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Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces 00perruoft

Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces 00perruoft

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Sections

  • Introduction
  • Easy Classics for Students
  • Schumann's Novelletten
  • The Arabesque, by Schumann
  • The Traumerei, by Schumann
  • Compositions by Godard
  • L'Indienne, by Godard
  • Trilby, by Godard
  • Pan's Flute, by Godard
  • Teaching Pieces for Second and Third Grades
  • Inflection in Music
  • The Story of the Waltz
  • The Story of the March
  • The Story of the Polonaise
  • The Story of the Gavotte
  • Story of the Tarantelle
  • The Story of the Minuet
  • Composers' Index
  • Alphabetical Index

CBIES OF STANDARD

ACHING PIECES

HfHE PIANO-FORTE
IDWARD BAXTER PERRY

Barton, Dursttoe

&

Osborn

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

SDWARO JOHNSON
MUSIC

STORIES OF STANDARD TEACHING PIECES CONTAINING EDUCATIONAL NOTES AND LEGENDS PERTAINING TO THE BEST KNOWN AND MOST USEFUL PIANOFORTE COMPOSITIONS IN GENERAL USE BY STUDENTS OF MUSIC AND DESIGNED AS A COMPANION VOLUME TO THE AUTHOR'S "DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSES OF PIANOFORTE COMPOSITIONS" X X X X BY EDWARD BAXTER PERRY THEO.. . PA. 1712 Chestnut St. PRESSER CO. PHILADELPHIA..

Copyright. 1910. British Rights Secured. Preset Co. . by fheo.

by Schumann Schumann's Romance in F Sharp Schumann's Cradle Song in E Flat Schumann's Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet) Some Familiar Compositions by Franz Liszt Compositions by Godard L'Indienne. The Arabesque.Contents Introduction BMB 11 Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils Six Easy Classics for Students Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn Robert Schumann's Carnaval 15 21 31 47 Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. by Schumann Schumann's Nachstiick in F Major The Traumerei. by Godard Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material Nevin's Compositions 64 74 78 81 83 86 88 90 93 105 110 112 116 119 127 Modern Compositions Teaching Pieces for Second and Third Grades Miscellaneous Inflection in Music 132 166 179 DANCE FORMS The The The The The The Story Story Story Story Story Story Waltz of the March of the of the Polonaise of the 183 190 205 Gavotte of the Tarantelle of the Minuet 216 218 221 229 233 Composers' Index Alphabetical Index . Opus 12 Schumann's Novelletten. by Godard Pan's Flute. by Godard Trilby.

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dealing with an easier grade of compositions suited to the needs of students. "Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. The aim of this work has been the same as in the former volume." and the gratifying reception accorded it by the public. some years ago. and suggestive elements in emotional. there has my been a general and growing demand. while the other volume dealt almost exclusively with the artist's repertoire. Introduction. for a volume of similar analyses. especially among teachers. [INCH the of publication. emphasize the descriptive.Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. It contains analyses of one hundred pieces available for teaching purposes. It is in response to this request that this book has been prepared. : to ti . imaginative viz.

and of self-control. not its sensuous and As it superficial side. . not merely to the ear. melody and harmony. or. our careful study. the compositions treated. in the development of emotional force. some are exists rhythm. rather than their mechanical structure or technical details. which is the balance-wheel of the whole life mechanism. and the imagination. which is the mainspring of action. If it serves this purpose the object of the writer will be attained. not a mere pleasant pastime. appealing to the intelligence. a medium of expres- sion. is a thought. but should demand our serious attention. It is an important element in education. cannot be ignored and should not be such. becoming more and more fully recognized as a subtle but powerful factor in the upbuilding of human character. in a scene. a mood. the emotions. from its inner and more profoundly significant.12 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and his labor repaid. not It is a competitive exhibition of mechanical skill. a parlor decoration. the constituent elements of which A good composition cases. It that good music cannot be too often or too forcefully reiterated is a form of ART. expressed or embodied in a beautiful form. capacity and perceptive faculty. That is the sole purpose and aim of this book. treated merely as a pretty toy. Hence any effort to focus the mind of the player or listener upon this inner meaning is legitimate and helpful if rightly understood. an ethical and cultural force. or a means of vain display. But the form merely as the means of expression.

13 The compositions herein discussed are. that for that very reason the collection of authentic. I purely literary standpoint. . which I offer for whatever they may be worth. it has difficult to maintain the same standard can only hope that any deficiencies be compensated for by the greater pedagogic usefulness of this second volume.Introduction. If. of a much easier grade. It must be remembered. technically. less dramatic themes for their smaller compositions. I have only gathered a few shining pebbles and bright shells scattered on the shore of this great ocean. reserving their lighter. or even any twenty such books. my readers find a few pearls among them. I shall be content. as reading matter. book will hence it is hoped the prove of greater practical value to the average teacher and student. I have done what I could and hope still to continue the work. legendary and personal data concerning them has been the more difficult. The great composers naturally put their best efforts and embodied their most important subjects in their larger works. It must also be borne in mind that the subject matter is too vast to be entirely covered by any two. than those in the former volume. by chance. however. along this line may EDWARD BAXTER PERRY. historical. with few exceptions. so that from a been extremely of interest.

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This latter concerns itself exclusively with the form and workmanship. ^Esthetic analysis deals with the principles of aesthetics. of mechanical resources. which be good or bad according to the amount of skill. possessed by the composer. Y aesthetic analysis I do not mean musi- cal analysis. its real power and influence in human life. from which every art product is evolved.Aesthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. which are back of all mechaniIt cal means and underlie every form of art work. It is the analysis of essences or properties the last crucial test of the musical chemist. in . reducing a work to its simple elements. that 15 . rather with the matter expressed than with the will the command manner of its expression. has to do rather with the essence than with the substance. the architectural structure and details of a composition. order the more fully to understand and utilize value. that common and necessary branch of instruction more or less efficiently dwelt upon by all the advanced teachers of the age. JSsthetic analysis concerns itself with the spiritual germ.

and the activity thus engendered seeks to find vent in material expression along the channel familiar to it. Suppose some grand and inspiring but not uncommon event. such as a storm at sea. and all laborers in the domain of art.1 6 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. all of whom are endowed with the artistic temperament and talent. conception. the vain struggles of wrecked mariners. a painter. Each is stirred to his being's core. a dismantled ship. evoked from nihility by the creative power of the composer. through a stimulus. the wild winds and weltering waters. because the sources of subjective stimulus are more difficult to trace and expound. applied to his imagination and emotions. in seizes one climactic whole. which conception must always exist prior to any material embodiment. of her crew in their last brief struggle. this one single significant situation. The poet describes to us in words the terror of the tempest-torn deep. though in different departments. resulting in an art product. vitalizes such material when embodied. and a musician. The painter moment as characteristic of the colors. and the tossing arms and blanched faces The composer. and alone Let us take for illustration an example of objective stimulus to the artistic activity of a person fittingly constituted and endowed. His canvas shows us a pall of cloud above a heaving waste of sea. . and gives us in an expressive tableau. which may be either objective or subjective. just disappearing beneath a sheet of foam. and the corpses drifting shoreward in the wan light of a murky dawn. be experienced by a poet. from which we must infer what has gone before and what will inevitably follow.

according to temperament. the quickened and intensified life. sea. aroused by the storm. with the remorseful sobbing of the closing. Now. however ignorant of the technical means used to embody it. upon a wreck-strewn shore. aiming at the same results and effects. which they have caught and imprisoned in every case. the shriek of the gale. and emphasizing component elements and their to various faculties and senses. the fury. and would lead us directly to the fear. the mighty sweep of mam- moth of shattering timbers. none of which can be found to figure at aesthetic analysis all in either of the others. and feel more or less keenly. which agitated the breast of the artist at the time of the conception of his work. surges. and the struggle. perhaps. and which thrills us with its terrific presence. restricted to the 17 medium of tone. the artistic intention of poet and painter. but subjecting it to the inherent laws of his it own peculiar medium. embodying different in different material. the roar of answering billows. the would be precisely identical in every instance. gives us all the dis- cordant minor voices of the storm and its impetuous and resistless movement. and in each case is wholly concerned with elements. while the technical analysis of these different art products would be radically diverse. But it is the appeal dread spirit of the storm. and the crash Bach has treated the theme from a different standpoint. but tone is to so new and strange a medium of expression that they are susceptible only to the sensuous effect many . Words and colors are so universally familiar that all perceive more or less clearly.^Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. in its subsiding fury.

expression in piano playing? and how shall I acquire it?" are perhaps the most frequent ques- "What is tions asked by all music students.1 8 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. in its ultimate perfection of utterIt is this inner meaning ance. painter. in fact. a love-scene. Oftener composer himself This inner meaning is often vague. of music. and intelligible answer. a religious ceremony any one of the thousand trate A episodes of which awake emotion and quicken imagination might have been equally well chosen as furnishing inspiration to poet. and catch only the rhythmic jingle of a poem. and will be found in his perfected work by those who have eyes to see and ears to hear. and among the most important. which it is teacher to discover and the duty and privilege of the artist or the make plain to others by any and every possible means. the true meaning of a . ethereal. by means of the proper tone. and musician. successfully and which. some purely subjective experience of the must be sought as the impulse which quickened his artistic activity to fruition. baffles every resource. emphasis. Expression in playing is precisely the same as in reading or declamation. illus- my battle-field. just as a savage would see only a blaze of color in a painting. subtle. and inflection. It consists in making unmistakably clear to the listener. with which music deals more and satisfactorily than any other language. life still. a deathbed. to which the teacher are certainly is ex- pected to give a ready. concise. a shadowy emanation from that mysterious underworld of consciousness. I have selected a simple incident in nature to idea.

from the very beginning. and then. cheerful or sad. exhilarating hours of . To tell. in doing so will develop it amazingly. To be able to express the significance of a composition. either improvised. to the bright. or taken from compositions with which the pupil is unfamiliar. whether the music is fast or slow. at least the pith of it. he should be trained to think and talk about the impressions so produced upon him. The first essential step toward acquiring the ability to do this is which to grasp clearly and feel vividly for oneself the meaning is to be impressed upon others. In addition to the works he is himself studying. and will be equally unable to make others comprehend it. a player has no more definite idea of a compo- tion of and can give no more comprehensible descripit. 19 composition. than that it is a pretty piece. even the simplest.^Esthetic Analysis Possible for Pupils. by judicious questions. briefly and plainly in one's own words is always proof of this power already possessed to considerable ex- tent. be sure that more than he or she does not understand its artistic import any if it were a poem in Choctaw. a battle-field or a ball-room. major or minor. and practice When sition. the teacher should frequently play for him short musical periods of a distinct but widely varied character. whether he thinks it would be suited for a wedding or a funeral. The pupil should be led by easy stages. to seek and recognize the intention and effect of every strain of music. whether musical or literary. exciting or soothing. for instance. a hunt or a cradle song. to separate this meaning from the merely sensuous beauty of the medium and ornamental elaboration of the form in which it is embodied.

or the gloom of winter midnight. The tendency . and in establishing that instantaneous and sympathetic connection between the merely physical effect of music on the ear and the responsive echoes of thought and mood within. with bright pupils. much may be done in a few months. upon which connection music must base its only just claim to be called an art. and there will be no more trouble from rushing a gallop funeral down march into a quickstep. morning. even with the most unpromising pupils. who are about as rare and as much needed in our concert-rooms as are good performers. the dreamy twilight of evening.2O Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and almost always with results as surprising as they are The teacher will be astonished to find how gratifying. Object lessons of this kind. Let him select an appropriate name for the strain. or dragging a hunting to the amble of a tired cart-horse. is to make better listeners. and in every possible descriptive way characterize it as a distinct entity in its appeal to his own nature. will work wonders. continued and gradually increasing in comprehensiveness and delicacy of discrimination. moreover. From this cultivation of perception and appreciation an improvement in interpretation follows as a matter of course. having tried the plan many times. in stimulating activity of feeling and fancy. in culti- vating imagination and perception. by the study of writers on music and of the works of the best composers. supplemented by hints and suggestions from the teacher. What is felt will be expressed the moment the pupil has the technical power of expression necessary. of this training. I speak from experience.

It is well to select a few of the best and most disintrinsically tinctively representative of these old. The permanent impression made upon the mind of the child by pieces of this kind is of utmost importance. insist on a careful study of them. and let them serve as landmarks in musical history in the memory of the pupil. The first choice of half a dozen such works would most naturally include the following: 21 . as well as typical specimens of the forms and manner of musical thought in those earlier days. and But the old standard names carry a certain weight and dignity and the student's education is incomplete without some acquaintance with the old forms and methods of expression and the various stages of evolution through which the art of music has passed. time-honored works. of moderate technical difficulty. Not that these compositions are any better than the best modern works. in fact many of them are really less interesting and musical no whit better made.Six Easy Classics for Students. LL intelligent teachers recognize the importance of familiarizing pupils with the names and works of the old masters.

The Harmonious Blacksmith. The very term largo. yet a fine tained melody which must be given special prominence. is too hurried and impetuous for such a style. and should be given with a It suggests the vast almost devotional dim aisles. in difficult variations. with a sussonorous. melodic phrasing. broad. like our manner of living. It is a good study in clear. and also in a grave dignified style of playing seldom demanded by the modern works. which means large. clean-cut finger work. and crisp. and the lightest footfall echoes weirdly above the tombs of the forgotten dead. a form once very vogue but now rather antiquated and seldom It is said to have been conceived under the . was formerly in universal use. the stately pillars. where the reverential hush. This composition spirit. and vague awe of bygone generations and dead ages seem to linger in the air like the faint odor of incense. study in the production of a broad. or in other words massive and very slow. Handel. This is decidedly the most famous of all Handel's works for the piano. is distinctly religious in character serious. of some solemn cathedral. the lofty vaulted dome. The Largo This is in G. mellow tone in full chords. is seldom seen now.22 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Most of our modern music. and still holds its own to some extent in popular favor. It consists of a simple. cheerful theme with several increasingly much used. by Handel. even appearing at times on the concert programs of prominent artists.

medocrity has been avoided. cheery smith was hard at work at his anvil and sang to himself as he worked. Haydn. jovial song. healthy. is that its beginnings are to be found even the works of Handel. keeping time with the ringing rhythmic blows of the hammer. . it. England at the time. while the sparks flew in bright showers and the ruddy forge-fire glowed in the background. ment This lusty. Alas of the old for the hearty. and strokes. The melody is supposed to be the song of the smith. He was caught in a sudden thunder shower and took temporary refuge in the village smithy. are obvious and unmistakable. as he sang rhythmic hammer flying and the suggestions of and clanging anvil. The sparks. to the fitting accompaniof the hammer strokes on the iron. happy yeoman it recalls The type is welldays ! whom ! nigh obsolete in our time. though written at a time when descriptive music was supposed to be unknown or disdained. atmosphere of the forge has been retained. 23 Handel. Even Bach in his The fact dance forms was pictorial. note for note. The sturdy. and most of the among other so-called severe classicists. music.Six Easy Classics for Students. This work is a bit of avowed realism. furnished Handel with the actual theme. following circumstances. as well as the general idea for this com- This picture of simple village life and honest cheerful toil in old England should be borne clearly in mind by the player. and its mood reproduced in the position. but at the same time. was on his who was living in way one summer afternoon to the chapel at Cannons to use the organ.

interestingly worked out The student's approach to these heavier. to be appreciated. so much in vogue in his time. and the powerful. It demands more intelligent ininto form. useful and practicable teaching ponderous giant in pieces by this old. by Bach. for a fugue rical is only a geometin tone. involved. The and of which he immeasurably excelled all other writers any age. It does not interest to. but whom it is not possible or desirable to ignore in the study of the art in which he ranks as one of the greatest. a local form of bagpipe which usually furnished the music for the dancI have found this composition one of the most ing. more depth and gravity of thought sight and mood than they have at command. more com- plex forms. the realm of tone. whose very name is a terror to most pupils at first. minds which produced them. but somewhat ponderous. The Loure is an antique rustic dance originating It is somewhat slower than the jig in Normandy. should be gradual and . do not teach geometry in a kindergarten. is not attractive to most young students in in the beginning. polyphonic style of music. problem. scholarly. appealing chiefly to the intellect and the sense of mathematical relation and proportion. The Loure in G. neither should we try to cram a fugue into the immature because there them We brain of a musical infant. and was named after the Loure. them and ought not to be expected in is no developed faculty as yet which grasps or responds to it.24 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.

perhaps.Six Easy Classics for Students. in spite of its prejudices. is a very old. is a stock piece in the repertory of every teacher. a . Much is gained duction to Bach can be made a the player's intropleasurable. more easily grasped forms. and The "Loure" bold and brilliant and vivacious. now obsolete. after all. light-hearted peasantry. as he finds that he must educate his public as well as his pupils. if it finds that it can really enjoy what is called classic music. rather than a painful. The Gipsy Rondo. rustic but cheerful and bright. hence it seems to me wise to begin the study of Bach with some of his lighter. not stuffing in of unwelcome material by force. It is a little clumsy and grotesque. to be affectionate reverence for the name this tation. This is a point worth considering by the progressive teacher. but all the more humorous for that. stately lusty vigor and rude jollity of a simple. We enjoy and assimilate only what we can understand at a given time. remembered with and personality of new acquaintance. if 25 carefully guided. not with weariness and detesis True education the drawing out of latent capacity. by Haydn. interesting to the pupil and pleasing to an audience. accustomed to an active "out-of-doors" life and to noisy. experience. like an elephant dancing a skirt dance. which is always gratified. rough hilarity. Probably no composition of the old school is so It universally known and used as the Gipsy Rondo. full of the dance.

attractive to all pupils. conservative classic writer. with the rude tents scattered here and there among the trees. life. and primitive. a big cheerful fire blazing and crackling in the centre. works is not. pleasing number. showy. and with pupils and their friends because he does not This best sense. weird minor harmonies which are the ear-marks of their musical productions.26 fine Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. But it is bright. with few of those objectionable accidentals. expressing the mood of the gipsy. crisp tone and well-marked accents. and around it. a perfect specimen of the fully developed rondo form. has always been a favorite with teachers because he is a safe. in the flickering light and shifting shadows. while bearing the magical name of classical music by a standard composer. study in finger technic. unrestrained hilarity. lying mood is that of joyous youth. and the like. Imagine a gipsy camp. and his almost invariable adherence to the simpler major keys. as Haydn conceived it. somewhat rough. has none of the distinguishing characteristics of the music of that singular race. "Old Papa Haydn. with his good-natured optimism. full of life and verve. and none of those wild. crowd of young gipsies bent on a dancing gaily to the brilliancy. The music should be given with dash and a clear. none of the strange melodic progressions. known of his small sound classical. cheerful melodious style. Its under- music of fiddle and guitar. in any It a realistic imitation of gipsy music. spirited. . a frolic. and a bright." as he was called. his easy. out-of-door Its chief element of interest is a pronounced. the bugbear of young players. augmented seconds.

It is more than an etude. by Mozart. perfect in detail. to the . much-abused. the apotheosis of pastoral. valuable along these lines. 112. that mood of restful. replete with fine ethereally beautiful melody and graceful embellishments. seems flat. or a mere sample of the strict old sonata It represents Mozart at his best. unanswered questions and feverish longings of our modern life. sunny. the mood of a bright. the vexing. in a form as clear and finely finished as a delicate ivory carving. long-suffering little sonata. Op.Six Easy Classics for Students. a mood so foreign to the hearts and environments it is beings. impersonal optimism which is the essence of most of his musical creations. is nevertheless a musical gem. which generally serves the reluctant student as a study in rhythm and finger technic. It contains no hint of serious thought or profound emotion. and which is. and insipid as tepid water. movement. tenderly emotional. only the joy of swift. of course. gently. without apparent effort. pulse-stirring free 27 rhythm. that of most present-day human understood by player or hearer rarely and It still more rarely enjoyed. It is like some the finely wrought Greek idyl. without a trace of passionate intensity or restless agitation. expressing form. where happy shepherds watch their peaceful flocks untroubled by the storm and stress. cloudless June day on the upland pastures. This much-used. Sonata in C Major.

but innocent frolic on the village green in the later evening. the green stretches of meadow. The last suggests the gay. sure of his loving welcome when he wends his leisurely way back to his simple home in the valley as the twilight shadows fall. and escape from futile strife. movement one is is by The whole with lived in all sincerity a musical picture of the simple life. it is The first movement gives us the pastoral scene complete. soft and quillity pure as the petals of a white rose. and vain seeking after lasting happiness. passion-driven.jaded modern victim of the relentless Juggernaut civilization. Throughout the entire continually impressed Mozart's melodic inventiveness and inborn skill. an ethereal beauty of tone. and sum- mer breezes softly breathing among swaying grasses and clover-tops. The second movement herd. and an easy fluent technic. drifting through the sunlit spaces. tender but hopeful is like the song of the shep- and contented. the silvery. goaded soul achievement in its first . we call the higher It is a backward glimpse into the heart of the golden age. flute-like notes of the shepherd's pipe. by simple folk. not played at labored affectation by the city. fevered lips of the young.28 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. but ever increasingly frequent sigh for peace and tranquil beauty. requires the utmost repose and tranof style. but later. The work . ambition- stormy period of struggle and welcomed as the answer to that inarticulate. the floating shadows of passing mistwreaths across the azure sky.

Six Easy Classics for Students. in fact substituted in its place. the whole work was dedicated who to the Count Waldstein of Vienna. full description of which may be found in my volume of Descriptive Analyses. known as the Waldstein. This work. The opening theme portrays the with its quiet starry night hushed solemnity. was originally written as the slow movement in the great C major sonata. and is so still. . also as the Aurora sonata. a descendant of the famous general and statesman Waldstein. at the same time. 29 Andante Favori. as a tribute and with ref- character. among all classes of players. figured so prominently during the thirty years' war. historical importance. unimportant introduction to the Rondo lishers. its vast inspiring majesty and the deep reflective mood of the solitary beholder alone in b^s observatory. the world over. The sonata was considered too long by the pubwas so. The Andante tions and calm deals with the astrological investigareflective mood of Wallenstein. and popular. the student of the heavens. by Beethoven. and personal peculiarities of this great field-marshal who was. As there stated. rather than with the more active stirring episodes of his public life. The Andante was cut out and published separately. The work was composed erence to the life. or Wallenstein. one of the leading astrologers of his day. and a brief. now published separately.

. and ultimate outcome he is striving to discover from these mighty. more agitated octave passages later in the work.30 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. fully believes. significance. one more voice added to the volume of that great human chorus that. eventful hours in his own life. the limitless host of inconceivably distant stars. hesitating. progressive development of the theme. the other planets. and whence and why? The true musician will render this work with extreme gravity. exercising all. thoughtful tranquillity. or rather a Then follows a series of variations. from all times and comes echoing down the ages the same refrain. and its slow. reverent. sorrow-fraught minor cadences show his long- an irresistible influence human life ing for the ever-sought but never found solution of life's great problem. including his own. with serious. The heavier. inscrutable arbiters of his fate. suggesting the growing. whose origin. wheeling in silent splendor. the old unanswered questions. gleaming through immeasurable spaces. lands. with their struggles and conflicts and victories or defeats. The close is eminently reflective. indicate his memories of the stormy. as he upon and destiny. broadening current of thoughts induced by the sublime. yet with a certain repressed intensity. How.

and not without a certain excuse. but never profound ideas.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. and to relegate them more and more to oblivion. the social favorite. the uncompromising directness of the giant. Mendelssohn's style and prevalent mood suggest the perfect manners of the cultured man of the world. blandly complacent optimism. Compared with the vigor and variety. cians. His unvarying. Beethoven. or the subtle mysticism and rugged force of the dual Schumann. T has come to be quite the fashion of among a large class of musi- late years. or the fervid emotionality of Chopin. 31 . rather than the fine frenzy of that genius which to madness is allied. and his occasional unblushing use of pleasing but century-old musical platitudes are all out of keeping with the intensity and complexity of modern thought and feeling and cannot but remind us of a very slender-waisted gentleman in full evening dress. his smoothly rounded periods. to sneer at the piano compositions of Mendelssohn as shallow and superficial. his graceful.

its tempests unanswered questions and unsatisconflicts. hysterical. and to the former class at all times. of symmetry and finish. fied longings. . this constitute his peculiar very happy serenity and polished elegance charm and one which has its legitimate place and use in the realm of music and should not be ignored. with and its as the exponents of restful content. strongest possible expression of life as its stress and strife. and drift smoothly on the stream of chance with shipped oars and slackened sails. which they are not so constituted as to share or even understand. To some unworthy.32 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. and its unveiled embodiment in art strikes them as indelicate. which pleasantly occupies without violently arousing the mind. Haydn. even to these there come moments of lassitude when weary alike of the heights of fevered ecstasy and the depths of despair they sigh for the Moments when it seems better quiet valley of repose. of gentle moods. natures. with the will dozing beside the helm. gratifies the taste without exciting the feelings or arousing the intellect. all while to those more richly though perhaps less for- tunately endowed emotionally. Mozart. even vulgar. delirious. which lightly touch the surface of emotion as a swallow skims the sunlit lake without disturbing its darker depths. But and they are not few nor the most extreme emotion. to give over the struggle and the protest. of delicate fancy. To these. above all. seems unreal. and Mendelssohn stand they know it. who demand in art the fullest. at such moments. of which abstract beauty of form. and ambition gagged and fettered in the hold.

lose the unforgetable Men- His periods are clear-cut. would be render them An art limited indeed ! form the compositions Songs Without Words. easily grasped by the student.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. and there are few episodical or parenthetical passages and almost no interpolated cadenzas to distract the attention from the general outline. and to all with equal fidelity and sympathy. with the thesis and antithesis. perience more or to less persistent or recurrent ac- cording stances. its individual temperament and circum- It is not the highest or the best. Their symmetry is perfect. and although the harmonies are distinctive and individual. the infinitely varied phases of human life and extrue music. they never delssohn flavor. As well say that Wordsworth and Longfellow wrote the only It is merely the expression of one of true poetry. One may select almost at random any one of these wordless songs to illustrate to a class the distinct eight-measure period. free from elaborate embellishment and confusing complexity reminding one of the earlier Greek architecture. or of certain special occasions. especially his As a study " compositions are written in a great variety of rhythms and meters. 3 ." are unequaled. restful but satisfactory. definite and well-balanced. but it has place and use. 33 There are those who claim that this is the only which is manifestly absurd. which met only the needs of a certain limited class. Although these of pure musical of Mendelssohn. though simple. and the first duty of the musician is to learn to recognize and appreciate all forms and shades of experience as expressed in music.

leaf. pleasurwas written in London on the first day of June. The Spring Song. England sees. full of love of able exhilaration. fine.34 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. rustling leaves. and all the swallows! Hark. . This is Without Words/' and happiest vein. thrilling with exuberant gladness tuned to harmonious accord with the manifold voices of nature. careless rapture! The melody is a pure lyric suggesting a fresh young soprano voice. It so well described Oh. probably the most famous of the "Songs is written in Mendelssohn's it The mood with his is thoroughly in keeping mental attitude sunny. where my blossomed pear tree in the hedge Leans to the field and scatters on the clover Blossoms and dew drops at the bent spray's edge That's the wise thrush He sings each song twice over Lest you should think he never could recapture : And And after April when May follows. to be in England by Browning in in the lines: now that April's there. 1842. The first. pouring forth its overflowing delight in a shower of golden notes like sunbeams made audible. and hopeful. Like the English skylark. it soars and floats in the upper air. and jubilant bird calls. joyous prevalent expresses life and a mild. wakening from their long winter silence in bubbling brooks. some morning unaware. That the lowest boughs and the brushwood's sheaf And whoever wakes Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough In England now! the white-throat builds. and is a perfect embodiment of the composer's impressions of an English spring.

the literal imitation of the buzz and hum of the spinning wheel in the accompaniment and the lyric melody representing the song of the maiden or matron who sings at her work. Every spinning song contains two distinct elements. in Schubert's "Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. The whole composition only fully appreciated is instinct grace." a very clever bit of realism. 35 The light rippling arpeggio chords of the accompaniment should simulate the swaying branches. One of the universal favorites is "The Spinning Song. yet with a certain joyous with delicate freedom and abandon is "when the heart young. as well as of tuneful melodic writing. and every throb of anguish quivers through the song. As." The Spinning Song. on account of the tempting facility with which the idea can be expressed on the piano and the variety of moods which may be coupled with it. This melody may vary in mood through all the of feeling from rapture to despair. sohn the mood is quite the reverse careless. light- ." the heart of the singer is breaking. while the very wheel drones sympaIn this one by Mendelsthetically in the minor key. "The Spinning Song" has always been a familiar and much-used subject among piano composers. for example. according to the emotional state of the supposed singer which it is gamut intended to indicate. nodding their cheery greeting to the passing breeze or the white fleecy clouds adrift upon an azure sky.

sanguine peasant maiden sitting at her open cottage door on a bright May at her daily. and expresses throughout the buoyancy and elation. with the sunshine of youth's morning brightit. is as riotously gay as the May as happy as the untried heart of innocence. as fresh as the May breezes which toss the white boughs over all till they scatter blossom bells of the appleperfume music in sweet showers the country side. morning. but not irksome task.36 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. thoroughly characteristic of his prevalent mood. the stirring of the blood in answer to the voice of nature. active foot. of spinning. the careless joy in life and action always naturally associated with a hunting scene. while her gay voice vies with the nesting robins in the blossoming apple or cherry outside. most joyous composi- tions. This is one of his brightest. singular that It is men are never so hilariously . morning The wheel hums and b-r-r-s at great speed under her supple. Fancy a young. The Hunting Song. One can feel in it the bounding pulses and superabundant vitality of youth and health. ening hearted. and a fine piece of suggestive symbolic writing. the call of the wild. It breathes the freshness and of the dewy aromatic fragrance woodland at daybreak. in a tripping lilt as light and free and joyous as the voice of the linnet. The whole mood a mood which we are the better and more cheerful to have shared even though only for a moment.

and has no means of defense. The various horn signals tell of the progress of the hunt. The sound of the bugle or horn through the cool green aisles of the forest is always associated with the idea of the hunt. as the . In this case it is not the shrill. appropriate symbol of a hunting scene. In indicate that the game is afoot. music the imitation of the horn is universally em- employed ployed as the most suggestive. is usual in such works. no chance for in ments firearms. as it is. or feels. and has no place here. not with the ideal conception of what it cruelty might be. but the German Wald-horn (forest horn). aggressive English bugle. But that is an ethical rather than an artistic conArt deals with life sideration. the common device of imitating the hunting-horn in the theme or melody is As in this work. writing his horn melody in the form of a duet most of the time.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. Think of a man with all the resources of his trained intelligence. now stronger. now fainter. it is a fearful commentary on the life and cowardice of the human race. To one who reflects. and the rich sonorous theme rings through the forest glades. or in sight. supplemented by finding all the latest improvekeenest pleasure in mutilating and murdering a deer that has committed no wrong. etc. 37 gay as when starting out to inflict suffering and death upon their innocent brothers of the forest. an instrument of lower register and more mellow yet resonant quality of tone and Mendelssohn uses two. who never did them any harm and are as fond of life as they. his or retaliation in the unequal battle.

