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Submitted to: By: B.S. COMPUTERS HARDEEP SINGH LC CODE 445 B.S. COMPUTERS MALERKOTLA Submitted
One should always work with an objective in its mind. To accomplish that objective efficient management of material, time and financial resources is very important. Above coordination is must that determines the degree of success. Awareness at each level of life is necessary for a human being keeping all this is in view this report on “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT” is prepared by me. The rounded encouraging support by Mr. Sarabjit Singh towards this report has created in me confidence regarding the approval of the subject matter. The present report is well arranged in coherent manner. An attempt has been made to provide the general public the necessary information about the Private and Public Banks. The main intention behind this report is to compile the subject matter in such way that even a layman could get the knowledge. So I would like to say that this report is a result of an assignment, to improve and gain confidence.
I am sincerely thankful to all those people who have been giving me any kind of assistance in the making of this project report. I express my gratitude to Mr. Jagpreet singh (Executive Director) (Officiating), who has through his vast experience and knowledge has been able to guide me, both ably and successfully towards the completion of the project. I express my gratitude to B.S. Computers I would hereby, make most of the opportunity by expressing my sincerest thanks to Mr. Sachin all my faculties whose teachings gave me conceptual understanding and clarity of comprehension, which ultimately made my job more easy. Last of all but not the least I would like to acknowledge my gratitude to the respondents without whom this survey would have been incomplete. I am also thankful to authority of VEER Enterprises (SEASON’Z ICE CREAM) providing me the information.
This is to certify that MR. HARDEEP SINGH has done the Major Research Project report entitled “TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT” under my supervision for the fulfillment of the degree of Master of Business Administration of Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar. The work done by him is a sole effort and has not been submitted as or its part for any other degree. Mr. ……………… Member of Faculty of Management QUEST INFOSYS LUDHIANA.
Table of Contents
Introduction of TQM Aspects of TQM What is Quality? Introduction about Enterprise
Veer Enterprises SEASON’Z Ice Cream Practical Experience Types of Machinery Packing material Conceptualization Principles of TQM Four C’s of TQM Factors effecting the commitment of employees Operationalization of the concept Quality Management History of Quality Management Quality Improvement Process—Tools & Techniques TQM Improvement Methodology Objectives Research Methodology Limitations Conclusion Recommendations INTRODUCTION OF TQM Total Quality Management is an approach to the art of management that originated in Japanese industry in the 1950's and has become steadily more popular in the West since the early 1980's. 5 .
Total Quality is a description of the culture. internally and externally. As a result many people are sceptical about TQM. combined with effective leadership. productivity. Surveys by consulting firms have found that only 20-36% of companies that have undertaken TQM have achieved either significant or even tangible improvements in quality. its customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. and is far wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage. ﬁrst time. Many companies have difficulties in implementing TQM. However. when you look at successful companies you find a much higher percentage of successful TQM implementation. with things being done right first time. results in an organisation doing the right things right. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the company's operations. TQM. Some useful messages from results of TQM implementations: 6 . and continue to provide. TQM is the way of managing for the future. attitude and organization of a company that aims to provide. competitiveness or financial return. and defects and waste eradicated from operations.
look at the world-class companies that have adopted it • the most effective way to spend TQM introduction funds is by training top management. 7 . d) Fast response. For example. don't focus on the secondrate companies who can't handle TQM. People in companies that have implemented TQM are more likely to have the basic understanding necessary for implementing EDM/PDM. c) Continuous improvement. and people involved with customers • it's much easier to introduce EDM/PDM in a company with a TQM culture than in one without TQM. people involved in new product development. b) Top management leadership and commitment.• if you want to be a first-rate company. they are more likely to view EDM/PDM as an information and workflow management system supporting the entire product life cycle then as a departmental solution for the management of CAD data ASPECTS OF TQM a) Customer-driven quality.
f) Employee participation. The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces. and recognition of the need to change the culture of the organisation to create total quality. The customer. not internal activities and constraints. comes first. processes and systems in the organisation. and merely meeting specifications or reducing customer complaints. and at each interface lie a number of processes. These are the foundations of TQM. Customer-driven quality TQM has a customer-first orientation. and they are supported by the key management functions of people.e) Actions based on facts. The concept of requirements is expanded to take in not only product and service attributes that meet basic requirements. In the TQM context. and g) A TQM culture. both externally and internally. communication of the quality message. This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality. `being sensitive to customer requirements' goes beyond defect and error reduction. The company believes it will only be successful if customers are satisfied. Customer satisfaction is seen as the company's highest priority. 8 . The TQM company is sensitive to customer requirements and responds rapidly to them.
