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SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004
Precision, Low Drift 4-20mA TWO-WIRE TRANSMITTER
D INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER INPUT:
− Low Offset Voltage, 30µV max − Low Voltage Drift, 0.75µV/°C max − Low Nonlinearity, 0.01% max
The XTR101 is a microcircuit, 4-20mA, two-wire transmitter containing a high accuracy instrumentation amplifier (IA), a voltage-controlled output current source, and dual-matched precision current reference. This combination is ideally suited for remote signal conditioning of a wide variety of transducers such as thermocouples, RTDs, thermistors, and strain gauge bridges. State-of-theart design and laser-trimming, wide temperature range operation, and small size make it very suitable for industrial process control applications. In addition, the optional external transistor allows even higher precision. The two-wire transmitter allows signal and power to be supplied on a single wire pair by modulating the power-supply current with the input signal source. The transmitter is immune to voltage drops from long runs and noise from motors, relays, actuators, switches, transformers, and industrial equipment. It can be used by OEMs producing transmitter modules or by data acquisition system manufacturers.
IREF1 IREF2 10 e1 3 − 11 +VCC 8 Optional External Transistor
D TRUE TWO-WIRE OPERATION:
− Power and Signal on One Wire Pair − Current Mode Signal Transmission − High Noise Immunity
D D D D
DUAL MATCHED CURRENT SOURCES WIDE SUPPLY RANGE: 11.6V to 40V SPECIFICATION RANGE: −40°C to +85°C SMALL DIP-14 PACKAGE, CERAMIC AND PLASTIC
D INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL:
− Pressure Transmitters − Temperature Transmitters − Millivolt Transmitters
D D D D D D D
RESISTANCE BRIDGE INPUTS THERMOCOUPLE INPUTS RTD INPUTS CURRENT SHUNT (mV) INPUTS PRECISION DUAL CURRENT SOURCES AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING POWER/PLANT ENERGY SYSTEM MONITORING
e2 4 + 14 7 Span 6 XTR101 5
9 13(1) E 2 IOUT
Optional Offset Null NOTE: (1) Pins 12 and 13 are used for optional BW control.
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet. All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Products conform to specifications per the terms of Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.
Copyright 1986-2004, Texas Instruments Incorporated
www.ti.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS(1)
Power Supply, +VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40V Input Voltage, e1 or e2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ≥ VOUT, ≤ +VCC Storage Temperature Range, Ceramic . . . . . . . . . −55°C to +165°C Plastic . . . . . . . . . . −55°C to +125°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) G, P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +300°C (wave soldering, 3s) U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +260°C Output Short-Circuit Duration . . . . . . . Continuous +VCC to IOUT Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +165°C (1) Stresses above these ratings may cause permanent damage. Exposure to absolute maximum conditions for extended periods may degrade device reliability. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those specified is not supported.
This integrated circuit can be damaged by ESD. Texas Instruments recommends that all integrated circuits be handled with appropriate precautions. Failure to observe proper handling and installation procedures can cause damage. ESD damage can range from subtle performance degradation to complete device failure. Precision integrated circuits may be more susceptible to damage because very small parametric changes could cause the device not to meet its published specifications.
PRODUCT PACKAGELEAD Ceramic DIP-14 XTR101 Plastic DIP-14 SO-16
SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE RANGE
PACKAGE MARKING XTR101AG
JD −40°C to +85°C
XTR101BG XTR101AP XTR101AU
For the most current package and ordering information, see the Package Option Addendum located at the end of this data sheet.
Top View DIP Top View SO
Zero Adjust Zero Adjust Zero Adjust −In +In Span Span Out 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DIP 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Zero Adjust Zero Adjust Bandwidth B Control +In IREF2 IREF1 E Out +VCC NC Span Span −In
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SOL−16 Surface−Mount
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
Zero Adjust Bandwidth B Control IREF2 IREF1 E +VCC NC
NC = No Connection