The ripple of the flowing water is distinctly given in the right hand accompaniment. hunt winds nearer or further away. characterization of 6. At the close we seem to linger by a bubbling woodland stream which gurgles and tinkles along its rocky bed. while the receding horn theme in the left should be made markedly realistic. The Gondola forms an exception Mendelssohn's usual any general style and mood. Opus to 30. No. Far from expressing his ordinary cheerful easy-going optimism it is sad. Mendelssohn was not a friend of the excessive rubato and it is not in place in his music. The rubato indicates agitation and emotional intensity. The whole should be given at a moderate tempo. The power must vary constantly. The tempo ought to vary but little. so that the ideas can be clearly expressed and easily grasped. both foreign to his nature and style. and through a considerable range. while the music of the horn gradually recedes and at last dies in the distance. half hidden beneath a profusion of fern and brake. It is usually played much too fast. so much so that one is tempted to believe that it was not written by him. . even morbid.38 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. tangled elder and weeping-willow. to preserve the artistic illusion of the continu- ous change of location on the part of the huntsmen. Venetian Gondola Song.

etc. and subject. to attribute more intense and passionate character than the majority.. . It is or in any other capacity especially of these among not definitely known which works so originated. 39 It is well known that his sister. the rhythmic swing of the oar. I fully believe that the work in question This is indicated its Mendelssohn's usual clarity of outline. and the emotional element expressed in the song of the boatman. or sulking in the dark phantom-shrouding fogs of late November. however.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. as it was not considered "good form" for a lady of high social position to figure publicly as a composer the Jews. there are two distinct elements the realistic on which the idea element. a number of songs and piano pieces now included among his works. The singer may be the happy lover serenading his promised bride. In every gondola song and barcarole. which may vary from transport to tragedy. the splash of water. The gondola is exclusively associated with Venice. This picturesqueness appealed very strongly to the beautyloving Mendelssohn. to her those of a We are inclined. suggesting the physical conditions is based the rocking of the boat. or the discarded and jealous suitor . by by vague indistinctiveness of form so different from her. but it may be Venice smiling under the azure sky and glorious radiance of summer noon. as her nature was far deeper and more emotional than that of her brother. Fanny Mendelssohn. at times. to moments of depression. just as in the spinning song. was written and a certain mood. and published under her brother's name. composed.

No. which it is more than probable was written by Fanny Mendelssohn. alas. Opus 53. The sky and water are leaden grey. The boat onward like a spent sea-gull. discouragement and profound sorrow. sounding in every phrase. Another of these little works. but old and wearily familiar. in muffled monotone. No swellings tell that winds may be Upon some far-off happier sea No heavings hint that winds have been On seas less hideously serene. sadly pensive depression. with no cheerful splash or silvery ripple to break the oppressive monotony. and . not new and keen. of tragedies hidden in its depths. the water whispers darkly. the outlines of churches and palaces blurred by the heavy sluggish glides wearily masses of fog rolling in from the Adriatic. voices in minor melody the spirit of the night. is Venice on a misty sullen evening in the autumn. For no ripples curl. 2. while the song of the boatman. The very unusual mood here portrayed is exactly duplicated by Edgar Allan Poe in the following lines from "The City in the Sea": Relentlessly beneath the sky The melancholy waters lie. subdued and plaintive. waiting in the gloom of a nate his rival. Along that wilderness of glass.40 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The scene which forms its fitting background. rocking slowly on the long tide-swells. murky midnight work the mood to assassi In the case of this is little of the singer that of dull.

so trying to the amateur evenly and accurately two notes in one hand against three in the other. is one of the most valuable and helpful of the "Songs Without Words" to both teacher and student. as presented in this work throughout its entire length. dealing with emotion merely an impassioned love-song. so to speak.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. It is is easy when clearly divide comprehended. of playing This rhythmic problem. otherwise simple and easily understood. hence this composition. in the uncertainty and restless agitation. in the melody. is the No. expressed accompaniment by triplet chords. against even eighths. thus bringing the second of the two exactly half way between three. 53. giving two to each note of the triplet and three to each even eighth. fervor and ardent longing. (At half past two by the accompaniment. 2.) That so few players are able to do this easily shows that they depend more upon the hands and good luck than upon the the second and third of the head. Op. apart from its musical interest. No student's training is complete without a . full of tenderness. The solution of the puzzle trouble. with a marked undertone of impatience. is a very important one and should be mastered early in the study of the piano. without any elaborate cadenzas or technical difficulties it is The as the music complexities. 41 which is one of the most beautiful in the collection. and once grasped. It is a pure lyric with no realistic suggestion in it. presents are purely rhythmical. gives no further only necessary to the beat mentally into six equal parts. pianist.

It is a fine study in sustained. without difficulty. It expresses simply and directly a tranquil resignation to the inevitable. 9. which renders in it restful moments life.42 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. to express unrest emotional stress of any kind. of lassitude and soothing to many minds amid the stress and struggle little of It reminds one of the verses which were so popular with a certain class of readers a few years ago: Be still. it has endeared possesses a certain individual quiet charm which it to many hearts the world over. mon and agitation device with modern writers. a trustful. reposeful almost hopeful submission to a superior will and wisdom. deep. full. prob- ably the best known and most often played of any of the set. . smoothly connected chord playing. Though technically simple and devoid of any very profound musical significance. and this rhythm is a comcareful study of this work. Having once thoroughly he will always be able to play longer or shorter passages of two against three wherever they appear. and in the production of a yet mellow quality of tone in full chords like that of the organ. Consolation. mastered it. not thine. my soul. and sleep. No. It tion of these tion of would be impossible to pass from a considera"Songs Without Words" without men- "The Consolation" in B major. be still and The storm is raging on God's God's deep. be still sleep.

while remaining in the main subordinate to the other. Both must stand out clearly. which form one of its most attractive and beautiful features. and carefully phrased. like embossed figures in rich red gold on a soft azure field. full. suggesting . and accurate balance of parts for the tenor theme must be brought out distinctly. my soul. are so neglected and so rarely well given? Have we no time or taste for anything but hurry up music. is a composition that explains itself. 43 Be still. the Why is it that these purely lyric effects in piano playing. be still and sleep. God's hand shall stay the tempest's sweep.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. my soul. It attractive to pupils and is an excellent study in melody playing. human voice against the quiet. melodious Italian style. and dynamic values. Be still. and might better have been omitted. be still and sleep. intended to simulate a vocal duet between soprano and tenor is in the flowing. maintaining a degree of independence. II "II Duetto" It is Duetto. with a warm. Be still and sleep. neutral background of the accompaniment. be still and sleep. because we travel by express train and do business by wire? Must we also have . God's hand. wholly irrelevant. The brief arpeggio passage used as introduction and coda serves little purpose other than to establish the It is tonality and make a beginning and ending. mellow quality of tone. God's heaven shall comfort those who weep. God's heaven and thine. not thine.

It is a thankful program number and a study in the production of a large. bravery and fidelity triumph over fraud and crime. a world- famous concert number. winning final victory through suffering fine and struggle. on high-speed gearing and served against time. machine. manly strength and noble purpose. It might be the musical introduction to the principal act in some heroic drama.like. nevertheless. stormy accompaniment in a higher It is a good example of the noble lyric. which suggests the quality and color of bronze from which the statues of heroes are made and predominates over a rapid. one of the strongest things he has done. resolute melody tone. is it works of Mendelssohn. known and used than expressing courage. resolution. register. baritone melody.44 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. widely and favorably known of Mendelssohn's larger works for the piano. It is a broad. vigorous. is the Prelude in B Minor. played by eHsh the greatest . but is. our music ground out. in which truth. The Rondo Capriccioso. like hash at a depot lunch counter? What wonder that our people have musical indigestion! Prelude in One far less of the small E Minor. It is not of the first magnitude musically or technically. which deserves to be. ref- This article would not be complete without a erence in closing to the most thetgpndo Capriccioso.

with a warm sustained tone.Y I have not been able to find any authentic historical. whilaljhe bright. but that is uneqai vocally suggestive. 4^ artists^and very popular as a recital piece for advancea students in graduation programs. yet playful and sparkling rondo that follows manifests to the full The his capricious. shows Mendelssohn at his best in the lyric vein and is more> significant in content than most of his lyrics. poetic sentiment and delicate grace. This style is exemplified in the rondo movement referred to. as in the music to the "Midsummer Night's Dream.Some Noted Compositions by Mendelssohn. his happy. foundation for my idea. as it contains no insurmountable difficulties for the fairly equipped pianist and Its musical merit is always pleasing to an audience. and he was especially happy in his occasional incursions into the realm of elves and fairies. tender. dainty. If called upon to give . It may fairly be considered one of his best productions. most original work was on the style of depicting the half-playful. in and I lies in its charm and grace rather than any great strength or depth. half -fanciful side of life and nature. and is full of quiet. airy fancy." which was one of his earliest and most famous productions. which should be played at a very moderate tempo. characteristic of its is author. Mendelssohn's best. outside of the intrinsic quality of the music. hopeful optimism. or even traditional. J introductory movement. a tone painter He was who succeeded best in flower pieces rather than in scenes of battle or tempest.

The sun is slowly sinking in the west. can be heard the good-night call of a bird. As the and the twilight deepen. from the depths of the wood. / I a word-picture allegorically representing this com position I should do it somewhat after this fashion: /0/f\SLimagin< V long. gentle slope of velvet green meadow rising gradually to a line of forest which forms the darker background. as I conceive the work. though it' is not ostensibly title "program music" and has no descriptive the fancy. seeking rest after his day's journey. and her black wings fold over the scene. the dainty little elves emerge from the shadows of the forest and begin their as if silence nightly dance and frolic upon the open meadow. Occasionally.46 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. amber and pearl-gray curtains of his night pavilion. or a few distant notes from the horn of a belated hunter wending homeward. At the close the first chill wind of night sweeps through the tree-tops with a boisterous rush. at least. not in gorgeous flaming splendor triumphing in his conquest over the broken flying host of thunderclouds. \ This is. the dance of the elves becomes more wild and unrestrained and their fantastic pranks more daring. to guide . but gently drawing behind him the soft violet. As the sheltering darkness closes in.

SCENES ON FOUR NOTES.Robert Schumann's Carnaval SCENES MIGNONNES SUR 4 NOTES. work thoroughly and Schumannesque. and thereby incidentally an important lesson learned. replete with all the kaleidoscopic variety of tone color and harmonic effect. charof the romantic school. of which Schu- mann was one of the ablest and most enthusiastic Hence he finds it a fascinating study champions. none is more frequently played. The trained pianist finds this refreshingly fancies." This ap- parently contradictory statement may readily be accounted for on the following grounds. and regards it as an effective number for the con- cert stage. With the fatuous assumption.) (LITTLE MONO Schumann's larger works for the piano. as the "Carnaval Scenes.47 to the spe- . full of all the subtle droll humor and originalities of treatment peculiar to this composer. all acteristic the symbolic and realistic suggestiveness. or generally speaking so little enjoyed. common .

without even a pause to show where one fragment ends and the next begins. like scrap-iron from a fast-firing machine gun.48 cialist. that every one knows." they greatly its prefer the kind marked dance rhythms and simple melodies. on the other hand. The listeners. bored. the professional musician. easily grasped and affording at least a sort of superficial sensuous pleasure. he simply discharges this piece at the heads of his unoffending audience. with the same rap dity and general inaccuracy of aim. An audience has some rights. on the hit-or-miss plan. with no logical sequence. and one of them is to know "what and where the player is at. Another is to get something in return The following simple but accurate explanation may aid students and others who may chance to read it . about the subject-matter in question. or ought to know. with a colloquialism. and it is no wonder they do. except that in some vague way the work probably has to do foreign with a carnival." to use Susie plays at home. ignorant usually of the composer's meaning and intention. and see and appreciate at a first fleeting glance : that which has taken him. Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. They are confused. fondly imagining that his hearers will catch them as they fly. months of study to perceive and value properly. in a series of fragments. apparently irrelevant musical scraps. for its money. hear only a succession of incoherent. dram- development or emotional continuity. and often failing to comprehend the names designating some of the sections. and naturally conclude that if this is "high-class music artisatic tically performed.

one of Schumann's most intimate lady friends at the time of composing this music (1834 and 1835). by every pianist who presents the composition. as the initial theme in several of the numbers. This form of musical joke. and he seems to have never tired of playing upon and with them in his compositions. the use of the letters. "Little Scenes on Four Notes. Some such analysis or description ought to be supplied. the home of Fraulein Ernestine von Fricken. either by word of mouth or in print upon the program. and Schumann employed the same device in his very first composition. so that the four letters. i.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. which consisted in cleverly working the letters of some proper name into the theme of a composition." is partial justification in the music. A. spell the name of the little village of Asch in Bohemia. In English nomenclature this would spell nothing. but in German E flat is called es (pronounced S). A-S-C-H. Sebastian into own name 4 . which are used in musical notation. also repre- sent the only letters in Schumann's own name. C and B natural. E flat. The secondary with its title. namely. at least in outline. based on a curious and very inadequately sustained conceit on the part of Schumann. and B natural is called H. of which the theme is formed of the tions. The same notes. was quite in vogue with musicians of Schumann's and preceding genera- Bach was guilty of building his a theme B-A-C-H. S-C-H-A. his Op. 49 in arriving at this desirable state of pre-knowledge concerning the work in question.

as a whole. The spontaneity of the minute. . of Mannheim. is The later not fully carried out even there.50 letters Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. The masquerade idea seems to have had a very strong hold upon Schumann. though it is not so done in the printed score. and the Faschingsschwank. A-B-E-G-G. moods and portray some is intended to express the Carnival. for three of his most notable and popular piano works are based upon it. 26. and I have numbered them here for convenient reference. Op. Op. the spirit of frolic. 2. so has little value or idea is signifi- cance from a musical or any other standpoint. the Papillons. and witnessed repeatedly by Schumann in Vienna in his early life. but these notes in that order appear only a few times as the opening phrase It is possible that Schumann " all the numbers of the of the melody in some of the earlier sketches. It is ters of the Carnival and characmasquerade and procession. The work we are considering consists of twentytwo musical sketches. and abandoned altogether. and the woman's name Beda in a similar way. and the poetical undercurrent mark the "Carnaval" as a most original work. originally intended " Carnaval to consist of some grouping of the musical notes represented by the letters in the name Asch. represents scenes and characters at a masked ball. depicts the Viennese of the scenes The work. common in all the Catholic European cities on Mardi Gras. merely a droll passing whim. spelling the i^ name of Meta Abegg. He later u:>ed Gade's name. Aside from this Carnaval. Op. 9.

) a musical introduction. but the street procession which precedes it. number is (Preamble. pretending to be master of ceremonies. 51 No. but turning a sudden grotesque somerset or handspring at frequent intervals.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. preserving a wondrous pompous dignity and a ludicrous solemnity. not the masked ball on the evening of Mardi Gras. interspersed with typical incidents and an occasional band number. often No. It is followed by a representation of a number of the maskers in the procession. supto be played by the band at the head of the posed procession. This is 2. its ment to hilarious gaiety and rollicking. (Clown. a personification of In this case he rough. expressing the mood of the time. clumsy Teutonic humor. For this composition depicts. stalking down the street. with its first excitement and anticipation. Pierrot. the latter occurring on the single notes of the somerset marked These forte in the midst of piano passages. complete abandonrough fun. This 1. to the great amuse- ment of the spectators. heads the procession. should burst out so as to startle the listener and .) a name quite generally adopted throughout Europe to designate a clown or tumbler of the oldfashioned uncouth German type. The mood of farcical gravity and effect also the realistic are graphically portrayed in the music. Preambule.

somewhat more subdued and another composition played by the band. Eusebius. and create merriment at their expense. This number should be as animated as the former was solemn. and It intervals of every few measures afterward. which he snaps occasionally in the faces of the bystanders. dressed in a vivid striped costume of many colors. This number and the one immediately following are interesting creations of Schumann's own Here they are fictitious characters. 3. but distinctly music in the carnival vein. He carries in his hand a long whip. at No. presumably heard at a greater distance. and the cracking of the whip is unmistakable. occurring in the first and third measure. This is 4. to be taking part in the procession. with a snapping accent on the sixteenth which precedes the rest.52 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. it. but supposed . No. 5.) This is another impersonation of the buffoon. No. ostensibly to clear the street. Florestan. but really to startle and annoy them. instantly relapse into solemnity as does the circus clown. graceful than the intro- duction. Valse Noble. Arlequin. imagination. (Harlequin. should be given very staccato. a harlequin of the fantastic mercurial French type.

Florestan was the organizer and leader of the Davidsbundler or hosts of David. musical or otherwise. and yet with a certain rollicking gaiety which suggests the college boy out for a lark. who to quote his own words are "youths and men destined to slay all the Philis- tines. was Schumann's own is for his sterner self. who himself recognized the duplex personality under the two names referred different to. but continually appeared in his writings as well. bold. Eusebius represents the poetic metaphysical side of his nature. fighting with fierce joy for his ideals. turbulent. Florestan." by Goethe's oft-quoted statement that two souls dwell in very breast was distinctly true of Schumann. Florestan and Eusebius. fighting if neces- sary with a club. Florestan just the re- verse of Eusebius. as in the case of the great Sonata. aggressive. which was "Dedicated to Clara. the 53 life names are familiar to all students of his and is works during early manhood. name 6. signed to a large One or the other number of his critiques and liter- ary articles. the writer of delicate lyrics and involved mystical harmonies.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. It must be remembered that Schumann's representation of his dual personality is not confined to his musical compositions. this As suggested above. II. No." . which typify two phases of his character and genius. Op. and sometimes both together to his musical compositions. the introspective impractical dreamer.

8. 7. touched here and there with seductive tenderness. It is another of Schu- mann's leries. No. a sort of echo or reply to the blandishments of the foregoing. No. but I music which has been produced. and regard this as a peculiarly happy effort and one of the best examples of portrait painting in the words like. It has no musical significance. but is a jest in the form of a riddle. Sphinxes.54 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Coquette. flirt. This is merely a brief phrase. Lorelei. fascinating but unreliable. siren. It embodies in a musical form. replete with dainty witchery and capricious archness. This number can hardly have been intended to be played. Replique. but rather awkward drolno notes. the familiar and famous coMost composers quette. under titles containing the coquette. addressed only to one who is reading the score. No. This analysis. upon which the good-natured It contains . witch. but the parallel bars which take the place of them are seen on examination to occupy places on the staff corresponding to the four letters already referred to. 9. admirably The name suggestive sketch hardly needs tells the story. have tried their hands first or last at depicting this type of the eternal feminine.

The second spells the word Ach. H S. S. 11. 10. . the letters from the name Schumann which occur in music. but forgetting their role in the excite- ment of the occasion noisy merriment.) any sense the The music does not represent in light-winged vagrants of the summer field. mimes the idea has been presented on the stage with dancers holding huge letters. H. "little 55 scenes" are supposed to be built. No. good deal of and vanish amid They pass quickly and indulging in a the crowd of revellers. H. A. H. none too sober. (Dancing Letters. S.. (Butterflies. A. Lettres Dansantes. C. The idea is ingenious. which are here made to dance and tumble boisterously before us like veritable living entities.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. an intimate No. but the actual musical In some modern pantoeffect not very satisfactory.) Here we have another recurrence of the quaint conceit already referred to. or a species of roguish kobald whose antics are supposed to be very amusing. an interjection in German transour word Alas. The third is the name Asch. and S. It suggests rather a group of maskers dressed to represent butterflies. C. by the village previously mentioned as the home town of lated friend. C. The first represents the notes S-C-H-A. A. Papillons. C. a play upon the letters A.

famous the world over as Clara the composer was deeply atSchumann. constantly reiterated. It might easily be mistaken for Chopin's . the Italian for Clara. the Nocturne. Chopin. Chiarina. for whom Schumann felt and expressed profound admiration. tached from her fourteenth year. No. viz. Chiara is 12. No.56 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. sists of a little phrase of four notes. is an exquisite specimen of the Nocturne. and Chiarina. the diminutive. and in connection with his waltzes. in different positions but with the same accent and inflection. and to whom he was secretly betrothed at the time this work was afterward to whom written. he first by means of which. was a favorite pet name of Schumann for Clara Wieck. so as to simulate the syllables of the name Chiarina. the charming and gifted young artist. a tender lyric melody with a certain plaintive undertone and a flowing arpeggio accompani- This number ment. became widely known to the musical world. 13. He pays a delicate tribute to her charming The melody conpersonality in this dainty lyric. is The next character represented the well-known composer Frederic Chopin. in which Chopin excelled all other composers.. He has here done an exceedingly clever bit of imitation of the Polish composer's most familiar and characteristic form of writing.

both construction. as to general fact.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. as well as her participation in the masquerade. with whom the composer at the time of writing the Carnaval was on the closest terms of friendly intimacy. for example. a gifted and attractive young lady residing at Asch. was a romantic name applied by SchuErnestine von Fricken. the sudden pleasure of coming in contact with the familiar personality of friend or lover in noisy. but also special emotions and incidents connected with some of its phases. the most sensitive tone-poet would . by this very winning bit of music. in certain (Recognition. spite of the disguise. mood and In it. Chopin's personality seems which of course was the composer's No. the music indicates the feeling of glad surprise arising from the recognition of two of the maskers of each other's identity. Although bordering upon to reflect a the impossible. 57 details of own work. Reconnaissance. 15.) Schumann has endeavored this portions of work to express not only the general mood of the Carnival time and some of the characters in the masquerade. No. Schumann has attempted mood which only depict. Her personality is indicated. in the midst of the rollicking crowd. Estrella. Estrella 14. In this case. manifested in intention. mann to Frl.

Another number by the band. We It may seem to that Schumann has given the player of this composition quite too much time and prominence to the clown in various types. abandon and effervescence No. No. of a graceful but rather slow and stately character. and the two characters figure largely in the pantomimes of all are to imagine them passing in this countries.58 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and is a common generally one among the Venetians. It for one who has not experienced the Car- nival spirit to appreciate the of the convivial crowds. the distinguishing feafantastically ture of whose costume is that trousers and stockings are all Pantalon of one piece. is Pantalon et Colombine. particularly if a Venetian. even in broad daylight. and they form the favorite disguise in is difficult all processions and balls. Valse Allemande. procession hand in hand. 17. 16. Colombine is the sweetheart of Pantalon. the harlequin of Italian comedy. is quite used by other Italians as a nickname for one of whom they wish to make sport. a dressed buffoon. The name It is derived from the patron saint of Venice. . an old-fashioned German waltz. But any one who has lived through the Carnival season in one of the German Catholic cities knows by experience that the streets are full of masked clowns on Mardi Gras. Pantaleone.

. almost demoniac. This celebrated violinist was noted throughout Europe as the superior of all players of his time in technical mastery of his instrument. Aveu.) Evidently an avowal of love. a series of crisp intricate staccato passages for both by technic brilliant. in what the Germans call "A solitude for two. in the mood and movement indicated by the name. (Avowal. 18. but particularly in the special form of as player The startlingly as staccato bowing.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. No. both and composer." which is nowhere more complete than in the midst of a crowd where each is engrossed in his own amusements. Again a musical fragment for the band. known hands. by means of an ingenious imitation of one of the best-known and distinctive Here again Schumann characteristics of Paganini's style. original not particularly melodious. but interesting. 19. made under cover of the confusion and the concealment of the masks. 59 No. and strikingly characteristic. No. has introduced and unmistakably identified the personality he wishes to have pass before our mental vision. from the tender pleading character of the music. Paganini. effects which he produced along this line have never been equalled before or Hence he is very naturally represented here since. Promenade. 20.

King David won signal victories over them and compelled them to pay tribute to himself and his successors. unless in a sort of hopping. which however is not apparent. The name 21. The Philistines. It is final tious of the contains many and a bold.) number is the longest and most pretenwork and demands special attention. halting fashion. No. No. This odd conceit has undoubtedly some humorous and symbolic meaning. Marche des Davidsbiindler Contre les Philistins. like a man with one leg longer than the other. were a people of Palestine continually at war with the Jews. in an almost frivolously jolly mood. Pause. The title of this number has a double significance. implies a pause in the progress of the but the idea is not carried out in the procession. to which it is obviously impossible to march. as all know. dashing and at times humorous composition. and its precise significance is not clear. as varied points of interest. (March This it of the Hosts of David Against the Philistines.60 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Again Philister or Philistine is a term which for generations past has been contemptuously used by . rather impetuous music so designated. at least to the writer. 22. written in threefour time.

on the side of morals and feel- ing. Matthew Arnold has best summed up the feelhaps and ing in the following sentence: "On the side of beauty taste. as used by cal and literary works. Bundler is the German word for band or company.Robert Schumann's Carnavai. unin- telligence. the opponents of progress. he ultimately compelled own genius and to the the Romantic School of Music. musicians and Perartists. for a little band and allies of Schumann. and has come to be very generally adopted by the "younger blood" among poets." The David in the title as used by Schumann is one of the allegorical personifications of which he so fond. who of rallied under his leadership Modern Romanticism and to the victory which was later The Philistines. Hence tribute to his . as in several other of his works. retained to It was by Schumann long after passing his college years. vulgarity. were helped bear achieved. coarseness. which means a league or union. the conservative. on the side of mind and spirit. It represents Schumann's creative genius as champion of the romantic school of music. associates Against them waged perpetual war- and to like them pay dynasty of King David. of faithful friends. this is Philistinism. adherents It stands here. somewhat pedantic advocates of the fast degenerating his classical school. Schumann and fare. to denote conservatism and mediocrity. was from Bund. around the standard it forward in his musi- Schumann the enemies of the ro- mantic movement. nate the townspeople and other outsiders be antagonistic to the student life and spirit. the students of the 61 to desigfelt German universities.

the significance of the against the Philistines.62 Stories of Standard title Teaching March Pieces. known cleverly throughout Germany as the Grossvatertanz (Grand- Schumann has woven father-dance). The "Carnival" as a whole presents Schumann's . And Tim Doolan was dead And his father was dead And Tim Doolan he dreamt that his father was dead. passing it about from one hand to the other. This old tune seems to have been a sort of battlehymn or rallying cry of the Davidsbiindler. of the Davidites To emphasize the careless. in the spirit of pure fun and bravado. irresponsible mood of the Davidites and their contempt for the conventions. German universities. always appearing in a new key when least expected. He seems to flaunt it deliberately in the faces of his shocked critics. and a favorite It was college song at the also adopted in this country and is familiar to those whose memories reach back over half a century. now in playful staccato effects. sung to the following doggerel: Tim Doolan he dreamt that his father was dead. and appears in several of Schumann's works. The march closes with a spirited finale like a joyoua defiance hurled at the foe. traditions and critical standards of the Philistines. into the march very a quaint old tune of the iyth century. In this march he plays it with a real facetious gusto. now in big pompous octaves. And his father he dreamt that Tim Doolan was dead. The accent and rhythm of these words exactly match those of the musical notes.

which we have no English synonym. not in its most profound and strictly musical aspect." . of exuberant fancy and It is fertility of suggestive symbolism. but in its flood-tide of youthful vivacity. expression best characterized for by the German Geistreich. 63 genius.Robert Schumann's Carnaval. but which means rich in mentality. The work is replete with graphic realism and recalls Schumann's own words of his earlier compositions: "At that time the man and the musician in me were always trying to speak at once.

Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. not by any possibility to be mistaken for anybody else. in any Whether he is portraying the graceful single period. an indistinctness of outline in his periods. with the possible exception of Chopin. In spite of the manifold variety of his forms and diversity of his subjects. though not wholly. as Robert flight of the butterfly or the grotesque pranks of the carnival clown. the dreams of a child or the stern ambition of a hero. a strain of his may be recognized anywhere without hesitation by any one at with his work. to two leading characteristics: a plain. almost primitive intensity of emotional content. who possesses such a remarkable and unmis- takable individuality of style and such pronounced subjectivity in all his work Schumann. all familiar This distinctive peculiarity of style is due mainly. Opus MONG 12. wholly unembellished. and a certain vagueness of expression. . he is always Schumann. all composers there is none. It is the former that so endears him to musicians and the latter which is responsible for his unpopularity with the public. which renders them hard to grasp.

" His thoughts seem at times too big for his musical vocabulary. all his scorn of mere external refinements and graces. too rapidly depths to solidify into separate forms. always prevent Schumann's works from being universally understood and appreciated but naturally . directness and for calling things exactly by their right names. overlapping and blurring each other. if fondness for rugged. ignoring temptations. 1 2 are among the most effective and widely known. most vivid fancy and it is less striking originality. in a molten state. form Aufschwung.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. his inability to formulate with clearness. even rough. They are very varied in mood. darkly. his ideas are Or rather poured forth from the volcanic perhaps of his genius. 5 . more than man's involved obscurity of expression. Of these. strongest of this set is the "Aufschwung. His grandest visions of beauty are apparently seen "as through a glass. and clearer. Opus 12. apparent in his shorter compositions. full of the richest. the Ger- his fondness shadowy mysticism. more definite in than the majority of Schumann's works. but intermingle. but on the other hand he has." a powerful treatment in music of the idea of human The ambition. scorning obstacles. for a serious defect will it unquestionably is. 65 He all his has all the typical German's force and depth. inherent strength toward the summits of fame and achievement. the Fantasy Pieces Op. for all. mounting with irresistible. This defect. defying dangers.

the seductions of happiness. Then rest. "Excelsior!" This first theme should be given always with great strength and dignity. The sections which follow must be treated with the utmost diversity of shading and tone coloring. increasing in intensity with each repetition. as answer to each and all.66 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the peace and the growing terror of resignation proffered by religion. it is often a help to have it well read to an audience before playing the number in public. and the soft allurements of easier paths. Beware the awful avalanche. each expressing its own particular mood and suggestion. temptations and dangers that beset the upward path." But. the ever darker and lonelier way. courage. the allurements of home and " Beware the pinetree's withered branch. the warning. yet of a stern sadness withal. and reproduce its thoughts and moods in the music. suggestions of the various difficulties. while the superb trivial . It is the same idea precisely that is so ably handled Longfellow's famous poem Excelsior. grand but destructive in its might. The player should study that this poem carefully in connection with composition. sweeping onward with the overwhelming force of a tidal wave toward in its goal. as in the poem. aspiration. the enunciation of pride. comes the reiterated ringing shout. The bold opening theme celsior in B flat minor is the Ex- cry of the poem. It easily may be and too often is made by excess of speed. for ambition is the avowed and deadly foe of follow successively. resolution. love.

not the joyous rise of the skylark into the blue. should begin slowly and very softly and steadily. with the scale passages in the left hand. It has been improperly translated "Soaring. Opus 12. strong. a delicate picture in shades of violet and pearl. This work is a fine concert number and an invaluable study in dynamic proportions and varied tone The name "Aufschwung" has no adequate qualities. majestic flight of the eagle that we have in mind. one of the most perfect of Schumann's productions. dreamy mood phase of the twilight hour. 67 climax in chords. is just what its name implies. Or. The forms a beautiful and exquisite lyric. like the threatening whisper. it should be the bold. entitled Des Abends (Evening). English synonym. the quiet. as of some heavy body in swift motion with resistless momentum.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. "Auf" means upward and "Schwung" signifies swing or sweep. if we translate the title "Soaring" at all. This little work. with just a touch of wistful long- . It expresses but one of emotional experience. restful contrast to the Auf- schwung. Des Abends. but never to a bird." and so appears in many editions. It might be applied to the movement of a battleship under full headway. the ominous approach and the deafening crash of the on- coming avalanche. with the implied sense of great power and weight. if played immediately after it. But that word fails entirely to convey the meaning of the original. increasing in power and speed to the final reiteration of the first theme.