and has to treat these internal customers with the same sensitivity and responsiveness as it would external customers. directly 9 . This is a key point. Each part of the company is involved in Total Quality. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company. and in creating and deploying well defined systems. operating as a customer to some functions and as a supplier to others.but also those that enhance and differentiate them for competitive advantage.instead it delegates and pays lip service. It has to be introduced and led by top management. The Engineering Department is a supplier to downstream functions such as Manufacturing and Field Service. These systems and methods guide all quality activities and encourage participation by all employees. methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. Attempts to implement TQM often fail because top management doesn't lead and get committed . The development and use of performance indicators is linked. TQM leadership from top management TQM is a way of life for a company.
use of EDM/PDM. to customer requirements and satisfaction. As well as recognizing the link between product quality and customer satisfaction. In turn this will lead to an improvement in product quality. continuous improvement of the quality of the product is seen as the only way to maintain a high level of customer satisfaction. This implies that all activities include measurement and monitoring of cycle time and responsiveness as a basis for seeking opportunities for improvement. and to an increase in customer satisfaction. Improvement cycles are encouraged for all the company's activities such as product development. 10 . Once it is recognized that customer satisfaction can only be obtained by providing a high-quality product. As a result. TQM also recognizes that product quality is the result of process quality. there is a focus on continuous improvement of the company's processes. and the way customer relationships are managed. This will lead to an improvement in process quality.or indirectly. and to management and employee remuneration. Continuous improvement Continuous improvement of all operations and activities is at the heart of TQM.
Elimination of waste is a major component of the continuous improvement approach. Efficiencies are realized from the elimination of nonvalue-adding effort such as re-design. When problems do occur within the product development process. the company has to respond rapidly to customer needs. and an emphasis on quality at the design stage. The customer-driven approach helps to prevent errors and achieve defect-free production. Actions based on facts 11 . The result is a dramatic improvement in the elapsed time from product concept to first shipment. This implies short product and service introduction cycles. There is also a strong emphasis on prevention rather than detection. Fast response To achieve customer satisfaction. These can be achieved with customer-driven and process-oriented product development because the resulting simplicity and efficiency greatly reduce the time involved. they are generally discovered and resolved before they can get to the next internal customer. Simplicity is gained through concurrent product and process development.
Employee participation A successful TQM environment requires a committed and welltrained work force that participates fully in quality improvement activities. data is collected and put in the hands of the people who are in the best position to analyze it and then take the appropriate action to reduce costs and prevent non-conformance. Usually these people are not managers but workers in the process. The TQM approach is based on the use of objective data. Facts and analysis provide the basis for planning.The statistical analysis of engineering and manufacturing facts is an important part of TQM. and provides a rational rather than an emotional basis for decision making. In practice. Such participation is reinforced by reward and recognition systems which emphasize the achievement of quality 12 . errors can't be identified. then the analysis. and so errors can't be corrected. review and performance tracking. can't take place. and comparison of performance with competitors. whether it be of shop floor data. If the right information is not available. The statistical approach to process management in both engineering and manufacturing recognizes that most problems are system-related. and are not caused by particular employees. improvement of operations. or engineering test results.
communicate more effectively. They are unlikely to behave in a responsible way if they see management behaving irresponsibly . and plans. Without a TQM approach. Employees have to be made to feel that they are responsible for customer satisfaction. A TQM culture It's not easy to introduce TQM. 13 . It's important they participate in these activities. TQM links remuneration to customer satisfaction metrics. act creatively. Product development in a TQM environment Product development in a TQM environment is very different to product development in a non-TQM environment. On-going education and training of all employees supports the drive for quality. and innovate. An open. cooperative culture has to be created by management. Employees are encouraged to take more responsibility. As people behave the way they are measured and remunerated. They are not going to feel this if they are excluded from the development of visions.saying one thing and doing the opposite. strategies.objectives. product development is usually carried on in a conflictual atmosphere where each department acts independently.
Management focuses on supervising individuals. Since 1988 a similar award (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award) has been awarded in the US. and rework are normal practice. Milliken (1989). IBM (1990). Awards for Quality achievement The Deming Prize has been awarded annually since 1951 by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers in recognition of outstanding achievement in quality strategy. Motorola (1988). work-arounds. changes. and interact with their internal customers to deliver the required results. Teams are process-oriented. waste. Early winners of the Baldrige Award include AT&T (1992). Management's focus is on controlling the overall process. and fire-fighting is necessary and rewarded. Product development in a TQM environment is customer-driven and focused on quality.Short-term results drive behavior so scrap. and rewarding teamwork. 14 . Texas Instruments (1992Xerox. management and execution.
therefore. availability.WHAT IS QUALITY? A frequently used deﬁnition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations”. appearance. and measure its own ability to meet them. cost effectiveness and price. imperative that the organisation knows what these needs and expectations are. the organisation must understand them. 15 . maintainability. reliability. In addition. delivery. It is. These may include performance. having identiﬁed them.
Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. and they can be broken at any point by one person or one piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of the customer. These are “the quality chains”. quality must span all functions. and so the situation is exacerbated. for an organisation to be really effective. actually to the external customer. The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal) requirements is vital. Failure to meet the requirements in any part of a quality chain has a way of multiplying. Customers and suppliers There exist in each department. all departments and all activities and be a common language for improvement. in the same way that the Japanese achieve this with company wide quality control. and failure in one part of the system creates problems elsewhere. suppliers and customer. internal or external. The failure usually ﬁnds its way to the interface between the organisation and its external customer. all people. The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organisation. To achieve quality throughout an organisation. or in the worst case. However. each home. each ofﬁce. a series of customers. leading to yet more failure and problems. every person in the quality chain must be trained to ask the following questions about every customer-supplier interface: 16 .supplier interfaces.
or can. I ﬁnd out what these are? • How can I measure my ability to meet their needs and expectations? • Do I have the capability to meet their needs and expectations? (If not. what prevents this from happening when the capability exists?) • How do I monitor changes in their needs and expectations? Suppliers (internal and external) • Who are my internal suppliers? • What are my true needs and expectations? • How do I communicate my needs and expectations to my suppliers? • Do my suppliers have the capability to measure and meet these needs and expectations? • How do I inform them of changes in my needs and expectations? As well as being fully aware of customers’ needs and expectations. what must I do to improve this capability?) • Do I continually meet their needs and expectations? (If not.Customers (internal and external) • Who are my customers? • What are their true needs and expectations? • How do. each 17 .
or ignoring competitive positioning • Each department working only for itself • Trying to control people through systems • Confusing quality with grade • Accepting that a level of defects or errors is inevitable • Fire ﬁghting. It is a way of planning. These may include: • Leaders not giving clear direction • Not understanding. organising and understanding each activity. effectiveness and ﬂexibility of an organisation for the beneﬁt of all stakeholders.person must respect the needs and expectations of their suppliers. It ensures the leaders adopt a strategic overview of quality and focus on 18 . reactive behaviour • The “It’s not my problem” attitude The essential components of TQM – commitment & leadership TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness. Poor practices To be able to become a total quality organisation. where both parties share and beneﬁt. The ideal situation is an open partnership style relationship. some of the bad practices must be recognised and corrected. and of removing all the wasted effort and energy that is routinely spent in organisations.
and middle managers must. Only then will the right attitudes spread throughout the organisation. Whilst it must involve everyone. with satisﬁed customers and good business results. should result in a quality organisation. as well as demonstrating their commitment. it must start at the top with the leaders of the organisation. plus take part in regular improvements of it and ensure it is understood at all levels of the organisation. These. combined with a TQM approach. reviewing and monitoring the policy. Effective leadership starts with the development of a mission statement. which is translated into action plans down through the organisation. to be successful. Leaders must take responsibility for preparing. ensure they communicate the principles. followed by a strategy. often as a mission statement • Personal involvement and acting as role models for a culture of total quality 19 . values and objectives.prevention not detection of problems. supported by plans and facilities to implement it. strategies and beneﬁts to the people for whom they have responsibility. A fundamental requirement is a sound quality policy. The 5 requirements for effective leadership are: • Developing and publishing corporate beliefs. All senior managers must demonstrate their seriousness and commitment to quality.
motivating and supporting people and encouraging effective employee participation The task of implementing TQM can be daunting. they are a distillation of the various beliefs of some of the quality gurus: • The organisation needs a long-term commitment to continuous improvement.• Developing clear and effective strategies and supporting plans for achieving the mission and objectives • Reviewing and improving the management system • Communicating. The following is a list of points that leaders should consider. • Adopt the philosophy of zero errors/defects to change the culture to right ﬁrst time • Train people to understand the customer/supplier relationships • Do not buy products or services on price alone – look at the total cost • Recognise that improvement of the systems must be managed • Adopt modern methods of supervising and training – eliminate fear • Eliminate barriers between departments by managing the process – improve communications and teamwork 20 .
