidly increases to the final climax and ultimate awful catas- trophe. the passing of the shadow . identical with that of the introduction." Then. a musical requiescat Musicians will notice that the theme of the Coda is for the lost. in a weltering chaos of destruction.
every stage has its mental as well as its technical limitations. Bohm. Some of them may be new to the reader. and even Lange are better musical nourishment for the child than Schumann or Bach. Spindler. 166 . First let me say that in the study of the piano. It is as unwise to insist classics for the on an exclusive diet of the young. but I will mention a few such compositions which have come to my notice and which I know to be available and useful of their kind. undeveloped pupil. The effect is as certain to be detrimental. as to feed a baby on roast-beef and mince-pie or to force a child in the primary school to read only Browning and Bmer . for the taste as well as technic must grow gradually son. |CARCELY a week passes that I do not receive requests for a list of pieces in these earlier grades that are at once meritorious and pleasing. which the good teacher must recognize. made and My personal ex- perience with music of this grade is very limited. well practically usable. as in other lines.Teaching Pieces for Second and Third Grades.
Among the same set of six pieces. with a sustained tuneful melody in the middle register. Here is a fine study in octave and chord work. stirring. with a fine melodious Trio. by Morey. good. 167 to the digestive capacity small compositions. Song of the Kankakee. and free from technical complexities. in- valuable to the student in the first stage of developMusically it is strong. and martial in character. is a fine Cradlesong in G. the lamented Fred L. His works will prove a treasure-trove to those not familiar with them. by Morey. and well suited to meet the need in question. Gavotte Imperial in A minor. is interesting and practicable for the . an excellent specimen of that form of dance music.. Among American writers who have supplied much valuable material of this class There are many none ranks higher than my old friend.Second and Third Grade Pieces. formerly of Chicago. and ment is in that line. It is well made. yet attractive to the young student. both musically This is and technically. a useful and attractive study in rippling arpeggio figures. For full description of the Gavotte see the "Story of the Gavotte" in this volume. and nutrition must be adapted of the recipient. Morey. easily grasped. They are melodious.
as it is but little known. and a musician gifted far beyond the lot of most. of genuine Scottish tone. were destined to remain unfulfilled. quizzical character. pupil. watchng the changing lights and shadows on the surface of he dimpling water. many of its happiest hours having been spent on the TT How-fringed banks of the tranquil Kankakee. slumberous murmur of the languid stream as it wound its slow way through the fertile plains of Illinois. Morey. Morey's boyhood. will prove a welcome novelty to teachers who are looking for good yet pleas- ing third-grade pieces. reproduced with ad- mirable fidelity in the music. and a score of other greater men than he. It is a musical memory of Mr. It was at first suggested by a charmingly characteristic engraving. in the picturesque garb of the A . like Spindler and Heller and Schubert and Mozart. yet not without tenderness and poetry. by Fred L. Poor Morey! He died. The idea here embodied is of a peculiarly playful. while he lay among the whispering willows and alders. in obscurity and poverty. Hieland Laddie. but a few of us remember him loyally as the best of friends. comely old lady. and. a prince of good fellows. m when he should be a symphonies for great composer and write mighty the world's orchestras to perform.1 68 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. like most of those of youth. the shadow. and dreamed a boy's dreams of the days to come. listening to the low. while listening thousands rejoiced and applauded dreams which.
and tionate pride which it wears. The should be played softly and gracefully. it is lander. him whom she The music first strain is at once pleasing and graphic. Prominent on the opposite wall. Then stronger and more animated and we may fancy her gaily recounting dream to the returned wanderer. in the jaunty cap and gay plaid of the High- and figure eloquent and buoyant animation. approaching swiftly but softly. resemblance in the woman's face. peculiar Scotch inflection of the melody must . as with tranquil reflection on the remembered The pleasure. sits just 169 within the open doorway of a simple cottage. as if telling of her sudden the her first strain repeats. the second gesting with more energy and decided contrasts. so as not too soon to disturb her slumbers. in her lap. the living original of the picture. the suband present dreams. his face with health and strength From a certain the look of affec- evident that the picture is that of her own absent ject of her last waking thoughts bonny boy. in a strain closes the composition. and her eyes are closed. than before. hangs the portrait of a handsome youth. The third strain mellow baritone melody. then one more subdued repetition of the first voice. Entering the door from without. just facing her. comes the Highland Laddie himself. his answering gives. She is evidently napping. his eyes dancing with mischievous glee. awakening and startled surprise.Second and Third Grade Pieces. as he steals forward. sugthe dreams of the waiting mother. enjoying in advance her start and glad surprise when she wakes to find thought so distant close beside her. Scotch peasant. her neglected knitting and idle hands lie Her head droops.
and similar Scotch songs. and around it all joined in the rustic dance.170 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and invested for the day with supreme author(See Tennyson's "May Queen. Rustic Dance. as its name implies. crowned with Mayflowers. lighter and detached from what account the piece will be found an excellent study in rhythm. or tive. has a certain arch. of the village green. with a marked accent on the first syllable. Adair.") Under her ity. mild and mirthful sway. to the rollicking measures of pipe and fiddle. The fairest maiden in the village was selected by her companions as Queen of the revels. second. gliding to the of all Scotch music. Kelvin Green. On this Around Among the Maypole.addie" are pronounced. The melody and harmonies are purposely kept simple and unpretentious to fit the primiwhile the third. strain. the young people abandoned themselves to every kind of innocent and jovial merryfestivals till at evening. the flower-wreathed Maypole was erected in the centre making. capricious element. to suggest such a scene. . the most joyous and poetic of old English was the annual celebration of May-day. rural character of the festival . circling hand in hand. by Fred L. Those familiar with Robin be brought out distinctly. and express its merry mood. Morey. will at once recognize the slurred sixteenths on the first and fourth beats of many of the measures as characteristic These should be played precisely as the words "Highland I. This composition is intended. Trio. which is much follows. as culmination of the frolic.
And my is bright heart is so light For school doesn't keep 'Tis the first day of Spring. and high spirits. exhilarating spring weather. known as the The mood expressed throughout is the exuberant light-hearted gaiety of the schoolgirl. The Mermaid's Song. The piece should be played at moderate tempo. Edw. or imagine. Baxter With a hop and a skip Without stumble or trip Perry. distinct rhythm. . and animated swing. and with all the capricious abandon which the player can feel.Second and Third Grade Pieces. in connection with the springtime and the days of youth. as if to mark the time for the flying feet of the dancers around the Maypole. out for a holiday It should in the breezy. The mermaid sits by the summer sea. cheerful tone. abounding health. be given with a rhythmic swing indicating the movement implied by the name. Jumping Rope. remember. crisp. At the evening hour and sings and calls. Ah me! For it owns her power as the twilight falls. hinting of the playful coquetries of or perhaps the May Queen herself. The heart of the youth must break. by Edward B. with a bright. This composition belongs to the class graceful or playful lyric. Perry. My jump-rope The morning I swing Keeping time while I sing. 171 some village belle.
The melody may be supposed to typify her plaintive yet winsome voice. This is legend witchery of silver lake and stream. while the left-hand accompaniment rises and falls in gentle undulations. The gentle. Undine. To a life of love in the depths below. She said to have re- ceived or developed a human soul as the result of falling in love with a mortal. while the flowing triplet accompaniment suggests the The composition soft ripple of her native element. and is all the wistful sadness of murmuring waves. and fearsome delight. touching sadness of the much-forgiving Undine breathes in the music of this simple little nocturne. cold. all the fleeting grace of those vague floating forms compounded of mist and moonlight.172 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Let the melody in the right hand suggest the plaintive but sweetly seductive voice of the Mermaid. and when disappointed and cast off by her earthly lover. by Ferdinand Dewey. rippling and flowing like tranquil waves. to which the primitive imagination of named for that mythical water fairy of ancient who was the personification of all the delicate men attributed supernatural life. without resentment or revenge. to have returned. The sea song blends with her tender sighs As she lingers there while the west grows With the blue of the sea in her melting eyes And a gleam in her hair like the sunset's gold. The youth well knows he must say good night To the world above and with her must go With rapturous dread. to endless sorrow and loneliness beneath the water. will be found invaluable to teachers as an almost un- .
and it contains no dry sections and no tricky embellishments or cadenzas beyond the grade of the piece. and a good rhythmic study. This playful is an attractive. sharply accented one. As a whole. of about third grade difficulty. unaccented which note passing at once to a longer. . the mood is that of the joyous. well put together. frolicsome highland dance. namely. melodious. attention of the player from the songful quality. and the left-hand accompaniment is unaffected and natural. for it has the genuine characteristic Scotch lilt in its theme. 173 equaled study in tone-production. in Scotch melodies. The melody is simplicity itself. by Baker. though light and little work. The harmonies are varied and pleasing. affording no excuse for even momentary withdrawal of the mind from the quality and shading of the melodic phrases. yet warmly poetic and so clearly divided into short. so within the reach of the majority of pupils. or the most all noticeable one. is the distinguishing peculiarity. without being too complex for the average pupil. easily grasped periods that it may be said to phrase There are no tricky cadences to distract the itself. popular with pupils. Danse Ecossaise. the short. sufficiently interesting to yet musically it is be used with far more advanced students who may need or enjoy something in the pure lyric vein.Second and Third Grade Pieces. It is hardly more than third grade in technical difficulty.
Stories of Standard
The Music Box, by
will find in this musically rather trivial, composition, a valuable bit of
most beneficial technical study, disguised under a sugar coating of surface prettiness and real graphic imitation, which will reach the interest and stimulate
the work of certain pupils
hard to rouse. It is a very excellent imitation of the sound of the old-fashioned music-box, and a piece of pronounced
realism which they can fully understand,
which they can themselves clearly This will often arouse the imagination and
latent artistic perception of a young pupil who is wholly impervious to a deeper mood or thoughtIt is the wedge that opens the way for better things moreover, the child is getting a good tude for finger
development without knowing it, which, as every teacher knows, is in some cases an important step in the
composition by the once great pianist
familiar to every teacher
and well-nigh every pupil
modest mile-stone on the
above the third-grade.