68 ing. then merge into the shadows. And on the leaf a browner hue . slowly fading tints in the western sky. that linger for a time as faint echoes of that symphony of color. Which follows the decline of day. mann been claimed that the form chosen by Schuthis work was unfortunate and metrically incorrect. and no intensity of in- flection. Each flower the dews have lightly wet." nightingale's high note is The composition should be given with the utmost tranquillity. when the glory of the sunset has departed. As twilight melts beneath the moon away. And gentle winds and waters near Make music to the listening ear. thus making plain eighth notes of the sustained melody and alternate six- .'* which it so aptly fits. I never play it without thinking of the opening lines of Byron's "Parisina. So softly dark and darkly pure. the hour when lovers' vows Seem sweet in every whispered word. that it should have been written in three It has in eight instead of two-eight measure. It is the lovers idealize. And in the sky the stars are met. faint memories of the stronger emotions of the day. and which Schumann sings here in as true and flawless a strain as was ever penned. Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. hour and mood which idealists love and which poets have sung in all ages. with little agitating rubato. with a gentle. caressing pressure touch. And in the heaven that clear obscure. like the soft. And on the wave is deeper blue. "It It is the hour when from the boughs The is heard . a hint of tenderness in it.

" Then . flashing hither dance of the sprites. all luminous color and swift motion. fairy-like figures. in which a host of dainty. add materially of the music. floating. Pieces. or "Dream Tangles" which we might translate "The Confusion of a Dream. as it should be. Perhaps the most original. The ear must recognize it uncon- sciously without its being distinctly heard. even though the melody is. circling.Schumann's Fantasy This a mistake. 69 teenth rests and sixteenth notes in the lower voice. The to the wavering. and the natural lessening of stress on the alternate melody notes falling on unaccented parts of the measure. appear and disappear. is Schumann knew what he wanted and how to produce effect of it. sombre and impressive. distinctly sustained. indicate the moment when the sleeper half awakes and gazes about his darkened room in vain search for the bright visions that have haunted his slumbers. But soon he realizes the situation and you can almost hear him say to himself. if properly handled. Just that slightly swaying the triplet rhythm. Traumeswirren. It must be just perceptibly indicated but by no means emphasized." It is a fanciful attempt to portray in music the capricious vagaries of a bright and happy dream. Opus 12. and thither. and certainly the most technically difficult. wistful charm triplet rhythm is there for a pur- pose. as in some playful The middle movement in chords brings a startling It seems to contrast. "I've been dreaming. of the group of "Fantasy Pieces" is the Traumeswirren. slow.

with an undertone of sorrowful pleading and restless longing. Clara. and had won fame and success in all the musical centres of the old world. expressing the question which the name implies. to make it effective as a program number. It was inspired by and written for and to his be- loved Clara. and already a composer of promise. a fine study for the fourth Warum? The most famous and. In fact. then the leading teacher in Europe. delicacy and speed. In those early days Schumann was an obscure but aspiring student at Leipsic. and of most meagre income. very intense. Through his piano lessons of Prof. in all piano literature. but no prominence as yet. who. this in some respects.70 he Stories of settles quietly Standard Teaching Pieces. supremely beautiful and technically very easy. though still very young. the best of whole group is the Warum? (Why?) It is very brief. more fully and forcibly than is elsewhere to be found in music. She . it is one of the most difficult things of its size of the right hand. reasserts his sway. but it requires extreme flexibility. was already recognized as the first lady pianist of her time. and consequent intimacy in that family. in the days of alternate hope and doubt and torturing uncertainty before their engagement. a lyric of the warm. back again and little by little the dream god This is and fifth fingers and as such may be used by students. Wieck. he had fallen desperately in love with the Professor's daughter. impassioned type.

He himself confesses that they reveal and depict much of the personal experiences and feelings of his long and agitated courtship. drink-stained table. and soon he began to pencil lines on the back of it. The marriage finally took place in 1840. having been most rudely repulsed by the irate Professor. he an unknown student. this perfect gem of purest art was born. . were written. One evening Schumann. conscious at once of its own power and future possibilities. and there.Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. A wine card lay before him. It is the questioning cry of a soul. which seems to be borne out by the internal evidence of the music and has at though I least all the probabilities in its favor. courtship and struggle. and is and of its present pain and piteous helplessness. The following legend is afloat concerning this particular composition. later notes upon the lines. including the one in question. shown the door and requested not to re-enter it in most unequivocal terms. wandered away humiliated and disconsolate to one of the many beer saloons where students conHe sat him down in an obscure corner at gregated. though Clara seems to have favored it from the first. after five years of love. So much is fact. singularly free from the bitterness and anger that might have been expected under the circumstances. In any event the legend is an interesting one. and quite naturally the proud father decidedly opposed his suit. 71 was an artist of prominence. in fact. a soiled. amid those vulgar surroundings. Next morning the card was sent to Clara. cannot vouch for its accuracy. Opus 12. during which period most of Schumann's leading pianoforte works.

recalls the swing of the gavotte and suggests a jolly but clumsy country dance. bastic. was satirized . but as the wife of the great composer. full of surprises One more and abrupt contrasts. The noble woman. shared his life and labors. while the exceptionally affords a poetic and attractive trio theme most effective contrast. both in conception and execution. finally lived to be chiefly known to fame." a most whimsical. Grillen. not as Clara Wieck. whose imperfect verse showed a decided tendency to limp. reminds us strongly of one of those fantastic sketches by Hartmann. usually translated "Whims. Robert Schumann. entitled "Dreams. indeed. interpreted and edited his works. by which I refer to the suggested. like the motive of kobold and fairy. with its startling. the celebrated pianist." much read in The work Schumann's time. of the set deserves special attention. Grillen. The opening subject. of odd harmonies. as a protest and an appeal in language which she as none other would understand. it was very possibly one in which a rather bom- would-be poet of that day. seemingly misplaced accents. the It is. capricious composition. in chords.72 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. Their marriage was an unusually happy one till darkened by the great and growing shadow of his developing insanity and ended by the tragedy of his death. as a whole. unexof pected modulations and particularly fantastic rhythms. who devotedly returned his affection.

though wholly lacking. seems rather trivial and commonplace and played. with one leg much shorter than the other. Ende vom title. in the sparkle of true wit. which we should translate the of the Song. in fact. he was quite given in cerof the conceit for humor tain moods to a sort of broad drollery. is rarel> .Schumann's Fantasy Pieces. 73 in the person of a particularly grotesque Earth-Giant." help feeling that it would have been better in this case if the song had ended before this last verse One cannot had been written. Opus 12. Lied. a yarn. as are all Germans. The last of the series bears a somewhat curious Ende vom Lied. For the composition so designated contains little of the originality and power usually so plentiful in Schumann's works. with good reason. signifying the close of a or experience. just as "Once upon a time" is our story stock phrase in English for beginning such. is dismissed with the words. Indeed. an anecdote. anything brought to a finish. an argument. "and that is the end of the song." "End This phrase is a common conver- sational idiom in Germany. making his clumsy advances to the muse of poesy. The jocose would readily appeal to Schumann. a joke.

the full-length novel. the form when well handled has much to recommend it. feelings. telling strokes. In spite of the thousands of inferior imitations which pass current too freely today. This new product was named the Novelle or Novel- meaning simply a miniature novel. with which our literary market is now well-nigh ette. inaugurated a new departure in the realm of national literature. broad.Schumann's Novelletten. all mere "fine writing" so called. who was one of the staunchest ablest champions of the romantic school in mu74 . It was their aim to condense into from fiction of the fifty to a hundred pages all the salient the force. submerged. and dramatic effect of points. and Robert Schumann. omitting all needless detail and all description. a number of German writers of romantic school. actions and personalities of their florid characters. led by Paul Heise. and to portray the life and love. It fell into line with the modern tendency toward concentration and epigrammatic brevIt was the beginning of the flood of short stories ity. interest. and became very popular. and to concentrate their efforts on the plot and movement of the story. the thoughts. |N the earlier part of the nineteenth century. in a few bold.

their transient strifes and differences. prolixity. and the sweet. 75 and an inveterate foe of the pedantry. In these Novelletten his ideas are admirably balanced and expressed with concise precision. sometimes even rough. is. graceful. which. it may be remarked for that instrument. was quick to catch this new idea. and final reconciliations. feminine element. to appreciate its it advantages. tender. which we are told . always most thoroughly at home.Schumann's Novelletten. most completely master of himself and his resources. in the smaller forms. represented in fiction by the hero. while his grasp of logical sequence and symmetrical relations seems more fully adequate than it sometimes appears in works of larger proportion. and the difficulties and struggles which they meet along tHe path of true love. blend into a happy artistic unity. His pronounced tendency toward vague and inconsequential wandering into the nebumysticism lous regions of thought has here less time and space to manifest itself. many He wrote nearly a score of Novelletten for the piano. which was to embody clearly and forcefully in small compass the simple elementary factors which That are the life and substance of every good story. spoken of so often in German as the "eternal feminine. some of which are among his very best productions In fact. bold. and over-elaboration of the old formal school. In most of them he has adhered strictly to the original conception. The striking contrasts in their natures. in passing that Schumann seems." and personified in books in the heroine. the strong. and to adapt to his own art. sic. masculine element. to the present writer. nevertheless.

indeed with something of the but not less of courage and prowess. 2 1 in F. "grand manner. . subject. . charmwith many a dainty air and winsome witchery. though with a genial heart and many To judge from the second sterling. while the lady is unmistakably a court dame. The first Novellette. a good specimen " of the steel-engraving lady. never runs smoothly these make up the details and It is a brief. 1. domestically inclined Fraulein. in solid plate mail. Op. in chords and octaves. Op. No. 21. ing. in E. is the best known and most used. vigorous sketch. The No. The stirring first subject. Novellette in F." perhaps a knight of Charlemagne's court." refined. and one of the most satisfactory. is in gavotte movement. This time the hero is a dashing cavalier. Op. without a single superfluous phrase or irrelevant ornament. 21. terse. with a marked religious trend of mind. hacking his way to victory and love with a mighty two- handed sword. is almost identical with the above in general style and form. and the character of the hero it suggests is that of a rugged German baron of the fighting half-brigand class. manifesting a refreshing scorn of mere sensuous effect and technical display. with more polish. but a tender heart. manly qualities. loving and lovable. the heroine is a mild-eyed. Novellette in E. fill in the picture. No. 7. 7.76 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. graceful. but the characters are different.

the 8." The Trio gives us the organ and choir within the chapel. It contains much sion. the elves resume their dance. outlines are less clear and simple. Op. that the end of the story was tragic. The Opus 99 contains a charming Novellette little known. thwarted pas- and infinitely tender sadness and pleading. yet very attractive. from the close. and containing less of the distinctly human element. It differs from most of the others in being more delicate and fanciful. Novellette in but B minor. 21. filling the quiet woodland twilight with rich. and the con- more complex and metaphysical. To quote Kullak: "It suggests the sprightly dance and frolic of forest elves about a secluded chapel. The above will serve as representative examples of the Schumann Novelletten and the general lines on which they should be understood and interpreted. in F sharp minor. is sharp minor. but with sylvan solitudes and their imaginary denizens. much of of vain psychological struggle. little 99. ended. of mediaeval mysticism. solemn harmonies. . No. F The tent 8. which they have suspended apparently to listen. which undoubtedly greatest of them all. Its first subject deals not with the story of love and life and struggle.Schumann's Novelletten. is not so easily analyzed. Op. while the evening wind in the tops tree- murmurs Nature's dreamy is service When the obligate. 77 Novellette in The No. while I infer.

handicapped by this restriction. which is known to the world as the Arabesque. descent. to Consequently they produced nothart. or after the Arabs. Moors. strictly forbidden of Spain. occupation of that country. attaining a high for that period. it the manner The peculiar form of art is which the its designates Mohammedan a direct product of religion and reached highest development settled in Morocco. moods and qualities in their abstract 78 .The Arabesque. or statue. ing along the line of plastic beauty-loving people with a strong instinct for artistic expression. were forced to develop along new lines and create a new form of art. the Koran. They considered it sacrilegious to attempt to copy God's handiwork. |HB term Arabesque is derived from Arab and of. or any sort of representation of any human or animal form. signifies like. or any scene in nature. by Schumann. during their The Mohammedans were by make any picture. The Moors were an imaginative. their sacred book. but among the who were Mohammedans of Arab and later con- who quered the greater part degree of civilization. The aim and effort of this form of art are to express or suggest ideas. and.

the delicate interwoven tracery simulated in tonal effects. law of the universe. is inimitable in its airy grace. three principle. or the different lyric by means of repose. strength and grace. and the kind of pleasure derived. and in painting the third is suggested by means of the of perspective. majesty The intelligent eye delights in poetry. etc. are embodied by means of symbolic forms. The simple elements of this art are the straight and curved line. viz. These are combined into an infinite variety of complex designs and elaborate patterns like sentences and paragraphs.. 79 form symbolism. But in the Arabesque. while in architecture. possessing more or less intrinsic suggestiveness and becoming. corresponding to the vowels and consonants of speech. which is decidedly the best and most characteristic. The effect produced. a definite and intelligible medium of expression. the relation and correspondence of the different parts and in finding the subtle symbolic suggestion they contain. essence. only two dimensions are employed.. its . In music the idea of duplicating the peculiar charm Arabesque has been occasionally used. The first subject. elation or depression. by Schumann. The best example is found in "The Arabesque for piano" by Schumann. in tracing the following forms of of proportion. these intricate convolutions. like the audible symbols which form our spoken language. are similar to symmetry those found in architecture and based on the same mathematical relawhich Pythagoras declared to be the fundamental tion. with study and familiarity. Movement and and charm.The Arabesque. the significance of are used.

They are more vague in content and less clear distinct in form. The second and third subjects of this work. with a hint of oriental mysticism. as if the composer had in mind some beautiful piece of man or time. a and a touch like the fall of interpretation. rose leaves. we might expect a similar result to that here produced by Schumann. drawn in visible outline instead of fluent sound. fluent finger technic. which is in Rondo form. But these seeming add to the subtle fascination of the comimperfections position. quite finished or vandal hand of Arabesque work which had never been was in part broken or defaced by the as well as greatly to the difficulty of its clear grasp of musical form. The work demands a light. If the dainty tracery on those wonderful friezes hi the Alhambra could be dissolved in the fervid molten gold of that southern sunlight and transmuted into music. are less beautiful but not less suggestive.80 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces lines smoothly flowing as real as if and warmly sensuous curves. and and there are passages where the pattern seems broken or incomplete. .

from a moonlight boat-ride to a tempest and shipwreck. of which the Serenade is the most frequent. night-piece or scene. from a love-tryst to a murder. is in no sense realistic. reposeful character. restful. might legitimately be used as the subject of a Nachtstiick. themes of a tranquil. [HE term Nachtstiick in means literally and. but embodies perfectly the mood of the summer night a quiet. any scene or inci- dent or emotion which might conceivably form part of a nocturnal experience. but usually themes are chosen which are more commonly and naturally identified with the night. Strictly speaking. The music describes no scene or incident. like the Nocturne. deep and solemn and mysterious as the dusky vault of heaven where the storm-winds sleep. a piece of music so designated. must deal with some mood. broad and vast and impressive as : 6 81 .Schumann's Nachtstiick F Major. to justify its title. This is the case with the composition referred to by Schumann. or incident associated with the night. gravely pensive mood.

In the forest boughs stirs scarce a breath. the latter forming the chief difficulty. wanderer. with infinite capacities for tempestuous emotion but in its hour of restful introspective revery and finding a its sympathetic environment and symbolic expression of own solemn peace in the kindred silence of the summer night. The mood is that so ably expressed in Goethe's famous. so that the upper tones shall form a continuous. sustained. oft-quoted.82 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. It is a fine study in tone quality and pedal effects. in free translation might read: "Above all summits there is peace. Wait awhile. its the slumbering sea with vague hint of limitless power in repose. thou too shalt restr in death. . The rolled chords should be played throughout with quiet deliberation and a clinging legato touch and the pedal must be constantly and most judiciously used. mellow effects of the organ." The character of the harmonies suggests the rich. and smoothly flowing melody. which. and oft-misconstrued lines. It is the mood of a great and noble human heart.

I and musical insight. and intended to appeal. It requires a certain degree of maturity both of poetic perception render it. sideration. The Traumerei is an example in point. being musically too subtle and abstruse to be under- stood. practically unusable for teaching purposes. large or small. as well as the mechanical ability of students. which the wise teacher must take into con. 83 . by Schumann. or felt.The Traumerei. to more adult minds. but which. ostensibly written for children. has attained the same universal popularity with the musical and unmusical public of all lands as the Traumerei. but really appealing. by children for the musical intelligence. |O composition by Schumann. though technically easy. with very few ex- ceptions. to appreciate or do not believe it can be well played by It represents not at all any child under fifteen. It is one of the "Childhood Scenes for Piano" written for young players. It some excellent little poems by Field and is like others. has its limitations. The name means revery. are.

with its untried abilities for joy and suffer- ing and achievement. unanalyzable quality possessed by a few poems and compositions and by a few only. . an art secret. The Traumerei softest. It is a derived from dream in the poetic sense of a mind awake It is but tranquil and inclined to pensive re very. rather that of a child. an I. am and I am experience which comes to every intelligent human being soon or late. a part of this vast. our individual sentient hour. "I ful. There is. by means of which they find at once. and must always remain. and of which music affords the only full and fitting expression. a "waking dream" than fleeting joys. with vague regret for its bygone. and tolerant though half-smiling symnow. least intense perfectly embodies this mood in its and most attractive aspect. seemingly trivial but very real and poignant at the time.84 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. a mood universally too introspective for the real child mind. It recalls the mood of that wonderful mystical when alone with the silent beauty and suggestive mystery of the summer night. but felt. but is rarely put into words. which is not to be had by seeking. we self -consciousness the hour felt. though perhaps not intelligently analyzed by older listeners. is the dream of one asleep. and unquestioned. that nameless. of childhood in after years. pathy for its transient sorrows. This is one secret of its world-wide popularity. we first dimly realized our own identity. when with nascent than definitely rather thought. beautibut secretly terrible nature around me". which means a dream. another which is. tho' the word Traum. existence. however.

The Traumerei. of which one of is Schumann's Traumerei. failed. 85 the open door to all hearts. by Schumann. sensuous beauty. their this line. . pleasing neither the musical public music. Shall we say it is the happy blending in equal proportions. and emotional significance? This might hint at. Most of them have signally masses. in nor the the best There are a few notable exceptions. of translucent simplicity. but not really furnish the solution of the problem. Many of the great composers have done their best to strike just this vein and produce music at once worthy and popular. a welcome alike from the uncultivated and those of the most highly trained and fastidious taste.

uninteresting or superfluous and melodically clear and the student. except for a few readily grasped by measures in the climax. of course. in the midst of away the mad pranks and frantic.Schumann's Romance. in the hands of an a true and manly love. It is as grave and deep as any Adagio by Beethoven. HIS Romance in is. It is single dry. for a moment. wildly incoherent. beyond question. F Sharp. He is from her in Vienna at the time. as warm and impassioned as any Nocturne by Chopin. strong. Schumann's only and life-long passion. of which the beautiful and profound She was gifted Clara Wieck is the object. the and noblest lyric from Schubroadest mann's pen. flippant hilarity of the It is the expression of Faschingsschwank. a masterpiece in miniature. the local 86 name for the Viennese . where in an outburst of pastechnically easy sionate emotion it impetuous and a amateur. without a measure. and enduring. trifle becomes. faultless in form and rich in content.

in which neither the brain nor the heart of a real man can take any part or pleasure? the only thing worth while. 87 of by him in the first movement composition bearing this title. though clouded now by absence.voiced duet. till fate ended the duet with cruel discord. an outcry of the heart for the truer. enduring as strong the everlasting hills. in some measure. and speak of him in the after years. Carnival. so characteristic of his perfect union with his beloved Clara through all the later years. suggesting the complete blending and interdependent harmony of two united lives. like the pleading tones of a lover's serenade to his doubtful mistress. deeper things of life. . and love is mine. nor is my spirit in the least diverted from its true and ultimate goal by the meaningless madness of this wild rout. and sure as the sun in the heavens. but am not dismayed or Love is disconcerted. but written throughout in the form of a full." It should be noted as significant that the melody is not in single notes. It says to the jesters: "Whereto is all this noisy striving after a factitious gaiety. and hear her play this romance. shattering his bits reason and her happiness by a blow.Schumann's Romance. realize what her love and companionship meant to him. and long and hunger. of which his love and his Clara are the truest and the deepest. portrayed his in F Sharp. with occasional of interweaving counterpoint. Those of us who were fortunate enough to know her personally. can. I wait. like and the Romance seems spirit of the place a grave protest against the foolish mocking and time.

so to speak. making no attempt to express 88 . straight-forward. for e very-day household use. with its general theme of world-wide significance. is who have not utilized it with more The one by Schumann referred to not a great work. swaying movement of the cradle accompaniment clearly imitates the rocking of the and is easily understood and maintained by the young player.Schumann's Cradle Song. Berceuse). unpretentious cradle song. There are few or less success. either as regards ingenuity of structure. quietly beautiful lullaby-song. French. in E |HE Flat. con- taining neither technical difficulties nor musical subtleties beyond the grasp of the ordinary pupil. Cradle Song (German. It is just a simple. while the melody is a tender. watching and soothing the and with its realistic sleep of infancy. maternal love. Schlummer Lied. The gentle. and hence the more valuable as a practical teaching piece. or depth and complexity of the moods it expresses. has always been a facile and fruitful subject for piano composers. suggestions of rocking cradle and lullaby melody. reposeful.

a brief vague only terror of the unknown. an excellent and helpful study in sustained melody playing. pressing close against the curtained windows. but possibly more restful. gives scope for a little more dramatic intensity. warm flood of love. with its hint of secret fears and lurking dangers for now so carefully guarded. But it is . the future of the little life. are summed up shall in the one ideal of selfless motherhood. the work is tranquillity of style.cntal and emotional horizon is bounded by the walls of her village home. say that Schumann was altogether wrong in this conception of what the true cradle song should be? It is a Who homelike picture. per- haps. which rocks the cradle absently with one hand. than that of the modern ideal of maternity. and whose preferences. simple-hearted. if less piquant. as well as duties. German mother.Schumann's Cradle Song. while it writes club papers on Hindu philosophy with the other. It might well be the nursery song of any modest. and all At events. soon submerged again in the soft. in E Flat. with its suggestion of the gathering darkness of the coming night. or the involved psychological problems of our modern emotional life. The short middle movement. which for that peaceful hour fills the universe for the heart of the young mother. 89 even indirectly the stress and agitation. clear phrasing. whose r/. rather old fashioned. a passing thought. in the minor key.

a subtler sig- 90 . Schumann. and the more subtly poetic romanticism of the earlier period of musical reformation. |HIS is one of Schumann's ethereally delicate and fancifully suggestive smaller numbers. cal. It combines in a rare degree the openly avowed realism of the modern descriptive school of composition. which took place in the last century.Schumann's Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet). double meaning." and a great favorite with concert pianists. and the opening up of newer and richer fields of emotional expression. heart in liquid golden notes like audible sunbut goes a step further into the realm of mysti- imaginative suggestion. and imputes to this bird-music a deeper. not only a most dainty and fascinating musical imitation of the twittering bubbling song of some forest warbler. perched high in the swaying branches and pouring out his little shine. in this work. and wider liberty of fancy in musical creation. decidedly the best of his " Forest Scenes. if one may so call that reaction and revolt from the old "cut-and-dried" traditions of form and subject. gives us.

The slower. the deadly frost. still marks inexorably. of ecstasy. more sombre and pathetic second subject indicates the more serious vein of thought and the dark prophetic meaning. and warning the listening mortal that. when joy. it is the embodied spirit of the ancient wisdom of the forest that. springtime rapture. tne winter and the night must come. a throbbing pulse-beat of that great heart of nature which. It is on the and not merely a bird that sings to us in joyous. however seemingly joyous. and It life itself will be for him as a forgotten dream. so to speak. the slow but inevitable circle of the years. care-free. carried out perfectly in this composimelodious arpeggio effects of the subject unmistakably simulate the bird music. time for that dead march toward The tion. through all its transient hours of deceptively tranquil happiness and fevered its brief moments eternally. with prophetic voice. bearing future of the listener. when no flower shall bloom. as in fact of every profoundly poetic nature. the dissolution. to find in the music of wind and wave. in this mo- ment coming change.Schumann's Vogel als Prophet. foretelling. gladness. a half-hidden prophetic import. of bird and bubbling brook. and love. an underlying minor tonality. The belief that birds . first idea is The rippling. of present hints of the gathering gloom and silence of the winter nights. 91 life nificance of prophetic import. for him also. was characteristic of Schumann. to perceive this undertone of serious suggestion in every sight or sound of nature. the falling leaf. no bird shall sing. perceived or imagined by the listener to underlie the whole.

" and Schumann cheerful composition. convey warnings and prophecies to mankind in their There are constant songs is older than history.92 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. or that a neighboring tribe was preparing to take the war path. references to it in the Nibelungen Lied and other ancient epics. if bird or devil." which he calls "prophet in this more still. are but voicing in modern art this age-old superstition. a fire in the forest. . and even our own American Indians often stated that "singing birds" told them of an approaching storm. so that Poe in his melancholy poem "The Raven.

and the piece for the piano. Schubert-Liszt. advanced Soiree de Vienne The narre is No.Some Familiar Compositions Liszt. 6. well-nigh threadbare works of this "wizard of the piano" which forms a part of the working repertoire of every teacher and serves to introduce the pupil to the peculiar style and special technical difficulties to Liszt's productions. very aptly. Dignifies an elaborate setting evenings at Vienna. none which may be called easy. But the works referred to are possible for students. of Liszt: "The rest of us overcome difficulties. much used." As a consequence he has little regard for the mechanical limitations of other players. they are not easy. common As intimated. of one of a set of 93 . but there is a very limited group of much prized. he never found any. by Franz [HERE tions are very few of Liszt's composiwhich are technically within the possible reach of the average piano student. Billow once said.

assumes the proportions not only of a full-developed and well-rounded concert solo. movement which they are full.94 simple. a pomits two strongly contrasting themes. charmingly melodious waltzes by once much in vogue in the aristocratic of that second Paris. with The first. still possessed the charm also to the graceful. This particular waltz. while she. circles Stories of graceful. is symbolized in the second theme. seems to present pous passage the lordly. exquisite Viennese belle. a dainty. fully mistress of herself and the situation. The two airy. the fascination of bright costumes. kaleidoscopic colors. self-important cavalier in all the splendor of uniform. too. of dainty suggestions of those Viennese drawing-rooms. perhaps. circling were written to accompany. drawn with the distinct personality of at least two of plete the dancers clearly portrayed in the introduction. a thoroughly equipped coquette. half tender mood of the dance in those early days when the waltz was young and of novelty. and the honor he is conferring upon his prospective partner. an officer of the Imperial guard. of shifting. Standard Teaching Pieces. as dance music. in octaves and chords. These waltzes by Schubert. yet viva- cious step and gliding. Schubert. give fullest expression to the half coquettish. more than sufficiently impressed with his own dignity. of the flutter of laces and They ribbons and the witchery of smiles and glances. stately. but also of a com- and quite elaborate picture of a ball-room scene. though simple and unpretentious in form. capricious pictures are as clearly drawn . assertive. gold lace and orders. in Liszt's arrangement for the piano. stalwart. the sparkle of lights elegant and jewels.

reminds one of that famous statue of the veiled bride. Then comes the alluring but simple by little waltz practically as Schubert wrote it. the melody should remain distinct to the ear. so common in Liszt's works. in which every line of the perfect form. 95 here in tone as they could be on canvas by a master painter. the despair of young players. chromatic also includes one of the long. The composition closes with a clever Coda in which " the waltz theme and the leit" motive of the lady are both utilized. . When played. as light and transparent as a fall of the finest lace. accents and phrasing preserved and apparent through the silvery ripple of the embellishments. The effect. of the lovely face is clearly visible through the fine meshes of the long flowing bridal veil which drapes the whole. and which tricky. or the sunlit spray of a fountain. like a fair face through the fluttering folds of a delicate veil. but this time half disguised and greatly enhanced in beauty by a continuous series of delicate. cadenzas. and even shade of expression. when properly produced. after contrast between which the waltz melody is repeated entire. chiseled from a single block of marble. every feature. intricate embellishments flowing around and among the notes of the melody.Some Familiar Compositions by Liszt. with carefully all its rhythm. and the individuality of each and the marked them must be strongly emphasized the player.

education and environment. hardened and disappointments. . set. 3 in A flat. self-reliant dignity. No. one of a set of lyrics for the piano entitled "Liebes Traume" (love dreams). its transient joys and hopes. according to Liszt's the love of a mature man in the statement. wave of passion surging about will or disturb his him shall not overwhelm his This mastery of the intense. passionately. yet in the secret temple of his deathless votive flame on the all He loves with the strength of being. his bufferings of fate. or types. in which Liszt enIt is deavored to express in this musical form precisely his as a poet might have done in a group of sonnets idea of the different kinds and phases of human love. as experienced by various individuals. intensely. This is 3. Liszt. inmost heart. modified. a man familiar with vicissitudes. yet with a certain grave reserve. The No. restraining grip on himself. determined that the tidal situation. with emotional vigor of his life's own prime. a clear and altar of his ideals. by the divergencies of temperament. a man tempered in the fires of experi- by the constant preserving through all. hence especially valuable to the teacher. a stern. by is Liszt one of the very few original compositions which are at all available for students. a strong. its struggles fleeting ence. Liebes Traum. which is the best known of the deals. profoundly. in each case. ever-renewed struggle beof its tween the raging tide of emotion and the rock dominant will is the fundamental idea of the work.96 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.

a hint of the summer night in which the singer stands the summer night with its hush and mystery. as it would seem. the composition is a love song without words. resta sigh of content in the final fruition of dream. 97 but is an element not always grasped by the casual listener. sweet.Some Familiar Compositions by esoteric significance. This is 6. by grave. is introduced the suggestion of the soothing. moderate 7 difficulty an original composition from his pen. tranquilizing influence of the feminine element. with harp or guitar accom- paniment. its subtle perfumes and vague whisperings. which destroys the effect and their proper rhythmic relation to the melody Consolation No. so to speak. Liszt. In the last repetition of the melody. in the soprano register. tranquil mood and earnest. cast in the form of a serenade. Liszt. Superficially considered. The work love's ful harmonies. closes with a passage of soft. mainly for baritone voice. Twice in the course of the work the melody is interrupted by a brief interlude between the verses. of and possessing much simple melodic its charm. which. of The player should avoid the common mistake accenting the running notes of the accompaniment in triplets instead of in groups of six as intended. . its wavering shadows and half-revealing star-gleams and the sense of indefinite longing and expectancy. giving us a fleeting glimpse of the physical environment. which are its very breath.