g. barriers to pride of workmanship and ﬁction – get facts by studying processes • Constantly educate and retrain – develop experts in the organisation • Develop a systematic approach to manage the implementation of TQM Culture change The failure to address the culture of an organisation is frequently the reason for many management initiatives either having limited success or failing altogether. 21 . e. A culture change. behaviours. as discussed in the section on People. rules and the “climate”.• Eliminate goals without methods. standards based only on numbers. Understanding the culture of an organisation. every time. and using that knowledge to successfully map the steps needed to accomplish a successful change. The culture in any organisation is formed by the beliefs. from one of acceptance of a certain level of errors or defects to one of right ﬁrst time. needs two key elements: • Commitment from the leaders • Involvement of all of the organisation’s people There is widespread recognition that major change initiatives will not be successful without a culture of good teamwork and cooperation at all levels in an organisation. dominant values. is an important part of the quality journey. norms.
called key or core business processes. However. The section on Processes discusses processes and how to improve them.The building blocks of TQM: processes. people will not engage in improvement activities without commitment and recognition from the organisation’s leaders. which can include action. methods and operations. which satisfy the customers’ needs and expectations. into the desired outputs. The only point at which true responsibility for performance and quality can lie is with the People who actually do the job or carry out the process. An efﬁcient and effective way to tackle process or quality improvement is through teamwork. and each can be analysed by an examination of the inputs and outputs to determine the action necessary to improve quality. which is the transformation of a set of inputs. people. In every organisation there are some very large processes. a climate for improvement and a strategy that is implemented 22 . In each area or function within an organisation there will be many processes taking place. These must be carried out well if an organisation is to achieve its mission and objectives. which are groups of smaller processes. and Implementation covers how to prioritise and select the right process for improvement. management systems and performance measurement Everything we do is a Process. each of which has one or several suppliers and customers.
Once the strategic direction for the organisation’s quality journey has been set. covering roles within teams. and to ensure the desired level of performance is being achieved and sustained. ideally being cascaded down and most effectively undertaken as team activities and this is discussed in the section on Performance. how to set one up and successfully implement it. An appropriate documented Quality Management System will help an organisation not only achieve the objectives set out in its policy and strategy. 23 . It is imperative that the leaders take responsibility for the adoption and documentation of an appropriate management system in their organisation if they are serious about the quality journey. The section on People expands on these issues. and equally importantly. established at all levels in the organisation. team selection and development and models for successful teamwork. The Systems section discusses the beneﬁts of having such a system. but also. and should be.thoughtfully and effectively. They can. sustain and build upon them. it needs Performance Measures to monitor and control the journey.
ABOUT THE ENTERPRISE
VEER ENTERPRISES SEASON’Z ICE CREAM
After the discussion of TQM in detail now we will discuss about TQM in a particular manufacturing plant. Here we will discuss that due to
production which problems can be decrease the quality of product. We will discuss that how we can be maintain the quality. Every production procedure is differ than another. Every product is shifted from one to next department where quality is the main thing to produce a product. Now we will discuss about the particular product which is produced in manufacturing plant that is ICE CREAM, it is called also frozen desert. Ice cream is food product which demand much care about quality. In ice cream production quality is the main thing every point of production depend upon quality. Without quality we cannot spread our product in the market. Quality is main cause to increase the business. Due to ice cream production we need much consistency of quality. Quality increase the taste of ice cream. Now we will discuss about a firm of ice cream manufacturing. The firm name is VEER ENTERPRISES and the brand name is SEASON’z ice cream. • Firm Name :- Veer Enterprises
• Brand Name :- Season’z Ice cream
• Place • Prop.
:- Ludhiana :- Hardeep Singh
Myself Hardeep Singh. I am the owner of the plant of ice cream. I have the practical knowledge about the quality of ice cream. I am running this factory from last three years.
Now we will discuss every point where quality exist from bottom to top. Purchasing of raw material :. So the raw material should be purchased from the good dealer and good distributor and should be branded company. • Stab • Custard Powder 28 . In ice cream manufacturing raw material is very important thing. I kept one thing in my mind that I will never compromise with quality in any situation.When I established this plant. The material which is used for making ice cream is that :• Milk • Milk Powder • Sugar • G.The quality of every product is depend on the quality of raw material.M. Raw material is the base of taste. the one thing was in my mind that was a quality maintenance.S. I did not compromise with quality thus I earn less profit.
2.5 to making ice cream. Milk powder :. Milk should be pure quality and should be fresh. Many companies are available in the market of dry milk. we purchase milk then milk should be checked by the fat machine and it should be pure and fresh. When.Milk is the main thing for making ice creams. Milk:. The minimum fat of milk should be 6 and the maximum 7. 29 . Milk should be pure and full of fat. It is also called dry milk. In making of ice cream milk powder is used for increase the gravity of milk.• Cream • Essence • Sticks • Water 1.Milk powder is also making from milk. If it is not fresh we can not improve the quality. But the better one should be purchased like Uttam etc.