It has served as a sort of
path of pianistic progress for two generations, and still has its utilitarian value for students and its hosts of
of the general qualities of
Second and Third Grade Pieces.
number by Liebich referred to
a good chromatic
technical purposes, but skilfully disguised and sugarcoated by means of a romantic name, and attractive
melodic and descriptive characteristics. The ear of even the most superficial pupil is pleased, and his imagination awakened, while he is being adroitly stimulated to
do willingly some otherwise distasteful work development of the much-needed finger facility
so essential to the pianist.
We may fancy the scene suggested by the music as a secluded glade in the heart of the forest, half illuminated by the silvery moonlight, but encircled by the shadowy
mystery of the woodland.
presents to us the capricious, mis-
chievous, but daintily charming Titania, queen of the fairies. This should be played with extreme lightness and a playful coquettish freedom, to indicate her
personality. Then follows
her graceful circling dance,
weaves her spells and traces her mystic rings about the ancient oak in the centre of the glade, the silent witness
fairy revels in the past.
This bright, airy
dance movement should be given with the utmost speed compatible with accuracy; and with a clear, crisp, but always delicate touch. The trio in B flat introduces a different mood and His Fairy Majesty, king Oberon, emerges personage. from the shadows in mock dignity, and half real, halfpretended displeasure, checks the dance by an imperious gesture, and proceeds to lecture his wayward wife for amusing herself so well in his absence. He
Standard Teaching Pieces.
scolds for a while,
finally joins in the dance, frolicsome burst of hilarity.
and won by her which ends in a
contrast of this more grave and demiddle movement must be distinctly emclamatory phasized by means of a fuller tone, slower tempo, and more emphatic delivery. The work is a simple but attractive picture in tone, devoid of any great depth or strength, but not without merit of its kind, and as a study possesses considerable
Heinrich Hofmann, Aus Schoner Zeit.
another short and very beautiful lyric, of perhaps fourth-grade difficulty, in a sadly pensive mood. The name means literally, "Out of a beautiful
time," but the idea for which
stands would be more
English by the words, "Sweet Memories." A German couplet stands as motto at the head of the music, suggesting its character and origin, which might be freely translated as follows: "By the
door unheeded a zither swings, and the night wind sighs through its trembling strings." The dream-picture called up both by the words and
by the music may be something
peasant's cottage in the forest of Tyrol; the home of childhood revisited in after years. Silence and loneliness reign in the familiar scene,
where memories of
departed loved ones wander like phantoms. By the open door hangs an old forgotten zither, its gay music
Second and Third Grade Pieces.
the voices of the dear old
the bygone years, but stirring dreamily in its sleep at the caress of the night wind and recalling to the listener
who shall say what vague, far-away fancies and longings. The strings murmur faintly, indistinctly, in sweet,
shifting harmonies, through
which a plaintive strain of heard, like the echo of a beloved voice sounding through the halls of memory. The whole effect should be subdued to the most
delicate of half-tones,
and the accompaniment parmust be a mere sigh of harmony. There is one rather unusual and tricky cadenza, but with carefully selected fingering it is by no means impracticable
even for moderately advanced players.
The Will O'
name (which is synonymous with the French and the German Irrlichter) is applied to those
wandering, elusive, phosphorescent lights which appear
in marshy meadows and damp forest glades, and which have been, in all lands and ages, the source of much wonder and curiosity and the origin of many
In Scotland they were formerly superstitious fears. called death lights, and their number, at any given time
or place, was supposed to indicate the
funeral candles that would be lighted in that during that year.
souls of candles
are the prematurely extinguished, which fly to these lonely places to live out the remainder of their brief earthly existences, cut short by the cruelty or
The Germans have a pretty legend that they
Standard Teaching Pieces.
man; and that, in these fleeting hours of weird nocturnal revelry, they dance and sport together and amuse themselves by narrating to each
other the scenes of
human joy or sorrow which they illuminated during their short earthly lives. This idea has been used by a number of composers
as the subject of pianoforte compositions, the attempt being first to produce the realistic imitation in music
of the dancing, flickering, mysteriously appearing
swiftly vanishing witch-lights against the dark background of the night; and second, in some cases, to
suggest, in addition,
the stories told
candles of the scenes they have witnessed, the ballroom gaiety or bridal happiness or burial rites upon
which they have shone.
rich in varied possibilities
there are a
by no means been exhausted, though number of compositions based upon it.
Probably the most
of its length in
one of his trans-
bright and pleasing, as well as piece for second-grade pupils, is the Will
bodiment of the
Wisp by Jungman; a good, though simple emidea, and a fine study in light, crisp,
The one by Jensen is somewhat more difficult, as more subtle musically. Both will be found of
practical value to the student.
Inflection in Music.
wish here to
attention of teachers with very young pupils to the set of easy and pleasing
pieces by Leibitz, It will be found to be of value, not
only in interesting the children, but in accustoming them to play simple
melodies with some degree of intelligent expression and declamatory style. The melodies are literally
may be sung by the child and which serve not only to give a general desired, idea of the character of the music and the way it should be played, but also to indicate where the heavy and light accents should properly fall. The child, when playing, thinks of the words and tries to make
with words, which
the notes say them;
thus unconsciously getting the
elementary conception of inflection in melody playing; a most important, but often neglected element, popularly spoken of as "the ability to make music talk," that is, to put some individual life and
significance into it
possible to indi-
by the ordinary marks of expression. No two consecutive notes of a melody should ever
Standard Teaching Pieces.
be played exactly
like the lines in poetry, are
for the measures, precisely subdivided into metrical
trochees, &c., certain notes having
importance and demanding more stress or accent than others, like different words in a sentence or sylThis dynamic differentiation, proplables in a word. erly observed, in a single simple phrase of music, makes all the distinction between mere machine playing and
pieces referred to emphasize this point and clear to the child mind. They are a much-
needed step in the right direction. I would also mention as most useful in first grade work the set of pieces by J. M. Blose, Op. 15, which
many teachers Many more
are finding invaluable. excellent things by American writers,
and second grades, might be mentioned. I have no wish to discriminate, but lack of time and space,
as well as of experience in this grade of work, prohibit giving much attention to it in this volume.
Dance Forms .
with its infinitely varied possiexpression by means of attitudes. and many such. and ages before modern fine arts were even dreamed of by the most visionary of prophets. exbilities of pressing courage and defiance in every line and motion of their war-inspired figures. emotions. and moveand naturally grows out that movement The human body.The Story of the Waltz. gestures. Men marched bravely and proudly to battle. the love dance. ages before the first band or even drum-corps headed the column. which is primarily there are intended to accompany or suggest a certain definite physical action ment. is logically developed from. and even the dance ing of religious frenzy. |VBRY form of musical composition. long before the first progressive Men danced . long before speech was invented. may be said to have been the first artistic instrument. expressing sorrow in every reluctant step and drooping pose. and was used to convey ideas. and movements. the huntand harvest and snake dances. and impressions through a universal and highly developed sign-language. of. or slowly and dejectedly behind the bier of king or hero. the war dance. itself.
control. melodic The element of harmony was slowly added. Every good dance form. beaten out on some instrument of percussion. savage devised the rhythm-marking "tom-tom" to animate the dancers and heighten the effect. and combined into increasingly till phrases. and music as an independent art was born with a body of beauty and an immortal soul of emotional expression. and no matter how much it may be idealized. Little and stimulate the dancers. even if not intended to accompany an actual dance. the original dance. The waltz or conceivably incident to. expressive and beautiful the song evolved from the dance. when properly considered. the whoop of delirious frenzy. must remain true in the main to its physical heredity and antecedents. The dance was first of all the arts. vocal cries were added. in time with the dance and expressing its mood. however. for it is an art. Dance music consisted originally of merely a marked rhythm. amplified. it must be based upon the rhythm and tempo. the cry of pain. and demanded by the dance itself. refined. or desire. is the love-dance of modern life. that is.184 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. probably in the first instance a hollow log pounded with a club. and intended to guide. the shout of triumph or defiance. These were gradually developed. and express the general fundamental mood of the dance from which it springs. by little the wail of death-agony. and in modern times always does. or pleasure. and elaborated. add many collateral and supplementary suggestions arising out of. this rhythm growing out of. though it may. It was the primitive but accurate expression of life-experiences through motion. expressing . some kind of drum.
the subtile glamour and fascination. as a the complete isolation of the couples. the poetry. is distinctive characteristic of the waltz. of sex attraction. symbolizing its significance. orbit. at Partners are temporartimes the evolutions are more complex and the social element more in evidence. as the name waltz. and despite fierce opposition and abuse from certain quarters. probably because of the universality and strength of the element which it embodies. concrete idea of the love-dance. soon gained a sure and permanent foot- hold in popular favor and spread its dominion throughout Europe. of fascination But in connection with this original. The most dance. en- each couple revolves in own independent veloped in its peculiar. exclusive atmosphere of swift. ily shifted. In spite of much controversy there can be little doubt that it originated in Germany. derived from the German word walzen (to turn or whirl). intimate mutual absorption. many other subsidiary emotions . wellnigh supplanting most other dances. This is characteristic of the mood it is intended to express. and forms the most important element in this dance. 185 the romance. sensuous music. It was introduced into the social life of Vienna in 1780. as much alone for the moment. in its refined. the figures are executed by several couples. especially the older forms. in the midst of the whirling crowd. as if on a desert island. In other dances. and this is as it should be. simple. idealistic.The Story of the Waltz. more or less collectively and interdependently. clearly indicates. but irresistible potency. its In the waltz. graceful motion.