The No. is distinctly religious character during a peculiar episode in Liszt's varied and erratic career. They are small. for a and under the domination it of religious enthusiasm very genuine while lasted Liszt aban- doned time his phenomenally brilliant artistic career before the public and retired into monastic seclusion of the most strict and rigorous type in the Vatican at Rome. appeals to a religious turn of mind. its exhausting. tired of the world. meditation. many of them texts or incidents from the Bible. devotional exerand the creation of serious compositions based upon religious themes. comparatively unimportant productions.gS Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. pleasures. the Pope. others upon spiritual experiences of his own. (It was at this time he received the title of Abbe. They are especially valuable to the student in that they afford a glimpse into that phase of the composer's life and experience. pretentious works all of a especially those of one and probably the pieces entitled "Consola- with many other more In 1856. and for five years devoted himself cises to religious study. Some of his best original works date from this period. where he was the honored guest of his holiness. expresses . devotional spirit. which is the most familiar.) The "Consolations" were written at that time. cloying successes and unsatisfying excitements its and dissipations. many. but are of considerable intrinsic beauty and are interesting because of the peculiar conditions under which they were written and of the un- usual spirit they embody. 6. It best one of a set of piano tions" which were written.

the welof a soul that has found rest and peace in the Faith after the storms and struggles and feverish of a strenuous and not wholly sinless life." "Gretchen am Spinnrade" and others. agitation It contains certain hints and echoes of bygone tempests. are literature far beyond the reach of the student and only avail- able for a concert pianist. sea. 99 come repose contemplative twilight mood. . though safely attempted by fourth and excellent fifth grade pupils. studies in tone and First among these is to be mentioned Schubert's world-famous and immortally lovely "Serenade. Schubert's songs. It is a love-song of the warmest * For full description see Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. Serenade. Liszt. by same author."* "Auf dem Wasser zu Singen. of doubt and rage and questionings. But there are a few equally in a more quiet vein. Among Liszt's Schubert-Liszt. of a large number of arrangements.Some Familiar Compositions by a tranquil. like "Der Erlkonig. but softened and subdued like the sound of a distant sobbing itself to sleep in some sheltering cave as the hush of evening falls after a wild day of futile But the idea which forms the keynote of the fury. Some of the most famous of these. work is final and complete reconciliation." every measure of which is replete with exquisite tenderness and idealized passion. and production furnish phrasing. valuable contributions most to pianoforte may be classed his masterly as piano solos. which may be beautiful.

reposeful character in which the beloved is apostrophized as the embodiment of rest and peace. in other words. It also is a love song. This is a charming and comparatively easy lyric from the same collection of Schubert's songs transcribed by Liszt. that three factors go to the making of the artistic pianist hands. viz. head and heart. This composition presents one serious difficulty to the young player. but it can be solved with careful and intelligent study and is good mental training as much so as a problem in It is not continuous.: the old puzzling problem of playing two notes against three with smoothness and accuracy melody. Du Bist Die Ruh. the calm after storm. ally all in adjusting the accompaniment to the but occurs occasionthrough it. intelligence and emotion. technic. It cannot be too frequently repeated. Schubert-Liszt. the twilight dream of a quiet heaven after a day of earth's heat and hurry and fretting turmoil .loo Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. which will speak to the hearts of all all lands and in every age as long as love its endures and music remains propriate language. which is more confusing. or too strongly emphasized. or. algebra. but of a tender. lovers in yet purest type. most perfect and ap- This will prove an invaluable study for all who recognize the fact that the imagination and the emotional capacity of the player must be developed as carefully as his muscles. the solace after pain.

. tranquil mood the very essence of perfect trust and ideal devotion. In this "Evening Star" aria love is extolled as the highest and purest sentiment of the heart. remote from all selfish and a self -forgetting. It should be familiar in every studio. taken part in the famous singing contest at the Wartburg. wherein each singer treats the great theme of love from a different standpoint. who in turn. self -abasearthly considerations. one of the ablest which Liszt in his moder"Evening Star" aria manifestations of Wagner's colossal genius. a man of noble and self-sacrificing nature. Wagner-Liszt. who secretly and vainly loves Elizabeth. Evening Star. the knightly Wolfram and Tannhauser have previously minstrel. the guide and inspiration of the singer's existence.Some Familiar Compositions by Liszt. to be guarded and cherished with a sort of religious ecstacy. It is sung in the third act of the opera by Wolfram. lyric Another beautiful love piano arrangement has made available for ately advanced players is this from Wagner's opera of Tannhduser. ing reverential devotion. loves and is beloved by Tannhauser. enshrined within a sacred temple. the various expressions of the same general idea making of this scene a profound psychological study. the heroine. It is singular that this exquisite little work is so sel- dom used. The lady is symbolized by the bright but unattainable evening star. 101 Both melody and accompanying harmonies are wonderfully expressive of this soothing.

Rigoletto Fantasie. rich and full and warm. and rather cheap facile by this old not to once a great favorite in the Any girl in the fifth grade. of course. namely. it many the sole purpose for which such Nevertheless. The melody is for baritone voice. possibilities for display afforded Verdi-Liszt. but very much in fashion fifty years ago. with lively fingers and a supple wrist. a fine specimen of a class of pianoforte works. worthy the consideration of the serious musician. practically obsolete. the songs of the minstrels or minneand the harp effects are simulated.IO2 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. It is. as was the case with all singers of that early time. in the piano accompaniment. literally reproduced. but subdued and dignified. accompanied by the harp. in a manner to tickle the fond vanity of admiring parents and friends and to score a point for the technical training received from her professor. Every teacher knows the say hackneyed number concert room. a wonderfully accurate expression of the intended mood. in spite of the facility with which lends itself to such use or misuse the work is not without real musical merit and beauty of its own special sort. or rather. the fantasies on operatic airs. can scramble through the brilliant runs and toss off the octave passages with which this work is so lavishly decorated. which appears to be in the opinion of pieces exist. It is now .

It was merely to select and combine several of the most attractive melodies in a given opera. The "Rigoletto Fantasie" is one of his best efforts and though its charm is somewhat superficial and sensuous. the aim being merely to present a series of pleasing melodies. as must be admitted. according to the ability of the compiler. Italian type. The melodies were better chosen and better arranged. the resources of the instrument the result more fully utilized. however. In the hands of Liszt. . fuller and more varied. but very little creative ability. received more than the usual care and finish. the embellishments more significant and effective. and which held a high place in popular favor. The work contains several fine bits of melody of the warm. and was the production of something more nearly resembling a genuine art form. in this line. The plan of construction was simple.The general form of the work and character of the ornamentations had usually no reference to any dramatic development or logical sequence of ideas. . this class of composition. and one superb climax at the close. with some regard for musical character and contrast.Some Familiar Compositions by scores of which were written Liszt. it is real and lasting of its kind. like all his transcriptions. some telling cadenzas. demanding some ingenuity. The harmonization was richer. decorated with pianistic fireworks. emotional. to form a sort of idealized medley more or less cleverly elaborated and highly embellished. 103 and played by most of the leading pianists of that earlier day.

pleasure-loving duke. and innocence. a voluntary sacrifice to save her unworthy the fatal lover. of and the impassioned soprano lament the heart- broken heroine. who dies by the dagger of the hired assassin. secretly takes at her father's just vengeance was about to be consummated while the duke escapes. though moral and the Liszt has selected three of the most prominent and the characteristic airs for the Fantasie in question: pleading. intensely. "Le Roi s'amuse. seductive tenor air of the heartless. it is worth. plot but of questionable useless. one of the strongest productions of Verdi's prime. tralto story. These three representative and strongly contrasting melodies Liszt has ingeniously woven together. The opera of Rigoletto. closing with a stirring climax in which the last two referred to are combined as in the final act of the opera. ruined. a flippant song on his lips. hopeless sacrifice of virtue exemplifies the triumphs of evil. perhaps appreciated more than all. pathetically tragic drama is by Victor Hugo. the student should read the To libretto or better the drama by Victor Hugo.IO4 It is Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. ." trend. an effective concert number. possessing the merit of showing for all. as it The gruesomely interesting. moment when unconscious of his peril or her devotion. yet loving still with unreasoning devotion. is founded on that thril- much lingly. appreciate fully the mood of each and to realize the dramatic situation. forsaken. melody who is the recklessly rollicking conof the mirthfully vicious siren of the indirectly the cause of the final tragedy. whose place she .

MONG the best modern teaching pieces of excellent musical quality but moderate difficulty are those which Godard has contributed to the students' reper- Though possessing great origiand freshness. they do not. Godard may be said to be one of the few who. but to a somewhat earlier style of composition. which raise them above the commonplace. for the most part. in which the element of tuneful melody still far predominates." critic. Despite his occasional digressions into the realm of the fantastic. His Second Mazurka is probably the best known and most widely used of all his compositions. " " Godard. both in melody and nality toire. will long remain a stock selection in the class-room and in pupils' recital 105 .Compositions by Godard. and though rather hackneyed to-day. belong to the ultra-realistic modern French school. harmonic treatment. Second Mazurka. and introducing many startling and novel effects. to use the words of a Boston "still remember that the piano was once considered a musical instrument.

perhaps more susceptible of truly musical treatment than any of the others. vivid harmonic combinations. The Polish ladies are renowned tion. also the sudden of mood. many rich and warm.Io6 work. generally speaking. the middle movement in octaves and chords affords opportunity for arousing the dormant fire and energy of the sleepy. Music owes to Poland two of its finest. Chopin. con- siderably slower than the waltz. It is a graceful. coquettish dance. always an interesting and If well given it is effective some rather puzzling a number of attractive melodies. Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. beyond any other women found in the Mazurka. as they are sometimes called. lackadaisical number. tenderness. its distinguishing feature being that the accent falls. and fascinaand these are Liszt was greatly enamored fire of Europe. pupil. The Mazurka is the characteristic local dance of the Masures or Masurvians. and is a fine study in tone quality and contrast. all for grace. but with occasional sudden outbursts of fierce Slavonic fire and passion. the Polonaise and the Mazurka. . This should be kept in mind by the player and this rhythmic peculiarity made apparent. sensuous. who is inclined to play everything as if all music were or ought to be a slumber song. the peasants of one of the former provinces of Poland. most versatile and dignified dance forms. on the second beat of the measure. Both are most admirably exemplified in the works of the leading Polish composer. The Polonaise may be con- marked contrasts ceived as representing the masculine Polish type. charm. languorous. and the Mazurka the feminine. It contains rhythmic problems for the student.

" but musically of a higher grade. and seem like an answer from the pulsing strings of the great harp of Nature to the touch of Aurora's rosy fingers." Au Matin. its soft. ringing in the new day. also well known. which should be read by all v/ho would understand the true mood and meaning of the Mazurka as seen "on its native heath. of the Polish 107 Mazurka as danced by the Polish ladies. is the 4< Au Matin" (To the Morning). with its dainty swing sweet dreamy melody. then fade away into silence. Another number of Godard. harmonic coloring. and much picturesque language concerning it may be found in his little work on Chopin. while the changing harmonies below are kept very subdued. t its with the gentle sway of branches in the light and newly awakened breeze. the joyous bird notes wel- . This is technically easier than the "Second Mazurka. as finely finished a bit of graceful lyric as can be found on the music shelves. Then the whole composition. like it a distant bell. should be made to suggest the freshness.Compositions by Godard. These measures should be taken very slowly and ad libitum. the sustained B flat being allowed to vibrate as long as it will. The introductory measures simulate very literally the distant chimes of matin bells. warm. which no well-equipped teacher can afford to ignore. Godard. Their soft notes sound far and clear through the hush of dawn. the tender yet radiant beauty of the summer morning.

because more readily in music appeals far grasped. because easily comprehended. When the loitering wind goes by. like coming the growing golden light. in the accompaniment. now tearful. and above it the song of the spinning maiden. wish we might know the personal history of the singer." which. who is evidently in a mournful mood. One of the strongest things from Godard's pen. but always with an undertone of impatient questioning of fate." . of "The grace of the bending grasses. The realistic more to the average listener than the emotional or the symbolic." At An the Spinning Wheel. now rebellious. It should those exquisite lines of Lucy Larcom. We of restless longing and half-suppressed pain. 85. though not much used. heavy. Godard.lo8 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. tell. Cavalier Fantastique. The flush of the dawn-lit sky. excellent study in finger technic and at the same time in sustained melody is Godard's "At the Spinning Wheel. This form of composition is always interesting to an audience. is an effective recital number. a work very different from the foregoing. Op. broad. a literal imitation of the sound of the spinning wheel. Here we find the usual device. The song is plaintive and pathetic. The scent that lingers and passes. dramatic and a fine study in chords and octave playThis is one of ing. is the "Cavalier Fantastique.

into a world that holds no joy. reck- away at headlong gallop on armored charger. his departures into the fantastic referred to. all 109 but for that a most original and fascinating number. desperate. his brain in a tumult of frenzied rage. Though short. away and ever away. across the echoing drawbridge and down the steep. and a firm dramatic quality of tone verging. . no hope.Compositions by Godard. his heart in a flame. disappointed in love or defeated at arms. It is a study in black. on the harsh and strident. it taxes to the limit the strength and endurance less. vengeful. shot with lurid flashes of passion and a masterpiece of its kind. toward the close. stony bridle-path from the great forbidding feudal stronghold that looms dark behind him. away into the chill and gloom of a winter night. It must be given with limitless dash and abandon. pounding his heavily of the player. no definite purpose for him. but to escape what lies behind. It represents a knight of the olden times.

and the almost violent Two contrast of an immovable calm in the midst of that no . is The whole vivid impression one of fierce turmoil and almost supernatural terror. forgotten and cannot now find. The if in acute agony. which was exhibited in a number of galleries of a sombre and forbidding writhing in the torturing grip of a furious tempest. whose name I have. bearing the same title. It was suggested by a remarkably strange and powerful picture. most in strikingly Godard's Magic Lantern" series.L'Indienne. The great branches bend and twist and aspect. |NE " of the strongest. The scene is a giant forest. but it is. unfortunately. some years ago. figures in the foreground give the needed touch of human interest to the scene. entwine as hear The beholder can almost them moaning and shrieking in their pain. by a painter. of great and novel interest to musicians. It will never become generally popular on account of its peculiar form and its very unusual mood. for these original compositions very reasons. reel monster trunks and shiver in the shock of the blast. is entitled "L'Indienne" (The Indian). by Godard.

the other At the foot of one of the in that of frozen despair. The composi- by proud tion will prove of exceptional interest to those who are in search of novel impressions in music. in wild agitation one in the stillness of death. with folded arms. with its sombre the personality and mood of the setting. indifferent to passing time or outward conditions. sullen grief. stoicism. at its repetition later. trees a beautiful Indian girl lies dead on a in full Above her a stalwart young brave. a great grief. by Godard. gazing down. which grips him cruelly. almost sinister in its ominous repose of suppressed passion. that of a bronze statue. The wind plays mad pranks with his fluttering garments and streaming hair. met by passive resistance. still face of her who was evidently his bride. the storm effects are introduced with startling realism. but uncomplaining loneliness. hopeless. and to whom the dramatic element in tonal art appeals more strongly than mere sensuous beauty. but he neither heeds nor knows it. unfamiliar foe. tearless sorrow on the fair.L'Indienne. and. mammoth rude bier. absorbed in his mighty struggle with this strong. of subdued power. stands motionless. this Godard' s music faithfully and forcefully reproduces impression of silent. The whole conception is gloomily grand. war paint and feathers. threatening to tear them from his body. but shall not wring from the proud warrior the smallest His face is sternly set. . of elemental rage. his pose is sign of weakness. portrays warrior. in wordless. of gloomy. The first theme.

but will be found to be a valuable study and a grateful and attractive concert position of the little number. of Trilby. was a 112 . with which it deals and which be found best told in the exquisitely poetic French may prose of Charles Gautier. by one of the realistic French School of ComIt is present day. piano. the fantastic is. some of which are most novel and original. indeed hardly even used. as follows: little hero of the story. very known.Trilby. The name "Trilby" most American readers of Trilby is somewhat misleading to by Du suggesting at once the story Maurier. and appealing forcefully to the imagination of player and listener. Trilby. where Godard derived his The legend subject and inspiration. briefly outlined. which was so universally read and generally popular in this country some years ago. HIS a most interesting. fanciful and strikingly descriptive sketch for the is of the best modern French and an excellent example composers. by Godard. presenting a variety of strongly contrasting effects. in this country. beyond a chance similarity of name. but with which this composition has absolutely no connection.

" He wore a variegated Tartan plaid of deftly woven flames. such as one gives to the pretty antics of a kitten. and play his winsome or mischievous pranks about the room to attract the attention of the fisherman's fair daughter. An amused smile. and a very small sprite at that. his long awaited opportunity comes. Then Trilby. as "once upon a time. mere sprite though he was.Trilby. while the green back-log hummed a low accompaniment. on the shore of a Highland loch in Scotland. and used to dance and frolic amid the flying sparks and cheery crackle of the fire. and a jaunty little cap of blue smoke. perchance of some mortal lover. back in that vaguely indefinite period conveniently designated by the romancers. in a teasing mood. to spin. as he 8 . dance his best and prettiest. so he returns to his dancing. weird. who sat by the evening fire Poor little Trilby. for it harmonizes with her grave thoughts. was the most she would ever accord him. kept time with their little clattering castanets. and his brothers. or unfastened and let down her hair. but plaintive little love song of Spriteland origin. or a half-playful scolding when he tangled her thread. At last. 113 who dwelt in the cozy chimney nook in a fisherman's cottage. But she cared little enough for him. by Godard. and but charms her into deeper reverie. But the song serves his purpose less than the dance. fire-sprite. was very much in love with the fisherman's daughter and did his best to win her favor. the sparks. then relapse into her fireside dreams of more serious things. would give up his dancing and try singing to her a quaint. in despair.

with crash of thunder and shriek of storm-wind and war of angry waves. if not affection. she must herself attend to the fishing nets spread in the lake near by. being a sprite. and give himself the chance for seemingly heroic rescue. he has control of the elements. to furious answering chorus. he dances across the foaming billows to her side. that lie like wakeful watch-dogs among the crags and cliffs around. at the mercy of wind and wave.1 14 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. he accompanies her back to the cottage. She thinks that. our heroine was in imminent danger. So she looses the skiff from its moorings and puts off. . now Again he to frighten her. singing again his pathetic little love song. thinks. when little Trilby comes gallantly to the rescue. but is hardly well afloat before she is caught in one of those sudden violent mountain tempests. for the purpose of securing her She is very indignant and vows that she gratitude. called up especially Trilby no. and that the storm is only one of his tricks. But is to be disappointed. which come swooping down from the peaks above like a black bird of prey. so common to the Highlands. Alone in her tossing skiff. gratitude. half draws the boat back to Then its moorings. bewildered by the alternate gloom and lightning glare. expects gratitude. and she is saved. its brief fury spent. the mutterings of its baffled rage dying away behind the encircling hills. still in keeping with his character. shadowing the little loch with its wings of darkness. in the guise of a will o' the wisp. recedes into the distance. and arousing echoes. gives her the much needed light and half guides. while the storm. to be of real service to her and insure her Her father being away at a distant town.

115 will endure his persecution no longer.Trilby. its shuddering chromatic progressions. like threats of future vengeance. and exorcises poor little Trilby from his safe cozy nook in the warm chimney. First. the dance among fantastic. . and drives him out into the cold. dark forest. and the more odd and uncanny. the tempest. his muttered formulas and his cruel holy-water. the love and plaintive beauty. for being written in five-four time. brief but exceedingly strong and graphic. one of the very few really artistic and song. terrified attempt to repeat driven off up the chimney. So she goes at once for the good priest of the district. half his old fire-dance before is he is touching in relentlessly its half humorous suggestiveness. full of novel. piquant. flurried. veritably darkness made audible. who soon comes with his sacred book and symbols. sparkling. Trilby's last. by Godard. the flames. Second. short. Gautier. pathetic. spritely. is The whole fanciful in the extreme and admirably in keeping with the playful. Third. tender mood of the legend as given in the French version of M. fascinating in musical examples of this extremely unusual rhythm piano literature. yet dainty and which is twice repeated. with its most realistic thunder. where he dies of damp and chill and loneliness. and its ominous receding whisper at the close. This composition treats the story in three distinct and very realistic movements.

and of very ingenious harmonic texture. was the Greek god field of Nature. like the birds. reposeful. 116 . the accompaniment." the most coy and unapproachable of all the fair denizens of mountain and forest. scenes and pleasures. by means of which he might. or shepherd's pipe. the special divinity of and forest. symbolizes the forest. and it is intimated that her fondness for sweet sounds and readiness to respond to them first gave him the idea and incentive for the devising of this instrument. of pastoral life and rustic also. and the first of the world's upon this typically pastoral instrument. on the edge of which we may fancy him standing. do his wooing in melody. He was supposed to be specially enamored of the nymph. in slow. soft but rich. This great players little composition purports to be one of Pan's capricious improvisations. "Echo. yet sonorous chords. it be remembered. Pan. the inventor of the flute. He was according to Greek mythology. Hence the frequent references to the pipe of Pan.Pan's Flute. cleverly embodying the idea suggested will by the name. so familiar to readers of classic literature. by HIS is Godard a small but daintily exquisite composition.

in a frenzy of enthusiasm for educating the public. your audience will not survive to the your course will come to an untimely end. each devoted to some particular composer. then. but distinct in the right hand. restful depths. sweet voice so fondly in various keys awaited. Plan a series of informal pupils' recitals. gazing across toward the hillside home of his beloved Echo. Above this accompaniment. Pan's flute piping its as if dainty pastoral melody. 117 just at evening. in fuller. and with a busy. struggling patiently with a class of not overly well-endowed pupils. as hinted at the close. with its dark. do. swifter as assurance grows and with it the desire cadences. to be followed the next sonatas.Pan's Flute. echo-like sequences I have a suggestion to make to conscientious teachers in small earnest. who have had few ad- vantages for general musical culture. successby the soft. own . In this he would seem. In this connection the many communities. to win an answer from the faint. If you third meeting. with brief programs. ful. but will instead have given your patrons a practical demonstration of their is theories that classical music previously vague always a bore. Now do not. reiterated. superficial and rather indifferent public. experimenting with his new-found instrument and registers. and you will not have accomplished your purpose. its dreaming shadows and the occasional organ-like swell of its solemn voice when stirred in its slumber by the passing wind. begin with an entire program of Bach fugues. fitfully at first. the forest. delicate. by Godard. in a measure. administered without a week by five Beethoven word of enlighten- ment.

in the following order: 3. Occasionally you will have the satisfaction of awakening a taste for music and love of it hitherto dormant. 5. for instance. and you will find that you have insinuated unawares into your public pianoforte literature much information concerning and many miscellaneous musical ideas. All of which makes for general musical culture in a community. but graphic and interesting. and lightens the labors and increases the success of the music teacher.Il8 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. In this way you will laneous. them 6. or other and better ones if you have them at hand. . Spinning Song. 2. Give such do much to arouse the interest and enthusiasm of your students and to keep them at their practice faithfully. indigestible pupils' program. Au Matin. of a You will find such a lecture-recital much more success with your audience than the ordinary miscel- incoherent. Cavalier Fantastique. sketch of the composer and his work. Select some always standard and meritorious but rather comprehensible and melodic composer. good enunciation and intelligent delivery. or have read by some pupil who has a pleasant voice. like Godard. Write yourself a brief. which you will either read yourself as prelude to the program. The Mazurka. 4. Take. six of the compositions enum- erated above and give i. Then precede each of the selections rendered by the pupils with a short description such as I have written. Pan's Flute. recitals as often as you yourself can prepare the sketches and your pupils the pieces. presenting a new composer each time. Trilby.

bizarre originality vidual. than Schytte. but he has more breadth and versatility. available for teaching purposes. none offers to the musical world a richer. he has none of the distinctively Norse characteristics so pronounced in Grieg. though very early. or the recent past. more varied selection of genuinely meritorious small compositions. is said to The Finns have originally come from are of pure. Like that of Rubinstein. none of the weird. 119 .Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material MONG the romantic composers of the present day. neither has he the strik- and odd piquancy of his popular French contemporary. which one might expect to find in his music as a sort of racial birthmark. Though Scandinavian by birth and early education. His family Finland. more melodic spontaneity than either. his music may be said to be cosmopolitan. grotesque suggestions of winter-midnight dreams of troll and werewolf. rather than national or strongly indiing. Godard.

evening hour and are full of In this. as also for the notable leaning toward the fairly conservative in his work. possess an originality mastery of and freshness all their own and show a form and a command of melodic and harmonic material manifested by few modern writers. with its sense of vague depression. though neither vividly local in color nor narrowly personal in tone. coupled with his thorough German musical training.I2O Stories of stock. The following selected from among his easier things will be found of special interest to the teacher. if it be such. would account for the lack of Norse traits in his productions. German school Nevertheless. warm. The mood is distinctly different from that in the wellknown Des Abends by Schumann. the its subtle tenderness and veiled pathos. in spite of its seeming simplicity. although both deal with the quiet. but it is a fine study in sustained melody playing and dynamic balance of parts. This is Schytte. hazy evening in September. Standard Teaching Pieces. a pure lyric. his creations. dreamful. At Evening. its . It is more difficult for young players than at first appears. Aryan its a division of that race which began migrations even prior to the Celts. This fact. exquisitely melodious. composer has evidentlv in mind a still. and sensuously beautiful. on account of the inand occasionally interrupted figures of the terlocking accompaniment. though somewhat sad. but resembling them more nearly than they do the Teutons or the Slavs.

capricious Schytte. one of the most difficult achievements of It demands great speed. This a splendid study in combined lightness and accuracy. full of sparkling fun and dainty tricksy roguery. with the feeble breath of the dying summer just stirring the branches. all. intensely vitalized. Elfen. without apparent hurry. perfectly cool. and Nature's pulses perceptibly slowing down for the long winter's sleep. 121 faint floating odors of fading flowers and falling leaves. united with certainty and flexibility. soft summer sluggish current of days. a perfect control of motor nerves and muscular piano-playing. the utmost crispness and lightness of Above touch. darksome glades of the forest.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. The closing measures are an unmistakable good-bye to the long. no nervous slighting of notes. while a silver shower of moonbeams. joyously alive. stiffening The apparent careless effervescence of . keenly. or fearsome of muscles. works a shifting fairy patchwork on the mossy carpet and the "horns of Elfland. In notable contrast to the foregoing Wald night frolic in the cool. mechanism. now faded. and one's on the thoughts like withered leaves drift aimlessly memory. Forest Elves. is the bright." ' recalling the fair blossoms of hope. a scherzo of the most Here we have the elves at their midperfect type. faintly blowing. playful. falling through the leaves." mark the time is for the steps of the mazy dance. An hour when one half unconsciously sighs for the 'might have been. The player must be as the music should sound. yet There must be no feverish flurry.