30 . Essence :. Cream :. In ice cream different types of flavors are used.Sugar is basic part of taste.3. Stab :. Sugar should be carefully put in the mixture. But every essence should be used till the expiry date. :. because it is very important to increase the quality. The expiry date is mentioned by the company on every bottle. But according to me FBI (Bush) is the best one in this category.GMS is ingredient which is used for smoothness and to make ice cream fluffy. which is used for making mixture thicker and light.M. 8.It is also ingredient. 5.S. In market many companies are available of essence. Custard powder:.Custard powder is mainly used in “ Stick Kulfi” 7. Sugar :. 4. Cream is very helpful in becoming material soft and tasteful. 6. G.Cream should be pure and fresh. FBI(Bush) is best quality product. It should be neither much nor less.Essence are available in many flavors.
Sticks should be in perfect size and every stick should be in same size.the staff should be skilled because the quality of product is in the hand of staff.The water is used for making ice candy must should be filtered. Stab. Skilled Staff :. Sugar.9. 10. Sticks :. Milk Powder. If it is done accordingly to the selected ratio of ingredients we can get the best quality and delicious taste.Sticks are mainly used in ice candy. Quality of Mixture To make the mixture every ingredient should be put in the selected ratio because much quantity or less quantity of ingredient and become the cause of bad quality Every ingredients like GMS. He should have the knowledge about every ingredient. Essence should be put in the milk accordingly to the quantity of the milk and this mixture should be cooked on the gas burner or the boiler till the giving time according to recipe. Water :. He should have the 31 . Stick should be in smooth stuff and very clean. The person who is appointed to make the ice cream should be skilled.
TYPES OF MACHINES Machine is the main processor to produce the quality. Quality of machinery The machineries which are used to produce ice cream should be good quality and should be purchased from well know company. Different types of machines are used to produce ice cream.ability to produce the ice cream in any flavor. Helper. The other staff should be also skilled. The hands of every staff member should be covered with gloves and head with cloth or cap. 32 . The head of the department should be able to produce the quality in product and he should be able to operate the all machines properly. who helps the ice cream maker should be knowledgeable about his work. The machine should be purchased from branded company. The all staff should have the efficiency to do work continues. He should have the ability to give the shape to ice cream clearly.
Homonizer 3. Chiller 4. My own factory I purchased all machines from this company. Boiler 2.There are four types of machines which are mainly used in this process that are:1. Because the accuracy of this machine is better than local company machines. SIGMA is a branded company which is famous in all over India for ice cream machines. 33 . Charner A Indian branded company which is manufacturing machines that is “SIGMA”.
34 .Boiler should be purchased from branded company the mixture should be Boiled 15-20 mins.1. Boiler :. Gauge should be accurate of the boiler.
Where mixture is pressed by the piston for getting the smoothness and better quality and then mixture is come out from a pipe.After making the mixture. The mixture put in the bowl and it reaches in the piston. the mixture is passed into the homonizer. Homonizer :.2. 35 .
Charner :.Here mixture is reached in final process. The charner takes twenty minute to ready one lot. Every gauge of charner should have accuracy.3. All gauges should be in running condition. 36 . The normal charner have ten liter capacity to produce ice cream in one time.
Every packing wrapper and brick boxes should be made by better quality poly and better paper or card sheets. Packing Packing is the last stage which keep maintain the quality. 37 . it washes with water and after complete the work it washes again with water. Every packing material should be food grade. Which is approved by health department. The expiry date should be mentioned on every packing material and manufacturing date also should be mentioned.The blades of charner should be sharped. Before using the charner. The inner and outer side should be laminated. The ice cream should be packed properly in the wrapper and brick boxes. The both sides of every brick box should be laminated. The main thing is that ice cream should be packed properly and sealed properly in the wrapper and brick box.
PACKING MATERIAL 38 .
Cleanliness is must for the customer’s specially for children health even it is must quality maintenance. It should be near about of minus -20 to -26. Do not keep the material without cover. The temperature of the freezer should be in minus (-) degree. It is must for getting quality. Garbage of the factory should placed in separate place.Storage The packed ice cream should be stored in the freezer. And generator should be available in the factory. Every thing which is used to produce ice cream like steel bucket. There should be proper ventilation in the factory. Cleanliness is also checked by the health department.the all side of factory should be clean the floor of the factory should be washed daily. The door of the freezer should be properly closed and the freezer should be switched on continues 24 hours. Ice cream should be stored in rows and columns so that it remain safe and in original shape. tubs etc should be washed before and after using. 40 . Every tub and jar in which material is kept should be covered with net. Cleanliness Cleanliness is the main cause to increase the quality . steel jar. cleanliness is must to produce the better quality.
