Foreign Policy The Making Process

Understanding Foreign Policy
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What is Foreign Policy? Making Foreign Policy: (Goals, Methods, Capabilities). Who has a Foreign Policy?

Studying Foreign Policy
Determinants of Foreign Policy.  Rational Decision Making  Foreign Policy Tools

- Constraints on Foreign Policy

Determinants of Foreign Policy Behavior
Geopolitics Global Influences Military State Influences Individual Influences Making F.P. DECISIONS Economy Government Leadership

Determinants of Foreign Policy Behavior

GLOBAL INFLUENCES: Geopolitics:
Location, Topography, Size (Population and Territory), Distance from other states ... Ex.: UK, USA, China, Germany, Switzerland, Latin American Countries... Ex.: Egypt (Suez Canal).

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Determinants of Foreign Policy Behavior

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STATE INFLUENCES: 1. Military Capabilities: Ability to achieve FP goals vary according to a state’s military capabilities. Military capabilities can limit a state’s range of prudent policy choices. Ex.: Preemptive War (Iraq 2003).

10 Major Military Powers
Persons in uniform China France Germany GB India Israel Italy Japan Russia USA
2,930,000 398,900 358,400 226,000 1,145,000 175,000 325,150 235,500 1,270,000 1,483,800

Of these, Air Force
470,000 88,600 77,100 65,000 110,000 32,000 68,000 44,500 145,000 388,200

Defense Budget
8.4 38.5 31.9 32.5 8.4 7.0 20.0 45.1 48.0 268.8

Nuclear Weapons
YES YES NO YES YES RUMORED NO NO YES YES

Source: International Institute for Strategic Studies (London), the Military Balance, 1996-1997.

Determinants of Foreign Policy Behavior

STATE INFLUENCES: 2. Economic Conditions:
Includes not only economic development, but also natural resources. The connection between economic development and military capabilities. How Economy influences Foreign Policy? Ex.: Germany, USA, Latin American Countries, Saudi Arabia & other Gulf

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Determinants of Foreign Policy Behavior

STATE INFLUENCES: 3. Type of Government:
Neorealism: All States will Act Similarly to Protect their Interests. Constitutional Democracies versus Autocracies. Ex.: USA, UK, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Egypt .... Ex.: Italy (Prodi’s regime 2006)

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