01 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 122 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ A/V ppm/°C % % % % GΩ pF GΩ pF V µV µV/°C dB nA nA/°C nA nA/°C dB ∆e = (e2 − e1)(3) VOS ∆VOS/∆T ∆VCC/PSRR = VOS Error IB ∆IB/∆T IOSI ∆IOSI/∆T DC e1 and e2 with Respect to Pin 7 0 ±30 ±0. drift. ∗ Same as XTR101AG.016amps volt ) 40 R S + 0.30 10 0.37 ±0.2 ±0. Full-Scale Offset Voltage vs Temperature Power-Supply Rejection Bias Current vs Temperature Offset Current vs Temperature Common-Mode Rejection (4) Common-Mode Range CURRENT SOURCES Magnitude Accuracy RS in Ω. and noise. it is primarily intended for much lower signal levels. (2) Span error shown is untrimmed and may be adjusted to zero. While the maximum permissible ∆e is 1V.2 ±100 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±100 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ V mA VCC = 24V.06 ±50 ±3 ±8 ±0.031 ∗ ∗ ±0.5 ±0.75 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±20 ∗ ∗ ±0.088 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±0. but accuracy will degrade due to possible errors in the low value span resistance and very high amplification of offset. IO = 4mA vs Temperature ∆IOS/∆T Full-Scale Output Current Full-Scale = 20mA Error Power-Supply Voltage VCC. (3) e1 and e2 are signals on the −In and +In terminals with respect to the output.9 ±10.5 150 1 ±30 0.ti. 11 = 19V. XTR101AG PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN 4 3. VPIN 8 − VPIN 10.4 3 10 3 ±100 0 0. e1 and e2 in V RS in Ω Excluding TCR of RS εSPAN εNONLINEARITY ∗ ∗ ±2.5 ±10. respectively. +VCC = 24VDC.0 6 ±15 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±0.6 TYP MAX 20 22 38 ±10 ±20 ±40 ±40 600 1400 MIN XTR101BG TYP MAX MIN XTR101AP TYP MAX MIN XTR101AU TYP MAX UNIT mA mA mA µA ppm. Compliance (1) At VCC = +24V.5 ∗ ±19 ±60 ∗ ∗ ∗ ±30 µA VDC Ω Ω ∗ Load Resistance ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ S S e2 * e1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ I O + 4mA ) 0.1 7 ±80 ±0.075 ±50 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 122 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±0.5 0 0 0. the associated common-mode error is removed. 10mV or 50mV full-scale for the XTR101A and XTR101B grades. see Figure 5 ±0.088 V % ppm/°C ppm/V ppm/month ±0.75 125 60 0.01 4 ±10 ±1 20 +85 +125 +165 ±0.XTR101 www.5 ±30 ±19 ±20 ±60 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 31 ±8.02 5 ±30 ±0.8 28 ±3. See the Application Information section. Pins 7 and 8. and RL = 100Ω with external transistor connected.3 ∗ ∗ ±20 ±0. IO = 20mA At VCC = +40V.5 ±8 ±15 ∗ ±6 ±15 ±30 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 31 ±8.016amps volt ) 40 R −5 ±30 −2. R2 = 5kΩ. 2mV FS is also possible with the B grade.031 ∗ ∗ ±0.00 9 10 −40 −55 −55 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ −40 −55 ∗ ∗ 15 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ −40 −55 +85 +125 ∗ ∗ 15 ∗ ∗ MΩ °C °C °C +85 +125 (1) See the Typical Characteristics.5 ±20 +11.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS At TA = +25°C. Thus. pin 7. IO = 20mA SPAN Output Current Equation Span Equation vs Temperature Untrimmed Error(2) Nonlinearity Hysteresis Dead Band INPUT CHARACTERISTICS Impedance: Differential Common-Mode Voltage Range. 3 . FS/°C OUTPUT AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS Current Linear Operating Region Derated Performance Current Limit Offset Current Error IOS. for instance. unless otherwise noted. (4) Offset voltage is trimmed with the application of a 5V common-mode voltage.35 110 90 4 6 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±30 ±0.1 100 1 ±60 ±1.04 10 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ±0.37 % ppm/°C ppm/V ppm/month vs Temperature vs VCC vs Time Compliance Voltage Ratio Match Accuracy vs Temperature vs VCC vs Time Output Impedance TEMPERATURE RANGE Specification Operating Storage With Respect to Pin 7 Tracking (1 − IREF1/IREF2) × 100% 0 VCC − 3.
1 1 100k 1M 0.08 2 4 6 8 0. CC (pF) 4 .04 0.1 1 10 100k 10k 1k 300 400 0 0.06 0 to 800mV and 0 to 8kΩscale 0.XTR101 www.1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M Frequency (Hz) 1 0.ti. unless otherwise noted.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS At TA = +25°C and VCC = 24VDC.4 0.8 120 100 ∆ eIN Full−Scale (V) ∆ eIN Full−Scale (V) 0.6 80 CMR (dB) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 RS (Ω) POWER−SUPPLY REJECTION vs FREQUENCY 140 Power−Supply Rejection (dB) 120 Bandwidth (Hz) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.02 0 to 80mV (low−level signals) and 0 to 400Ωscale 0 25 STEP RESPONSE RS = ∞ RS = 25Ω 15 10 5 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Time (µs) COMMON−MODE REJECTION vs FREQUENCY 0.2 10 100 Frequency (Hz) 1k 10k 100k BANDWIDTH vs PHASE COMPENSATION RS = ∞ RS = 400Ω RS = 100Ω 100 RS = 25Ω 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M Bandwidth Control. SPAN vs FREQUENCY 80 RS = 25Ω 60 RS = 100Ω RS = 400Ω 40 RS = 2kΩ 20 RS = ∞ ) CC = 0 20 Output Current (mA) Ω Transconductance (20 Log m 0 100 1k 10k Frequency (Hz) FULL−SCALE INPUT VOLTAGE vs RS RS (kΩ ) 0 0.