2. and timely delivery. The higher degree of commitment toward work will improve productivity and will decrease rejection cause due to human factor. So to make the people happy is the responsibility of the organization. competitive cost. Human resource is the most important factor for any organization and success of any Organization is depending upon its resource . So this study is helpful to measure the level of commitment toward work and to know the factor affecting the commitment level. 41 . Quality means conformance to specification and standard. It will adversely affect the organization. Quality means productivity. total customer satisfaction.If human resource of organization is not happy with the organization. 3. QUALITY:1.CONCEPTUALIZATION This is Total Quality Management Project Report. Quality means fitness for use.
every time by employing organization resource to provide value to customer. Quality means getting every one to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right the first time and every time. at all level. TOTAL: Every one associated with the company is involved in continuous improvement. Quality is what the customer says 6. in all functional area. first time. 5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: It is the process designed to focus external/internal customer expectation preventing problems building. TOTAL QUALITY:It means all the people of the organization are committed to product quality by doing right things right. 42 . Conformance to requirements. commitment to quality in the workforce and promoting to open decision making. QUALITY: Customer express and implied requirement is met fully.4.
To maintain existing lever of quality. Effective utilization of resource.MANAGEMENT: Decision in a planned way. To improve existing lever of quality. 43 .
speed. Management by fact 3. Team accountable. Communication 44 . People oriented technology. FOUR C’S OF TQM 1. Strong leadership 6. correct problem 8. Continuous improvement 5.PRINCIPLES OF TQM 1. Commitment 2. People based management 4. Competence 3. Team work. Quality system measure& record 7. Delight the customer 2.
Lever of satisfaction toward job standard. 45 . The treatment of individual by the management The lever of worker’s satisfaction with the salaries The level of worker pride in the company and its activity Worker reaction to the formal communication network in the organization.4. The workload & work pressure level. Continuous improvement FACTOR AFFECTED THE COMMITMENT OF THE EMPLOYEES General worker attitude toward the company. The lever of consideration the supervisor shows to his subordination. General worker attitude toward the supervisor.
Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the worker. 46 . Worker attitude toward the fellow worker.
they already have implemented TQM so through this study. I have explained earlier. For this purpose. They sum up various finding. Review of Existing literature: Many people have work on this topic. I have made the questionnaire which consisting of multiple-choice questions. They found that apply TQM has directly increased their morale. I have collected the data from them and after that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the recommendation. increase the 47 . I measured the degree of implementation in the organization and what are the factor that are affected the commitment lever and to check how much they are satisfaction with the TQM implement. Focus of the problem: The main emphasis will be on to find out quality employee’s commitment toward their work as a result total quality implementation.OPERATIONALISATION OF THE CONCEPT I have studied on impact of employee’s commitment toward. In the company.
VIKALPA etc. THE ECONOMIC TIMES.satisfaction lever and commitment toward their work. Several articles have been published in different journals. TQ(S)M Squared In May's issue of Focus. While many total 48 . But the effect of TQM on employees commitment in the company has so far not undertaken. magazines and newspaper such as HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW. These are the finding of various researchers. Paul Varga of Service Graphics wrote an article entitled TQ(S)M= Total Quality (Sales) Management. This project has been done first time in the company.
Other customers were beginning to look at ISO 9000. Our salespeople found themselves being measured against yardsticks they didn't understand. The sales teams were not equipped to deal with any of these programs. imagine my plight as a sales executive for a high technology company faced with the following scenarios: Many of our Department of Defense Subcontractors (at the time about 40% of our business) were imposing their vendor quality programs on us. Paul's comments about the value of TQ(S)M struck a chord based on some tough experiences over past years. Each customer had their own program. At the same time.quality management programs have fallen into disfavor. and others were applying Six Sigma 49 . all of which were bad news if you did not comply. TQ(S)M is a critical issue for sales and executive management. Motorola was telling us that we would be required to compete for the Baldrige award. Our "bid" prices were uplifted by others to reflect the cost of non-compliance. We were found non-compliant by some customers and not allowed to compete. many of our commercial customers were implementing their own quality programs. While the basic tenets of quality have always been appealing. At the time. Quality in the sales and marketing process first became a critical issue to me about six years ago.