One of the most melodically beautiful and charmingly winsome compositions by Schytte. whose flowing garments and loosened hair exhale the scent of myrrh and sandalwood. Berceuse (Cradle Song). the intoxicating perfumes. is simple. or any composer With the exception of since Chopin. It is perfect in form and of the detail. the peace and quiet of the summer twilight. intelli- hilarious spirits gently. a tone the heart of a crimson rose. The utmost warmth and richness of tone quality here demanded full. while a certain rich glow and passionate fervor in the harmonic coloring stir the imagination. is the Berceuse. must be carefully studied and though not apparently. the soothing yet sensuous melody breathes the warmth and tenderness of maternal love. like her emotions. is Her song. deep. like . whose voice has caught the melting cadences from the tones of the nightingale.122 Stories ot Standard Teaching Pieces. the inimitable and exquisite Chopin Berceuse. engendering the idea that the environment is tropical and Oriental. but intense. the singer perhaps a fair Georgian. but velvet soft. of the only world she knows. the scene some vine-wreathed villa in a rose garden of the far East. I regard this as far the best cradle song ever written for the piano. The swaying rhythm accompaniment suggests throughout the rocking cradle. Schytte. and whose dreams of the future of her child are woven of the fervid tints. controlled.

sustained wrist movement and a fine recital number. This work demands. vast. He rides at break-neck speed. by Schytte which is comparabut is one of the most useful for known. very effective with an audience. his heart filled with a sombre fatalistic mood. half -broken steed. Schytte. enveloped much of the year in almost perpetual This is a composition little darkness. stormswept. The Russian steppes are to our prairies what the North Sea is to Lake Champlain. or a sporting gentleman from New York. in the red and black uniform of the race. but as a Tartar horseman.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. The ride is a fast and furious gallop over the Russian steppes. also a study in rapid. a strong. much needed by certain pupils. half man. and develops. originated in the minds of the Greeks the legend of the Centaur. tively teaching purposes and one of the most original of his smaller works. one and indivisible. fighting animal from the northern wilds. far back in the dim mythological past. for he wrist. sullenly. half horse. and always . not as a cow-boy. born to the saddle and seems a part of his is a son of that race whose ancestors. supple It must be given with an impetuous abandon of style. 123 Across the Steppes. that fierce. as dark as the night that closes in around him. sombre. a dash for life into the frost-laden wind from rider The the Ural Mountains. must be imagined. savagely. rider is The wild.

the Kalevala. It in rich in musical content. till only his head remained in sight. It has. Op. challenged to mortal combat. a much broader. the old and famous champion of Finland (also equipped as soldier. well repay careful study. In vain he offered all his worldly goods for life and . only recently translated into English. moreover. sonata of considerable magnitude. She. This is Schytte. it is a fully developed far referred to. with the magic weapons of enchantment and incantation. Allegro from Sonata. and poet). Incidentally it is worthy of note that the Kalevala is in form and rhythm identical in every particular with Hiawatha. It is founded on the old mythological epic of Finland. it will successfully by advanced players. namely. and shows masterly skill thematic development. poet and magician of Lapland. magician. is probably the oldest epic poem in existence. in over-confidence. the hero. and was completely overthrown and found himself sinking deeper and deeper in the freezing morass. according to the legend. the Rune entitled The Fate of Aino. was the sister of Youkahainen. more pretentious work than In fact. especially the first movement. 53. The allegro deals only with a part of the poem. but that is irrelevant here. He. under the relentless spells of his conqueror. only to be handled any thus For such.124 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. and the claim has been made that the latter was a deliberate plagiarism on the part of Longfellow. a most interesting literary background.

and accepted. grizzled. terrified and despairing. and the tramp of the score of reindeers which draw his magnificent sleigh. old. pomp and splendor. in answer. but formidable wizard of Finland. and the rock and the maiden sink to the bottom of the sea with crashing of thunder and mighty surging of billows "With a crash and : roar of waters Falls the stone of many colors. supposed to be more than three thousand years The bold. while known his defeat. pompous character of the sonata indicates the old. In the caverns of the salmon. The plaintive second theme tells of the sorrow of Aino and her friends. And the friend of nimble fishes. Falls upon the very bottom Of the deep and boundless blue-sea. to make the bride hastens is Youkahainen is released and home the sacrifice. Sleeping on the very bottom. to claim his bride. fairest of the Lapland maidens. flies to the white temple of the sea-god on a rock in the sea and with prays to the god for protection. With the stone of rainbow colors Falls the weeping maiden Aino. of the opening theme triumphant approach of the victorious bridegroom. 125 till in despair he bethought him of his sister.Schytte's Compositions as Teaching Material. sends an earthquake. There to be the mermaid's sister. and later of the united lament of . at his approach. the lovely Aino. Wainamoinen. Her he offers as bride to his tormentor. the relief. and prepare Wainamoinen follows more slowly. his pride and power." This short quotation from the Kalevala gives the mood and the rhythm of the ancient poem. He. Aino.

while the great ponderous climax portrays unmistakably the thunder crash of the catastrophe. the sea and forest.ia6 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. not told consecutively in the music. are musically inferior to the Allegro and are rarely played. by destroying the heroine. The story is with definite sequence of events in detail. The two remaining movements of the Sonata. which rescues. or but the ele- ments are all brought vividly before us. . Intermezzo and Finale.

sometimes misleading to musicians in their estimate of its real merit. have all a place in the hearts of 127 races in all ages. as . It has the direct unaffected sweetness and classic simplicity of a Greek pastoral. the Narcissus undoubtedly stands first. Nevin. wandering by the side of a quiet stream. a youth of surpassing beauty. MONO Nevin's compositions for piano. The Narcissus. lie supposed in love with nymph. until he died of love and longing. fell deeply and lingered there day after day to watch and woo. on account of a certain rhythmic swing and easy flow of melody. From his grave upon the bank sprang the first Narit. In the golden days when myths were born of the first love between man's imagination and the charms of Nature.Nevin's Compositions. and gold insured it loveliness. quite in harmony with the old familiar legend from which its name is derived. which give it a semi-popular air. it to be the face of a water cissus flower. named for him. saw for the first time his own reflection in the mirror-like depths of the water. its Its pure delicate white sweet seductive perfume.

in his charming." In feudal days the narcissus stood for chivalry. The Egyptians placed wreaths about the embalmed dead.like Mohammed writes in the Koran: "He that has two cakes of bread. a dried wreath of narcissus is sometimes found about its neck. so that even now mummy is opened. from the same set as the Narcissus.128 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. was captured and borne away to the infernal India and China regions to be the bride of Pluto. simple little work. let him sell one of them for flowers of the narcissus: for bread is food for the body. but the narcissus is food for the soul. even though he was "only an American. the symbol of a love stronger than life itself. The Romans crowned their gods with garlands ol narcissus and even the war. sweet. Nevin." The Barcarolle. and it deserves a place in piano literature with Mendelssohn's Spring Song and Schumann's Traumerei. daughter of Ceres. revered the narcissus. though by no means so widely known. Nevin. This composition. has embodied certainly the spiritual essence if not the actual story of the Greek myth. the flowers of which bloomed more than two thousand years ago. asphodel into Affodyle and then Daffodil. as with the orientals in prehistoric ages it stood for imof it when a The British corrupted the ancient name mortality. deserves especial . A later Greek legend tells us that it was while gathering the narcissus or asphodel that Persephone. which designates today a certain type of narcissus in England and America.

while the melody. fluent technic. full of sparkle and dainty witchery. but closely perfection. winsomely melodious work of no great difficulty. Nevin.Nevin's Compositions. smoothly flowing. lovely moonlight scene on the blue Vesuvian bay. is the Neapolitan boatman's song. the rocking of the boat. a fantastic composition. is eminently suggestive. in beauty. The Barcarolle. whether on southern seas or in the emotional were things unknown and impossible. tides of the heart. 129 mention. a boat. in pursuit of who knows what elfish sport or purpose. from Barca. Another exquisite little musical sketch from Nevin's hand is the Dragon Fly. the approaching. and requires a light crisp touch and easy. as if storm and disaster. The music is thoroughly representative in its playful vagaries. where happy lovers glide and dream. and is without doubt the best thing of its kind yet written by an American. It is a graceful. though not so dis- tinctively Italian in character as in Rubinstein's works It depicts a of this type. flashing hither and skimming the surface of a shallow stream. realistic effects and finished famous Barcarolles by Rubinstein. are all deftly simulated in Nevin's composition. The swing and splash of the oars. and as bright and rapid as the scintillations of The piece is more difficult than swift iridescent wings. 9 . the others mentioned. calm. suggesting the capricious flight of this erratic wanderer. it is true. the soft ripple of the placid water. with the rhythmic accompaniment of oars and murmur of the waves. In this respect it is in the thither. not equalling. The Dragon Fly.

In the interlude the mood changes suddenly to one of pensive depression and lonely longing. with a rapid sparkling first movement. It sings the love of a deep strong but well-poised nature. faithful and true but devoid of frenzy. Nevin. rich and resonant but never explosive. without becoming violent or hysterical. Evidently there is something lacking in that spring. The Love Song. deep. and a slow pathetic minor trio or rather interlude. a love song in a broad. In This My is Neighbor's Garden. grave. one of Nevin's most fascinating and thankful compositions for the piano and but surprisingly little It is constructed on the plan of the Chopin used. fluttering wings. and silvery bird notes. for it is hardly long enough to be properly designated as trio. emotional. This little work for piano is invaluable as a study of tone production and phrasing. Nevin. The opening movement is full of rustling leaves. class same with Grieg's Butterfly and Schumann's Bird as Prophet. some presence . like a fire it. the very breath of the spring garden and the jubilant ecstasy of mating birds. It is one of Nevin' s best lyrics. that would warm and brighten a life. without consuming It demands a quality of tone like that of the 'cello. manly vein.130 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. warm and impassioned. Impromptus.

But the sun shines on. . The flowers and birds seem a sad mockery to the hungry heart. like an irrepressible spring of gladness.like spray of joyously ascending notes. 131 missing in that garden. the bright blossoms nod to the passing breeze. the bird's wild rapture continues. but must sound easy. A facile dexterous finger technic is absolutely essential for this work.Nevin's Compositions. which is tricky and difficult. and the piece ends in a fountain. and the mood of Nature dominates the personal grief in a repetition of the first movement with some slight modifications.

Almost any one can write music. like that of piano playing. with something new and forceful to say for themselves as an excuse for being. but few can write something worth writing. These exceptional products come. 132 . not from any one pen or nation. of what Walt Whitman "divine averages. has become in a manner of speaking common property.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. and they not always nor often. there is occasionally one that stands forth bold. but seem to be sporadic growths in our overworked latter-day musical soil. with like a giant commanding individuality among pigmies composi. not of genius but of generally diffused ability. MID the mass of mostly insignificant compositions with which scores of would-be composers are flooding the market. The technic of composition. tions of real solid worth and originality. where the all too abundant crop runs mostly to excessive leafage rather than to fruit." which democratically means widespread but mediocre achievement. especially extols as along all lines of artistic creation. This is an age.

its costly cosy vast accumulation of military stores con- palaces. all but fulfilled hope of safety and comfort for his vast army through the long winter. to result 133 The works referred from the specially stimulated efforts of exceptional men in exceptional moments. Slavonic to its very marrow. and Napoleon's long cherished. the vanquished. on which he has staked his all. Op. They mark the extreme high-water line of the rare flood-tides in such men's experiences. Moscow. the torch applied by the hands of fiercely sullen inhabitants. It is worthy of note. 3. not their normal level. The scene is Moscow. suddenly ablaze in every part.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. Rachmaninoff. vital with the essence of a tremendous historic situation. how taste and percepquickly and how almost universally such efforts are appreciated and such productions welcomed by the musical world. No. half -barbaric race. its its homes. mighty with the untamed. in the midst of its illimitable snow-clad plains. going up in smoke before his eyes. in the first depressing gloom of the long winter night. its desolate streets resounding to the stern tread of Napoleon's victorious troops. This is one of the strongest productions of the new Russian school. and leaving four hundred thousand invading Frenchmen without food or shelter in the heart of a frozen desert. the proud. uncompromising passions of a newly wakened. in view of the abuse which tion of is lavished upon the the general public. original in every line. its suming to ashes. 2. . Prelude. while the ponderous deep-throated bell of the Kremlin.

booms on above the rush and roar of the flames. it belongs to the class . and still more because it deals apparently with purely abstract emotions in their elemental simplicity. and all the confused terror and frenzy of destruction. and who glory. D 'Albert. ing of elemental passions slumbering in us all. the shrieks of the wounded. which however for some reason has not as yet received the general recognition it deserves. with no attempt to localize them or give to them any special personification or natural setting. in their own heroic sacrifice." of intrinsic merit and originality almost equal to the one just discussed. Melodie. by means of this fearful ally. the crash of falling buildings. though with breakIt stirs the hearts. the fire. Through it all one feels the mingled triumph and despair. burned alive in the hospitals. as the treacherous slopes of Vesuvius have been covered by orchard and vineyard and garden. the hushed voice of uttermost darkness and desolation. till the eruption comes and the lava stream pours its molten destruction over all.134 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. sounding the alarm. D' Albert has given us a composition entitled "Melody. savage exultation of the Russian people. In the closing chords one hears the slowly dying sigh of spent fury. the desperate. perhaps because of the very wild and unfamiliar mood which it expresses. depths all-devouring concealed by the pleasant observances and peaceful seeming of our superficial civilization. who have turned the foe's victory into worse than defeat. In other words.

135 of compositions known as emotional. is intended only to supplement and intensify the emotional effect. still it is equally true that most persons. Now while it is an undoubted fact that music is primarily the language of the emotions and always at its best when describing or expressing them. the quality. strictly speakmusic worthy of the name is descriptive. is entirely erroneous.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. it is helpful and interesting to allow the imagination to find its own way back from . In fact. such as the suggestion of storm or battle. also that in most cases the introduction of the imitative element. grasp and feel an emotion more ciated with situation. though so are forced to recognize it. musicians as well as public. tolling bells or rippling water. and we welcome any realistic suggestions that will tend to localize the scene and connect the mood with some concrete human experience. all way as that which delineates a scene human life. not to that usually called descriptive. we sympathize with the love of Juliet more readily and more warmly than with love. than if For example. In cases where such definite data and realistic hints are wholly wanting. put before us as an abstraction. The difference lies merely in the character of the thing described. So in music we are eager for any definite data bearing upon the personal origin or application of the fully and deeply if assodefinite person in some particular merely presented in an abstract moods we find expressed. since music which expresses or portrays an emotion is just as That distinction general that we descriptive in its in nature or in ing. some form.

The habit such aesthetic analysis once formed is a wonderful aid in the appreciation and interpretation of of every style of composition. from the mood expressed to the probable or possible conditions which produced it to picture the approximate scene. inflexible deter- mination. That impression of cold and darkness and agitation must be given by a setting that includes those elements. rushing. of which this mood is or might be the distilled essence. the wild joy of battle. the general to the specific. pronounced. a strong.136 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. acter What char- and setting would you select for the purpose? . a waiting menace The setting is to the foes it scorns yet longs to meet. The mood must be personified in an actual man placed in a situation where it would be appropriate and probable. sustained. Now suppose you were a painter and were called upon to reproduce that mood and general impression in a picture. invincible strength and stern. with no guide but the internal evidence of the music throughout. in the consciousness of rugged. setting and action . a background of midnight darkness through which is felt the ominous threat of storm and the breath of an The only realistic suggestion is a hint of icy cold. bides its time. but courage that sullenly. It is a fierce yet gloomy courage. by means of the representative symbolism employed in that art. Here we find one mood man and the elements. foam-flecked waves in the agitated accompani- ment. not courage that riots and exults under the stimulus of action. Let us try it with the work by D' Albert referred to. defying itself. dark. dominating mood. silently. unmistakable.

breasting the great seas with the foam flying from her cutwater. and mysterious terror? What character so suitable as that type of courage. the bitter cold. the suppressed exciteas D' Albert In the one case the scene is represented and the imagination supplies the resultant emotions. the danger. wind.torn clouds? You would paint a Danish war galley. strength. and in her prow the figure of the Viking fully armed. instinct with intensest life. as the Norse Viking on his warship. In the other the emotions are directly expressed and the imagination fills in the probable scene and causal conditions. you could neither express the emotion as directly as in music. If you were a poet striving to produce the same impressions. standing stern and motionless. describing the conditions and details as vividly as possible. against a background of tumbling waves and black. lit by flaring torches. nor present the scene as vividly as in painting. but would have to reach the imagina- and the emotions through the intellect by means symbolism of language. makes us feel them in his music. and endurance. daring the night and the gathering tempest on some reckless quest of spoil or vengeance. that synonym darkness.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions- 137 What for scene so fitting as the North Sea. ention of the familiar hanced by all the special resources of the poet's art at . and so appropriate in that setting. but alert and watchful. storm. And if you were a great painter you would make the beholder feel ment and expectancy of the situation. the embodiment of courage and confident power. Your work would take the form of a story told in verse.

unlike the writer. With broadsword at belt. his blade will drip blood At the breaking of day. and that the soul of every art work is its content. the poem would be much stronger. As he stands. And with axe burnished He waits for the dawn bright. and this will serve as illustration. How bitter the blast! 'Tis the iceberg's keen breath. your command. To the present writer more interesting or more illuminating than to analyze and compare the laws underlying the different arts and see how the same subject matter is treated in the different forms. vein: You might write something in this the white-breasted billows ship doth ride. If you are. but the method employed would be the same. And her decks are awash With the spume of the tide. At the prow stands the Viking In sea coat of leather. Through the storm and the night. the peculiar beauty and fascination inherent in the material and form of each special art should be of only secondary importance. the embodied But with Defiance of fate. bearing always in mind that all the arts are but different mediums of expression. a great poet. Too many artists are inclined to deify nothing is . And the surges are singing Of danger and death. With the swoop of the hawk And He'll descend on his prey. And laughs his disdain In the teeth of the weather.138 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. On The good stern joy of combat His nostrils dilate. more finished and more complete.

since time . a pronounced restful placidity. grade of dif7 a pure lyric. a sunlit mountain slope. a short. and pensive. The imagination of the listener readily supplies the rustic scene as a fitting background for the tonepicture. which might be accounted for or produced in the manner suggested. not a vital factor. the idiomatic charm of a dialect." shall we assume that it actually describes some such scene as I have outlined ? Not necessarily. simple poem in a tranquil. of about the fifth ficulty. The word eclogue was the Greek name of a certain type of pastoral poem. It is soft. But to return to the D'Albert "Melody. which is only an adjunct. even on casual examination. gentle. its green expanses dotted with grazing sheep. making that paramount. singing and name and best.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. Raff has cleverly utilized the the idea in connection with several short compositions for the piano. in the fluently melodious vein in which Ran was always at his best. 139 when in like the technic of their specialty. of which this is perhaps the The mood suggested by his chosen Greek model in verse has been admirably expressed by the composer in this music. but without sadness or more intense moments to break its It possesses. which have been. Eclogue in This is G Flat. tender mood. describing rural scenes in which shepherds appeared. reality it is but a means to a much broader end. Raff. playing upon the flute. too. pastoral character. But it does express just such a mood as I have described.

runs in the upper register should be light as a breath. loud. The piece affords opportunities for study in relative dynamic effects and various tonequalities. with equal distinctness at the repetition. the light notes falling in a crystal shower above and around the sustained tones of the melody. It should be demi-staccato. it One be may guitar or zither. left illusion of the effect of harp or guitar. to a mere harmonious murmur. song. played with the very tips of wellcurved fingers. tender song a love to the quiet accompaniment of the Another contributes a delicate flute obligato. perfectly legato. of course. It should be given with a firm. The flute without in the least obscuring. like dewdrops shaken from wind-tossed branches. so as to embellish. It should sound full. so that it may be easily The quiet arpeggio accompaniment in the hand must be subdued. the symbols of rural peace and plenty. the melody. and be well sustained. The song-like theme in the right hand suggests the voice of the shepherd. and very This phrasing must be maintained clearly phrased. in the of a little grove a party of shepherds resting. yet clear as crystal. and is a grateful number for the player. . sings a simple. producing as nearly as possible the followed. watching their flocks and whiling away the long hours of the summer afternoon with simple music of their own making. when the flute-like obligato is added.140 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. shadow began. but not clinging pressure touch.

as simple. The figures are involved and unusual. if well rendered. These for that and . In fact. common order on the memory as well as the finger dexterity. well up in the sixth grade. The mind has a thousand eyes. as concise. a tax of no The accompaniment. by Ferdinand Dewey. The day but one. enhancing and enriching the effect of the melody. in its line from any pen any The melody. very reason furnish an excellent left-hand study. whose and more justly awarded than this composition has few equals in place in the hearts of his sorrowing friends is far larger in the temple of fame. considered with land. But the light of the whole world With the dying sun. by a comparatively obscure American musician. 141 The Night has Thousand Eyes. When love is done. though written lines are The beauty. and inflection." tenderness. and as universally appealing as the thought in the lines which It is another fine study in tone-quality inspired it. though admirably written.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. a dies "The night has a thousand eyes. The heart but one But the light of the whole life dies . and pathos of these brief reproduced in the music with a fidelity and finish worthy of a Chopin. offers a problem in left-hand technic not too easily solved even by the professional artist. is or without the words. a song of the heart.

a Greek nymph of the forest. in form a song without words. reminding one of the soft. but with a manner genial. interwoven runs. simple grace which characteristically express the personality it is intended to suggest." The Dryad. with their subtle. Jensen's work is occasionally as refreshing and restful as the pearl grey tints and fernscented coolness of some rock-shadowed grotto in the heart of a sun-flooded.142 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. In the midst of the fervid intensity most modern music. of expres- and a delicate. by Piano. a modern German writer of the romantic school. The Dryad is one of a charming set of Idyls for the by Jensen. was a personification of the From a of the tree. chromatic modulations and their shadowy suggestions of halfveiled bits of counterpoint. produce a dreamy. fluent and often remarkably clever sion. one of Pan's court and one of the most unsophisticated and simple of all those joyous children of nature. a veritable chiaro-oscuro of sound. in that most optimistic of keys G major has a breezy freshness. The Dryad. tropical rose-garden. This composition. starry summer night lines in reference to the Pleiades : and of Tennyson's "Like a swarm of golden fire-flies Tangled in a silver braid. elusive effect. sinuous. a natural. Jensen. with no great profundity and no startling originality of conceptions. to be the Dryad's realistic standpoint we may fancy this life . refined mend him of to a fancy which should commore general recognition than he seems at present to enjoy. its vital principle or soul.

constitute the chief difficulty of the work. The soprano melody. but given to droll humor and tricky pranks. is one of his brightest and most popular works. and should receive special attention from the player with this idea in mind. carried by the right hand. This whispermurmurous effect. The "Dance of the Elves. mood of the whole replete work is eminently with woodland witcheries. 143 song. as of leaves and branches stirred ing. is a merry.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. characteristic The and Dance of the Elves. sung in quiet. happy confidence to the accompaniment murmuring leaves above her head. a little vesper hymn of praise to the setting sun. Sapellnikoff. by the evening breezes. his frequently appearing on own concert programs. The Ger- man Elf. The conception of the character and attributes of the Elf varies widely in the mythologies of different lands and races. with of the their proper shading. is given in the left hand continuously throughout the piece. of her own fresh. Sophia Menter." by Sapellnikoff. especially as Black Forest. himself a concert pianist of growing fame. one of the most gifted and promising of the many Russian composers of the day. child-like individuality. is a far found in the depths of the more fearsome apparition. The English Elf.wood. of much greater stature and power and more intense and . The rapidity and delicacy of the left-hand passages. almost as dainty and winsome as the fairy. a pupil and proteg6 of Mme. for instance. full may be supposed to typify the Dryad's voice. harmless. though roguish little dweller of the green.

after which the dance is resumed with increased vivacity. siren-like being. with all its spirit and sparkle. the dance floor. dangerous In Russia to the souls as well as the bodies of men. wielding the sinister personality. This composition pictures a dance by these blythe little snow-sprites. the level-frozen snow. stand as stately chivalrous In the centre of the dancers the Elf Queen stands. but the whole frost-embroidered scene cold. The music graphically portrays not only the mood and movement of the dance. may be. power of life and death over mortals. which glitter like prisms in the light and tingle like fairy sleigh-bells when swung by the laughing North wind. again the Elf is the gleesome. sparkling hail shower and the flying snow-flakes. dazzling. while his Queen is a most beautiful. the embodied spirit of the swift. setting of the scene is unbroken white. It is one of those singular transmutations. who figures weird German ballads. traces those wondrous pictures on the frosted who window-pane. is a potent and vinmany dictive monarch of the gloomy solitudes. but wicked.144 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. Ice-covered trees like knights in silver armor spectators of the festival. crisp. frolicsome child of this North land and the Winter. in so Notably the Elf King. the place a moon-lit forest glade. where the impressions. who festoons the drooping pines with countless ice crystals. is The a winter night. and once in the midst of the dance she brings all to a stand and holds their attention for a moment while she makes what seems to be a it little address of welcome. The time . sometimes found in Art. usually obtained through . or of warning. It is he who piles the drifts in such fantastical shape. or narrates some legend of Elf-land.

145 one sense. responsible for the unusual type of genius of such men as Ibsen. effects generally recognized only by the eyes are made. perceptible to the ear. Such environment and conditions have helped to give flashing. - suddenly. yet fascinating scenery. sombre tumbling streams. their geographical and climatic surroundings. as in this case. by Ch. Grieg and Sinding. Rustle of Spring. and its broken irregular coast line. is especially true of the Scandinavian composers. its its smiling valleys. with an impetuous rush. general style and choice of subject. pine forests. as well by This their racial heredity. are carried over into the realm commonly appertaining to another.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. summer days all of which cannot fail of their effect on the imagination. Bjornson. not less than authors. Sinding. in part at least. In these Northern latitudes the spring conies swiftly. its wild rock-ribbed. its sharp contrasts of frozen winter midnight and fervid. They are. It is a recognized fact that all composers. with its rugged. probably because of the strikingly prominent and individual characteristics of their native land. are materially influenced in temperament. to some extent. by as habit of thought. its snow-covered mountains. where the result might almost be called audible frost-work. for instance. glowing. where. to the ancient mythology and to the more recent art products of the Northland their peculiarly original stamp. 10 The ardent blus- tering south-wind sweeps triumphantly over the icy . white with the flying foam of restless breakers.

146 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. sensuous harmonies. with his jubilant voice. the subtle blending of joy and sadness. to prepare for her bridal with the coming Spring. which wake and stir and swell and surge in the human heart at the voice of spring. in past centuries. This ever-recurring gave rise to the beau- tiful allegorical legend of the Sleeping Beauty. the indefinable unrest. half passionate longings. that enchanted lady in the dread castle of sleep. the fetters of the mountain torrents. who wakes her with a kiss to life and love. representing the Northland in its winter trance under the spell of Jack Frost. accompanied by rushing winds and rustling leaves. with their constantly recurring sevenths and ninths and frequent suspensions. the ripple of glad waters and the murof mur sition. breaking. phenomenon. was the spring. It literally imitates the gusty rush of spring-winds. which tell of the quickening of new life throughout all nature. while her rescuing lover. suggest the vague. is represented in this compowhich is justly one of the most popular of recent works for the piano. welcoming forests. the Fairy Prince. the thrilling of her pulses at the revivifying kiss of spring. the all-pervading stir and rustle and murmur. while the warm emotional character of the melody and the rich. waking the flowers from their long winter sleep and arousing nature. the chatter of wayward brooks. . half mystical. His impatient approach. at a touch. guarded by her stern jailor. battlements of the frost-king's defences.

Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. The composition is in the march form. if rather rude. robustly hilarious northern races rough as their mountains. to verities of the tone picture. rustic festival among the rugged. by was written Grieg. In this music Grieg has not only expressed the primwhole-hearted gayety and fantastic pranks of the festival. who was a typical Norseman at heart. The spirit of frolic is not lost in the land of the midnight sun. the ancient myths. and the . trials of strength and various classically antique forms of amusement of the rural sort. weird. wild as their tempestuous seas. merrymaking. as. fantastically named Troldhaugen. was deeply interested in all and customs of his country. but has introduced several realistic suggestions itive. boisterous as their winter winds. the sound fife of drum and recurrent and unmistakable. including a revival of the old rude games. for the anniversary celebration of his own wedding day. for heighten the illusion and maintain the artistic example. Grieg. which means home or stronghold of the Trolls the Gnomes of the Norseland. kindly and given to harmless. It simulates the music at an old-time. suggestive harmonies and simple. but original melodies. 147 The Wedding Day. traditions and these intimate home- festivals at his country-seat on his wedding anniversary were arranged in keeping with the spirit and habit of the olden days. This composition. with strongly marked rhythms. in Grieg's most characteristic vein. which took place at his country home among the mountains. yet wholesome.

the music growing louder and more spirited and impetuous as they approach their destination. It is a brief touch of sentiment. was familiarly used by the Teutonic races. where the if voices follow and in a dialogue. by the Latins. but hint of a stolen exchange of warmer looks genuine.148 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the Scots used the bagpipe in war and peace as their favorite. there a curious little interlude. as an accompaniment for country dances of all lands. the way. peculiar droning bass and whining melody characteristic of the bagpipe. as the harp their only instrument of was that of the ladies' bower. that most distinctly rustic instrument. it is a mistake to identify the bagpipe exclusively with the Scottish clans and their music. including the Scandinavians. is of the assembled guests to the place of meeting. a moment in which they forget the festive scene and noisy company. a quaint bit of rather stilted lyric in "canon" form. Hence the monotonous drone of the bagpipe. answer each other as A and words between the bride and groom. ending in an excited burst of rollicking hilarity as some of the more lusty youths break rank and join in a mad race for the goal. central idea of this wedding day music is the where and where the games are to take place. . especially in southern Italy and islands of the Mediterranean. is The march common and legitimate. old-fashioned in its expression. and almost camp and some field. in of its many modifications and under different all names. and. but the "ancient and honorable" bagpipe. a plentiful rustic feast is spread under the trees Before this final clamorous outburst. simulated in constantly reiterated fifths in the bass. however. to some extent. By True.

the vague terrors. intense. or rather a series of thoughts. by Tschaikowsky. "an As a piano composer Tschaikowsky is. Modern Compositions. and dwells upon. in fact. in- tensely melancholy emotions arising from it. cording to his the Germans to the piano. class belongs To this descriptive only in the strictly symbolic sense. they are not strictly what "clavier-massig. own old yet eternally 149 love new Doumka. partly because. rep- ." a thought. expressing grave. slow. It is a thought. In addition to the vast significance. which.Miscellaneous engrossed with their story. con- cerned with that most serious and solemn. the more specific idea and more personal mood of a rustic funeral scene. acfantastic. it introduces. the awesome majesty of the subject in the abstract. are strikingly interesting and in the modern frantic scramble for novelties it is a wonder that they are so largely neglected. in theme. death. which are not very numerous. as well as most painful of all subjects with which the human mind can grapple. partly because of the weirdly ultra Russian character of his pianoforte works. "Doumka. speaking. own call admission. constant monotonous reiteration. The principal its mournful. comparatively unknown quantity" to the majority of American music teachers. adapted in spite of this strong foreign flavor Yet there are some among them. It is deeply gloomy reflection and the profound. in all its sorrow- ful details. the ultimate finality." that is. and his naive dis- regard of pianistic limitations. impressive.

150

Stories of

Standard Teaching Pieces.

resents the death song, or chant, of the mourners, genamong all races from the early Greeks and probably long prior to their time up to a comerally in use

paratively recent epoch, and still in vogue in the rural districts of Russia, a sort of dirge sung sometimes by the friends of the deceased, sometimes by professional

mourners, specially trained for that purpose, but always expressing the mood of the time and the occasion,

now

tearfully plaintive,

now

but suggesting always by

its persistent iteration

passionately despairing, the

endless hopelessness of the dread event. The steady, solemn march of the procession

is indi-

cated throughout the composition, symbolically significant of the relentless tread of that inexorable fate which plays so important a part in the beliefs and conceptions
of

the

Sclaves.

The work

closes

with a

sudden, startling crash of heavy harmonies like the clanging to of the door of a tomb harsh, metallic, as
it

The scene

shuts forever upon hope and effort, joy and love. is autumn, cold and brown and bare, with

The no hint of promise, no touch of color anywhere. mood is the blackest that can be expressed in music, a
mighty tragedy
in tone.

Troika en Traineaux, by Tschaikowsky.

.

This, odd, jolly, half-facetious bit of descriptive writing for the pianoforte shows us the composer in a

playful mood very unusual with him, and it forms the strongest possible contrast to the work just
light,

described.

Miscellaneous

Modern Compositions.

151

The
no

troika is

districts.

It has

a Russian vehicle used in the rural two wheels, a rude open body and

It is usually harnessed with three horses springs. abreast, the middle one wearing a string of bells similar to our sleigh bells. They are generally driven at a

furious gallop over the interminable stretches of rough country road, with much shouting and cracking of the
cruel whip, the drivers sparing neither themselves nor their teams, the bells marking their pace with wild

clangor and clash. In winter the wheels are removed from the troika

and the body

is

fastened upon a sort of sledge, making

a kind of sleigh or traineau. Hence the title "Troika en Traineaux," meaning in its winter guise. In this music the melody simulates a Russian folksong, simple, catching, rollicking; supposed to be sung

by the Russian peasant

driver,

much

in the

mood

of

Schumann's Happy Farmer, while the horses swing along at a lively pace and the cumbersome troika, on its rude runners, rocks and bumps and slues down the
icy,

rutty road, the driver evidently in haste to reach the place of some rustic merry making and jovially hilarious in anticipation of the frolic to come.

In the latter part the sound of the merry

bells is

The whole thing is a musical jest, distinctly imitated. full of the rough, simple jollity of the Russian peasant
on one of
his rare holidays, and remarkable, in all its simplicity, for its strong local flavor.

152

Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.

Cracovienne, by Paderewski.
This
teristic
is

a sparkling, spirited and eminently charac-

composition, of moderate difficulty and great musical charm one of the best of Paderewski's smaller
;

works, indeed, fully equal in merit to his famous Menuet though not nearly so well known.

The Cracovienne, or Krakoviak as it is interchangeably called, was originally a rude, wildly impetuous, rustic dance among the peasants of Cracow, formerly a
large and important province of Poland of which Cracow was the capital, also at one time the capital of all

Poland.

knew

In the good old primitive days, when men had less, less and enjoyed more than at present, when

the ruddy rollicking

autumn

in russet coat

and

scarlet

wreath came stalking jovially down from the north over the plains of central Europe, bringing to the lusty peasant rest and good cheer after the summer's work
in the fields,

and

leisure for all sorts of

merry-making;

when the

grain had been harvested and stored, and the dull thunder of the flails was stilled, then came the time
for the great autumn festival, similar to the "harvesthome" of old England and the still earlier " Herbst-

fest" of the Teutons.

Some barn

of amplest proportions

was

selected as the

rendezvous, the great threshing-floor was cleared and swept, the rude walls festooned with garlands of bright
leaves,

and the peasants from

far

for the festive celebration, the chief feature of

the dancing of the Cracovienne.

and near assembled which was This function com-

Miscellaneous
bined with
all

Modern Compositions.