VDD = +3. INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY vs FREQUENCY 60 Input Noise Voltage (nV/ Hz) Input Noise Current (pA/ Hz) 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k Frequency (Hz) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 INPUT CURRENT NOISE DENSITY vs FREQUENCY 10 100 1k 10k 100k Frequency (Hz) OUTPUT CURRENT NOISE DENSITY vs FREQUENCY 6 Output Noise Current (nA/ Hz) 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k Frequency (Hz) 5 .com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) At TA = +25°C.ti.3V. unless otherwise noted.3V. and VIO = +3.XTR101 www.
the amplifiers A1 and A2 act as a single power-supply instrumentation amplifier controlling a current source.6Ω I2 IO Voltage−Controlled Current Source 10 IREF1 11 IREF2 2. − eIN RS + (e1) 5 I3 IS I4 (e2) 6 R3 1.ti. Therefore. Basically.25kΩ +VCC IB1 R4 1. Simplified Schematic of the XTR101 6 . e1 applied to pin 3 will also appear at pin 5. IN Figure 1. Also note that in order not to exceed the output upper range limit of 20mA. The circuit is configured such that I2 is 19 times I1.016 amps 40 ) e e + e2 * e1 volt RS IN.XTR101 www.016 amps 40 ) e IN full−scale + 16mA. This 4mA is composed of 2mA quiescent current exiting pin 7 plus 2mA from the current sources.5kΩ A3 IO + eL 2mA − RL I O + 4mA ) 0. This current combines with the current I3 to form I1. 0.25kΩ +VCC +VCC 8 D1 (e1) −In3 eIN A1 A2 IB2 +In4 (e2) VPS 100µA 7 Q1 +VCC +VCC I1 R1 1kΩ R2 52. A3 and Q1. e2 ≥ e1 or eIN ≥ 0). and similarly. From this point. Specifically. the current in RS (the span setting resistor) will be IS = (e2 − e1)/RS = eIN/RS. e2 must be kept larger than e1 (that is. For example. volt RS Note that since IO is unipolar. Operation is determined by an internal feedback loop. The result is shown in Figure 1. The upper range limit of IO is set to 20mA by the proper selection of RS based on the upper range limit of eIN. e2 will appear at pin 6. RS is chosen for a 16mA output current span for the given full-scale input voltage span. Examination of the transfer function shows that IO has a lower range-limit of 4mA when eIN = e2 − e1 = 0V.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 THEORY OF OPERATION A simplified schematic of the XTR101 is shown in Figure 1. eIN must be kept less than 1V when RS = ∞ and proportionately less as RS is reduced. the derivation of the transfer function is straightforward but lengthy.
This keeps the heat out of the XTR101 package and minimizes thermal feedback to the input stage. For best results. This maintains frequency stability with varying external transistor characteristics and wiring capacitance. the internal transistor is never completely turned off.95V. Power Calculation of the XTR101 with an External Transistor 7 .5mA 0.47V.XTR101 www. OPTIONAL EXTERNAL TRANSISTOR The optional external transistor. 60mW 9 E 2N4922 TIP29B TIP31B TO−225 TO−220 TO−220 VPS 40V 7 11 10 I OUT Short−Circuit Worst−Case RL 250Ω 1mA 1mA 2mA 18mA 20mA NOTES: (1) An external transistor is used in the manufacturing test circuit for testing electrical specifications. and D1).6Ω 0. the external device should have a larger base-emitter area and smaller package. A difference voltage applied between input pins 3 and 4 will cause a current of 4-20mA to circulate in the two-wire output loop (through RL. in such applications where the eIN full-scale is small (< 50mV) and RSPAN is small (< 150Ω). For applications requiring moderate accuracy.95(IO − 3. 200mW QEXT 23. Under normal operating conditions.ti. relative geometry of emitter areas. However. an external NPN transistor can be added in parallel with the internal one. For more demanding applications (high accuracy in high gain). The purpose is to increase accuracy by reducing heat change inside the XTR101 package as the output current spans from 4-20mA. 377mW 2N2222 (1) QINT 18mW Other Suitable Types Package Type 210Ω 1.5mA XTR101 B 12 (2) 20mA 12V. Also. and relative package dissipation (case size and thermal conductivity). it will heat faster and take a greater share after a few seconds. upon turn-on.6V.3mA)]mA. It will. VPS. as shown in Figure 2.5mA Quiescent 52. 4mA 16mA +VCC 8 750Ω 3. when used. take about [0. 2. (2) This resistor is required for the 2N2222 with VPS > 24V to limit power dissipation.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 INSTALLATION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS BASIC CONNECTION See Figure 1 for the basic connection of the XTR101. the XTR101 operates very cost-effectively with just its internal drive transistor. caution should be taken to consider errors from the external span circuit plus high amplification of offset drift and noise. is connected in parallel with the XTR101 internal transistor. Figure 2. The actual current sharing between internal and external transistors is dependent on two factors: 1. 17mW 3.