Like our customers. while others had their unique programs. The quality professionals seemed to focus on the "hard" sides of business--manufacturing. However. I visited some of the Baldrige award winners to discover how they had trained their sales organizations. development and administration. Many of the tough goals the corporation had set for itself were non-compliant when compared to those goals our customers were setting for their suppliers (us!!). but did not know where to begin. The sales organization wanted to comply with our customers' needs and continue to be recognized as a quality business partner. None had programs targeted to the sales and marketing functions. our corporation had defined and implemented an aggressive quality program.measurement criteria. Most had developed their own programs with minimal help from quality professionals. We had several challenges: • The first was getting our own company to recognize that quality is defined by the customer. We had to recognize that sales and 50 . no one had spoken with the salespeople or with the customers. • Finally. • Second was finding a quality training program that focused on the needs of salespeople. we had to learn how to take a close look at ourselves and clean up our own house.
we began introducing our people to the basic concepts of quality and 51 . each failure hit the salesperson in the wallet!! The first step was relatively easy.). but it meant our survival. we caught the attention of our chairman and the rest of the corporation. (These 44 customers represented a significant amount of business. both as a corporation and as sales professionals--after all. First. Then we undertook developing our own quality programs. I had the opportunity to present our customers' quality requirements to our corporate quality council. We had to define our process. We mapped the 44 customer driven quality programs and compliance requirements against our corporate quality goals. Once it became obvious that meeting our internal quality goals would not meet our customers' quality requirements and that we faced losing business. define how to measure ourselves and then seek to improve our processes (the Japanese and quality guru's call it Kaizen. It helps when the Chairman of the Board chairs that council. the job became fairly easy at that point.marketing are definable processes. just as the other functions in an organization. It took a lot of work. It was one step in becoming customer focused.) Frankly.
Then we sponsored a number of projects to understand where we were and to make small improvements. I think our people always knew we could and should do better. Rather than just tracking revenue. to 52 . We realized that we could adopt a simple process and apply that. How did we define our process from the overall management of the business down to the daily activities of the salespeople? How could we do this without creating a bureaucracy which diverted our focus--satisfying our customers' requirements and profitably growing our business? Benchmarking some leading sales organizations helped us tremendously. with discipline. we started becoming attentive to a number of other factors---returns. but could not capture the attention of management. We started to examine the process of selling. On second thought. Each of these projects started establishing awareness in different parts of the organization. expenses and a few other things. maybe they established better awareness with the executive management staff. the number of telephone rings in our offices and telemarketing centers and other measurements. We opted for simplicity. In hindsight. Now we were paying attention. Finally we began to undertake the big task. delivery. but taken separately they didn't catch our attention.customer satisfaction. I remember countless individuals talking about small problems impacting our customers that we needed to fix.
not our need to sell. not the way we wanted it to be. the selling process and each sales situation. to coaching and developing everyone in the organization. • Our process forced us to focus on the way the world was. we began to focus on the customer need to buy. The productivity of the sales organization was improving. We were growing. • In each selling situation. Our forecast integrity improved tremendously. Customers would call me and ask "What have you done? Your salespeople are asking me questions I have never been asked before. to territory management. 53 . Our customers started looking at us as a valued business partner. We were no longer "blacklisted" as noncompliant by our customers.everything that we did--from business management. cost per order dollar was declining. They are really interested in my business and my problems!" Our results were tremendous. Only upon implementing this process were we able to see the PHENOMENAL results it produced! We started to see the following: • We had a common language and process to manage the business. We drove a fact base approach to managing the organization. Our company was becoming much more customer focused. to improving the effectiveness and productivity of each salesperson.
consider the results other companies have achieved by introducing a quality and process orientation to sales. ISO9000 is driving other companies. 54 . Many companies in this area need to train their salespeople in partnering with their automotive customers in implementing the QS9000 programs. One organization adopting a process similar to that I described reduced its sales cycle by an average of 40%. specifically. Organizations I have managed have reduced cost per order dollar by over 20%. examine the factors driving all of us to improve the quality and effectiveness of our sales organizations.TQ(S)M makes sense! In the greater Cleveland area. If those reasons are not important enough. One organization implementing this process orientation has enabled itself to become the strategic vendor of choice to many of its customers--purely because of the ability of the sales organization to focus on its customers' problems. Supplier participation is an important factor in this standard--our salespeople stand at the forefront of working with customers in assuring that we comply with the needs of our customers. The automotive industry has adopted a standard by which it will measure all suppliers--QS9000.
TQM theories. and organisational commitment 55 . QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality Management history. process improvement.TQ(S)M makes business sense! As Paul's article pointed out. Whether you call it total quality or not. It provides the competitive edge. it makes the sales organization more effective and productive. gurus. creating customer focused partnerships which drive growth and profitability is key to all sales executives.
Nevertheless. and for teaching and training others. ideas. 56 . Enterprise and Regulatory Reform . materials and tools are an excellent guide to the quality management area. and the performance improvements that are generally desired for individuals. These free resources. change management. Enterprise and Regulatory Reform.now the Department for Business. for practical application in organizations. teams and organizations. has led to the development of essential processes.which is gratefully acknowledged. and its modern 'branded interpretations such as 'Six Sigma'. Please note that since the replacement of the UK Department of Industry by the Department for Business. The materials listed and linked from this page are subject to Crown Copyright. for study and learning. theories and tools that are central to organizational development. from mere 'inspection' to Total Quality Management.The history of quality management. since the Quality Management technical and historical content is unaffected by the DTI branding the materials remain relevant for training. learning and reference. the branding on the materials is now obsolete. These free pdf materials are provided by permission of the UK Department of Industry .