153

the exciting fascination of the usual dance, a peculiar, purely local element rough country all its own, "The strife of torches." Around the walls

(commonly

of

unhewn stone and

plaster)

were fastened

at regular intervals, several feet from the floor, a large number of flaming torches. In the course of the dance

each couple took its turn in passing around the entire hall next the wall immediately beneath this row of
lights.

The man who could extinguish, with his foot, the greatest number of torches (a single high kick being allowed for each), without missing his step in the dance, disconcerting his partner, or losing his balance

evening,

and sprawling on the floor, was the champion of the and was awarded as a prize a dance and a kiss
girl

by any

he might choose as the prettiest in the

assembly.
Naturally, the frantic attempts of the various swains to excel each other, in this rather strenuous feat, and
their frequent failures and ludicrous mishaps, were provocative of the greatest excitement and the most noisy hilarity, and it is highly probable that in the

darkness following the fall of the last torch, many a kiss was taken not strictly in accordance with the rules
of the game.

The Cracovienne, like most ancient dances, has furnished the vital germ for a modern musical art form, elaborated and idealized, but conforming in general
character to the original mood and movement, including the most essential features, as in this instance, for

example, the sudden comical effect of the high kick to be found in every good Cracovienne. The work by Paderewski referred to is a fine speci-

and Mr. for the rough peasant appears here to have donned an evening suit. perhaps a fraction too dainty and refined. wildest and wickedest. but the verve and zest and humor are all retained in large measure. full of odd rhythmic devices and fascinating melodies. Campbell This original and wildly fantastic composition in A minor. by L. B. and the droll suggestions of the high kicking are frequent and unmistakable. brilliant and playful. and the noxious vapors from the great witch-cauldron. Baba Yaga.154 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. in a rude hut on the shore of a black. of its class. men with clean collar and cuffs. the leader of the band. Campbell (one of our rising American writers) will be found to be an interesting and welcome novelty. Baba Yaga was the well as the oldest. as well as with the modern style and peculiar atmosphere of Russian music. Here. It is founded upon an old weird Russian legend. a thought too much idealized. Campbell's recent sojourn in Russia and his familiarity with its legendary lore. The atmosphere is rather that of the perfumed. She dwelt alone. either as a concert number or for use with advanced pupils. she . as most potent of all the Russian witchwives. The music is piquant. modern ball-room than the dust and chaff-laden air of the old granary. eminently fit him to give appropriate expression to the subject in tone. amid the drifting acrid smoke of the fire. Capriccioso by LeRoy B. storm-swept lake. in the depths of a sombre ghoul-haunted forest.

Miscellaneous

Modern Compositions.

155

brewed her deadly poisons, muttered her gruesome incantations and danced her frantic spell-working dances; and here any who sought her aid in working secret mischief to a foe, must brave the terrors of the woods at dead of night and seek her. The music is intended to represent the wild sinister

mood

of the scene, the frenzied delirium of the dance,

and even from time to time the blood-curdling shrieks
of the dancer. It should be given with the utmost fire and dash, with a hard, dry quality of tone like the rattle of bones, or wooden castanets, and with a certain rough angularity of outline, indicating the rude, primitive character of

the scene being enacted and the personages taking part
in it

Nocturne, by

J.

M.

Blose.

As elsewhere stated in these pages, in connection with Schumann's Nachtstiick, the Nocturne is a nightpiece, properly embodying nocturnal scenes, moods, and experiences, and including within its possible and
legitimate scope a wide range and variety of subjects and emotions, but all associated with the night in its

manifold aspects. This Nocturne by Blose, though written by an American, is a fine specimen of its class, clear and symmetrical in form,

broad and forceful in style, rich in varied and original harmonic coloring and scholarly in thematic
development.

dream of a summer eve, soft and sweet but a strong, bold sketch of an autumn tender, night, in all its sombre majesty; a night of gloom and
It is

no

lover's

and

156

Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces.

sudden storm, of flying clouds and gusty rain, with moments of hushed suspense, ominous of tragedy, broken by bursts of tempestuous, elemental passion; the fitting symbol and setting for a strong man's sorrow and conflict, and desperate, but courageous wrestlings
with the powers of darkness within and without. The mood is gloomily heroic, suggesting at times the

most dominant element in Scandinavian music. The work is in a sense allegorical, for I know, from
personal acquaintance with the writer, that the night portrayed was that of the spirit, during a transient experience of grief and struggle, rather than of nature; and the tempest one of emotion, not of the elements.

The music is doubly interesting for this dual significance. The brief but beautiful Trio, in the tender lyric vein,
affords the requisite reposeful contrast, suggesting a glint of moon-light through the rifted clouds, a touch
of rest

and peace and brightness in the midst of darkness and turmoil, a gleam of the white wings of hope across the stormy sea of emotion. Then the first subject returns and night and tempest again dominate the scene for a time; but the gravely
quiet finale seems to give promise of a tranquil dawn. I have ventured to include here a few of my own
descriptive compositions which have been
ful in concert

most successwork and about which I have received many inquiries. The first four are not too difficult for
sixth grade pupils,

for very

but the advanced players.

last

one

is

only possible

Miscellaneous

Modern Compositions.

157

Die Lorelei, by Edward Baxter Perry.
DIE LORELEI.
After the

German
1.

of Heine.

The

And And
The

air grows cool and it darkens, tranquilly flows the Rhine ; kissed by the glow of sunset peaks of the mountains shine.
2.

A maiden,

High

o'er the gliding river,

wondrous

fair,

Sits in the golden twilight, And combs her golden hair.
3.

And
The

With a golden comb she combs
listener to beguile.
4.

it,

sings a song the while, With a wild and witching melody,

It reaches the ear of the

On the river's And quickens
Of love and

boatman,

breast below, his heart to a passion longing and woe.
5.

Erect in his fragile vessel, He stands spellbound by its might; He sees not the rocks and the rapids, He gazes alone on the height.
6.

The boatman

Engulfed by the angry billows,
sinks

anon

:

with her siren singing, The Lorelei hath done.
this

And

This composition, like all other "Loreleis," is descriptive, and based upon the most famous of the Rhine
legends, that of the Lorelei Siren.

The fantasy was

158

Stories of

Standard Teaching Pieces.

by the writer when approaching and passing by boat the Lorelei rocks on the Rhine, a mass of bare
conceived
black boulders, rising abruptly from the water to a height of about 150 feet, at whose base runs the most

dangerous set of rapids on the

summit the

Lorelei Siren

sing at twilight, to the boatmen below, who, spellbound by the witchery of her voice and face, forgot to keep midway in the current,

river, and on whose was supposed to perch and the intoxication and destruction of

and perished on the rocks at her feet

The composition

is

supposed to open at some

little

distance from the Lorelei rock, with a tranquil running accompaniment in the left hand, indicating the twilight flow of the river, with a broken thread of melody, which
note, suggested

occasionally wells to the surface in a single detached by that line of Tennyson's "With an

inner voice the river ran/'

As we draw nearer the

scene of the legend, we catch snatches of the silver laughter of the Siren, mingled with the distant ripple of the water, at the foot of the famous rock. Then rises
clearly the Lorelei's song, sweet and vibrant, but neither passionate nor powerful, alluring rather than compelling, with the running accompaniment of the

water ever present.
first recital

This

mood

is

held throughout the

of the entire melody, but with a slight increase of strength, a little fuller pulsation, as we are

supposed to approach. At its sudden cessation is heard the boatman's song, a minor theme in strong contrast,
suggestive of the mood and character of the boatman on the river below, of the "love and longing and woe" which "quicken his heart" at sight of the siren and sound of her song. This sinister theme, with its turbu-

What pleasure have we of our changeful pain? . Nor where life springs nor whither life doth go. Edw. till we hear only broken fragments of the melody and snatches of laughter in the distance as before. victim. It is followed by a few inco- herent phrases of no melodic form. diminishing rapidly to pianissimo. 159 accompaniment. above the roar of the rapids. the "inner voice. there where the wind Could linger o'er its notes and play at will Wild music makes the wind on silver strings And And those who lay around heard only that . and finally. ringing out over the river. a strife. a sob. Which moan for rest and rest can never find. ghosts from the inane. the tranquil flow of the river. swirls of the gurgling water where it has opened. when the Lorelei's song again arises. the engulfing of boat and boatman at the foot of the Lorelei rock. nothing is left but the peaceful with theme in the left hand which formed the introduction of the composition. so is mortal life. "Wherefore and whence we are ye cannot know.Miscellaneous lent Modern Compositions. grows in intensity and passion to a vehement climax. A moan. which indicates the catastrophe of the legend. a sigh. a storm." Aeolienne. Baxter Perry. But Prince Siddartha heard the Devas to his ears they sang such words as these: "We are the voices of the wandering wind. We are as ye are. This subsides as we are supposed to leave the rock behind us. as she gloats over her and working up to a second climax of vindictive glee. play. "But once they set A stringed gourd on the sill. Lo! as the wind is. this time jubilant and strong.

or rather by the ancient and uncanny Scotch legend about which the plot of his story is ingeniously woven.160 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the sentiment of which I have attempted to express through an imitation of Aeolian harp eral as the limitations of the pianoforte sities effects. sometimes a sort of second hearing. was hurled over the edge of a precipice while riding at full galop. of tone effects listener lines. the descendants of this family for many generations became the victims of a strange and singular hallucination. by means . with the unconscious form of his cousin and lady-love over his saddle bow. This composition was suggested by the above lines. to suggest to the the thoughts and moods embodied in the poet's The Portent. player should endeavor firstly to reproduce. mysterious murmur of wind-swept strings and secondly. taking sometimes the form of that second sight so familiar in Scotch folk-lore. on account of his horse's loose and broken shoe. This composition was suggested by George McDonald's romance of the same name." if From Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia. a phenom- . there were joy in this . Baxter Perry. But life's way is the wind's way. whose chief. as realistically as possible. "What Nay. Edw. pleasure hast thou of thy changeless bliss? love lasted. and melodic shading. all these things Are but brief voices breathed on shifting strings. as lit- of and the necesThe musical construction would permit. the soft. As the result of a peculiarly grewsome tragedy in the history of one of the Highland clans. plaintive.

This vision vanishes and the horse's galop is heard faster and fiercer than before. lying across the saddle. to which all others were oblivious. crossed now and then by the sinister clank of the broken shoe. however. is Edw. Autumn This is Reverie. Every important catastrophe occurring to any member of this family was heralded by the sound. rising rapidly to the final climax. a fear rather than a sound. a jet-black steed. now sounds from the spectral world. 161 enal acuteness of ear. at first distant.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. which forced them to perceive now sights. rapidly growing. a plaintive inter- intended to suggest the moment when second asserts itself. till the rhythmic swing of the horse's galop is distinctly audible. After the lude is first impetuous climax. beginning faint and distant. ii . then deafening. aiming to embody the emotions. when he passes in immediate proximity. half sad. fading. not objectively descriptive. of a strong but sensitive soul struggling with the depressing influences composition but a mood picture. of a fiercely galoping horse with a loose and clanking It is shoe. then as rapidly diminishing. half passionately rebellious. this audible Portent that I have endeavored to embody in the following work. One manifestation in particular was most frequent and came to be dreaded as the family Portent. suspected rather than heard. her long dark hair streaming in the wind. then swiftly approaching. in a passing spectral glimpse of a wild sight horseman. dying into distance and silence. and the fair pale face of the maiden. Baxter Perry.

however courageous. the fitful moaning of the wind and the grey cloud-canopy veiling the sky. my garden's divine completeness Of scent and sound? "I will leave Where once was peace. with stiff wings. symbolize fleeting joys. in of a sullen autumnal evening. and vanishing hope. my garden for winds to harry. not. trees stand. vain endeavor. Dead. still Where no birds come. the futility of effort. For all my roses' sweetness. reflection which it traces a sympathetic leaves of its own moods. The following lines are the expression of the same mood in verse: "All my roses are dead in What my garden do? shall I Winds "All in the night. Woe " What shall I do for The summer round." Philip Bourke Marsion . A far. false promises.1 62 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. And greatly increase. and where roses blow And no not. Falling and fading flowers. " But I will go to a land men know land. and the certainty of sorrow. without pity or pardon.vine and the wild brier marry. my song-birds are dead in their bushes for such things! Robins and linnets and blackbirds and thrushes. Came there and slew. Let the bramble. however ill-deserved.

dreds there assembled perished. indicated in the composition by a few sweeping. monitory to break slowly in whispered thunder upon the strand. ominous voice of the sea. The principal theme of the work. which the author de- Days born in rose and buried in gold. In Harper's Magazine for April. when winds held their breath and slow wavelets caressed the bland brown beach with a sound as of kisses and whispers. Edw. ethereal azure days preceding the storm. at the height of the season. and for weeks no fleck of cloud broke the heaven's scribes as ' ' blue dream of eternity. . 1888.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions." It dealt with the destruction of Last Island. wavelike arpeggios." rollers Then the first mighty precome surging in from the far horizon. which follows. the was totally destroyed by a sudden tempest and Every vestige of human habitation was into the Gulf and nearly every soul of the hunswept island tidal wave. loth of August. Hearn's perfect and powerful prose poem. intended to portray the mood of the bland. almost page for page. thronged every season with hundreds of On the aristocratic guests from the Southern States. It opens with a quiet lyric introduction. or. 163 Ballade of Last Island. portrays the rising. formerly a fashionable watering-place in the Gulf of Mexico. Baxter Perry. of Mr. 1856. entitled "Chita. appeared a remarkably graphic sketch by Lafcadio Hearn. The composition is a musical transcript. A Memory of Last Island: The Legend of L'Ue Derniere.

merry. the muttering of the multitudinous dead. and the very land trembles to this giant tread. "Is not one voice. in his arms. mocking strains of waltz music are heard drifting out upon the gloom and terror of that tempestuous night from the ball-room of this the great summer hotel upon the island. the gloom deepens. Just here I have introduced a waltz of a flippant character. there'll be dancing to a different tune!" In the repetition and development of the waltz-theme. and if he takes a notion to whip around south. but a tumult of many voices. Hearn again. in contrast to the light. with the strength of a tornado and the sound of a cannonade. which. almost sombre themes and harmonies which precede and follow. as but a moment since the polished floor of the dance hall quivered to the pressure of circling steps.164 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. The incongruous strains reach the ear of the veteran captain of the steamer Morning Star. bearing the sea. and winds and waves are hushed in suspense. which." Then the original sea-theme returns." Steadily the gale increases. is drifting down to her inevitable doom amid the breakers. I have endeavored to depict the moment when the wind veers and "from the south he comes on. and the surf breaks higher. moment of tranquillity. till toward midnight. a blanched and frightened partner. with its sobbing. there is a sudden In lull. dragging three anchors. suggesting the mood as well as the movement of the dancers. and he exclaims. voices of drowned men. to quote Mr. . "Dancing! God help them! for the wind dances with the sea to-night. all rising to rage against the living at the great witch-call of storms. when the storm has nearly reached its climax.

mingled with uprooted trees and struggling human victims. to suggest that it is the same scene." Then. in a weltering chaos of destruction. only given in extension and in the minor key.Miscellaneous Modern Compositions. but altered almost o/ beyond recognition by Death. when "Shattered wrecks of buildings. the voice of the sea again. 165 surging accompaniment. and at the close are a few subdued minor chords. like the storm. identical with that of the introduction. the passing of the shadow . out into the black waters of the Gulf. and the tempest rapidly increases to the final climax and ultimate awful catas- trophe. but rising to a shout of warning. like selves to rest repentant surges sobbing themon a wreck-strewn shore. are swept surging together. the composition gradually subsides in sad. a musical requiescat Musicians will notice that the theme of the Coda is for the lost. falling cadences. the same sea and sky.

and even Lange are better musical nourishment for the child than Schumann or Bach. It is as unwise to insist classics for the on an exclusive diet of the young. First let me say that in the study of the piano. made and My personal ex- perience with music of this grade is very limited. but I will mention a few such compositions which have come to my notice and which I know to be available and useful of their kind. 166 . every stage has its mental as well as its technical limitations. |CARCELY a week passes that I do not receive requests for a list of pieces in these earlier grades that are at once meritorious and pleasing.Teaching Pieces for Second and Third Grades. as in other lines. which the good teacher must recognize. for the taste as well as technic must grow gradually son. Some of them may be new to the reader. The effect is as certain to be detrimental. as to feed a baby on roast-beef and mince-pie or to force a child in the primary school to read only Browning and Bmer . well practically usable. undeveloped pupil. Bohm. Spindler.

by Morey. Gavotte Imperial in A minor. stirring. both musically This is and technically. Among American writers who have supplied much valuable material of this class There are many none ranks higher than my old friend. is interesting and practicable for the . with a fine melodious Trio. Song of the Kankakee. in- valuable to the student in the first stage of developMusically it is strong. yet attractive to the young student. an excellent specimen of that form of dance music. Among the same set of six pieces. It is well made. a useful and attractive study in rippling arpeggio figures.Second and Third Grade Pieces. and nutrition must be adapted of the recipient. and martial in character. His works will prove a treasure-trove to those not familiar with them.. 167 to the digestive capacity small compositions. and free from technical complexities. They are melodious. For full description of the Gavotte see the "Story of the Gavotte" in this volume. is a fine Cradlesong in G. and well suited to meet the need in question. Morey. good. Here is a fine study in octave and chord work. and ment is in that line. easily grasped. formerly of Chicago. with a sustained tuneful melody in the middle register. by Morey. the lamented Fred L.

The idea here embodied is of a peculiarly playful. in the picturesque garb of the A . Poor Morey! He died. and a musician gifted far beyond the lot of most. while listening thousands rejoiced and applauded dreams which. reproduced with ad- mirable fidelity in the music. comely old lady. pupil. Morey. m when he should be a symphonies for great composer and write mighty the world's orchestras to perform. a prince of good fellows. many of its happiest hours having been spent on the TT How-fringed banks of the tranquil Kankakee. Hieland Laddie. will prove a welcome novelty to teachers who are looking for good yet pleas- ing third-grade pieces. watchng the changing lights and shadows on the surface of he dimpling water. and a score of other greater men than he. in obscurity and poverty. by Fred L. but a few of us remember him loyally as the best of friends. the shadow. quizzical character. and. while he lay among the whispering willows and alders. as it is but little known. Morey's boyhood. like most of those of youth. and dreamed a boy's dreams of the days to come. slumberous murmur of the languid stream as it wound its slow way through the fertile plains of Illinois. It was at first suggested by a charmingly characteristic engraving. yet not without tenderness and poetry. listening to the low. of genuine Scottish tone. were destined to remain unfulfilled. It is a musical memory of Mr.1 68 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. like Spindler and Heller and Schubert and Mozart.

Scotch peasant. as with tranquil reflection on the remembered The pleasure. The third strain mellow baritone melody. his answering gives. than before. as if telling of her sudden the her first strain repeats. Entering the door from without. awakening and startled surprise. the suband present dreams. sits just 169 within the open doorway of a simple cottage. his face with health and strength From a certain the look of affec- evident that the picture is that of her own absent ject of her last waking thoughts bonny boy. approaching swiftly but softly. hangs the portrait of a handsome youth. Prominent on the opposite wall. the living original of the picture. just facing her. The should be played softly and gracefully. resemblance in the woman's face. peculiar Scotch inflection of the melody must . his eyes dancing with mischievous glee. so as not too soon to disturb her slumbers. then one more subdued repetition of the first voice. as he steals forward.Second and Third Grade Pieces. in the jaunty cap and gay plaid of the High- and figure eloquent and buoyant animation. in a strain closes the composition. and her eyes are closed. She is evidently napping. sugthe dreams of the waiting mother. it is lander. in her lap. and tionate pride which it wears. him whom she The music first strain is at once pleasing and graphic. the second gesting with more energy and decided contrasts. Then stronger and more animated and we may fancy her gaily recounting dream to the returned wanderer. enjoying in advance her start and glad surprise when she wakes to find thought so distant close beside her. her neglected knitting and idle hands lie Her head droops. comes the Highland Laddie himself.

has a certain arch. will at once recognize the slurred sixteenths on the first and fourth beats of many of the measures as characteristic These should be played precisely as the words "Highland I. . Those familiar with Robin be brought out distinctly. Adair. lighter and detached from what account the piece will be found an excellent study in rhythm. This composition is intended. or tive. gliding to the of all Scotch music. as its name implies. rural character of the festival . second.") Under her ity. mild and mirthful sway. The fairest maiden in the village was selected by her companions as Queen of the revels. with a marked accent on the first syllable. the flower-wreathed Maypole was erected in the centre making. and invested for the day with supreme author(See Tennyson's "May Queen. which is much follows. the young people abandoned themselves to every kind of innocent and jovial merryfestivals till at evening. strain. to the rollicking measures of pipe and fiddle. by Fred L. of the village green. and similar Scotch songs. crowned with Mayflowers. and around it all joined in the rustic dance. the most joyous and poetic of old English was the annual celebration of May-day. On this Around Among the Maypole. as culmination of the frolic. Trio. to suggest such a scene. capricious element. circling hand in hand. Morey. Rustic Dance.170 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.addie" are pronounced. and express its merry mood. The melody and harmonies are purposely kept simple and unpretentious to fit the primiwhile the third. Kelvin Green.

by Edward B. Ah me! For it owns her power as the twilight falls. and animated swing. Baxter With a hop and a skip Without stumble or trip Perry. Edw. hinting of the playful coquetries of or perhaps the May Queen herself. be given with a rhythmic swing indicating the movement implied by the name. abounding health. with a bright. And my is bright heart is so light For school doesn't keep 'Tis the first day of Spring. and with all the capricious abandon which the player can feel. out for a holiday It should in the breezy. cheerful tone. as if to mark the time for the flying feet of the dancers around the Maypole. The piece should be played at moderate tempo. exhilarating spring weather. known as the The mood expressed throughout is the exuberant light-hearted gaiety of the schoolgirl. This composition belongs to the class graceful or playful lyric. Jumping Rope. and high spirits. . My jump-rope The morning I swing Keeping time while I sing. The mermaid sits by the summer sea. Perry. or imagine. in connection with the springtime and the days of youth. remember. At the evening hour and sings and calls. 171 some village belle. The heart of the youth must break. distinct rhythm. The Mermaid's Song.Second and Third Grade Pieces. crisp.

by Ferdinand Dewey. and is all the wistful sadness of murmuring waves. This is legend witchery of silver lake and stream. The gentle. Undine. and when disappointed and cast off by her earthly lover. rippling and flowing like tranquil waves. The sea song blends with her tender sighs As she lingers there while the west grows With the blue of the sea in her melting eyes And a gleam in her hair like the sunset's gold. and fearsome delight. without resentment or revenge. The youth well knows he must say good night To the world above and with her must go With rapturous dread. To a life of love in the depths below. to which the primitive imagination of named for that mythical water fairy of ancient who was the personification of all the delicate men attributed supernatural life. while the flowing triplet accompaniment suggests the The composition soft ripple of her native element. touching sadness of the much-forgiving Undine breathes in the music of this simple little nocturne. will be found invaluable to teachers as an almost un- . cold. The melody may be supposed to typify her plaintive yet winsome voice. to endless sorrow and loneliness beneath the water.172 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. She said to have re- ceived or developed a human soul as the result of falling in love with a mortal. Let the melody in the right hand suggest the plaintive but sweetly seductive voice of the Mermaid. to have returned. while the left-hand accompaniment rises and falls in gentle undulations. all the fleeting grace of those vague floating forms compounded of mist and moonlight.

by Baker. melodious. without being too complex for the average pupil. attention of the player from the songful quality. sufficiently interesting to yet musically it is be used with far more advanced students who may need or enjoy something in the pure lyric vein. 173 equaled study in tone-production. As a whole. namely. The harmonies are varied and pleasing. . of about third grade difficulty. though light and little work. affording no excuse for even momentary withdrawal of the mind from the quality and shading of the melodic phrases. It is hardly more than third grade in technical difficulty. or the most all noticeable one. yet warmly poetic and so clearly divided into short. easily grasped periods that it may be said to phrase There are no tricky cadences to distract the itself.Second and Third Grade Pieces. and it contains no dry sections and no tricky embellishments or cadenzas beyond the grade of the piece. popular with pupils. in Scotch melodies. Danse Ecossaise. and a good rhythmic study. is the distinguishing peculiarity. the mood is that of the joyous. so within the reach of the majority of pupils. This playful is an attractive. sharply accented one. well put together. the short. unaccented which note passing at once to a longer. The melody is simplicity itself. for it has the genuine characteristic Scotch lilt in its theme. and the left-hand accompaniment is unaffected and natural. frolicsome highland dance.

Stories of Standard

Teaching Pieces.

The Music Box, by
The teacher
but very
realistic little

Liebich.

will find in this musically rather trivial, composition, a valuable bit of

most beneficial technical study, disguised under a sugar coating of surface prettiness and real graphic imitation, which will reach the interest and stimulate
the work of certain pupils

whom

otherwise

it

may be

hard to rouse. It is a very excellent imitation of the sound of the old-fashioned music-box, and a piece of pronounced
realism which they can fully understand,

and the

in-

tended

effects of

produce.

which they can themselves clearly This will often arouse the imagination and

latent artistic perception of a young pupil who is wholly impervious to a deeper mood or thoughtIt is the wedge that opens the way for better things moreover, the child is getting a good tude for finger

;

development without knowing it, which, as every teacher knows, is in some cases an important step in the
right direction.

Titania,
This
little

by Wely.
is

composition by the once great pianist

familiar to every teacher

and well-nigh every pupil
modest mile-stone on the

above the third-grade.
It has served as a sort of

path of pianistic progress for two generations, and still has its utilitarian value for students and its hosts of
friends.

It possesses

some

of the general qualities of

Second and Third Grade Pieces.
the

175

number by Liebich referred to
well

;

it is

a good chromatic
useful
for

e"tude,

constructed

and

practically

technical purposes, but skilfully disguised and sugarcoated by means of a romantic name, and attractive

melodic and descriptive characteristics. The ear of even the most superficial pupil is pleased, and his imagination awakened, while he is being adroitly stimulated to
in the

do willingly some otherwise distasteful work development of the much-needed finger facility

so essential to the pianist.

We may fancy the scene suggested by the music as a secluded glade in the heart of the forest, half illuminated by the silvery moonlight, but encircled by the shadowy
mystery of the woodland.

The introduction

presents to us the capricious, mis-

chievous, but daintily charming Titania, queen of the fairies. This should be played with extreme lightness and a playful coquettish freedom, to indicate her
personality. Then follows

her graceful circling dance,

as she

weaves her spells and traces her mystic rings about the ancient oak in the centre of the glade, the silent witness
of so

many

fairy revels in the past.

This bright, airy

dance movement should be given with the utmost speed compatible with accuracy; and with a clear, crisp, but always delicate touch. The trio in B flat introduces a different mood and His Fairy Majesty, king Oberon, emerges personage. from the shadows in mock dignity, and half real, halfpretended displeasure, checks the dance by an imperious gesture, and proceeds to lecture his wayward wife for amusing herself so well in his absence. He

176

Stories of

Standard Teaching Pieces.
and then
is

scolds for a while,

mollified

finally joins in the dance, frolicsome burst of hilarity.

charms, and

and won by her which ends in a

contrast of this more grave and demiddle movement must be distinctly emclamatory phasized by means of a fuller tone, slower tempo, and more emphatic delivery. The work is a simple but attractive picture in tone, devoid of any great depth or strength, but not without merit of its kind, and as a study possesses considerable

The marked

technical value.

Heinrich Hofmann, Aus Schoner Zeit.
another short and very beautiful lyric, of perhaps fourth-grade difficulty, in a sadly pensive mood. The name means literally, "Out of a beautiful

This

is

time," but the idea for which

it

stands would be more

aptly expressed

English by the words, "Sweet Memories." A German couplet stands as motto at the head of the music, suggesting its character and origin, which might be freely translated as follows: "By the
in

door unheeded a zither swings, and the night wind sighs through its trembling strings." The dream-picture called up both by the words and

by the music may be something

like this:

A

modest

peasant's cottage in the forest of Tyrol; the home of childhood revisited in after years. Silence and loneliness reign in the familiar scene,

where memories of

departed loved ones wander like phantoms. By the open door hangs an old forgotten zither, its gay music

Second and Third Grade Pieces.

177
life

now

stilled like

the voices of the dear old

home

of

the bygone years, but stirring dreamily in its sleep at the caress of the night wind and recalling to the listener

who shall say what vague, far-away fancies and longings. The strings murmur faintly, indistinctly, in sweet,
shifting harmonies, through

which a plaintive strain of heard, like the echo of a beloved voice sounding through the halls of memory. The whole effect should be subdued to the most

melody

is

delicate of half-tones,
ticularly

and the accompaniment parmust be a mere sigh of harmony. There is one rather unusual and tricky cadenza, but with carefully selected fingering it is by no means impracticable
even for moderately advanced players.

The Will O'
This
feu
follet

the Wisp.

name (which is synonymous with the French and the German Irrlichter) is applied to those

wandering, elusive, phosphorescent lights which appear

by night

in marshy meadows and damp forest glades, and which have been, in all lands and ages, the source of much wonder and curiosity and the origin of many

In Scotland they were formerly superstitious fears. called death lights, and their number, at any given time
or place, was supposed to indicate the
funeral candles that would be lighted in that during that year.
souls of candles

number

of

community

are the prematurely extinguished, which fly to these lonely places to live out the remainder of their brief earthly existences, cut short by the cruelty or

The Germans have a pretty legend that they

178

Stories of

Standard Teaching Pieces.

man; and that, in these fleeting hours of weird nocturnal revelry, they dance and sport together and amuse themselves by narrating to each
carelessness of

other the scenes of

human joy or sorrow which they illuminated during their short earthly lives. This idea has been used by a number of composers
as the subject of pianoforte compositions, the attempt being first to produce the realistic imitation in music
of the dancing, flickering, mysteriously appearing

and

swiftly vanishing witch-lights against the dark background of the night; and second, in some cases, to

suggest, in addition,

the stories told

by

these spirit

candles of the scenes they have witnessed, the ballroom gaiety or bridal happiness or burial rites upon

which they have shone.

The
as yet,

subject

is

rich in varied possibilities

which have,
there are a

by no means been exhausted, though number of compositions based upon it.
Probably the most
existence
is

difficult

work

of its length in

the Irrlichter

by

Liszt,

one of his trans-

cendental studies.
useful, little

bright and pleasing, as well as piece for second-grade pupils, is the Will

A

O' the

bodiment of the

Wisp by Jungman; a good, though simple emidea, and a fine study in light, crisp,

staccato playing.
well as

The one by Jensen is somewhat more difficult, as more subtle musically. Both will be found of

practical value to the student.