Always keep the input voltages within their range of linear operation. MAJOR POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN USING THE XTR101 1.6V to 40V range as the output changes between the 4-20mA range (as shown in Figure 4). Always return the current references (pins 10 and 11) to the output (pin 7) through an appropriate resistor. For power-supply voltages above 24V. +4V to +6V (e1 and e2 measured with respect to pin 7). This will prevent damage to the XTR101 caused by a momentary (such as a transient) or long-term application of the wrong polarity of voltage between pins 7 and 8. +VCC should be bypassed with a 0. especially in high gain.6V 20mA Figure 4. however. Consider PC board layout which minimizes parasitic capacitance. 30 25 Self−Heating ∆ Temperature (_C) Span = ∆IO = 16mA Without External Transistor 60 1500 1250 RL max = 1000 750 500 250 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Power−Supply Voltage. It is recommended that a reverse polarity protection diode (D1 in Figure 1) be used. Thus. 3. two readily available transistors are recommended: 1. 8. VPS (V) Operating Region 50 40 ∆VOS (µV) 20 15 10 5 0 10 With External Transistor RL = 100Ω 20 VCC (V) RL = 600Ω 30 RL = 1kΩ RL = 100Ω RL = 600Ω R L = 1kΩ 30 20 10 0 40 Figure 3. This will limit the power dissipation to 377mW under the worst-case conditions. It can be done. 2N2222 in the TO-18 package. Notice that a dramatic improvement in offset voltage change with supply voltage is evident for any value of load resistor.ti. TIP29B in the TO-220 package. The leads to RS should be kept as short as possible to reduce noise pick-up and parasitic resistance.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 Although any NPN of suitable power rating will operate with the XTR101. RL (Ω) VPS − 11. 7.01µF capacitor as close to the unit as possible (pin 8 to pin 7). connect them together to pin 7. when mechanical constraints require it. Thermal Feedback Due to Change in Output Current Load Resistance. 2. the 2N2222 will safely operate below its 400mW rating at the upper temperature of +85°C. see Figure 2. 2. 4. 1/2W resistor should be connected in series with the collector. 6. Heat sinking the 2N2222 will result in greatly reduced accuracy improvement and is not recommended. If the references are not used for biasing or excitation. Power-Supply Operating Range 8 . The relative difference in accuracy with and without an external transistor is shown in Figure 3. The maximum input signal level (eINFS) is 1V with RS = ∞ and proportionally less as RS decreases. 5. Heat sinking the TIP29B will result in slightly less accuracy improvement.XTR101 www. Always choose RL (including line resistance) so that the voltage between pins 7 and 8 (+VCC) remains within the 11. a 750Ω. This transistor will operate over the specified temperature and output voltage range without a series collector resistor. Each reference must have between 0V and +(VCC − 4V) with respect to pin 7. ACCURACY WITH AND WITHOUT AN EXTERNAL TRANSISTOR The XTR101 has been tested in a circuit using an external transistor.
I O + 4mA ) 0. and CMRR is in V/V. The 2mA from the current sources flows through the 2. The transducer could be excited either by one (as shown) or both current sources.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 SELECTING THE RS RSPAN is chosen so that a given full-scale input span (eINFS) will result in the desired full-scale output span of ∆IOFS: amps 0. both e1 and e2 must be biased approximately 5V above the voltage at pin 7 to assure linear response. If the inputs are biased at some other CMV. 6 7 IO Offset Adjust I + 4mA ) 0. For linear operation the constraint is: +4V ≤ e1 ≤ +6V +4V ≤ e2 ≤ +6V The offset adjustment is used to remove the offset voltage of the input amplifier. The error caused by the 5V CMV is already included in the accuracy specifications. XTR101 0.016 volt + e’2 (1) 0. the offset adjustment has higher resolution compared to Figure 5.16 * 0. e1 3 1mA 1mA 5 + eIN − RS 6 11 − 10 8 D1 BIASING THE INPUTS Because the XTR operates from a single supply.01µF + 24V + eL − RL − + 1 1MΩ 2 14 RS + 40 amps DI O De IN * 0.ti.016 + 40 + 278W 0. Figure 5 shows the simplest case—a floating voltage source e 2.01µF + 7 Offset Adjust Alternate circuitry shown in Figure 8. XTR101 0.01µF R2 2. Basic Connection for Resistive Source CMV AND CMR The XTR101 is designed to operate with a nominal 5V common-mode voltage at the input and will function properly with either input operating over the range of 4V to 6V with respect to pin 7. When the input differential voltage (eIN) equals zero.016 e IN + e 2 + 1mA amps 40 ) e IN volt R S RT Figure 6.016 16mA 100mV * 0. 9 . Also.5kΩ 2mA +5V 0.01µF + 24V + eL − RL − 4 e2 + e2 − RT 2 14 1 100kΩ 1MΩ R2 2. This is easily done by using one or both current sources and an external resistor.5kΩ 2mA +5V For example.5kΩ value of R2 and both e1 and e2 are raised by the required 5V with respect to pin 7. adjust for 4mA output. Note that in order not to exceed the 20mA upper range limit. Basic Connection for Floating Voltage Source See the Typical Characteristics for a plot of RS vs ∆eINFS.016 amps 40 ) e IN volt R S D1 8 4−20mA DeIN + DI O + 16mA. Figure 6 shows a similar connection for a resistive transducer.144 e IN + e 2 Figure 5. where CMR is in dB. R2. if ∆eINFS = 100mV for ∆IOFS = 16mA. eIN must be less than 1V when RS = ∞ and proportionately smaller as RS decreases. O RS + 40 40 + 0.XTR101 www.016 ) 40 volt RS Solving for RS: − 11 10 e1 3 − 5 2mA eIN + e2 4 RS Adj. then an input offset error term is (CMV − 5)/CMRR.