associated with it and incident to it. as their principal theme. the sudden. the fateful. and for actual dance purposes their waltzes remain to-day unequalled. the ardent wooing of the man. and seemed likely to become hereditary in that family. to-day the best waltzes are no longer strictly dance music. originally intended as an accompaniment and rhythmic guide to the dance. as." in the midst of the gaiety. the anguish of a stolen farewell. for example. embodying fully the sprightly grace. Waltz music. imparted under cover of the jest and laughter of the ball-room. startling call "to arms. but complete. but with all the intricate complexities of human life and passions vividly portrayed. tragic message or ominous secret. . are possible accessory elements. of almost infinite variety. the crown as "waltz-king" was appropriated by the elder Strauss. and suggestions naturally arise. with the waltz move- ment and emotional motive of course. has gradually evolved and expanded so as to include and utilize all these till secondary and incidental suggestions. the ecstasy of reunion after long parting. tone pictures of ball-room scenes and moods. Among the light Viennese school of writers. catering to the rather trifling and frivolous taste of that second Paris. and disappointment. which may interweave themselves with the simple pattern of the waltz as primarily conceived.1 86 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. rebuff. the bitterness of misunderstanding. the fear and pain of impending separation. the gentle tenderness or the witching coquetry or playful mockery of the woman. and concerned merely with the expression of the one simple idea. strikingly rhythmic and enspiriting. These and many more. elaborate art works.
which will always remain standard tional elements tinct form. which might conceivably be experienced by the individual dancers under diverse conditions. and epoch-making example. introducing into the suggestive. by Edw. Then came Chopin. not the fundamental idea of the waltz. world-famous. it developing and expanding its form. 187 the exagcenters of half-artificial gerated. descriptive. Among their productions in this form Weber's "Invitation to the Dance" stands as the most remarkable. The Strauss waltzes will always remain representative types of their class. Perry. to the sparkling gaiety and frolicsome abandon of the joy-intoxicated debutante in the concert waltz Most of the pieces described in this chapter will be found in Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. Baxter ED. but as genuine music they are of very "light weight" and have only very ephemeral value. embodying. Schubert and von Weber had raised the waltz into the realm of real music. flirtatious spirit of the primitive waltz. in all its seonly ductive grace and subtle tenderness and witchery.The the languorous. victorious Story of the Waltz. forming the opening and principal subject in the little waltz in A minor. from the heart-breaking sadness in the 'cello theme. . tenderness. with his series of inimitable piano-forte waltzes. as they do. more profoundly emo- which gave to it a place among the disand recognized musical art forms. Even before their supremacy. but classic types of this also almost every possible shade and variety of mood. at its first entrance into the social Europe.
I repeat that it is openly and avowedly the love dance of modern civilization. Its development may be said to have culmin- ated with Moszkowski. with the possible exception of the Polonaise." Schulhoff. all concert numbers of some magnitude. most varied selection of material for parlor or concert use of any of the dance forms." to the simple. is difficult to imagine their being excelled by any subsequent writer. These waltzes will always be found invaluable studies for pupils of all grades above the second. Godard. Wieniawski. till it now offers to the pianist the richest. Just one word more concerning the subject matter of the waltz and its symbolic significance.1 88 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. fairly surpass all previous productions in ornate complexity of construction. from the manifold realistic as well as emotional suggestions in the waltz in A flat. and a host of others have contributed liberally and ably to this most popular form of idealized dance music. founded in upon Byron's "Battle of Waterloo. Certain people are inclined to sneer at this emotion . whose four masterly waltzes for the piano. Rubinstein. B flat major. and are the best introduction to what has been aptly called "the true Chopinism of Chopin. based upon and expressing the mystery and magic of sex attraction. for they include almost every variety of style and degree of difficulty. and the subtler. and variety of fanciful suggestions. It in technical brilliancy. more exotic fascination of those in C sharp minor and B minor. in wealth of musical and emotional content. naive delight in rhythmic motion and innocent coquetry expressed in the little waltzes in G flat and D flat major.
as indeed they sometimes do. which has been deemed worthy to serve as the motive in nearly all the great dramas and works of fiction since literature began.The with its Story of the Waltz. at the idea that Chopin founded so colossal and dignified a work as his Sonata Op. This fundamental truth has been recognized by all great authors from Shakespeare and Victor Hugo down. the motive power in most important human actions. the determining element in most human experiences. Our musical critics may scoff if they choose. love." But a theme of such and universal interest to the race. Yet the fact remains that corollary emotions. 189 and its use as an art subject. is and must remain the oldest. most universal and most potent factor in human existence. on what they are pleased to call* 'so vital a subject as a love story. 35. and nowhere does it find more facile or diversified may expression. trivial surely be legitimately utilized by the musician. .
The practical use and importance of martial music. accompany- formerly spearmen infantry. 190 . to step. little by little.The Story of the March. still came into being. till the modern military band. authoritative beat of drums. cymbals. the drums play an important part. like the horn and trombone. tomtoms. other instruments of deeper. the fife. and in some instances the bagpipe. in which. moving bodies of foot and archers. The distinctive rhythm of the march had its origin in the steady. |HE march is probably the oldest and cer- tainly the most universally employed of all the forms of secular music. later our modern In process of time. as in Scotland. composed of five varieties of brass instruments and four of wood-wind. Then. The name march is derived from the French word marcher. inspiring character. supplementing the element of rhythm with that of melody of a stirring. to these instruments of percussion were added the trumpet. as the desire for harmony de- veloped. more sonorous tone were introduced. however. or ing and regulating the tread of soldiers.
checks the impatient. and enthusiasm in the troops. in all military manoeuvres and field of battle. Lastly. which spurs the laggard. controls the rate of advance. the forced march or quickstep. to secure and facilitate concerted action. ardor. commanding rhythm. and mournful. 191 especially the march. slow. with a tempo allowing for one hundred and eight steps to the minute. a good band is as essential a part of a well-equipped regiment as its arms of or ammunition-wagon. yet stirring. employed its in genfor different purposes and occasions. adapted to a rate of leisurely. Second. each special characteristics and tempo. and insures precision and mathematical certainty in the execution army manoeuvres. There are three distinct types of the eral use. Second. by keeping them in step with a uniform. own First and most common.The on the Story of the March. there are the funeral march. more inspiring and exciting. the French pas de with a hundred and twenty steps to the charge. For this reason. march having among practically all nations. Its purpose is two-fold: Firstj to stimulate courage. In addition to them. have been fully recognized by all army experts in all ages. actually or hypothetically used in connection with the various movements of troops. All these are distinctively military marches. march of seventy-five steps a minute. orderly. the storming march. a regular. dignified. impressive. simultaneous movement of large bodies of men. and the wedding . the ordinary parade march. minute.
and hopeful. brilliant. As a definite. most elastic forms The rhythmic tramp of marchof musical expression. joyous. makes of it one of the broadest. to the coronation of an emperor. All the emotions incident to these various occasions may be ex- pressed in the music of the march. emotion. with occasional touches of tender sentiment. the march development about the middle of the it has undergone few alterations. or the execution of a comrade. not always. consisting mainly of a fanfare of trumpets. march. its physical germ. or in the feverish panic of a rout. ing feet must always serve as its basic idea. though . an introduction of from four to sixteen measures. It is always in two-four or four-four time. often. men may march exultantly to vic- tory. out of which gested in it all they must logically evolved. well-established musical form. must be other ideas sugand to which may But these secondary ideas and resultant moods cover and include a vast range of thought and For instance. and is constructed on the reached 1 its full 8th century. or sullenly to certain defeat. to the storming of a fortress. recognized and adopted by all modern nations. so to speak.192 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. accompanied by drum effects. all bear a definite relation. to a wedding or a funeral. since which time following general plan: First. possible within the legitimate limitations of the march. and fine specimens of every type of march are to be found in the writings of nearly all the leading composers from Handel to Wagner. This wide diversity of mood and movement.
is so familiar to the general the civilized world. 193 This introduction. which. or principal theme. its jubilant. it has been the one composition used all weddings. In stately city churches and simple village chapels. in its turn. is from sixteen to thirty. with no cadenzas or episodes of any kind to break the uniformity or interrupt the steady tramping Then follows the second theme.The Story of the March. yet ideally lofty strains have voiced the 13 . at in hall and private parlor. No work of its kind about eighty ago. where music had any part in the ceremony. after which the first subject is repeated. however. had its origin The Mendelssohn Wedding March. more lyric in character. it would be impossible even to guess. more quiet. and at how many thousands of weddings it has been heard. may be omitted. from the eastern confines of Russia to far California. this form is based upon that of the fully developed rondo. and usually in a lighter. Tech- nically speaking. which is again repeated at the close of the work. The first subject. with often a brief but brilliant coda or finale added. Since its creation. in the Folk-song. as the Wedpublic. throughout ding March by Mendelssohn. in palace and cottage. No other march has ever been found so acceptable. Then comes a trio. as is the case with most funeral marches. most of the rhythm. and somewhat more slowly played. forming a marked and effective contrast with the opening movement.two measures in length. frequently in the dominant. brighter vein. divided into distinct periods of four or eight measures.
exultant. The introduction and trumpet signals which appear so often at the opening of march movements. . a brilliant and joyous company. triumphant. telling of love the conqueror. It was accompany the march of the noble wedding party in the play. fancies. hints of a background of shadowy woodland mystery. as already stated. replete with delicate mysticism and dainty fairyland which accounts for the suggestions of that style it notably in the trio. which proves him to be peculiarly at home in that realm of fascinating unrealities. of fairy intrigue and influence." an early but supremely able work. of mood hearts. and the most familiar one. hence the atmosphere of pride and splendor as well as gaiety which envelops it. The work was written for but there have been numerous piano argives us the gladsome bugle calls rangements. but in this case with no suggestion of the drums. which color the whole texture of the story and are treated by Mendelssohn with a masterly finesse. of obstacles overcome.194 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. drama. Those who would appreciate apparent in written to it fully should familiarize themselves with the scene in Shakespeare's orchestra. with its delicate trills and subtle wood-wind effects. of happiness assured and imminent. the happy occasion for countless is human This march a fragment. The movement. or subject. while first the trio. is proud. from Mendelssohn's music to "The Mid-Summer Night's Dream.