Inflection in Music.
NCIDENTALLY
I

wish here to

call

the

attention of teachers with very young pupils to the set of easy and pleasing
little

pieces by Leibitz, It will be found to be of value, not

only in interesting the children, but in accustoming them to play simple
melodies with some degree of intelligent expression and declamatory style. The melodies are literally

may be sung by the child and which serve not only to give a general desired, idea of the character of the music and the way it should be played, but also to indicate where the heavy and light accents should properly fall. The child, when playing, thinks of the words and tries to make
fitted

with words, which

if

the notes say them;
first

thus unconsciously getting the

elementary conception of inflection in melody playing; a most important, but often neglected element, popularly spoken of as "the ability to make music talk," that is, to put some individual life and
significance into it

beyond what

it is

possible to indi-

cate

by the ordinary marks of expression. No two consecutive notes of a melody should ever
179

180

Stories of

Standard Teaching Pieces.
alike;

be played exactly
feet, dactyls,

like the lines in poetry, are

for the measures, precisely subdivided into metrical

trochees, &c., certain notes having

more

importance and demanding more stress or accent than others, like different words in a sentence or sylThis dynamic differentiation, proplables in a word. erly observed, in a single simple phrase of music, makes all the distinction between mere machine playing and
artistic delivery.

The
render

little
it

pieces referred to emphasize this point and clear to the child mind. They are a much-

needed step in the right direction. I would also mention as most useful in first grade work the set of pieces by J. M. Blose, Op. 15, which

many teachers Many more
for first

are finding invaluable. excellent things by American writers,

and second grades, might be mentioned. I have no wish to discriminate, but lack of time and space,

as well as of experience in this grade of work, prohibit giving much attention to it in this volume.

my

Dance Forms .

.

gestures. which is primarily there are intended to accompany or suggest a certain definite physical action ment. the huntand harvest and snake dances. expressing sorrow in every reluctant step and drooping pose. long before speech was invented. itself. long before the first progressive Men danced . exbilities of pressing courage and defiance in every line and motion of their war-inspired figures. |VBRY form of musical composition. and many such. Men marched bravely and proudly to battle. and movements. and was used to convey ideas. of. and moveand naturally grows out that movement The human body. may be said to have been the first artistic instrument. emotions. the war dance. is logically developed from. and even the dance ing of religious frenzy. and ages before modern fine arts were even dreamed of by the most visionary of prophets. the love dance. with its infinitely varied possiexpression by means of attitudes. or slowly and dejectedly behind the bier of king or hero. ages before the first band or even drum-corps headed the column. and impressions through a universal and highly developed sign-language.The Story of the Waltz.

The waltz or conceivably incident to. The dance was first of all the arts. control. however. These were gradually developed. the cry of pain. this rhythm growing out of. and combined into increasingly till phrases. and intended to guide. the shout of triumph or defiance. vocal cries were added. Every good dance form. amplified. and elaborated. or desire. savage devised the rhythm-marking "tom-tom" to animate the dancers and heighten the effect. melodic The element of harmony was slowly added. beaten out on some instrument of percussion. even if not intended to accompany an actual dance. the original dance. add many collateral and supplementary suggestions arising out of. it must be based upon the rhythm and tempo. expressing . that is. and no matter how much it may be idealized. and in modern times always does. Little and stimulate the dancers. and music as an independent art was born with a body of beauty and an immortal soul of emotional expression. Dance music consisted originally of merely a marked rhythm. or pleasure. though it may. It was the primitive but accurate expression of life-experiences through motion. and demanded by the dance itself. refined. the whoop of delirious frenzy. by little the wail of death-agony. some kind of drum. when properly considered. is the love-dance of modern life. for it is an art. expressive and beautiful the song evolved from the dance. and express the general fundamental mood of the dance from which it springs. must remain true in the main to its physical heredity and antecedents. in time with the dance and expressing its mood. probably in the first instance a hollow log pounded with a club.184 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.

the poetry. as much alone for the moment. especially the older forms.The Story of the Waltz. exclusive atmosphere of swift. more or less collectively and interdependently. the figures are executed by several couples. ily shifted. many other subsidiary emotions . In spite of much controversy there can be little doubt that it originated in Germany. idealistic. and this is as it should be. as the name waltz. In other dances. graceful motion. simple. in its refined. as if on a desert island. is distinctive characteristic of the waltz. and forms the most important element in this dance. It was introduced into the social life of Vienna in 1780. wellnigh supplanting most other dances. intimate mutual absorption. This is characteristic of the mood it is intended to express. concrete idea of the love-dance. as a the complete isolation of the couples. but irresistible potency. symbolizing its significance. soon gained a sure and permanent foot- hold in popular favor and spread its dominion throughout Europe. en- each couple revolves in own independent veloped in its peculiar. derived from the German word walzen (to turn or whirl). and despite fierce opposition and abuse from certain quarters. in the midst of the whirling crowd. orbit. probably because of the universality and strength of the element which it embodies. its In the waltz. The most dance. at Partners are temporartimes the evolutions are more complex and the social element more in evidence. 185 the romance. the subtile glamour and fascination. clearly indicates. of fascination But in connection with this original. of sex attraction. sensuous music.

the sudden. as their principal theme. catering to the rather trifling and frivolous taste of that second Paris. the gentle tenderness or the witching coquetry or playful mockery of the woman. the fear and pain of impending separation. with the waltz move- ment and emotional motive of course. rebuff. These and many more. the ecstasy of reunion after long parting. the ardent wooing of the man. startling call "to arms. tone pictures of ball-room scenes and moods. for example.1 86 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the crown as "waltz-king" was appropriated by the elder Strauss. as. the anguish of a stolen farewell. associated with it and incident to it. the bitterness of misunderstanding. and concerned merely with the expression of the one simple idea. which may interweave themselves with the simple pattern of the waltz as primarily conceived. of almost infinite variety. are possible accessory elements. to-day the best waltzes are no longer strictly dance music. has gradually evolved and expanded so as to include and utilize all these till secondary and incidental suggestions. embodying fully the sprightly grace. strikingly rhythmic and enspiriting. but with all the intricate complexities of human life and passions vividly portrayed. and for actual dance purposes their waltzes remain to-day unequalled. Among the light Viennese school of writers. the fateful. and suggestions naturally arise. but complete. tragic message or ominous secret. and seemed likely to become hereditary in that family. Waltz music. elaborate art works." in the midst of the gaiety. imparted under cover of the jest and laughter of the ball-room. and disappointment. originally intended as an accompaniment and rhythmic guide to the dance. .

but as genuine music they are of very "light weight" and have only very ephemeral value. 187 the exagcenters of half-artificial gerated. Even before their supremacy. Then came Chopin. in all its seonly ductive grace and subtle tenderness and witchery. . tenderness. with his series of inimitable piano-forte waltzes. Perry. from the heart-breaking sadness in the 'cello theme. introducing into the suggestive. more profoundly emo- which gave to it a place among the disand recognized musical art forms. The Strauss waltzes will always remain representative types of their class. Schubert and von Weber had raised the waltz into the realm of real music. and epoch-making example.The the languorous. flirtatious spirit of the primitive waltz. forming the opening and principal subject in the little waltz in A minor. but classic types of this also almost every possible shade and variety of mood. to the sparkling gaiety and frolicsome abandon of the joy-intoxicated debutante in the concert waltz Most of the pieces described in this chapter will be found in Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. Baxter ED. which will always remain standard tional elements tinct form. it developing and expanding its form. by Edw. embodying. which might conceivably be experienced by the individual dancers under diverse conditions. as they do. world-famous. Among their productions in this form Weber's "Invitation to the Dance" stands as the most remarkable. victorious Story of the Waltz. not the fundamental idea of the waltz. descriptive. at its first entrance into the social Europe.

in wealth of musical and emotional content. and the subtler. B flat major. more exotic fascination of those in C sharp minor and B minor. Just one word more concerning the subject matter of the waltz and its symbolic significance. It in technical brilliancy." to the simple. These waltzes will always be found invaluable studies for pupils of all grades above the second. fairly surpass all previous productions in ornate complexity of construction. from the manifold realistic as well as emotional suggestions in the waltz in A flat.1 88 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. all concert numbers of some magnitude. Godard. with the possible exception of the Polonaise. for they include almost every variety of style and degree of difficulty. I repeat that it is openly and avowedly the love dance of modern civilization. and are the best introduction to what has been aptly called "the true Chopinism of Chopin. whose four masterly waltzes for the piano." Schulhoff. most varied selection of material for parlor or concert use of any of the dance forms. Certain people are inclined to sneer at this emotion . till it now offers to the pianist the richest. Rubinstein. Wieniawski. founded in upon Byron's "Battle of Waterloo. and a host of others have contributed liberally and ably to this most popular form of idealized dance music. based upon and expressing the mystery and magic of sex attraction. is difficult to imagine their being excelled by any subsequent writer. naive delight in rhythmic motion and innocent coquetry expressed in the little waltzes in G flat and D flat major. and variety of fanciful suggestions. Its development may be said to have culmin- ated with Moszkowski.

Yet the fact remains that corollary emotions. the motive power in most important human actions. which has been deemed worthy to serve as the motive in nearly all the great dramas and works of fiction since literature began. at the idea that Chopin founded so colossal and dignified a work as his Sonata Op. is and must remain the oldest." But a theme of such and universal interest to the race. as indeed they sometimes do. trivial surely be legitimately utilized by the musician. and nowhere does it find more facile or diversified may expression.The with its Story of the Waltz. the determining element in most human experiences. This fundamental truth has been recognized by all great authors from Shakespeare and Victor Hugo down. most universal and most potent factor in human existence. 189 and its use as an art subject. Our musical critics may scoff if they choose. . 35. love. on what they are pleased to call* 'so vital a subject as a love story.

other instruments of deeper. to step. or ing and regulating the tread of soldiers. 190 . Then. inspiring character. supplementing the element of rhythm with that of melody of a stirring. tomtoms. in which. the fife. The practical use and importance of martial music.The Story of the March. more sonorous tone were introduced. accompany- formerly spearmen infantry. composed of five varieties of brass instruments and four of wood-wind. till the modern military band. The distinctive rhythm of the march had its origin in the steady. as in Scotland. little by little. |HE march is probably the oldest and cer- tainly the most universally employed of all the forms of secular music. like the horn and trombone. and in some instances the bagpipe. moving bodies of foot and archers. to these instruments of percussion were added the trumpet. as the desire for harmony de- veloped. authoritative beat of drums. still came into being. The name march is derived from the French word marcher. later our modern In process of time. however. cymbals. the drums play an important part.

in all military manoeuvres and field of battle. march having among practically all nations. the forced march or quickstep. Lastly. employed its in genfor different purposes and occasions. actually or hypothetically used in connection with the various movements of troops. and enthusiasm in the troops. march of seventy-five steps a minute. dignified. Second. to secure and facilitate concerted action. controls the rate of advance. simultaneous movement of large bodies of men. orderly. yet stirring. checks the impatient. minute. a regular. have been fully recognized by all army experts in all ages.The on the Story of the March. impressive. and the wedding . and mournful. adapted to a rate of leisurely. which spurs the laggard. a good band is as essential a part of a well-equipped regiment as its arms of or ammunition-wagon. with a tempo allowing for one hundred and eight steps to the minute. 191 especially the march. Its purpose is two-fold: Firstj to stimulate courage. There are three distinct types of the eral use. own First and most common. the storming march. the French pas de with a hundred and twenty steps to the charge. more inspiring and exciting. For this reason. each special characteristics and tempo. All these are distinctively military marches. the ordinary parade march. by keeping them in step with a uniform. there are the funeral march. Second. ardor. slow. commanding rhythm. and insures precision and mathematical certainty in the execution army manoeuvres. In addition to them.

an introduction of from four to sixteen measures. must be other ideas sugand to which may But these secondary ideas and resultant moods cover and include a vast range of thought and For instance. often. march. or sullenly to certain defeat. all bear a definite relation. consisting mainly of a fanfare of trumpets. ing feet must always serve as its basic idea. to the coronation of an emperor. with occasional touches of tender sentiment. and is constructed on the reached 1 its full 8th century. not always. joyous. As a definite. the march development about the middle of the it has undergone few alterations. to a wedding or a funeral. recognized and adopted by all modern nations. emotion. so to speak. or the execution of a comrade.192 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. All the emotions incident to these various occasions may be ex- pressed in the music of the march. and hopeful. This wide diversity of mood and movement. well-established musical form. brilliant. though . and fine specimens of every type of march are to be found in the writings of nearly all the leading composers from Handel to Wagner. its physical germ. men may march exultantly to vic- tory. It is always in two-four or four-four time. or in the feverish panic of a rout. since which time following general plan: First. makes of it one of the broadest. to the storming of a fortress. most elastic forms The rhythmic tramp of marchof musical expression. possible within the legitimate limitations of the march. out of which gested in it all they must logically evolved. accompanied by drum effects.

Since its creation. had its origin The Mendelssohn Wedding March. in the Folk-song. where music had any part in the ceremony. which is again repeated at the close of the work. however. in its turn.two measures in length. and usually in a lighter. No other march has ever been found so acceptable. as is the case with most funeral marches. frequently in the dominant. yet ideally lofty strains have voiced the 13 . most of the rhythm. this form is based upon that of the fully developed rondo. Then comes a trio. forming a marked and effective contrast with the opening movement. brighter vein. as the Wedpublic.The Story of the March. The first subject. its jubilant. with no cadenzas or episodes of any kind to break the uniformity or interrupt the steady tramping Then follows the second theme. In stately city churches and simple village chapels. divided into distinct periods of four or eight measures. Tech- nically speaking. it would be impossible even to guess. after which the first subject is repeated. and at how many thousands of weddings it has been heard. or principal theme. with often a brief but brilliant coda or finale added. in palace and cottage. throughout ding March by Mendelssohn. is so familiar to the general the civilized world. it has been the one composition used all weddings. more quiet. at in hall and private parlor. No work of its kind about eighty ago. which. is from sixteen to thirty. from the eastern confines of Russia to far California. more lyric in character. 193 This introduction. and somewhat more slowly played. may be omitted.

telling of love the conqueror." an early but supremely able work. of fairy intrigue and influence. exultant. while first the trio. fancies. with its delicate trills and subtle wood-wind effects. of mood hearts. It was accompany the march of the noble wedding party in the play. The movement. and the most familiar one. the happy occasion for countless is human This march a fragment. or subject. which color the whole texture of the story and are treated by Mendelssohn with a masterly finesse. as already stated. of happiness assured and imminent. is proud. but in this case with no suggestion of the drums. drama. triumphant. The introduction and trumpet signals which appear so often at the opening of march movements. Those who would appreciate apparent in written to it fully should familiarize themselves with the scene in Shakespeare's orchestra. from Mendelssohn's music to "The Mid-Summer Night's Dream. The work was written for but there have been numerous piano argives us the gladsome bugle calls rangements. of obstacles overcome. a brilliant and joyous company. hence the atmosphere of pride and splendor as well as gaiety which envelops it. which proves him to be peculiarly at home in that realm of fascinating unrealities. .194 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. replete with delicate mysticism and dainty fairyland which accounts for the suggestions of that style it notably in the trio. hints of a background of shadowy woodland mystery.

rather than the conservative. It is designated as Brautzug (bridal train or march). that it not as broadly and fully adapted to any and every wedding occasion. and easily understood. It accompanies Klsa and her bridesmaids in their progress from the palace to the chapel. a reason of which the public is not definitely conscious.The Story of the March. 195 The Bridal March from "Lohengrin. why this march never supplant the one by Mendelssohn in general usage. while perfectly in keeping with the scene for which it was intended. It is time-honored observances. but. but which is instinctively felt. The music is of a high grade of excellence. also it is bright and joyous and so far well fitted for its purpose. 1 In recent years this march has. inherent in the music. and is preferred by those who seek novelties and change in all the experiences of life. encroached upon the universal supremacy in public favor formerly maintained by the Mendelssohn march. is not as characteristically a wedding is march in tone and mood. simply melodious. it is exactly and exclusively adapted to the particular occasion and mood it was written to reflect.' by Wagner. to some small extent. the only other famous wedding march. It is distinctively local in its coloring and. But there a good and sufficient reason. is not so generally in harmony with all occasions of the kind. and who specially affect the is modern school will in music. where her . markedly rhythmic. namely. like all of Wagner's music. and has special reference to the bride.

" by Handel. It is an extract from . wedding with Lohengrin is to take place. of which Wagner was particularly fond in his early works rather the modern German idea of maidenhood than the stronger and more heroic model. like a section cut from some great picture. but far from profound or serious. but by no means realizing the intensely serious nature of the step she is taking. on which his later Brunhilde was moulded. in these half-graceful. the flowers and favors and bright costumes. tripping. This short but characteristic funeral march. propriate in its proper place. happyhearted. and portrays the personality of the innocent. but rather visionary. and the usual tender trio is enhalf-playful While it is ideally beautiful and aptirely lacking. hardly more than a child. daintily playful. formerly universally known and much played. or of vital strains. a type of deli- cately feminine but rather helpless maiden. is rarely heard in our own day. the first notable work of its kind. The Dead March from "Saul. The music is light. There is no touch of strong or deep emotion. The mood it embodies is that of the fanciful girl. and fascinated by the mystery of the future.196 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. heroine. reality. this march taken separately is obviously only a fragment and loses much of its charm and pertinence when parted from its proper setting and connection. though still familiar by name. pleased and impressed by the pomp and glitter of the ceremony. white-souled.

and David's lament for their loss." personal sorrow for his lost friend. his relations with David. and compared with similar efforts by a Chopin or a Wagner. his wars. and with the more than brotherly Its climax is reached love of David and Jonathan. passing the love of women. and intrigues. entirely in a major key. itive and inadequate The very tonality selected is wholly inappropriate according to every law of aesthetics. are the mighty fallen in the midst of the "I am distressed for thee. espethe reverse. 197 presented in I739- great successful oratorio. the work being in C major. Very pleasant hast thou been unto me thy love to me was wonderful. the mighty fallen!" Their expression in the music. January 16. now friendly.The Handel's first Story of the March. now fall of as it is called. my brother Jonathan. of the oratorio The plot and text were based upon the well-known Bible narrative of Saul and David. How are when regarded from our modern standpoint. symbolizes the the king and prince. . the grief of the nation. as well as the crushing defeat of the Jews. and David's deep "The Dead March. The emotional motives of the march are to be traced to "How battle!" two familiar quotations from David's lamentation. . which was first London at King's Theatre. cially for the latter. so far as known to the writer. and deal with the vicissitudes of Saul's reign. is decidedly primnot to say commonplace. with the death of Saul and Jonathan in the battle with the Philistines. the only funeral march in existence.

I. and as such deserves our respect. its resources scarcely even guessed at by the best musicians.jg8 Stories of it Standard Teaching Pieces. slow. Daring death though the cause be vain. harmonies. not without impressiveness. its material. Poland's woes lamenting. It furnishes a good example of the effective massing of the solid. Brave as blades that in stern delight. Flash and fall in the van of fight. imposing all in their grave simplicity. Moreover. and meager in the means employed. Sad as tears for a nation shed. Still for Poland sighing. though antiquated in style. it possesses a certain simple dignity and directness. * Sonata Op. Sad as thoughts of our long-lost dead. if common. II. Strong as hearts that exult in pain. fully described in The famous Funeral March by Beethoven " is a part of his " Descriptive Analyses . 26. like that of the English language in the time of Chaucer. Bells that toll o'er a nation's tomb. also that it was at a time when music. Poland's wrongs resenting. Keen for vengeance and for the right Poland's foes defying. Dirge. still in process of formation. BY CHOPIN. as a medium of emotional expression. Solemn. This march is one of the earliest steps in the develop- ment of tonal art. as the knell of doom. Strong as rage for a loved one slain. that voices a dawnless gloom. was still in its infancy. Handel's larger FUNERAL MARCH. characteristic of works. Sad as dreams of a hope that's fled. score But must be remembered that the piano gives a very imperfect idea of the orchestral effect.

Then once more with relentless weight. Speak in dissonance desolate. B. any but analysis of the sonata. Silent darkness is over all. 35.. Crushing chords like the voice of fate. as well as the full A may be found in my volume of "Descriptive Analyses of Piano Works. like a velvet pall. Op. Poland's pain is ended. march yet written the third This composition. Sombre. however." Taken independently.The Then a Story of the March. and is published and most often played sepadifficult for rately. like Heavenward now ascending. unquestionably the best funeral for the piano. It is. Chopin's Funeral March. Ere their bravest and noblest Poland's defending. . as well as the most perfect type of its kind to be found allegorical significance of both. allegorical tone-poem. III. this march is the strongest and noblest expression of profound and passionate sorrow. strain. March. with the interesting Polish narrative on which it is founded. a tender prayer Welling up from a soul's despair. originally appeared as in Chopin's great. Sad and slow let the cadence fall. a very complete and powerful work movement in itself. in piano literature. Wrath and anguish blended. P. IV. soft. the Sonata in B flat minor. 1897. Suppliant sigh for a land once fair. fell. dramatic. still Sobbing strain with passionate Striving of the past to life tell. the whole sonata being too the most advanced pianists. E. swell.

. sweet and simple of a child. their last sad offices completed. inexorable as the voice of fate. as well as a command of tone quality. expressed with a passionate intensity. Next little follows an exquisitely tender and touching as the song Trio. crashing chords. and it is often atrociously murdered. then the solemn. heart-breaking music grows gradually stronger as the procession draws nearer. slowly diminishing. so fondly loved and bitterly lamented. taking on more and more the inflexible tramping cadence of the funeral march. Then in heavy. the march movement is resumed. the march is not difficult.2OO It is Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. thrilling with tearful memories of happier days. as the black-robed procession of mourners return to the village. then pausing by the open tomb. and the grief and despair are for the death of a nation. but it demands an emotional capacity and insight. even by Chopin. and yet with a strength and nobility of utterance rarely equalled and never surpassed. in D flat major. possessed by few players. Regarded from a technical standpoint. even by our leading concert pianists. dying into silence. supposed to accompany the march of the funeral procession bearing the bride and heroine of the story to her last long rest. symbolizing prayer at the grave. rising at last to a stupendous climax of pain and despair. It begins with the distant muffled tolling of funeral bells. with an occasional sug* gestion of muffled drums. The bride in this story is an allegorical personification of Poland.

but pompous. its irresistible. This march was written in honor of the Austrian Imperial body-guard. full of martial spirit. They were superbly uniformed. and conveys the . beautiful. The ranks were composed their lofty stature of picked men. of the parade march. and back pieces of polished steel. breast plates. a crack regiment of grenadiers or heavy infantry. and known to be so The music. spontaneous melodies. The was maintained as much for display on state regiment occasions. with the ladies at home. and mood. dashing set of blades. It is scored for brass band and orchestra. to add pomp and splendor to court functions. its simple. also as a piano solo and four-hand arrangement. selected for and stalwart proportions. as well as a brilliant concert lands and in many forms and number always enjoyed and admired in Tausig's superb paraphrase. officered by some of the highest nobles of the realm a proud. as for service in the field in time of need. rhythmic swing. as bright as sunlight on steel. 201 Marche This is Militaire. by Schubert. wearing glittering helmets. many another world-famous march used in arrangements. It is of being almost (in spite hackneyed) for its freshness and sparkling vitality. not rapid. as clear as crystal. splendid. written as a compliment to them.The Story of the March. ex- presses the spirit of this martial body. It is a perfect example in form. They were supposed to be invincible in war. and were drilled to the last degree of military precision. content.

because chiefly known in . brilliant. a distinct measures. by Franz Liszt. The light. with flutter of fans and kerchiefs. stirring. the melodious" holds any place in the memory of the musical world. Interwoven with this is a stirring trumpet call. Then comes the march proper. beginning of so many marches every schoolboy in every land. giving.202 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. dainty. first movement "Schubert. scattering smiles and glances and bouquets upon the favorite officers as they pass. beauty. and gaiety of the fair spectators crowding windows and balconies to witness the passing pageant. with its catchy melody and swinging rhythm. growing stronger and louder as the parade draws nearer. which will live as long as Rakoczy March (Pronounced Rah-kow'-tsee). Then a sonorous repetition of the closes this march. a ringing summons to war and victory. almost playful Trio in the sub- dominant suggests the grace. suggestion of the beat of drums in reiterated chords in with the right hand. impression which their appearance in line of march was calculated It to produce. exactly reproducing the most common and simple rhythm employed by the drummers at the a rhythm familiar to and imitated by every boy that ever marched with a wooden gun. This is one of the most stirring and spirited concert pianist. an ingenious introduction of six opens even in the piano score. marches in the repertoire of the modern It is generally attributed to Liszt.

They were. as they never wrote anything) by one of those gifted but unknown gipsy musicians. and revivified for the musical world of our day in his masterly adaptation for the piano. The mood is impetuous. Its authorship is anonymous. fierce. were the special proteges of the court and the great nobles. and from them comes all the so-called Hungarian music. which made Rakoczy. full of and the lust of of It celebrates the swift marches through the gloom the midnight attacks. but it is. in a sense. the resistless charges and the sudden tempests of death and flame descending upon the sleeping foe. though they were of a totally different race. original. in reality. named for him and dedicated to him. darkly exultant.The Story of the March. of whose daring ability and phenomenal achievements fabulous tales are told. Rakoczy was a famous Hungarian general and padays of her long. the very . who were for a time so closely identified with the social life of Hungary in the palmy days of her independence and prosperity. This march was composed in his honor. and is one of the many frag- ments of wild. desperate struggle for continued independence. half-fanatical patriotism yet sombre." barbaric. uncompromising. much older than Liszt's time. It is a "storming march. battle. 203 his version of it for the piano. adopted as the national musicians. gipsy music rescued by him from oblivion. mighty forests. at the head of his wild riders. and is a splendid tribute to his triot in the nemory. but it was composed (one can not say written. the terror of the invader and the idolized hero of his people.

204 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the delirious Berserk frenzy of the charge expressed in startlingly weird harmonies." by Beethoven. and it has been for the piano. spirit of the night attack. from "The Ruins of Athens. both described in detail in my volume of Descriptive Analyses already referred to." and "The Tannhaeuser March. the effectively scored for both band and orchestra. but there are also several more or less simplified editions. full of the rattle of the war-drums and the ring of brazen trumpets and dissonant clank of contending hosts. . Other famous marches of more modern times are "The Turkish Grand March. This march is to be found in various arrangements most complete and stupendous being the Fifteenth Hungarian Rhapsody." by Wagner.

which was ultimately the cause of Poland's downfall. The coronation ceremony. always. were wholly unable to agree upon great nobles. Henri d'Anjou. which was intended to be little more than that of a figurehead to the ship of state. then the Polish capital.The Story of the Polonaise. on the occasion of the coronation of the young French prince. It was no uncommon thing 205 for a knight to . at feud among themselves. wealth. was one of the most magnificent affairs ever witnessed. which took place in October of that year. unfortunately. for Poland was then at the height of her power. which has been so closely identified with Poland's history through all her mani- fold vicissitudes during more than three centuries. as king of Poland. oriental in her love of lavish display and barbarically and extravagant wear the personal adornment. and splendor. and finally united in electing the young prince to the office. originated in 1573 in Cracow. [HIS distinctively Polish musical form. The one of their own number to the death of the last of the fill the throne left vacant by Jagiellos.

from that germ. natal environment. but to add to the pomp and pride and beauty of the occasion. where the king awaited them. original heredity. assembled in one of the lower halls in the royal castle. through various halls. thus in a way supplementing the introductory feature. all erty of composers^SjL Polonaise. and used the world over. music intended not only to mark the rhythm of the march. arrayed in their most sumptuous apparel. Then and there was born the Polonaise. and early associa- . with all the available jewels in evidence. which. formed in a glittering procession. This march was accompanied by suitable music written for the occasion by a local composer. All the great lords and ladies of the realm. One of the important features of this grand festival was a presentation ceremony to introduce the members of the court and aristocracy to the new king. there to be presented to his majesty by the grand master of ceremonies. But the true no matter when. crude and primitive though a it may have been. complete. It was a musical presentation of the Polish people to their new monarch. a reception of regal proportions. galleries. marched in stately pomp up the grand staircase. the common proprecognized definite. and ante-chambers. and to embody the peculiar racial characteristics and national traits of the Poles. entire value of his estates and possessions in jewels at a court function.206 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. where or by manifests distinct traces of its whom it may be written. has gradually developed into and quite elaborate musical form. finally up the length of the vast magnificent throne-hall to the dais.

not only in Poland. <%nChopin.The " tions. all based on the original Polonaise idea and embodied in that form. always days of Polish Story of the Polonaise. Vx Its distinguishing rhythm is a measure of six eighths. to those olden splendor. mood. may be legitimately expressed in the Polonaise. Any of these moods. the music of the Polonaise was broadened and elaborated so as to include in its scope the expression not only of the original ideas. It is always a promenade march. as time went on. . however. though it is now used rather as a musical art form than as a familiar feature of the modern ball. has given us a great variety of moods and suggestions. but has always retained its original characteristics even to the present day. but. with heart-breaking sorrow at her present degradation with tearful sympathy for her wrongs and sufferings. one may recall the days of Poland's glory with very widely different emotions. with bitter indignation . it. is always Slavonic general tone and aristocratic in its manner and pomp and . but additional even incidents connected with or arising out of For example. as well as many others." so to speak. Precisely as in the case of the waltz. of which the second eighth is divided into two sixteenths. 207 in its harks back. scene. not a dance. in whose hands the Polonaise reached its highest development and perfection. in other lands. against her oppressors. to some extent. feelings mood and and fancies. In later times it was used as the opening number at state balls at court and at the palaces of the nobles. with pride and exultation over her past. though sometimes written in three-four time.

but sullenly biding its time. Polonaise in The Polonaise noble. 40. preferring a futile death to a life of shame among a vanquished the streets of Warsaw people. sweeping the field of battle on their matchless steeds. It is the same spirit that led the Polish students in to throw themselves unarmed upon the Russian bayonets by the hundreds. In his Military Polonaise. voices the stern. crushed to earth by the overwhelming weight of numbers. . with pride and courage still unbroken. Chopin. which 1. and gathering the remnant of its strength for one last desperate struggle. bearing the Polish standard to victory. with the clash of the blast of trumpets. No. steel. but with a full realization of its impotence. but profoundly gloomy work of the darkly majestic type. he spirit tells I. 2. Opus 40. 40. No. to avenge its many bitter wrongs. well-nigh despairing indignation of a strong. in C minor. Chopin. heroic. is a broad. the courage and chivalry of the Polish knights in their magnificent. but no two of them are alike in emotional content. 2. The theme. No. Op. gem-studded armor. The Military Polonaise. perhaps the best known. Op. Op. are all ideal They Polonaises. C Minor.208 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. is us of the martial and prowess. dauntless race. though hopeless. No. in octaves. 40.

especially among who incline towards the lyric style in music. too often. thrillingly Then a significant of the sudden shock of conflict. radical transition to an exquisitely sweet and tender strain. breathing of love and romance. yet vibrant with an almost desperate sorrow. Story of the Polonaise. the reflex of the omnipresent dangers and of true love strife through which the path bitter partings into must lead. 14 and . half satirical. to the shadow of sudden death.The The brief lighter. Chopin. capricious trio. then rising suddenly through a series of sequences to a crash 'of minor and diminished harmonies. beginning with a whispered hint of gloom and mystery and impending danger. defiant spirit of the Polish cavaliers. full of Slavonic fervor. of the have been. suggests a half pathetic. with its 209 occasional more of touches fleeting thought.'* Polonaise in No Polonaise is those that C sharp Minor. than in C sharp minor. expressing the martial. like a sudden gleam of sunlight through the storm clouds. then changes abruptly to a tender lyric strain. on account of its great variety and markedly poetic mood." never and nowhere more potent than in the chivalric days of Poland's power and splendor. heroic introduction. days that "might plaintive tenderness. a greater favorite. It opens with a bold. Then follows a brief but strong and masterly climax somberly dramatic mood. The trio is an intensely impassioned duet between the in a knight and his lady. suggesting the grace and charm and delicate beauty of the "eternal feminine.