com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 SIGNAL SUPPRESSION AND ELEVATION In some applications. 1mA 1mA eIN − + + R4 e’2 − 2mA eIN = (e’2 − V4) V4 = 1mA × R4 e’2 = 1mA × RT (a) Elevated Zero Range eIN = (e’2 + V4) V4 = 1mA × R4 e’2 = 1mA × RT (b) Suppressed Zero Range + RT e’2 − + R4 2mA − RT 1mA 1mA − eIN + + V4 − V4 2mA − eIN + 2mA − e’2 + − eIN + + V4 − R4 + e’2 − 2mA eIN = (e’2 − V4) V4 = 2mA × R4 (c) Elevated Zero Range eIN = (e’2 + V4) V4 = 2mA × R4 (d) Suppressed Zero Range + V4 − 2mA R4 20 Span Adjust 15 IO (mA) 10 Elevated Zero Range Suppressed Zero Range Figure 8. The other current source is used to create the elevated zero range voltage. and 14) for elevation/suppression. In many applications the already low offset voltage (typically 20µV) will not need to be nulled at all. 2. The basic concept is shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8(a). low offset voltage and drift. In this example.3µV/°C per 100µV or induced offset. the sensor voltage is derived from RT (a thermistor.XTR101 www. Current-mode transmission greatly reduces noise interference. it is desired to have suppressed zero range (input signal elevation) or elevated zero range (input signal suppression). Elevation and Suppression Circuits 5 APPLICATION INFORMATION The small size. Adjusting the offset voltage to non-zero values will disturb the voltage drift by ±0. RTD. very suitable for individualized and special-purpose applications. This is easily accomplished with the XTR101 by using the current sources to create the suppression/elevation voltage. 0 −0+ eIN (V) Figure 7. These circuits have the desirable feature of noninteractive span and suppression/elevation adjustments. and (d) show some of the possible circuit variations. Thus the XTR101 is. This trim capability is used only to null the amplifier’s input offset voltage. in general. The two-wire nature of the device allows economical signal conditioning at the transducer. (c). excellent linearity. Note: It is not recommended to use the optional offset voltage null (pins 1. It can be used by OEMs producing different types of transducer transmitter modules and by data acquisition systems manufacturers who gather transducer data. Elevation and Suppression Graph 10 . and internal precision current sources make the XTR101 ideal for a variety of two-wire transmitter applications.ti. or other variable resistance element) and excited by one of the 1mA current sources. Figure 8(b).
5kΩ Temperature T2 = TD The 4V to 6V CMV requirement is met. eIN. e 2 + 1mA(RT ) DRT) o + 1mA 100W ) 100W 266 oC + 156. Use a semiconductor diode for cold junction compensation to make the measurement relative to 0°C.XTR101 www. configure the XTR101 to measure the temperature with a platinum RTD which produces 100Ω at 0°C and 200Ω at +266°C (obtained from standard RTD tables). e 2 + 1mA(RT ) DRT) + 1mA 100W ) 100W 25 oC 266 oC + 1mA(109. This is accomplished by supplying a compensating voltage (VR6) equal to that normally produced by the thermocouple with its cold junction (T2) at ambient. Thermocouple Input Circuit with Two Temperature Regions and Diode (D) Cold Junction Compensation 11 .4mV In order to make the lower range limit of 25°C correspond to the output lower range limit of 4mA.4mV + 109. Circuit for Example 1 EXAMPLE 2 A thermocouple transducer is shown in Figure 10.4W) + 109. the XTR101 differential input. this is 1.ti.01µF + 24V + eL − RL − 4 + 40 From Equation 1.016 volt 40 RS + + 40 + 123.4mV V4 + 109. the span of eIN is 1mA × (100Ω/266°C) × 125°C = 47mV = ∆eIN.01µF 7 R 2 + 5V + 2.28mV (obtained from standard thermocouple tables with reference junction of 0°C). Transmit 4mA for T1 = 0°C and 20mA for T1 = +1000°C. Transmit 4mA for +25°C and 20mA for +150°C.4W 1mA 1mA 1mA 1mA R5 2kΩ D R6 51Ω eIN XTR101 3 11 − 10 8 COMPUTING R2 AND CHECKING CMV: At ) 25 C. At a typical ambient of +25°C. configure the XTR101 to measure the temperature with a type J thermocouple that produces a 58mV change for 1000°C change. COMPUTING RS: The sensitivity of the RTD is ∆R/∆T = 100Ω/266°C. is made 0 at 25°C or: e 2 25 oC * V4 2 25 oC thus.1564V e 1 + 5V ) 0.3W 0. When excited with a 1mA current source for a 25°C to 150°C range (a 125°C span).1094V 2. Given a process with temperature limits of +25°C and +150°C.3244 16mA 47mV * 0.5kW 2mA e 2 min + 5V ) 0.1094V e 2 max + 5V ) 0. e 2 + 109. the input circuitry shown in Figure 9 is used. 4 VTC Temperature T1 + V4 − R4 + e2 − + 0. Figure 10.016A V Span adjustment (calibration) is accomplished by trimming RS.4mV 150 oC Thermocouple TTC + e1 − Since both e 2 and V4 are small relative to the desired 5V common-mode voltage. + V4 − R4 + e’2 − e2 RT R2 e1 3 − 11 10 8 D1 5 − eIN + RS 6 7 XTR101 0. R S + amps DI O De IN * 0.01µF Figure 9. Given a process with temperature (T1) limits of 0°C and +1000°C. they may be ignored in computing R2 as long as the CMV is met. At ) 25 oC. Note: eIN = e2 − e1 indicates that T1 is relative to T2.4mV At ) 150 oC.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 EXAMPLE 1 An RTD transducer is shown in Figure 9. V 4 + e R4 + + 109. COMPUTING R4: 0.