while perfectly in keeping with the scene for which it was intended. a reason of which the public is not definitely conscious. encroached upon the universal supremacy in public favor formerly maintained by the Mendelssohn march. and who specially affect the is modern school will in music. 195 The Bridal March from "Lohengrin. the only other famous wedding march. also it is bright and joyous and so far well fitted for its purpose. It accompanies Klsa and her bridesmaids in their progress from the palace to the chapel. but which is instinctively felt. It is time-honored observances. is not so generally in harmony with all occasions of the kind. It is designated as Brautzug (bridal train or march). to some small extent. 1 In recent years this march has. The music is of a high grade of excellence. simply melodious. inherent in the music. and easily understood. and is preferred by those who seek novelties and change in all the experiences of life. that it not as broadly and fully adapted to any and every wedding occasion. rather than the conservative. and has special reference to the bride. is not as characteristically a wedding is march in tone and mood.The Story of the March.' by Wagner. But there a good and sufficient reason. like all of Wagner's music. but. It is distinctively local in its coloring and. why this march never supplant the one by Mendelssohn in general usage. it is exactly and exclusively adapted to the particular occasion and mood it was written to reflect. where her . namely. markedly rhythmic.
is rarely heard in our own day." by Handel. The mood it embodies is that of the fanciful girl. on which his later Brunhilde was moulded. though still familiar by name. The Dead March from "Saul. hardly more than a child. The music is light. daintily playful. the flowers and favors and bright costumes. wedding with Lohengrin is to take place. and portrays the personality of the innocent. tripping. It is an extract from . and the usual tender trio is enhalf-playful While it is ideally beautiful and aptirely lacking.196 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. like a section cut from some great picture. and fascinated by the mystery of the future. a type of deli- cately feminine but rather helpless maiden. white-souled. heroine. of which Wagner was particularly fond in his early works rather the modern German idea of maidenhood than the stronger and more heroic model. pleased and impressed by the pomp and glitter of the ceremony. the first notable work of its kind. There is no touch of strong or deep emotion. propriate in its proper place. reality. happyhearted. in these half-graceful. but far from profound or serious. formerly universally known and much played. but rather visionary. or of vital strains. but by no means realizing the intensely serious nature of the step she is taking. This short but characteristic funeral march. this march taken separately is obviously only a fragment and loses much of its charm and pertinence when parted from its proper setting and connection.
is decidedly primnot to say commonplace. The emotional motives of the march are to be traced to "How battle!" two familiar quotations from David's lamentation. entirely in a major key. now friendly. and compared with similar efforts by a Chopin or a Wagner. the grief of the nation. January 16. as well as the crushing defeat of the Jews. and David's lament for their loss. and intrigues. are the mighty fallen in the midst of the "I am distressed for thee. Very pleasant hast thou been unto me thy love to me was wonderful. and David's deep "The Dead March. and with the more than brotherly Its climax is reached love of David and Jonathan. my brother Jonathan. so far as known to the writer. and deal with the vicissitudes of Saul's reign. of the oratorio The plot and text were based upon the well-known Bible narrative of Saul and David." personal sorrow for his lost friend. now fall of as it is called. . which was first London at King's Theatre. itive and inadequate The very tonality selected is wholly inappropriate according to every law of aesthetics. espethe reverse.The Handel's first Story of the March. the mighty fallen!" Their expression in the music. the only funeral march in existence. How are when regarded from our modern standpoint. symbolizes the the king and prince. passing the love of women. his relations with David. . his wars. cially for the latter. 197 presented in I739- great successful oratorio. with the death of Saul and Jonathan in the battle with the Philistines. the work being in C major.
Bells that toll o'er a nation's tomb. its resources scarcely even guessed at by the best musicians. Solemn. Still for Poland sighing. characteristic of works. as a medium of emotional expression. fully described in The famous Funeral March by Beethoven " is a part of his " Descriptive Analyses . and meager in the means employed. and as such deserves our respect. slow. This march is one of the earliest steps in the develop- ment of tonal art. It furnishes a good example of the effective massing of the solid.jg8 Stories of it Standard Teaching Pieces. Poland's wrongs resenting. 26. Sad as thoughts of our long-lost dead. Brave as blades that in stern delight. Handel's larger FUNERAL MARCH. was still in its infancy. though antiquated in style. still in process of formation. Strong as hearts that exult in pain. Keen for vengeance and for the right Poland's foes defying. imposing all in their grave simplicity. Poland's woes lamenting. Dirge. I. Daring death though the cause be vain. BY CHOPIN. also that it was at a time when music. that voices a dawnless gloom. if common. like that of the English language in the time of Chaucer. Sad as tears for a nation shed. Flash and fall in the van of fight. Moreover. harmonies. as the knell of doom. its material. score But must be remembered that the piano gives a very imperfect idea of the orchestral effect. Sad as dreams of a hope that's fled. not without impressiveness. it possesses a certain simple dignity and directness. * Sonata Op. Strong as rage for a loved one slain. II.
Op. like Heavenward now ascending. Ere their bravest and noblest Poland's defending." Taken independently. strain. 1897. the whole sonata being too the most advanced pianists. swell. Sombre. however. any but analysis of the sonata. as well as the most perfect type of its kind to be found allegorical significance of both. as well as the full A may be found in my volume of "Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works.The Then a Story of the March. allegorical tone-poem. Suppliant sigh for a land once fair. Sad and slow let the cadence fall. like a velvet pall. dramatic. fell. and is published and most often played sepadifficult for rately. Then once more with relentless weight. E. in piano literature. Wrath and anguish blended. unquestionably the best funeral for the piano. Speak in dissonance desolate. with the interesting Polish narrative on which it is founded.. originally appeared as in Chopin's great. B. still Sobbing strain with passionate Striving of the past to life tell. this march is the strongest and noblest expression of profound and passionate sorrow. . Crushing chords like the voice of fate. IV. March. It is. Poland's pain is ended. a tender prayer Welling up from a soul's despair. a very complete and powerful work movement in itself. III. the Sonata in B flat minor. march yet written the third This composition. Chopin's Funeral March. 35. P. soft. Silent darkness is over all.
even by Chopin.2OO It is Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Then in heavy. symbolizing prayer at the grave. slowly diminishing. as the black-robed procession of mourners return to the village. The bride in this story is an allegorical personification of Poland. . dying into silence. the march movement is resumed. and the grief and despair are for the death of a nation. and it is often atrociously murdered. thrilling with tearful memories of happier days. expressed with a passionate intensity. crashing chords. the march is not difficult. inexorable as the voice of fate. then pausing by the open tomb. and yet with a strength and nobility of utterance rarely equalled and never surpassed. taking on more and more the inflexible tramping cadence of the funeral march. even by our leading concert pianists. Next little follows an exquisitely tender and touching as the song Trio. possessed by few players. supposed to accompany the march of the funeral procession bearing the bride and heroine of the story to her last long rest. as well as a command of tone quality. Regarded from a technical standpoint. their last sad offices completed. so fondly loved and bitterly lamented. rising at last to a stupendous climax of pain and despair. heart-breaking music grows gradually stronger as the procession draws nearer. in D flat major. It begins with the distant muffled tolling of funeral bells. then the solemn. sweet and simple of a child. with an occasional sug* gestion of muffled drums. but it demands an emotional capacity and insight.
and conveys the . as well as a brilliant concert lands and in many forms and number always enjoyed and admired in Tausig's superb paraphrase. by Schubert. many another world-famous march used in arrangements. dashing set of blades.The Story of the March. wearing glittering helmets. and were drilled to the last degree of military precision. and back pieces of polished steel. as clear as crystal. its simple. The ranks were composed their lofty stature of picked men. also as a piano solo and four-hand arrangement. beautiful. The was maintained as much for display on state regiment occasions. They were supposed to be invincible in war. spontaneous melodies. and mood. of the parade march. as bright as sunlight on steel. 201 Marche This is Militaire. officered by some of the highest nobles of the realm a proud. It is a perfect example in form. but pompous. This march was written in honor of the Austrian Imperial body-guard. and known to be so The music. a crack regiment of grenadiers or heavy infantry. written as a compliment to them. as for service in the field in time of need. to add pomp and splendor to court functions. full of martial spirit. ex- presses the spirit of this martial body. It is scored for brass band and orchestra. with the ladies at home. not rapid. rhythmic swing. its irresistible. breast plates. splendid. content. They were superbly uniformed. It is of being almost (in spite hackneyed) for its freshness and sparkling vitality. selected for and stalwart proportions.
a distinct measures. almost playful Trio in the sub- dominant suggests the grace. Then comes the march proper. stirring. because chiefly known in . by Franz Liszt. with flutter of fans and kerchiefs. beginning of so many marches every schoolboy in every land. brilliant. beauty. the melodious" holds any place in the memory of the musical world. an ingenious introduction of six opens even in the piano score. marches in the repertoire of the modern It is generally attributed to Liszt. This is one of the most stirring and spirited concert pianist. Then a sonorous repetition of the closes this march. dainty. growing stronger and louder as the parade draws nearer. The light. scattering smiles and glances and bouquets upon the favorite officers as they pass. with its catchy melody and swinging rhythm. impression which their appearance in line of march was calculated It to produce. first movement "Schubert. Interwoven with this is a stirring trumpet call. and gaiety of the fair spectators crowding windows and balconies to witness the passing pageant. giving. suggestion of the beat of drums in reiterated chords in with the right hand. a ringing summons to war and victory. exactly reproducing the most common and simple rhythm employed by the drummers at the a rhythm familiar to and imitated by every boy that ever marched with a wooden gun. which will live as long as Rakoczy March (Pronounced Rah-kow'-tsee).202 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.