Chopin. is very little used. tor- followed by a ment in choral tured by keenest personal and consolation grief. No. Chopin. The Andante Spianato simply a quiet introduction . It opens with a curious fantastic movement. which the Polonaise Polonaise. A notably original and weirdly fascinating work by Chopin in Polonaise form is the one in B flat minor.2io Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. smarting with injustice and humiliation. 2. 26. One of Chopin's compatriots states that this strain is first intended to imitate the doleful clank of the qhains upon the vanquished Polish patriots in their long march It is to Siberia. reiterated and insistent moveform and unequivocally religious vein. Andante Spianato and Polonaise. long. striving to find comfort in the promises of faith. is less The composition of a Polonaise in the strict life sense than a picture of Polish calls before the mind. 22. which is probably the reason why the work. Op. indeed voicing a shuddering despair too black and terrible to be attractive to the majority of young players. Op. darkly tragic in mood. One in cult and of the very best and also one of the brilliant of the Chopin Polonaises most is diffi- the one E flat. usually designated is by the above title. a suggestion of the pathetic attempt of hearts crushed by defeat. though extremely interesting and of only moderate difficulty.

rich in harmonic coloring. as has been inferred by some on account of the name and the character of the accom- paniment. 211 prefixed to the Polonaise proper. long past. ornamented by a embellishments. when A dream of those happier days. stirring. triumphant. when life Then a sudden still glowed with the rosy tints of dawn. and the splendid procesmay start on its imposing march. indulged in by the young composer at the moment his of the creation thought and fancy were engrossed with the life-history and characteristics of this great Polonaise. The whole work belongs to his early. well-nigh overladen with embellishment. before his long exile had begun. of his beloved country. before his home had been sacked and burned by the Russians. This movement is a tender lyric in Chopin's sweetest. sion the ceremony has begun. blast of trumpets and crash of cymbals recall us to the gorgeous court pageant of 1573. It has no reference to spinning. like the costumes of the lords and ladies who defile in a glittering line before the eyes of our fancy. more optimistic period before he was twenty.The Story of the Polonaise. announcing that royalty has taken its seat in the great hall. heretofore described. the period of youth and hope and aspiration. before Constantia had broken his heart and shattered his ideals. brilliant. replete with a wealth of constantly varying melody. Then comes the Polonaise. and qualifies andante. spianato being an Italian word not often used in musical terminology. series of delicate most exquisite vein. touched by a transient gleam of hope that they might return. superb . which means tranquil. It appears to be a sort of waking dream.

and is fully analyzed " " in Descriptive Analysis by same author. From moment to moment produced by this the music changes in char- acter to suggest the shifting kaleidoscopic impressions and martial. Among the well-nigh innumerable Polonaises of every degree of merit and difficulty. flashing with gems. 53. In other * The greatest of the Chopin Polonaises. a work of the first magnitude in breadth. is probably the best. and it is the only one within the writer's acquaintance in which identically the same theme is made to serve both as first subject and as trio melody. musical significance. now moving pageant. now bold and proud tender and graceful. beautiful ladies in and velvet of every hue. . the Op. is a standard concert number with all pianists. and carried out with Liszt's The clever ingenuity. It is a standard concert number the world over. aside from those by Chopin. written by different composers of various lands and periods. by Franz Liszt. and it is certainly the most widely known.212 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. this in B major. This is a unique conceit. and technical difficulty.* Polonaise in E Major. on up the grand throne hall. coquettish or impassioned. manifested under the modifying influence and conditions of sex. while the procession winds staircase and across the magnificent Now and then a sharp dissonant clash of of steel on steel indicates the salute of the knights to their new monarch with the war-like din sword on shield. again playful. by Liszt. idea is to suggest the distinctive traits own and char- acteristic attributes of the Polish race. silk knights in jewel-studded armor.

Even the musically untrained ear may easily learn to follow this dominant theme through all its modifications and transmigrations. playful mood. subject. octaves. the charming. sparkling with In the dainty embellishments. in heavy. with register. with the pride. remaining essentially and fundamentally the same in both cases. delicate. but in a higher treated in light. martial spirit. to represent the feminine incarnation of the Polish racial type. while the widely varying treatment and setting clearly differentiate between the sexes in which it finds embodiment. as well as its tonal fascination. 213 words. logic. while to the student of the art it is a most interesting example of musical symbolism. rugged chords and in the style of Liszt. and enjoy its varied poetic ciously brilliant. trio it reappears note for note. when the strong arm was the and the good sword the only arbi- . rather than Polish the Hungarian point of view vigorous. primitive conditions of those early days on the eastern may frontier of civilization. typical of the dashing steel-clad cavalier. heroic courage and fierce joy in conflict. witchingly suggestions. the racial temperament in its masculine and feminine embodiment. but a little is The second pompous and It supercilious. instinct with a resolute. capri- winsome Polish lady. In the first subject this theme appears in bold. only law and tration. wild.The Story of the Polonaise. The characteristic theme symbolizes the national spirit. forceful chords. be supposed to represent the rough. a highly elaborate and ornate setting.

yet thor- oughly characteristic of the Polonaise. In fact it always recalls to me those wonderful lines of Swinburne : More dark than a dead world's tomb. Polonaise. Though not of extreme difficulty. tragic history. within the possible playing repertoire of most fairly advanced amateurs. More deep than the great sea's womb. and the ultimate hapless doom of a proud and noble race. and far less used than it should be. that by MacDowell. indicating a brief abandonment to an almost reckless gaiety on the very . vivacious. worthy of a place on any artist's program. and cruelty. namely. as is customary in the polonaise. more playful vein. Fate. on MacDowell. it is a broad. almost humorous. Polonaise written this side the Atlantic which fully deserves to rank with the masterpieces in this form by the Old. the gallant but futile struggle. indignant protest against tyranny. the desperate heroism.214 Stones of Standard Teaching Pieces. introduces a suggestion of a lighter. and only one. injustice. There has been one. effective concert number. The trio. A. with an undertone of fatalism eminently in keeping with the Slavonic temperament.World composers. It is a stern. It is bright. by E. Its opening theme is markedly original. in fact. Its sombre majesty and forceful intensity bring irresistibly to the mind the dark. conceived in its gloomily retrospective mood. as strongly and feelingly expressed as if MacDowell had himself been a native son of Poland.

the brilliant. in mood and style. with that incredible courage and half frivolous. stately march of the Polo- and were. which leads back to the first theme. even scouted for the moment. even on the way to the guillotine. often called to be the case in this instance. of course. This peculiar touch is a rather unusual and daring innovation in the Polonaise. one might easily fancy it to be of Hungarian origin. Siberian exile. is unmistakably symbolic of the rush and roar of the bitter winter wind from the northern steppes. imminently impending. the music of the Hungarian Gipsies. half cynical humor. moaning dismally among the towers and battlements the ominous voice of Nature allegorically significant. yet is ignored. sweeping cadenza. as to naise. 215 verge of the disaster which is recognized as inevitable. This trio closely imitates. as will be understood when it is remembered that those musical nomads from across the Hungarian border were often engaged at the castles of the Polish grandees to furnish the music for their balls and festivals. . perhaps. raging about the castle walls. or that far more terrible living death. of the rushing wings of death and destruction so accompany The long.The Story of the Polonaise. but is entirely legitimate and appropriate. upon. we may assume wild. characteristic alike of the French and Polish nobility. indeed.

and the somewhat exaggerated pride and self -complacency of the peasantry of southern France. It is in common time. In fact. or people of the pays de Gap.The Story of the Gavotte. indicate the gaiety. it figured as a sword dance. but plausible. now forming a part of Dauphine. a province in southeastern France. and seemingly borne out by the style of the music. |HB Gavotte is an antique French dance named for the Gavots. but pompous dance was sion section. This slow. with a strong accent on the first of those following. in earlier times. the latent martial spirit. in which only the men-at-arms partici216 . there is a tradition not fully authenticated. ings. beginning always on the third beat of the measure. whose character is far more akin to the fiery yet taciturn Spanish mountaineers Its strongly than to that of the flippant Parisian populace. merry mak- wedding and the like. grave. strength and energy. marked rhythm and its mood of heavy and rather bombastic dignity. that the Gavotte was imported across the Pyrenees from Spain. where. and pride for generations the special possesof the peasants of that all their rustic forming a part of festivals.

the clash of steel. but thoroughly musical counteris a lady This among the spectators. originally written for violin. a most original and effective work. and the brilliant Gavotte by D' Albert from his Suite for piano. between one of the swordsmen and a charming bit of melodic writing and a fine example of simple. point. by Silas. frequently in his various suites. For teaching material in this line I would refer the reader to the "Gavotte Imperial" by Morey. development and who used it Perhaps the best known and most usable of the Bach gavottes are the one in G minor from his English Suite and the transcription by Saint-Saens of his gavotte in B minor. The "Gavotte Moderne" by Liebling.The pated. by Orth. 217 rhythm being marked by the it clash of sword on shield. evidently based on the idea of the original use of the Gavotte as a Spanish sword dance. while the trio in E major introduces what appears to be a dialogue in duet form. also the excellent and comparatively easy Gavotte in F sharp minor. elsewhere mentioned in these pages. sally popular as that in In modern times. It is a spirited and characteristic composition. As a musical form reached its full general recognition in the days of Bach. no Gavotte has been so univerE minor. just referred to. . are available for pupils above the fourth grade. the Story of the Gavotte. strikingly The first and second subjects give the martial spirit and splendor of the Spanish tourney. the flash and glitter of swift sword play.

fiery. fastest music which could be produced. |HIS fierce. produced in him a delirious mania for dancing. The dancers were stimulated to their utmost speed and to a perfect frenzy of excitement. The excitement and violent exercise of the dances pro- duced profuse perspiration. till each became weary and gave place to the next. but now cultivated and popular in all lands. or legend. and exceedingly rapid dance. among the credulous peasants. originated in an ancient and widely prevalent belief. It was supposed that ing the venom of this spider. which must be indulged and encouraged to the utmost as the only possible means of saving his life. concernthe bite of the tarantula. and by the 218 . it was customary for the peasants of the village or country side to assemble in haste. indigenous to southern Spain and Italy. as a definite and recognized musical form. thus lessening the fever and aiding nature in the effort to throw off the poison.Story of the Tarantelle. form a ring and take turns in dancing with the poor wretch. When any one of their number was bitten. which is in most cases fatal to the victim. by the wildest.

and usually. having no theme of any kind.. Mills. though not in a minor key. Pupils should be told the story of the origin and purpose of the dance. and the accompanying music crystallized into a definite is form. and the less familiar but equally effective Tarantelle in A minor by Thorne. and the Tarantelle by S. with strongly stirring marked rhythmic effects suggesting its original spirit and purpose. in this form. frantic shouts last the 2ig and applause of the spectators. Morey. The best specimens of this form. A Robert). for use with pupils of third grades. as fine studies and telling numbers for public use. . within the writer's acquaintance. This dance was called 'The Tarantella. without the physical necessity which first produced it. and I. of course. It is trio or lyric always a prestissimo movement. B. always invariably. G. till at victim dropped in complete exhaustion. Joachim Raff. which now known and used the world over. and impetuous to the last degree. are the well-known Tarantelle in and fourth A flat. Salmon. It is. For more advanced students I would suggest. Whitney. the Tarantelle by Fred L.Story of the Tarantella. and encouraged to feel and express its wild mood and feverish excitement. with a distinctive character and rhythm. by Heller." and its half-delirious ' excitation appealed so strongly to the fiery temperament of the south that it was gradually adopted as a local feature of village festivals and country fetes. is the Tarantelle by A. Among other noted Tarantelles are those of Franz Liszt. B. also that by Gustave Schumann (not Perhaps the best recent contribution to piano literature.

22O little Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. but they are concert numbers and technically too difficult for any but the most advanced students. the greatest Tarantelles are those by Chopin and Liszt. a popular example of the latter is the well-known composition of in America. As all musicians know. Raoul Pugno. . Tarantella in A Minor by Pieczonka has met with immense favor antelle is Closely allied to the Tarthe Saltarelle and the Farandole.

" because it was much in vogue and a universal favorite in England in former days. It originated in the French province of Poitou the middle of the iyth century. 221 . It is closely identified in our minds with the sumptuous drawing rooms. in fact is often spoken of as an "old English dance. the exaggerated.The Story of the Minuet. The true minuet is fairly redolent of lavender- scented snuff and mint julep. and because it seems peculiarly suited to the elegant and polished but rather punctiliously formal customs and atmosphere of English social life at that period. often stilted courtesy of intercourse in those olden days in England. . man turned an epigram or the point of his antagonist's sword with the same smiling nonchalance. patches and point-lace . the elaborate costumes. but in reality it is English only by adoption and inherent fitness. |HIS ancient. especially during the eighteenth century. so much is it a part of the old regime. and stately dance is supposed by many to have originated in England. dignified. and even in our own country in Colonial times with powder. with curled wigs and velvet " small-clothes" and gold-hilted rapiers with the days when a gentleruffles.

it seems to be little understood by the average student. characteristic was a slow. of which there are sometimes more than one. though some- times in | time. But an occasional belated. lyric character. sporadic. even in our day It was much used by Bach. after which the first sub- This second contrasting strain. but in marches and all other dance music. like the old-fashioned primrose and hollyhock in the midst of the latest products of horticulture. it went out of vogue in our grandmothers' time . but perfect and beautiful blossom of this form appears among the modern works of living writers. The first subject consists of two periods.222 Its Stories of is Standard Teaching Pieces. not only in the minuet. of a more quiet. and an explanation of this term may be in place here. as the Its dissteps of the dance were short and mincing. first. unlike most of the obsolete dances. practically a second minuet. meaning small. for practical ball-room use. tinguishing As a dance. it still holds a certain place in popular favor. is called a Trio. side by side with the waltz and the descriptive fantasy. for though in general use. forming a contrast with the ject is repeated. and is now rarely seen except on the stage but as a musical form. stately grace. followed by a second subject. usually of eight bars. Handel. alternating with repetitions of the first section. name derived from menu. A Trio meant originally a composition for three in- . The Minuet is generally written in J. Haydn and Mo- zart and reached its highest development in the hands of Beethoven.

which might naturally be attributed to any one or more of the dancers during and other dances. made open sport of the prim. tender and dreamy character. etc. and these more quiet. and the personality of the different composers. and express the usually prevalent mood. in spite of seeming limitait. or in three-part harmony. Hence we speak of the Trio of a dance or even of an Impromptu. while Beethoven. the Minuet. contrasting. with the passing of the years. even brightly playful. thought. but as explained in connection with the waltz it may also incidentally express. Mozart gave it a more graceful. such as the Minuet. to this fundamental idea. Considered as a musical art form. must conform to the rhythm and general character. tions.The movements Story of the Minuet. Later this restriction was abandoned. though the entire work is played upon a solo instrument like the piano. in those of Haydn it became more cheerful. or even action. fancy. reflecting the temper of the times in which it was produced. out of which it grew. 223 struments.. indeed. in addition their participation in and scene . middle in the various dance forms. is quite varied and extensive. any emotion. were at first written for only three voices. in many of his minuets. but the name and general character of the movement were retained. giving to them a decided flavor of rough and rugged . the Gavotte. In the hands Bach and Handel it was stately and pompous. like every other dance. of the special type of actual dance. hence its or be suggested by the time scope. but cold and rigidly formal. of We find. straight-laced formalism of the old days. that the Minuet changes materially in tone.

is bold. ber. to tone .224 humor. containing two markedly different elements. In fact. yet with a certain rugged gravity. yet striving with a sort of half grim. It reminds one of some old feudal war first baron of medieval days. with him the Minuet evolved into the modern Scherzo. and a captivating rhythmic swing. an appropriate setting for their charms. pleasureloving lives of the old Venetian and Florentine nobility. more wonted to camps and fields of strife than to the ladies' hall. harmony with The red Italy. vigorously Teutonic in character. Of all Minuets now in use. We cannot but associate it with the sumptuous. in octaves and chords. this is the most in the spirit of the dance as used in blood and the rich red wine of the south are in it. Minuet in B Minor by Schubert. but still popular and attractive nummoderate difficulty. vigoralmost stern in character. with an exquisite sensuous melody. half humorous solemnity. The following are interesting Minuets purposes: some of the best known and most now in general use for teaching Minuet by Boccherini. subject. expressing This is chiefly the languorous grace and tender witcheries of the fair daughters of the sunny south. for the stately of the Minuet served as a fitting field of configures whom quest. This is a work of greater strength and more marked contrasts than the foregoing. The ous. of an old. Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces.

rather than is markedly strong or doubtless the more of a universal The melodies are extremely simple and easily grasped. but not especially difficult hence it is a useful and available study for pupils of even the fourth grade. and and pleasing. best char. The graceful melodious trio portrays his partner. nant seventh chords. by the word charming. The cadenzas are sparkling and effective. original. Slavonic temperament. The Minuet by Paderewski. and partly because of its graceful. in Story of the Minuet. The personality is piquante. in its lighter moods. a sprightly. yet tender and charming. is more closely akin to the French than to that of any other acterized. winsome maiden in all her festive finery of silk and lace and jewels. French thought. The most popular minuet of the present time for the piano the world over is the one in G major by Paderewski. and French social customs and fashions have been predominant in the higher circles in Poland and Russia for more than a century. The two form a most effective contrast. 225 rough manners and moderate his martial keeping with the decorous demands of the occasion and the movements of the dance. and it is a significant fact that the French lan- guage. . with a touch of playful co- quetry in her smile. The perhaps. and the harmonies are based mainly upon the tonic and domifavorite for that reason. race. It is light. partly because of the fame of its composer. though attractive. It is distinctly a Minuet a la Franfaise.The down his stride. own intrinsic merit.

therefore. who by birth and nature. while gallant cavaliers lead their fair partners through the mazes of the dance. or of genuinely bravura style. is . out of place. one may easily fancy himself back in the days of Louis French ideal and XV. of this music. should have given us a Minuet which. lights and jewels is matched by the florid scintillations of wit grams and forth with swift. which covers the whispered interchange of the fleeting sentiment. that Paderewski. to the throbbing music of flutes and violins. that is. yet with smoothness and careful finish of detail. returned to the original In listening to the spirited spirit. with a certain capricious freedom and playful abandon. like balls in a tennis court. and at least superficial predilections. Any suggestion of profound or intense emotions. half serious.226 It is is Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. in spite of its modern hybrid origin. half jest. with extreme lightness and flute-like delicacy in the opening theme. The composition should be played at a very moderate tempo. amid where the sparkle of the glitter and gaiety of the court ball-room. and repartee. where clever epicompliment are bandied back and accustomed skill. but largely French by long residence. "reverted to type. and only a relative degree of power in the climaxes. as the scientists say. born of the hour and scene. in which playful yet polished phrases vivacity and refined elegance are so equally blended." education. Polish not surprising.

one cannot ignore the remarkably unique and original movement bearing that name in Grieg's Sonata in E minor. The first theme. in a way. The Trio is one of Grieg's masterpieces in the line of simple. thoroughly musical Minuets. . H. by Edgar Sherwood. but not cinating. Those who enjoy a bit of brilliant. yet weirdly fasIt is a Minuet in form and rhythm." as they were called. grotesque. Minuet by W. the theme of which is taken from the centuryold." I would also call attention to two fine. in modern style. wholesome humor and genuine rollicking fun in music will find a treasure in this extremely clever and effective Minuet by Sherwood. according to Norse mythology. midnight dance of the earth giants. 227 Minuet from Sonata Op. a rude. 7. who were ever striving to protect humanity. tenderly appealing. wild. uncanny melodies. a is fantastic. Grieg. in spirit. like the sweet. Sherwood. and especially children. in heavy chords and octaves. or "little people. In speaking of the Minuet. popular English song known as "Buy a broom. and ponderous. malevolent race that waged perpetual war against the Gods. plaintive voice of one of the forest fairies. from the brutal power of the giants and the vindictive machinations of the small but sombre. It is typically Norse in character.The Story of the Minuet. like vicious trolls. yet. inhabited the darksome caves and gorges of the mountains. who. in the ordinary sense.

etc. once subdivisions of the Suite. In regard to the Sarabande. into a legitimate musical art form. which. partly because no author could write of the as Liszt in his familiar I Mazurka with the same authority and eloquence little book on Chopin. both as dances and forms of musical composi- . In my treatment of Dance Forms in this volume I have not spoken of the Mazurka. partly because I have given the main facts about it in my analysis of Godard's Second Mazurka on page 105.228 Stories of Standard Teaching Pieces. the best example in that line being Raff's Polka la Reine. Courante. they are now practically de obsolete. The same is true of the Galop. tion. our musical public learn that a foreign not the only criterion of merit will ! Other Dance Forms. like the waltz. and more used than they are. it has never evolved. although many excellent compositions have been and still are written in this form. like most good American compositions.. deserve to be far better When origin is known. have also given no attention to the Polka. Gigue. because although at times a very popular dance.

M. Op. No. 26.: Second Mazurka Au Matin 172 At the Spinning Wheel. 85 Cavalier Fantastique L/Indienne Trilby Pan's Flute 105 107 108 108 110 112 116 147 GRIEG.Composers' Index BACH. 2 Polonaise in C Sharp Minor Polonaise. Capriccioso 1 The Military Polonaise. Op. FREDERIC: : Baba Yaga. LUDWIG VAN: Andante Favori BLOSE. Polonaise in C Minor. 2 Andante Spianato and Polonaise. BENJ. 208 208 209 210 210 199 EUGENE : Melodic 134 141 DEWEY FERDINAND: The Night Has a Thousand Eyes Undine GODARD. GEO. Op. Op. Op. LUIGI: Minuet : PACK 24 173 : 29 155 : 224 154 CAMPBELL. Nocturne BOCCHERINI. No. Danse Ecossaise BEETHOVEN. EDVARD: The Wedding Day Minuet from Sonata. 40.: The Largo The Harmonious Blacksmith The Dead March from "Saul " 22 22 196 . 40. No. LEROY B. Op. G. F. CHOPIN. 7 227 HANDEL. J. 22 Funeral March D' ALBERT. JOHANN SEBASTIAN Loure in G BAKER.

Box 174 FRANZ: Rakoczy March Polonaise in E Major Liebes Traum. WOLFGANG A. FRANZ Jos. No. 1 12 167 167 168 170 27 Dragon Fly Love Song In My Neighbor's Garden 127 128 129 130 130 . FRED. 2 Consolation II 30. 6.230 Composers' Index PAGE HAYDN. EDW. : Gipsy Rondo HOFMANN. 3 Consolation. 202 212 96 97 MACDOWELL. No. ETHELBERT: Narcissus Barcarolle Sonata in C Major Op. : Gavotte Imperial in of the A Minor Kankakee A Hieland Laddie : Around the Maypole: Rustic Dance MOZART. : Polonaise 214 34 35 36 38 40 42 43 44 44 193 MENDELSSOHN. No. Opus Opus 53. . A. NEVIN. 6 Duetto Prelude in E Minor Rondo Capriccioso Wedding March MOREY. Song L. ADOLF: 25 Zeit 176 Dryad Will O' the Wisp JUNGMANN: Will O' the Wisp 142 177 177 LIEBICH: The Music LISZT. . No. HEINRICH: Aus Schoner JENSEN. FELIX: Spring Song Spinning Song Hunting Song Venetian Gondola Song.

9. Chopin No. No. 17.A. No. No. A. 22.: Prelude. SERGEI V. Op. EDWARD BAXTER: Die Lorelei 225 157 159 160 161 ^olienne The Portent Autumn Reverie Ballade of Last Island Jumping Rope The Mermaid's Song RACHMANINOFF. 2 133 139 143 SAPEU. S. Pause No. No. 2. 8. RAFF. 13. JOACHIM: Eclogue in G Flat 3. IGNACE: Cracovienne 231 PAGE 152 Minuet PERRY. Aveu (Avowal) No. 60 . Preamble Clown Arlequin Valse Noble Eusebius Florestan 51 51 4. ROBERT: Carnaval No. VASSILI: Dance of the Elves SCHUMANN. 7. Valse Allemande No.H. 163 171 171 No. Coquette Replique Sphinxes Papillons 52 52 52 53 54 54 54 55 10. No.NIKOFF. No.C. 11. 21. Marche des Davidsbiindler Centre les Philistins (March of the Hosts of David Against the Philistines) 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 . Paganini No.Composers' Index PADEREWSKI. 19.S. No.H. Reconnaissance (Recognition) No. 20.C. 47 1. 15. Estrella No. 14. 16. No. 18. 3. Promenade No. No. Chiarina No. 12. Lettres Dan55 56 santes No. No. 5. Pan talon et Colombine No. 6.

1 in E. PETER! Doumka Troika en Traineaux 149 150 102 . 8. H. 99 . No. No. No. 6 Serenade Du bist die Ruh SCHYTTE. Op. : : Minuet Rustle of Spring 227 145 TSCHAIKOWSKY. VERDI-LISZT: Rigoletto Fantasie WAGNER. Op. 53 122 123 124 SHERWOOD. W. 7 in F Sharp Minor. Op. Op. Op.232 Fantasy Composers' Index PAGE Opus Aufschwung Des Abends Pieces. LEFEBURE: Titania 195 101 174 . SINDING. 12 Traumeswirren Warum Grillen 64 65 67 69 70 72 73 74 76 76 77 77 78 81 Ende vom Lied Novelletten Novellette Novellette Novellette Novellette in F.LISZT : 224 93 99 100 120 121 Soiree de Vienne. in B Minor. RICHARD: Bridal March from "Lohengrin" WAGNER-LISZT: Abend Stern WEI<Y. 21. 21. CH. FRANZ PETER: March Militaire Minuet in B Minor SCHUBERT. Forest Elves Berceuse (Cradle Song) Across the Steppes Allegro from Sonata. No. 21. LUDVIG: At Evening. The Arabesque Nachstiick in F Major The Traumerei Romance in F Sharp Cradle Song in E Flat Vogel als 83 86 88 Prophet (Bird as Prophet) 90 201 SCHUBERT.

Arabesque. Morey. Edw. Schytte At the Spinning Wheel. Chopin 29 210 124 78 170 120 108 107 65 176 161 Fred. Andante Favori. 6. 85. . Baxter Perry Baba Yaga. Cradle Song in E Flat. Op. Campbell Ballade of Last Island. L. Schumann Aus Schoner Zeit. Baxter Perry Nevin Berceuse (Cradle Song). Schumann Doumka. Tschaikowsky Dragon Fly. Schumann Cracovienne. Godard Aufschwung. Barcarolle. PAGE Schytte Edw.Alphabetical Index Across the Steppes. ^Eolienne. Op. . LeRoy B. Schumann Cavalier Fantastique. At Evening. Godard Au Matin. Godard Consolation No. Sapellnikoff Danse Ecossaise. Baker " Dead March from Saul. Liszt Mendelssohn Consolation. Op." Handel Des Abends. Capriccioso. 53." 154 163 128 122 195 Wagner Carnaval. Baxter Perry 123 159 Beethoven Andante Spianato and Polonaise. Schytte " Bridal March from Lohengrin. Heinrich Hofmann Autumn Reverie. Edw. Schytte Allegro from Sonata. . Paderewski 47 108 97 42 88 152 143 173 196 67 149 129 142 Dance of the Elves. Schumann Around the Maypole: Rustic Dance. Nevin Jensen 233 . 22.

Raff Schumann Evening (Des Abends). Edw. Godard Lorelei. Gipsy Rondo. Hieland Laddie. Baxter Perry Military Polonaise. Forest Elves.234 Du bist die (il). Nevin Jumping Rope. Boccherini Melodic. Fred.Liszt Schytte Fantasy Pieces. The. 208 224 22/ Minuet from Sonata. Paderewski Minuet in B Minor. Morey Schumann Handel 167 25 72 Harmonious Blacksmith. Chopin Minuet. Schumann Lied. Alphabetical Index Ruh. Liebich 225 224 227 174 . Mendelssohn 22 168 36 130 171 In My Neighbor's Garden. Opus 12. Morey Hunting Song. Baxter Perry Handel Liszt Liebes Traum No. Sherwood Music Box. Edw. Schubert-Liszt Mendelssohn 100 43 139 73 67 101 121 Duetto Eclogue in G Flat. Op. 24 96 130 201 134 171 Schubert D' Albert Mermaid's Song. Die. L. 1. Chopin Gavotte Imperial in A Minor. Haydn Grillen. Schumann 64 199 Funeral March. Nevin Marche Militaire. Love Song. No. The. Schubert Minuet. Loure in G. Wagner. Baxter Perry Bach Liszt Love Dream (Liebes Traum). Largo in G. 22 96 110 157 Edw. 3. A. Ende vom Evening Star (Tannhauser). 40. 7. L'Indienne. Grieg Minuet. Op.

Morey Song Without Words.Alphabetical Index Nachstiick in Narcissus. No. 6. Rachmaninoff Prelude. 3. Godard Schubert-Liszt 99 65 93 27 167 40 35 34 100 174 83 Soaring (Aufschwung). M. No. A Nevin Thousand Eyes. The. Serenade. Romance in F Sharp. Schumann Rondo Capriccioso. 2. 2. Sinding Rakoczy March. Op. Schubert-Liszt Wely Schumann Schumann Tschaikowsky Traumerei. 2. Op. Mendelssohn Spinning Song. Mendelssohn Rustle of Spring. Schumann Schubert-Liszt C Major. Chopin Polonaise in C Sharp Minor. Schumann 74 116 208 208 209 210 212 214 160 44 133 Pan's Flute. Chopin Polonaise. The. 26. 235 PAGE 81 F Major. J. Soiree de Vienne No. MacDowell Edw. The. 1 12. 40. 1 Polonaise in C Minor. Mendelssohn Sonata in Thou Art Titania. Op. 2. No. Mendelssohn Prelude in E Minor. Undine. Mendelssohn Spring Song. Chopin Franz Liszt Polonaise in E Major. Mozart Song of the Kankakee. No. Franz Liszt Verdi-Liszt Rigoletto Fantasie. No. A. Godard Polonaise Militaire. the Rest. Polonaise. Ferdinand Dewey 172 . Baxter Perry Portent. E. Op. Ch. Op. Op. 69 112 150 Godard Troika en Traineaux. 53. 40. Blose 127 141 155 Novelletten. 202 102 86 44 145 105 Second Mazurka. Trilby. Schumann Ferdinand Dewey Night Has Nocturne. Traumeswirren.

Grieg Wedding March. 30.236 Alphabetical Index PAGE Venetian Gondola Song. 6. Mendelssohn Vogel als Prophet (Bird as Prophet). No. Schumann Wedding Day. Schumann Why (Warum). the Wisp. Schumann 38 90 70 147 193 72 70 177 177 Warum. Op. Jensen Jungmann . Mendelssohn Whims (Grillen). Schumann Will Will O O ' ' the Wisp.

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