6V and ∆VD/∆T = −2mV/°C. 2.2599 16mA 58mV * 0.ti. therefore.28mV) 1mA(R 4) + 16.8mA). This is typically done by forcing the two-wire transmitter current to either limit when the thermocouple impedance goes very high. DT C DVD R6 + DT DT R 5 ) R 6 52mV 2000mV R6 + °C °C R5 ) R6 (2) 12 .18W COLD JUNCTION COMPENSATION: A temperature reference circuit is shown in Figure 11.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 ESTABLISHING RS: The input full-scale span is 58mV (∆eINFS = 58mV). When the impedance of the thermocouple gets very large (open) the bias current flowing into the + input (large impedance) will cause IO to go to its lower range limit value (about 3. The null adjustment can be done with a potentiometer at pins 1. and 14. Either of these two circuits may be used. When TC opens. See the Signal Suppression and Elevation section for the proper techniques. R5 is chosen as 2kΩ to be much larger than the resistance of the diode. RS + 40 amps DI O De IN * 0. In many applications the already low offset voltages (30µV max for the B grade and 60µV max for the A grade) will not need to be nulled at all. RS is found from Equation 1. NOTE: It is not recommended to use this input offset voltage nulling capability for elevation or suppression. The divider values are selected so that the gradient ∆VD/∆T equals the gradient of the thermocouple at the reference temperature. Typically at T2 = +25°C.28mV when TTC = 0°C and the reference junction is at +25°C.18mV R 4 + 16.016 volt 40 + + 40 + 153. Cold Junction Compensation Circuit THERMOCOUPLE BURN-OUT INDICATION In process control applications it is desirable to detect when a thermocouple has burned out. the output will go to its upper range limit value (about 25mA or higher).016A V + VD − D 1mA R5 SELECTING R4: R4 is chosen to make the output 4mA at TTC = 0°C (VTC = −1. Figure 11.28mV. e1 must be computed for the condition of TD = +25°C to make eIN = 0V. At +25°C this is approximately 52µV/°C (obtained from a standard thermocouple table). + V5 − + V6 − R6 V D 25oC + 600mV e 1 25oC + 600mV 51 + 14. The diode voltage has the form: V D + KT ln q I DIODE I SAT OPTIONAL INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE TRIM The XTR101 has provisions for nulling the input offset voltage associated with the input amplifiers.9mV 2051 e IN + e2 * e1 + V TC ) V4 * e1 With eIN = 0 and VTC = −1.28mV) and TD = +25°C (VD = 0. the circuit of Figure 18 should be used.9W 0. If upscale indication is desired. The circuits of Figure 16 and Figure 17 inherently have downscale indication.XTR101 www. VTC will be −1.9mV ) 0V * (* 1. VD = 0. see Figure 5 and Figure 6. Solving for R6 yields 51Ω. see Figure 10.6V). R5 and R6 form a voltage divider for the diode voltage VD. V 4 + e1 ) eIN * VTC + 14.
25 I O * 5mA R2 Other conversions are readily achievable by changing the reference and ratio of R1 to R2. Figure 13.ti.0047µF f CO + 15.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 OPTIONAL BANDWIDTH CONTROL Low-pass filtering is recommended where possible and can be done by either one of two techniques. This is normally not a problem with the slow signals associated with most process control transducers. R4. more subject to nonlinear distortion caused by slew rate limiting. 0-20mA Output Converter 13 . Internally eNOISE RTI = e2INPUT STAGE + e2OUTPUT STAGE Gain 2 Figure 12. will use smaller values of capacitance and is not a function of the input resistors. see Figure 12. C2 connected to pins 3 and 4 will reduce the bandwidth with a cutoff frequency given by: 1mA R3(1) 1mA C2 R1 3 − 11 0.XTR101 www. R2. using C1. however.5V − 100pF V+ IO (4−20 mA) R1 125Ω OPA27 V− R2 500Ω IO (0−20mA) MC1403A XTR101 R1 NOTE: I O + 1 ) R 2 V I O * R + 1. R3. The other method. and it may require large values of R3 and R4. The relationship between C1 and fCO is shown in the Typical Characteristics. R4(1) R2 4 + 12 C1 13 NOTE: (1) R3 and R 4 should be equal if used.9 (R1 ) R2 ) R3 ) R 4)(C2 ) 3pF) XTR101 This method has the disadvantage of having fCO vary with R1. Optional Filtering APPLICATION CIRCUITS Voltage Reference + VR = 2. It is.