half-fanatical patriotism yet sombre. and is a splendid tribute to his triot in the nemory. The mood is impetuous. darkly exultant. original. This march was composed in his honor. and is one of the many frag- ments of wild. the very . the terror of the invader and the idolized hero of his people. which made Rakoczy. but it was composed (one can not say written. in a sense. though they were of a totally different race. It is a "storming march. full of and the lust of of It celebrates the swift marches through the gloom the midnight attacks. mighty forests. and from them comes all the so-called Hungarian music. Its authorship is anonymous. gipsy music rescued by him from oblivion. much older than Liszt's time. of whose daring ability and phenomenal achievements fabulous tales are told.The Story of the March. desperate struggle for continued independence. who were for a time so closely identified with the social life of Hungary in the palmy days of her independence and prosperity. uncompromising. They were." barbaric. Rakoczy was a famous Hungarian general and padays of her long. in reality. fierce. named for him and dedicated to him. adopted as the national musicians. but it is. were the special proteges of the court and the great nobles. 203 his version of it for the piano. and revivified for the musical world of our day in his masterly adaptation for the piano. as they never wrote anything) by one of those gifted but unknown gipsy musicians. battle. the resistless charges and the sudden tempests of death and flame descending upon the sleeping foe. at the head of his wild riders.
both described in detail in my volume of Descriptive Analyses already referred to." by Wagner. from "The Ruins of Athens. full of the rattle of the war-drums and the ring of brazen trumpets and dissonant clank of contending hosts. the delirious Berserk frenzy of the charge expressed in startlingly weird harmonies. This march is to be found in various arrangements most complete and stupendous being the Fifteenth Hungarian Rhapsody. .204 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. but there are also several more or less simplified editions. and it has been for the piano. the effectively scored for both band and orchestra." by Beethoven. Other famous marches of more modern times are "The Turkish Grand March." and "The Tannhaeuser March. spirit of the night attack.
were wholly unable to agree upon great nobles. then the Polish capital. which took place in October of that year. always. and splendor. It was no uncommon thing 205 for a knight to . and finally united in electing the young prince to the office. was one of the most magnificent affairs ever witnessed. The coronation ceremony. which was ultimately the cause of Poland's downfall. at feud among themselves. Henri d'Anjou. unfortunately.The Story of the Polonaise. which was intended to be little more than that of a figurehead to the ship of state. wealth. which has been so closely identified with Poland's history through all her mani- fold vicissitudes during more than three centuries. for Poland was then at the height of her power. originated in 1573 in Cracow. The one of their own number to the death of the last of the fill the throne left vacant by Jagiellos. oriental in her love of lavish display and barbarically and extravagant wear the personal adornment. [HIS distinctively Polish musical form. as king of Poland. on the occasion of the coronation of the young French prince.
Then and there was born the Polonaise. marched in stately pomp up the grand staircase. But the true no matter when. entire value of his estates and possessions in jewels at a court function. This march was accompanied by suitable music written for the occasion by a local composer. where the king awaited them. crude and primitive though a it may have been. All the great lords and ladies of the realm. assembled in one of the lower halls in the royal castle. and early associa- . music intended not only to mark the rhythm of the march. and ante-chambers. It was a musical presentation of the Polish people to their new monarch. complete. galleries. the common proprecognized definite. a reception of regal proportions. has gradually developed into and quite elaborate musical form. through various halls. which. and used the world over.206 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. arrayed in their most sumptuous apparel. but to add to the pomp and pride and beauty of the occasion. where or by manifests distinct traces of its whom it may be written. with all the available jewels in evidence. original heredity. natal environment. from that germ. formed in a glittering procession. thus in a way supplementing the introductory feature. finally up the length of the vast magnificent throne-hall to the dais. One of the important features of this grand festival was a presentation ceremony to introduce the members of the court and aristocracy to the new king. there to be presented to his majesty by the grand master of ceremonies. all erty of composers^SjL Polonaise. and to embody the peculiar racial characteristics and national traits of the Poles.
to those olden splendor. though sometimes written in three-four time. is always Slavonic general tone and aristocratic in its manner and pomp and . but. not only in Poland. however. Any of these moods. all based on the original Polonaise idea and embodied in that form. one may recall the days of Poland's glory with very widely different emotions. not a dance." so to speak. mood. may be legitimately expressed in the Polonaise. in other lands. Vx Its distinguishing rhythm is a measure of six eighths. as well as many others. with bitter indignation . though it is now used rather as a musical art form than as a familiar feature of the modern ball. It is always a promenade march. as time went on. . has given us a great variety of moods and suggestions. Precisely as in the case of the waltz. against her oppressors. it. In later times it was used as the opening number at state balls at court and at the palaces of the nobles. with pride and exultation over her past. 207 in its harks back. with heart-breaking sorrow at her present degradation with tearful sympathy for her wrongs and sufferings. always days of Polish Story of the Polonaise. to some extent. the music of the Polonaise was broadened and elaborated so as to include in its scope the expression not only of the original ideas. in whose hands the Polonaise reached its highest development and perfection. <%nChopin. feelings mood and and fancies.The " tions. but additional even incidents connected with or arising out of For example. scene. of which the second eighth is divided into two sixteenths. but has always retained its original characteristics even to the present day.
the courage and chivalry of the Polish knights in their magnificent. to avenge its many bitter wrongs. is us of the martial and prowess. in octaves. Chopin. crushed to earth by the overwhelming weight of numbers. The Military Polonaise. No. 40. perhaps the best known. 40. though hopeless. are all ideal They Polonaises. but with a full realization of its impotence. but no two of them are alike in emotional content. steel. with the clash of the blast of trumpets. 2. No. Op. 2. Polonaise in The Polonaise noble. heroic. No. C Minor. . sweeping the field of battle on their matchless steeds. but sullenly biding its time. preferring a futile death to a life of shame among a vanquished the streets of Warsaw people.208 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. dauntless race. Chopin. is a broad. It is the same spirit that led the Polish students in to throw themselves unarmed upon the Russian bayonets by the hundreds. but profoundly gloomy work of the darkly majestic type. The theme. gem-studded armor. In his Military Polonaise. he spirit tells I. No. which 1. in C minor. well-nigh despairing indignation of a strong. bearing the Polish standard to victory. Op. 40. with pride and courage still unbroken. voices the stern. Opus 40. and gathering the remnant of its strength for one last desperate struggle. Op.
of the have been. radical transition to an exquisitely sweet and tender strain. to the shadow of sudden death. like a sudden gleam of sunlight through the storm clouds. The trio is an intensely impassioned duet between the in a knight and his lady. thrillingly Then a significant of the sudden shock of conflict. yet vibrant with an almost desperate sorrow. 14 and . the reflex of the omnipresent dangers and of true love strife through which the path bitter partings into must lead. suggests a half pathetic. on account of its great variety and markedly poetic mood. defiant spirit of the Polish cavaliers. too often. beginning with a whispered hint of gloom and mystery and impending danger. days that "might plaintive tenderness. heroic introduction.The The brief lighter. with its 209 occasional more of touches fleeting thought. Story of the Polonaise. a greater favorite. breathing of love and romance. It opens with a bold.'* Polonaise in No Polonaise is those that C sharp Minor. half satirical. then changes abruptly to a tender lyric strain. then rising suddenly through a series of sequences to a crash 'of minor and diminished harmonies. expressing the martial. suggesting the grace and charm and delicate beauty of the "eternal feminine. than in C sharp minor. Chopin. capricious trio. Then follows a brief but strong and masterly climax somberly dramatic mood. especially among who incline towards the lyric style in music. full of Slavonic fervor." never and nowhere more potent than in the chivalric days of Poland's power and splendor.
reiterated and insistent moveform and unequivocally religious vein. is very little used. 2.2io Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. smarting with injustice and humiliation. It opens with a curious fantastic movement. Andante Spianato and Polonaise. No. Op. Chopin. usually designated is by the above title. One in cult and of the very best and also one of the brilliant of the Chopin Polonaises most is diffi- the one E flat. striving to find comfort in the promises of faith. 26. A notably original and weirdly fascinating work by Chopin in Polonaise form is the one in B flat minor. a suggestion of the pathetic attempt of hearts crushed by defeat. which the Polonaise Polonaise. is less The composition of a Polonaise in the strict life sense than a picture of Polish calls before the mind. long. tor- followed by a ment in choral tured by keenest personal and consolation grief. though extremely interesting and of only moderate difficulty. 22. indeed voicing a shuddering despair too black and terrible to be attractive to the majority of young players. Op. The Andante Spianato simply a quiet introduction . darkly tragic in mood. which is probably the reason why the work. One of Chopin's compatriots states that this strain is first intended to imitate the doleful clank of the qhains upon the vanquished Polish patriots in their long march It is to Siberia. Chopin.
stirring. more optimistic period before he was twenty. indulged in by the young composer at the moment his of the creation thought and fancy were engrossed with the life-history and characteristics of this great Polonaise. series of delicate most exquisite vein. It appears to be a sort of waking dream. replete with a wealth of constantly varying melody. triumphant. well-nigh overladen with embellishment. This movement is a tender lyric in Chopin's sweetest. and qualifies andante. Then comes the Polonaise. touched by a transient gleam of hope that they might return. before his long exile had begun.The Story of the Polonaise. announcing that royalty has taken its seat in the great hall. It has no reference to spinning. before Constantia had broken his heart and shattered his ideals. before his home had been sacked and burned by the Russians. long past. rich in harmonic coloring. when A dream of those happier days. blast of trumpets and crash of cymbals recall us to the gorgeous court pageant of 1573. ornamented by a embellishments. The whole work belongs to his early. which means tranquil. and the splendid procesmay start on its imposing march. sion the ceremony has begun. like the costumes of the lords and ladies who defile in a glittering line before the eyes of our fancy. spianato being an Italian word not often used in musical terminology. superb . as has been inferred by some on account of the name and the character of the accom- paniment. heretofore described. the period of youth and hope and aspiration. 211 prefixed to the Polonaise proper. when life Then a sudden still glowed with the rosy tints of dawn. of his beloved country. brilliant.