ti.01µF 4. Thermocouple Input with RTD Cold Junction Compensation Figure 18.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 0. 20Ω Zero Adjust RS XTR101 15Ω RTD 100Ω 20Ω Zero Adjust RS XTR101 15Ω + 2.9852mA 2mA 1. Bridge Input.5kΩ Figure 16. Voltage Excitation R 300Ω R R 2mA − 1mA 1mA 2kΩ − This circuit has downscale burn−out indication.XTR101 www.9V Voltage Ref R 300Ω R RS R + XTR101 R 0.8kΩ − LM129 6.0147mA 1.5kΩ Figure 15. Thermocouple Input with RTD Cold Junction Compensation 14 . Type J − + 51Ω RS R RS J + 2. Thermocouple Input with Diode Cold Junction Compensation 1mA Type J − RTD 100Ω + 1mA − This circuit has downscale burn−out indication.7kΩ Figure 14. Current Excitiation Figure 17.2kΩ Zero Adjust XTR101 20Ω XTR101 + 2.5kΩ + 2. 1mA 1mA + − − This circuit has upscale burn−out indication. Bridge Input.
5kΩ VREF = ImA R2 Figure 19. Figure 20. Dual Precision Current Sources Operated from One Supply Isolation Barrier − 8 +V2 C2 −V2 4−20 mA ∆eIN XTR101 + 30V − 722 P+ 1kΩ V+ E V− +15V 1µF 1µF +15V C1 +V1 −V1 7 + 1MΩ + 15 10 12 1MΩ −15V 7 250Ω ISO100 9 8 2 4 3 VOUT(1) +1V to +5V IREF2 17 − 18 16 IREF1 NOTE: (1) Can be shifted and amplified using ISO100 current sources. Isolated Two-Wire Current Loop 15 .01µF XTR101 R1 R2 7 + 4 2.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 11 +VCC 10 8 − 3 I1 I2 +VCC OPA21 VREF Out 15V 0.ti.XTR101 www.
0001 43. May be trimmed to zero.109V e 2 + 2mA 2. 2.34mV ) 0.4mA + 43. and VPS = 24V ± 0. CMRR (1) = common-mode rejection ratio. s O + I OS RTO s S + eNONLINEARITY ) eSPAN sI + VOSI ) IB1 ) R4 * IB2 R T ) DVCC ) PSRR e 1)e 2 2 (7) (8) * 5V CMRR (9) The term in parentheses may be written in terms of offset current and resistor mismatches as IB1 ∆R + IOS R4.18mV ) 6. A. IOS RTO (1) s 1 + 30mV ) (150nA 0 ) 20nA 109W) ) 2120mV ) 0. AT THE LOWER RANGE VALUE (T = +255C) s O + I OS RTO +" 6mA DVCC s I + V OSI ) I BI DR ) I OSI R4 ) ) PSRR e )e 1 2 2 * 5V CMRR The transfer function including these errors is: I O ACTUAL + 4mA ) s O ) K 1 ) sS (e IN ) s I) (4) When this expression is expanded.3W RS amps + 0. IB1(1). σI) dropped. VDI = 0. = span nonlinearity. . εNONLIN (1) Since the maximum mismatch of the current references is 0.XTR101 www. Untrimmed error = 5% max.4 * 109 [ 0 DVCC + (24 0. 3.1092V (10) 3. e 1 + 2mA 2. The circuit of Figure 9 will be used to illustrate the principles.7mV ) 3. ∆VCC = change supply voltage between pins 7 and 8 away from 24V nominal. PSRR (1) = power-supply rejection ratio.1092V 2 PSRR + 3.6V + 120mV ) 1400mV ) 600mV + 2120mV (5) The error in the output current is IO ACTUAL − IO IDEAL and can be found by subtracting Equation 3 from Equation 5. second-order terms (σS.4Ω at 25°C.016 ) 40 + 0.40mA 20. σS = errors associated with span adjustment.0001 ) 0 assumes trim of R S I O ERROR + sO ) K sI ) K sS e IN K + 0.0015mA + 20.005) ) 4mA(250W ) 100W) ) 0.16 10 5 3.16 CMRR + 31.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 DETAILED ERROR ANALYSIS The ideal output current is: EXAMPLE 3 See the circuit in Figure 9 with the XTR101BG specifications and the following conditions: RT = 109.340 volts e IN + e2 * V4 + I REF1 R T 25oC * I REF2 R4 Since RT 25°C = R4: e IN + I REF1 * IREF2 R 4 + 0. and terms collected. IB2(1) = input bias current.34A V 0. σI = errors associated with the input stage.40mA 100% % error + 16mA 0.46mV + 42. R4 = 109Ω.04% of 1mA = 0. the result is: IO ACTUAL + 4mA ) s O ) K e IN ) Ks I ) Ks S e IN DR + RT 25oC * R4 + 109. IO = 4mA at 25°C.1094V e1 ) e2 * 5V + 0. RLINE = 100Ω.ti. The composition of each component of error depends on the circuitry inside the XTR101 and the particular circuit in which it is applied.016 amps ) 40 volt RS (3) In the XTR101 there are three major components of error: 1. IOSI(1) = input offset current.5kW ) 1mA + 5.5kW ) 1mA + 5.4µA: I O error + 6mA ) 0.40mA ) 0. RS = 123. 0. σO = errors associated with the output stage.16 10 3 + 30mV ) 2. εSPAN(1) = span equation error. RL = 250Ω.6V.4W I O ERROR + sO ) KsI ) KsS e IN (6) This is a general error expression. Determine the % error at the upper and lower range values.3Ω.13% of span at lower range value.6 105 for 110dB 10 3 for 90dB 109W 109. ∆R = RT − R4 = mismatch in resistor.016 ) 40 123.34mV s S + eNONLIN ) eSPAN + 0. VOSI(1) = input offset voltage. IO = 20mA at 150°C.4Ω at 150°C.6mV + 6mA ) 14. (1) 16 These items can be found in the Electrical Characteristics.6mV 109W = output offset current error. RT = 156.5%. I O IDEAL + 4mA ) K e IN where K is the span (gain) term.34A V 42.