flashing with gems. while the procession winds staircase and across the magnificent Now and then a sharp dissonant clash of of steel on steel indicates the salute of the knights to their new monarch with the war-like din sword on shield. From moment to moment produced by this the music changes in char- acter to suggest the shifting kaleidoscopic impressions and martial. beautiful ladies in and velvet of every hue. In other * The greatest of the Chopin Polonaises. idea is to suggest the distinctive traits own and char- acteristic attributes of the Polish race. . this in B major. It is a standard concert number the world over. musical significance. 53. now moving pageant. now bold and proud tender and graceful. manifested under the modifying influence and conditions of sex. by Franz Liszt. and it is the only one within the writer's acquaintance in which identically the same theme is made to serve both as first subject and as trio melody. again playful. aside from those by Chopin.* Polonaise in E Major.212 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. a work of the first magnitude in breadth. coquettish or impassioned. and technical difficulty. and it is certainly the most widely known. This is a unique conceit. silk knights in jewel-studded armor. by Liszt. on up the grand throne hall. the Op. and is fully analyzed " " in Descriptive Analysis by same author. is probably the best. is a standard concert number with all pianists. and carried out with Liszt's The clever ingenuity. Among the well-nigh innumerable Polonaises of every degree of merit and difficulty. written by different composers of various lands and periods.
subject. octaves. while the widely varying treatment and setting clearly differentiate between the sexes in which it finds embodiment. 213 words. wild. in heavy. remaining essentially and fundamentally the same in both cases. but in a higher treated in light. heroic courage and fierce joy in conflict. Even the musically untrained ear may easily learn to follow this dominant theme through all its modifications and transmigrations. when the strong arm was the and the good sword the only arbi- . but a little is The second pompous and It supercilious. while to the student of the art it is a most interesting example of musical symbolism. logic. only law and tration. instinct with a resolute. be supposed to represent the rough. witchingly suggestions. sparkling with In the dainty embellishments. In the first subject this theme appears in bold. rather than Polish the Hungarian point of view vigorous. the charming. as well as its tonal fascination. with the pride. delicate. the racial temperament in its masculine and feminine embodiment. martial spirit. capri- winsome Polish lady. with register. playful mood. typical of the dashing steel-clad cavalier. to represent the feminine incarnation of the Polish racial type.The Story of the Polonaise. The characteristic theme symbolizes the national spirit. forceful chords. rugged chords and in the style of Liszt. a highly elaborate and ornate setting. primitive conditions of those early days on the eastern may frontier of civilization. trio it reappears note for note. and enjoy its varied poetic ciously brilliant.
the gallant but futile struggle. Fate. There has been one. almost humorous. the desperate heroism. It is a stern. namely. as strongly and feelingly expressed as if MacDowell had himself been a native son of Poland. More deep than the great sea's womb. more playful vein. and the ultimate hapless doom of a proud and noble race. yet thor- oughly characteristic of the Polonaise. Polonaise. It is bright. and far less used than it should be. it is a broad. and cruelty. introduces a suggestion of a lighter. tragic history. Though not of extreme difficulty. A. with an undertone of fatalism eminently in keeping with the Slavonic temperament. conceived in its gloomily retrospective mood. within the possible playing repertoire of most fairly advanced amateurs. worthy of a place on any artist's program. and only one.World composers. as is customary in the polonaise. In fact it always recalls to me those wonderful lines of Swinburne : More dark than a dead world's tomb. Polonaise written this side the Atlantic which fully deserves to rank with the masterpieces in this form by the Old. in fact. effective concert number.214 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. injustice. that by MacDowell. The trio. Its sombre majesty and forceful intensity bring irresistibly to the mind the dark. indicating a brief abandonment to an almost reckless gaiety on the very . on MacDowell. vivacious. indignant protest against tyranny. Its opening theme is markedly original. by E.
yet is ignored. often called to be the case in this instance. we may assume wild. raging about the castle walls. is unmistakably symbolic of the rush and roar of the bitter winter wind from the northern steppes.The Story of the Polonaise. Siberian exile. This trio closely imitates. the brilliant. stately march of the Polo- and were. or that far more terrible living death. of course. perhaps. one might easily fancy it to be of Hungarian origin. half cynical humor. even scouted for the moment. imminently impending. sweeping cadenza. the music of the Hungarian Gipsies. of the rushing wings of death and destruction so accompany The long. upon. as will be understood when it is remembered that those musical nomads from across the Hungarian border were often engaged at the castles of the Polish grandees to furnish the music for their balls and festivals. which leads back to the first theme. as to naise. with that incredible courage and half frivolous. This peculiar touch is a rather unusual and daring innovation in the Polonaise. but is entirely legitimate and appropriate. . moaning dismally among the towers and battlements the ominous voice of Nature allegorically significant. in mood and style. even on the way to the guillotine. indeed. characteristic alike of the French and Polish nobility. 215 verge of the disaster which is recognized as inevitable.
and seemingly borne out by the style of the music. and pride for generations the special possesof the peasants of that all their rustic forming a part of festivals. marked rhythm and its mood of heavy and rather bombastic dignity. In fact. in which only the men-at-arms partici216 . with a strong accent on the first of those following. grave. and the somewhat exaggerated pride and self -complacency of the peasantry of southern France. ings. the latent martial spirit. This slow. strength and energy. in earlier times. beginning always on the third beat of the measure. that the Gavotte was imported across the Pyrenees from Spain. It is in common time. where. |HB Gavotte is an antique French dance named for the Gavots. but pompous dance was sion section. but plausible. a province in southeastern France. whose character is far more akin to the fiery yet taciturn Spanish mountaineers Its strongly than to that of the flippant Parisian populace. or people of the pays de Gap. merry mak- wedding and the like.The Story of the Gavotte. now forming a part of Dauphine. indicate the gaiety. it figured as a sword dance. there is a tradition not fully authenticated.
by Silas. point. originally written for violin. a most original and effective work. the Story of the Gavotte. 217 rhythm being marked by the it clash of sword on shield. by Orth. and the brilliant Gavotte by D' Albert from his Suite for piano. are available for pupils above the fourth grade. development and who used it Perhaps the best known and most usable of the Bach gavottes are the one in G minor from his English Suite and the transcription by Saint-Saens of his gavotte in B minor.The pated. just referred to. also the excellent and comparatively easy Gavotte in F sharp minor. while the trio in E major introduces what appears to be a dialogue in duet form. the clash of steel. strikingly The first and second subjects give the martial spirit and splendor of the Spanish tourney. the flash and glitter of swift sword play. For teaching material in this line I would refer the reader to the "Gavotte Imperial" by Morey. but thoroughly musical counteris a lady This among the spectators. . The "Gavotte Moderne" by Liebling. It is a spirited and characteristic composition. As a musical form reached its full general recognition in the days of Bach. frequently in his various suites. between one of the swordsmen and a charming bit of melodic writing and a fine example of simple. sally popular as that in In modern times. no Gavotte has been so univerE minor. evidently based on the idea of the original use of the Gavotte as a Spanish sword dance. elsewhere mentioned in these pages.
The dancers were stimulated to their utmost speed and to a perfect frenzy of excitement. till each became weary and gave place to the next. form a ring and take turns in dancing with the poor wretch. produced in him a delirious mania for dancing. concernthe bite of the tarantula. but now cultivated and popular in all lands. which is in most cases fatal to the victim.Story of the Tarantelle. |HIS fierce. as a definite and recognized musical form. originated in an ancient and widely prevalent belief. When any one of their number was bitten. which must be indulged and encouraged to the utmost as the only possible means of saving his life. fiery. It was supposed that ing the venom of this spider. by the wildest. or legend. among the credulous peasants. it was customary for the peasants of the village or country side to assemble in haste. thus lessening the fever and aiding nature in the effort to throw off the poison. fastest music which could be produced. indigenous to southern Spain and Italy. and exceedingly rapid dance. and by the 218 . The excitement and violent exercise of the dances pro- duced profuse perspiration.
The best specimens of this form. till at victim dropped in complete exhaustion. without the physical necessity which first produced it. and the less familiar but equally effective Tarantelle in A minor by Thorne. and encouraged to feel and express its wild mood and feverish excitement." and its half-delirious ' excitation appealed so strongly to the fiery temperament of the south that it was gradually adopted as a local feature of village festivals and country fetes. Salmon. Pupils should be told the story of the origin and purpose of the dance. Among other noted Tarantelles are those of Franz Liszt. of course. also that by Gustave Schumann (not Perhaps the best recent contribution to piano literature. and impetuous to the last degree. for use with pupils of third grades. B. in this form. which now known and used the world over. It is trio or lyric always a prestissimo movement. G. Joachim Raff. Morey. is the Tarantelle by A. Whitney. B. and usually. within the writer's acquaintance. though not in a minor key. This dance was called 'The Tarantella. For more advanced students I would suggest. It is. and the Tarantelle by S. are the well-known Tarantelle in and fourth A flat. . by Heller. and I.. and the accompanying music crystallized into a definite is form. with a distinctive character and rhythm. with strongly stirring marked rhythmic effects suggesting its original spirit and purpose. always invariably. Mills. having no theme of any kind. frantic shouts last the 2ig and applause of the spectators. A Robert). as fine studies and telling numbers for public use. the Tarantelle by Fred L.Story of the Tarantella.