1325V 3. we recommend the following handling procedures to reduce the risk of electrostatic damage: 1. Control relative humidity to as high a value as practical (50% recommended). be nulled using the plots shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6. Such damage can cause performance degradation or failure.34A V 0. AT THE UPPER RANGE VALUE (T = +150°C) DR + R T 150oC * R 4 + 156.42mV s S + 0. or products incorporating microcircuits. either immediate or latent.92mA ) 1.52mA % error + 100% 16mA 0.16 105 3.42mV ) 0. I O error + sO ) K s I ) K s S eIN + 6mA ) 0.4 * 109. Both IOS and VOS can be trimmed to zero.ti. The result is an error of 0. the predominant errors are IOS RTO (6µA). 4. and work stations.60mA + 30.23mV ) 24mV ) 4.34A V 67.XTR101 www.com SBOS146A − OCTOBER 1986 − REVISED AUGUST 2004 B. to damage from the discharge of electrostatic energy.09% of span instead of 0.19% of span. however. B grade. (11) 2. VOS RTI (30µV). 3. shielded containers.16 10 3 + 30mV ) 9. in varying degrees. VOS RTI can.4 + 47W DV CC + 24 0.19mV + 67. Upper Range: From Equation 11. equipment.005 ) 20mA 250W ) 100W ) 0. and IB (150nA).156V e1 * e2 * 5V + 0. Remove the static-generating materials (such as untreated plastic) from all areas that handle microcircuits. however. 17 .0001 e IN + e 2 * V 4 + IREF1 R T 150oC * IREF2 R 4 + 1mA + 47mV 156.4W RECOMMENDED HANDLING PROCEDURES FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS All semiconductor devices are vulnerable.1325V 2 s O + 6mA s 1 + 30mV ) 150nA 47W ) 20nA 190W ) 7720mV ) 0. This is of little consequence in many applications. max.52mA 30. 5.5kW ) 1mA + 5.6V + 7720mV e 1 + 5.19% of span at upper range value.109V e 2 + 2mA 2. it is observed that the predominant error term is the input offset voltage (30µV for the B grade). As a general practice.13% of span.06% of span instead of 0. Transport and ship microcircuits.4W * 1mA 109W CONCLUSIONS Lower Range: From Equation 10. Connect together all leads of each device by means of a conductive material when the device is not connected into a circuit. 156.0001 47000mV + 6mA ) 22. the result is an error of 0. in static-free. Ground all operators.
or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) .ti. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances. Samples may or may not be available. and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS). Device is in production to support existing customers. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.ti. -. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible). LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. Peak Temp. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt).please check http://www.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.com 25-Sep-2010 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device XTR101AG XTR101AP XTR101APG4 XTR101AU XTR101AU/1K XTR101AU/1KG4 XTR101AUG4 XTR101BG Status (1) Package Type Package Drawing CDIP SB PDIP PDIP SOIC SOIC SOIC SOIC CDIP SB JD N N DW DW DW DW JD Pins 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 14 Package Qty 1 25 25 40 1000 1000 40 1 Eco Plan (2) Lead/ Ball Finish AU MSL Peak Temp N / A for Pkg Type (3) Samples (Requires Login) Samples Not Available Request Free Samples Contact TI Distributor or Sales Office Contact TI Distributor or Sales Office Purchase Samples Purchase Samples Contact TI Distributor or Sales Office Samples Not Available NRND ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE NRND Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) TBD Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) TBD Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type CU NIPDAU N / A for Pkg Type Call TI Call TI CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR CU NIPDAU Level-3-260C-168 HR Call TI AU Call TI N / A for Pkg Type (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. Addendum-Page 1 . and peak solder temperature. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures. (2) Eco Plan . or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe.1% by weight in homogeneous material) (3) MSL.
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7 P1 (mm) 12.com 20-Jul-2010 TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Package Pins Type Drawing SOIC DW 16 SPQ Reel Reel A0 Diameter Width (mm) (mm) W1 (mm) 330.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.0 W Pin1 (mm) Quadrant 16.ti.8 K0 (mm) 2.4 10.0 Q1 XTR101AU/1K 1000 Pack Materials-Page 1 .85 B0 (mm) 10.0 16.
com 20-Jul-2010 *All dimensions are nominal Device XTR101AU/1K Package Type SOIC Package Drawing DW Pins 16 SPQ 1000 Length (mm) 346.0 Pack Materials-Page 2 .0 Width (mm) 346.0 Height (mm) 33.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.ti.
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