Raoul Pugno. the greatest Tarantelles are those by Chopin and Liszt. a popular example of the latter is the well-known composition of in America. . but they are concert numbers and technically too difficult for any but the most advanced students.22O little Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Tarantella in A Minor by Pieczonka has met with immense favor antelle is Closely allied to the Tarthe Saltarelle and the Farandole. As all musicians know.
" because it was much in vogue and a universal favorite in England in former days. It originated in the French province of Poitou the middle of the iyth century. in fact is often spoken of as an "old English dance. the elaborate costumes. It is closely identified in our minds with the sumptuous drawing rooms. so much is it a part of the old regime. The true minuet is fairly redolent of lavender- scented snuff and mint julep. dignified.The Story of the Minuet. patches and point-lace . with curled wigs and velvet " small-clothes" and gold-hilted rapiers with the days when a gentleruffles. 221 . |HIS ancient. . man turned an epigram or the point of his antagonist's sword with the same smiling nonchalance. the exaggerated. but in reality it is English only by adoption and inherent fitness. and even in our own country in Colonial times with powder. often stilted courtesy of intercourse in those olden days in England. especially during the eighteenth century. and stately dance is supposed by many to have originated in England. and because it seems peculiarly suited to the elegant and polished but rather punctiliously formal customs and atmosphere of English social life at that period.
followed by a second subject. Handel. characteristic was a slow. unlike most of the obsolete dances. stately grace. for practical ball-room use. as the Its dissteps of the dance were short and mincing. though some- times in | time. of which there are sometimes more than one. practically a second minuet. lyric character. and is now rarely seen except on the stage but as a musical form. Haydn and Mo- zart and reached its highest development in the hands of Beethoven. sporadic. even in our day It was much used by Bach. but perfect and beautiful blossom of this form appears among the modern works of living writers. meaning small. side by side with the waltz and the descriptive fantasy. after which the first sub- This second contrasting strain. but in marches and all other dance music. name derived from menu. for though in general use. it seems to be little understood by the average student. of a more quiet. A Trio meant originally a composition for three in- . it went out of vogue in our grandmothers' time . it still holds a certain place in popular favor. first.222 Its Stories of is Standard Teaching Pieces. usually of eight bars. like the old-fashioned primrose and hollyhock in the midst of the latest products of horticulture. forming a contrast with the ject is repeated. The first subject consists of two periods. tinguishing As a dance. alternating with repetitions of the first section. and an explanation of this term may be in place here. not only in the minuet. But an occasional belated. is called a Trio. The Minuet is generally written in J.
is quite varied and extensive. any emotion. giving to them a decided flavor of rough and rugged . thought. such as the Minuet. reflecting the temper of the times in which it was produced. but as explained in connection with the waltz it may also incidentally express. the Minuet. or even action. though the entire work is played upon a solo instrument like the piano. and the personality of the different composers. indeed. in many of his minuets.The movements Story of the Minuet. even brightly playful. out of which it grew. to this fundamental idea. middle in the various dance forms. in spite of seeming limitait. and express the usually prevalent mood. hence its or be suggested by the time scope. with the passing of the years. like every other dance. that the Minuet changes materially in tone. Mozart gave it a more graceful. and these more quiet. Considered as a musical art form. of We find. etc. contrasting. straight-laced formalism of the old days. tions. In the hands Bach and Handel it was stately and pompous. Hence we speak of the Trio of a dance or even of an Impromptu. in addition their participation in and scene .. made open sport of the prim. of the special type of actual dance. in those of Haydn it became more cheerful. Later this restriction was abandoned. were at first written for only three voices. fancy. the Gavotte. which might naturally be attributed to any one or more of the dancers during and other dances. but cold and rigidly formal. or in three-part harmony. 223 struments. but the name and general character of the movement were retained. must conform to the rhythm and general character. tender and dreamy character. while Beethoven.
This is a work of greater strength and more marked contrasts than the foregoing. pleasureloving lives of the old Venetian and Florentine nobility. for the stately of the Minuet served as a fitting field of configures whom quest. Of all Minuets now in use. half humorous solemnity. of an old. vigoralmost stern in character. containing two markedly different elements. to tone . Minuet in B Minor by Schubert. The ous. in octaves and chords. ber. with an exquisite sensuous melody. this is the most in the spirit of the dance as used in blood and the rich red wine of the south are in it. yet striving with a sort of half grim. is bold. vigorously Teutonic in character. an appropriate setting for their charms. In fact. with him the Minuet evolved into the modern Scherzo. The following are interesting Minuets purposes: some of the best known and most now in general use for teaching Minuet by Boccherini. yet with a certain rugged gravity. expressing This is chiefly the languorous grace and tender witcheries of the fair daughters of the sunny south. more wonted to camps and fields of strife than to the ladies' hall.224 humor. subject. but still popular and attractive nummoderate difficulty. Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. harmony with The red Italy. We cannot but associate it with the sumptuous. It reminds one of some old feudal war first baron of medieval days. and a captivating rhythmic swing.
a sprightly. The cadenzas are sparkling and effective. Slavonic temperament. partly because of the fame of its composer. but not especially difficult hence it is a useful and available study for pupils of even the fourth grade. in its lighter moods. and French social customs and fashions have been predominant in the higher circles in Poland and Russia for more than a century.The down his stride. The perhaps. The personality is piquante. and it is a significant fact that the French lan- guage. best char. The two form a most effective contrast. with a touch of playful co- quetry in her smile. French thought. rather than is markedly strong or doubtless the more of a universal The melodies are extremely simple and easily grasped. The graceful melodious trio portrays his partner. race. yet tender and charming. The most popular minuet of the present time for the piano the world over is the one in G major by Paderewski. winsome maiden in all her festive finery of silk and lace and jewels. It is distinctly a Minuet a la Franfaise. nant seventh chords. and the harmonies are based mainly upon the tonic and domifavorite for that reason. in Story of the Minuet. It is light. . and partly because of its graceful. 225 rough manners and moderate his martial keeping with the decorous demands of the occasion and the movements of the dance. own intrinsic merit. by the word charming. though attractive. original. The Minuet by Paderewski. is more closely akin to the French than to that of any other acterized. and and pleasing.
and only a relative degree of power in the climaxes. born of the hour and scene. one may easily fancy himself back in the days of Louis French ideal and XV. which covers the whispered interchange of the fleeting sentiment. and at least superficial predilections. while gallant cavaliers lead their fair partners through the mazes of the dance. half jest. and repartee. "reverted to type. should have given us a Minuet which. with a certain capricious freedom and playful abandon. Polish not surprising. with extreme lightness and flute-like delicacy in the opening theme. returned to the original In listening to the spirited spirit. in which playful yet polished phrases vivacity and refined elegance are so equally blended." education. who by birth and nature. but largely French by long residence. therefore. Any suggestion of profound or intense emotions. lights and jewels is matched by the florid scintillations of wit grams and forth with swift. like balls in a tennis court.226 It is is Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The composition should be played at a very moderate tempo. in spite of its modern hybrid origin. to the throbbing music of flutes and violins. half serious. is . yet with smoothness and careful finish of detail. amid where the sparkle of the glitter and gaiety of the court ball-room. as the scientists say. or of genuinely bravura style. of this music. where clever epicompliment are bandied back and accustomed skill. out of place. that Paderewski. that is.
according to Norse mythology. and ponderous. like the sweet. in a way. 227 Minuet from Sonata Op. popular English song known as "Buy a broom. wholesome humor and genuine rollicking fun in music will find a treasure in this extremely clever and effective Minuet by Sherwood. one cannot ignore the remarkably unique and original movement bearing that name in Grieg's Sonata in E minor. or "little people. It is typically Norse in character. plaintive voice of one of the forest fairies. from the brutal power of the giants and the vindictive machinations of the small but sombre. H. midnight dance of the earth giants. yet. Those who enjoy a bit of brilliant." as they were called. malevolent race that waged perpetual war against the Gods. Grieg. a rude. who. grotesque. The Trio is one of Grieg's masterpieces in the line of simple. The first theme. but not cinating. by Edgar Sherwood." I would also call attention to two fine. like vicious trolls. In speaking of the Minuet. tenderly appealing. thoroughly musical Minuets. the theme of which is taken from the centuryold. inhabited the darksome caves and gorges of the mountains. wild. in spirit. and especially children. yet weirdly fasIt is a Minuet in form and rhythm. uncanny melodies. who were ever striving to protect humanity. Minuet by W. a is fantastic. in heavy chords and octaves.The Story of the Minuet. 7. . in the ordinary sense. Sherwood. in modern style.
The same is true of the Galop.228 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. which. into a legitimate musical art form. deserve to be far better When origin is known. once subdivisions of the Suite. tion. etc. although many excellent compositions have been and still are written in this form.. both as dances and forms of musical composi- . and more used than they are. partly because I have given the main facts about it in my analysis of Godard's Second Mazurka on page 105. In regard to the Sarabande. because although at times a very popular dance. Gigue. partly because no author could write of the as Liszt in his familiar I Mazurka with the same authority and eloquence little book on Chopin. our musical public learn that a foreign not the only criterion of merit will ! Other Dance Forms. Courante. like most good American compositions. it has never evolved. have also given no attention to the Polka. In my treatment of Dance Forms in this volume I have not spoken of the Mazurka. the best example in that line being Raff's Polka la Reine. like the waltz. they are now practically de obsolete.
22 Funeral March D' ALBERT. J. JOHANN SEBASTIAN Loure in G BAKER. Nocturne BOCCHERINI. 85 Cavalier Fantastique L/Indienne Trilby Pan's Flute 105 107 108 108 110 112 116 147 GRIEG. Op. G. No. Danse Ecossaise BEETHOVEN. LUDWIG VAN: Andante Favori BLOSE. Polonaise in C Minor. Op. CHOPIN. 208 208 209 210 210 199 EUGENE : Melodic 134 141 DEWEY FERDINAND: The Night Has a Thousand Eyes Undine GODARD. 40.: Second Mazurka Au Matin 172 At the Spinning Wheel. Op. 2 Polonaise in C Sharp Minor Polonaise. No. Op. LEROY B. F. Capriccioso 1 The Military Polonaise. LUIGI: Minuet : PACK 24 173 : 29 155 : 224 154 CAMPBELL. 2 Andante Spianato and Polonaise. EDVARD: The Wedding Day Minuet from Sonata. FREDERIC: : Baba Yaga. Op. 26.Composers' Index BACH. BENJ. M. 7 227 HANDEL. 40.: The Largo The Harmonious Blacksmith The Dead March from "Saul " 22 22 196 . Op. GEO. No.
EDW. No. : Polonaise 214 34 35 36 38 40 42 43 44 44 193 MENDELSSOHN. FELIX: Spring Song Spinning Song Hunting Song Venetian Gondola Song. Box 174 FRANZ: Rakoczy March Polonaise in E Major Liebes Traum. Song L. . 202 212 96 97 MACDOWELL. NEVIN. 6. : Gipsy Rondo HOFMANN. ETHELBERT: Narcissus Barcarolle Sonata in C Major Op. Opus Opus 53. No. ADOLF: 25 Zeit 176 Dryad Will O' the Wisp JUNGMANN: Will O' the Wisp 142 177 177 LIEBICH: The Music LISZT. HEINRICH: Aus Schoner JENSEN.230 Composers' Index PAGE HAYDN. No. 3 Consolation. FRANZ Jos. FRED. No. A. 6 Duetto Prelude in E Minor Rondo Capriccioso Wedding March MOREY. 2 Consolation II 30. : Gavotte Imperial in of the A Minor Kankakee A Hieland Laddie : Around the Maypole: Rustic Dance MOZART. . 1 12 167 167 168 170 27 Dragon Fly Love Song In My Neighbor's Garden 127 128 129 130 130 . WOLFGANG A.
19. 5. No. Promenade No. 9. No. Reconnaissance (Recognition) No. 60 . No. 18. 20. 3. No. No. Coquette Replique Sphinxes Papillons 52 52 52 53 54 54 54 55 10. Op. 15. Pan talon et Colombine No. No. Chopin No. No. Estrella No. VASSILI: Dance of the Elves SCHUMANN. EDWARD BAXTER: Die Lorelei 225 157 159 160 161 ^olienne The Portent Autumn Reverie Ballade of Last Island Jumping Rope The Mermaid's Song RACHMANINOFF.C. Lettres Dan55 56 santes No.Composers' Index PADEREWSKI. S. Pause No.NIKOFF. 17. ROBERT: Carnaval No. 8. Paganini No. RAFF. 14. Aveu (Avowal) No. No. 2. 12.H. 21. Marche des Davidsbiindler Centre les Philistins (March of the Hosts of David Against the Philistines) 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 . SERGEI V.: Prelude. 163 171 171 No.S. A.A. 6. Preamble Clown Arlequin Valse Noble Eusebius Florestan 51 51 4. 7. 2 133 139 143 SAPEU. 16.C. No. 22. Chiarina No.H. 47 1. 13. No. JOACHIM: Eclogue in G Flat 3. Valse Allemande No. 11. IGNACE: Cracovienne 231 PAGE 152 Minuet PERRY.
No. in B Minor. No. FRANZ PETER: March Militaire Minuet in B Minor SCHUBERT. LEFEBURE: Titania 195 101 174 . W. No. VERDI-LISZT: Rigoletto Fantasie WAGNER. 12 Traumeswirren Warum Grillen 64 65 67 69 70 72 73 74 76 76 77 77 78 81 Ende vom Lied Novelletten Novellette Novellette Novellette Novellette in F. The Arabesque Nachstiick in F Major The Traumerei Romance in F Sharp Cradle Song in E Flat Vogel als 83 86 88 Prophet (Bird as Prophet) 90 201 SCHUBERT. SINDING. 21. CH. 6 Serenade Du bist die Ruh SCHYTTE. H. LUDVIG: At Evening. 21. Op. Forest Elves Berceuse (Cradle Song) Across the Steppes Allegro from Sonata.LISZT : 224 93 99 100 120 121 Soiree de Vienne. 99 . 7 in F Sharp Minor. 1 in E. No. Op. RICHARD: Bridal March from "Lohengrin" WAGNER-LISZT: Abend Stern WEI<Y.232 Fantasy Composers' Index PAGE Opus Aufschwung Des Abends Pieces. 53 122 123 124 SHERWOOD. : : Minuet Rustle of Spring 227 145 TSCHAIKOWSKY. Op. 8. Op. 21. PETER! Doumka Troika en Traineaux 149 150 102 . Op.
Schytte " Bridal March from Lohengrin. Barcarolle. Edw. Tschaikowsky Dragon Fly. At Evening. Schumann Aus Schoner Zeit. Baxter Perry Nevin Berceuse (Cradle Song). ^Eolienne. . Paderewski 47 108 97 42 88 152 143 173 196 67 149 129 142 Dance of the Elves. 6." 154 163 128 122 195 Wagner Carnaval. Schumann Doumka. PAGE Schytte Edw. Schumann Cavalier Fantastique." Handel Des Abends. Schytte At the Spinning Wheel. Cradle Song in E Flat. Schumann Around the Maypole: Rustic Dance. Campbell Ballade of Last Island. Morey. Sapellnikoff Danse Ecossaise. . 53. Edw. Op. Arabesque. Op. . L. Schytte Allegro from Sonata. 85. Nevin Jensen 233 . Andante Favori. Schumann Cracovienne. Liszt Mendelssohn Consolation. Chopin 29 210 124 78 170 120 108 107 65 176 161 Fred. Godard Au Matin. Baxter Perry 123 159 Beethoven Andante Spianato and Polonaise. Heinrich Hofmann Autumn Reverie. Godard Consolation No. Baxter Perry Baba Yaga.Alphabetical Index Across the Steppes. 22. Capriccioso. Baker " Dead March from Saul. LeRoy B. Op. Godard Aufschwung.
Schumann Lied. Mendelssohn 22 168 36 130 171 In My Neighbor's Garden. Sherwood Music Box. Chopin Minuet. Gipsy Rondo. 7. 40. Ende vom Evening Star (Tannhauser). Baxter Perry Bach Liszt Love Dream (Liebes Traum). The. Chopin Gavotte Imperial in A Minor. Die. Schubert Minuet. Morey Hunting Song. Edw. Largo in G. Godard Lorelei. Opus 12.Liszt Schytte Fantasy Pieces. 3. Nevin Marche Militaire. Baxter Perry Handel Liszt Liebes Traum No. L'Indienne. Schubert-Liszt Mendelssohn 100 43 139 73 67 101 121 Duetto Eclogue in G Flat. Love Song. Haydn Grillen. A. Boccherini Melodic. Paderewski Minuet in B Minor. Grieg Minuet. Op. The. L. Fred. Forest Elves. 24 96 130 201 134 171 Schubert D' Albert Mermaid's Song. Wagner. Hieland Laddie. No. Schumann 64 199 Funeral March. Raff Schumann Evening (Des Abends). Alphabetical Index Ruh. Baxter Perry Military Polonaise. 22 96 110 157 Edw. 1. Liebich 225 224 227 174 .234 Du bist die (il). 208 224 22/ Minuet from Sonata. Morey Schumann Handel 167 25 72 Harmonious Blacksmith. Nevin Jumping Rope. Op. Edw. Loure in G.
The. A. 1 12. Trilby. 2. The. Schubert-Liszt Wely Schumann Schumann Tschaikowsky Traumerei. Mendelssohn Rustle of Spring. E. Schumann Rondo Capriccioso. Mendelssohn Sonata in Thou Art Titania. 53. Schumann Schubert-Liszt C Major. Chopin Polonaise in C Sharp Minor. Traumeswirren. Mendelssohn Prelude in E Minor. Op. Morey Song Without Words. No. The. No. 202 102 86 44 145 105 Second Mazurka. Soiree de Vienne No. 2. Undine. 26.Alphabetical Index Nachstiick in Narcissus. Mendelssohn Spinning Song. 6. 235 PAGE 81 F Major. the Rest. MacDowell Edw. Op. Mozart Song of the Kankakee. 40. No. No. Polonaise. Franz Liszt Verdi-Liszt Rigoletto Fantasie. Serenade. No. 2. Godard Polonaise Militaire. Ch. Blose 127 141 155 Novelletten. Op. 69 112 150 Godard Troika en Traineaux. Baxter Perry Portent. Schumann 74 116 208 208 209 210 212 214 160 44 133 Pan's Flute. 2. A Nevin Thousand Eyes. Sinding Rakoczy March. Ferdinand Dewey 172 . Chopin Franz Liszt Polonaise in E Major. Chopin Polonaise. Op. J. Op. Rachmaninoff Prelude. 40. Schumann Ferdinand Dewey Night Has Nocturne. Romance in F Sharp. 1 Polonaise in C Minor. Op. 3. Godard Schubert-Liszt 99 65 93 27 167 40 35 34 100 174 83 Soaring (Aufschwung). Mendelssohn Spring Song. M.
Mendelssohn Whims (Grillen). Mendelssohn Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet). Jensen Jungmann . Grieg Wedding March. the Wisp. Schumann Will Will O O ' ' the Wisp. Schumann 38 90 70 147 193 72 70 177 177 Warum. 30. 6. No. Op.236 Alphabetical Index PAGE Venetian Gondola Song. Schumann Why (Warum). Schumann Wedding Day.
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