He was also arguably the first quality expert to emphasise that no quality management system works unless people are empowered and committed to take responsibility for quality . HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's production quality control ideas. and the positive ethical management of people. of Joseph Juran.an ethos. a seminal figure in the history of quality management. The section below on Kaizen explains the connections between the true ethos of quality management.as an ongoing process . and notably the concepts developed in 57 . age 103. who died 28 February 2008.It is appropriate to note the passing a little while back now.effectively for quality to become part of part of people's behaviour and attitudes . Juran did more than teach the Japanese about quality management.
Management By Walking About (MBWA). check-sheets. stratification. process control charts. Genichi Taguchi.. Do. including the development and/or use of the Plan.Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's. Juran and Deming. McKinsey 7-S Framework. etc. and Shigeo Shingo. histograms. and the 1970-80's American Western gurus. who further extended the Quality Management concepts after the Japanese successes. cause and effect diagrams. QUALITY MANAGEMENT GURUS AND THEORIES Quality Management resulted mainly from the work of the quality gurus and their theories: the American gurus featured in the 1950's Japan: Joseph Juran. Quality Improvement Teams (QIT). tolerance design ('Taguchi methodology'). Just In Time (JIT). Pareto analysis. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) 58 . notably Philip Crosby and Tom Peters. and Armand Feigenbum. pioneered there by Americans Feigenbum. Check. parameter design. W Edwards Deming.. the Japanese quality gurus who developed and extended the early American quality ideas and models: Kaoru Ishikawa. scatter-charts. system design. Act (PDCA) cycle. More about the Quality Management gurus and their theories..
and also to more modern quality and process improvement interpretations and models such as Six Sigma. including the people.. (external and internal customers and suppliers)..Total Quality Management features centrally the customer-supplier interfaces. together with the acknowledgement that the right organizational culture is essential for effective Total Quality Management. More about Total Quality Management process and process improvement methods. A number of processes sit at each interface. PROCESSES ... 59 ..UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES AND METHODS FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Understanding processes is essential before attempt is made to improve them. This is a central aspect to Total Quality Management. processes and systems in the organization. Central also is an organizational commitment to quality. and the importance of communicating this quality commitment.. More about the fundamentals and structures of the TQM model.
matrix analysis. Control charts. Identify.QUALITY PROCESS 8IMPROVEMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES A wide range of tools and techniques is used for identifying. process mapping. scatter diagrams. creatively. productively. such as Six Sigma. force field analysis. and the organization can fly. check-sheets. Conversely. A summary of quality tools is below Developing people and teams People are a fundamental component within any successfully developing organization. Review. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Pareto analysis.. measuring. bar charts. Again these ideas and methods feature prominently in modern interpretations of Total Quality Management methodology. Take away the people and the organization is nothing. Logically therefore. These process improvement tools and techniques include: DRIVE (Define. cause and effect. and again. commitment and ability to work together in well-organised teams. flow-charting. Execute). the organization is nothing. prioritising and improving processes which are critical to quality. inspire the people to work well. Take away the people's motivation. brainstorming. histograms. 'dot plot' and tally charts. Verify. the development and proper 60 .
training and developing and motivating people. Therefore Quality Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing review and improvement. There are a wide range of models that are used in selecting. Performing' model.utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management initiatives. assessing. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT There are many ways to measure organizational performance other than financial output or profit. Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A 'Total Quality organization' generally benefits from having an effective Quality Management System (QMS)." Customer expectations inevitably drive and define 'performance' criteria and standards. Modern measurement focuses on the essential activities. resources and other factors . Norming. A Quality Management System is typically defined as: "A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organization in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance. Storming. John Adair's Action Centred Leadership model. among which are classical models such as Belbin. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (see the personality models section).many less intangible than 61 .
and a framework for the self-assessment.. TQM SELF-ASSESSMENT AND AWARDS USING THE EFQM® MODEL Any organization can assess itself provided it has the commitment to so so. Here are some ideas. TQM BENCHMARKING AND QUESTIONNAIRE (READINESS FOR BENCHMARKING) Benchmarking is a widely used term within the field of organizational measurement and management . and a questionnaire by which an organization (or a department or process team) can assess its readiness for benchmarking. and a process for quality and excellence self-assessment. EXCELLENCE AND THE EUROPEAN QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model® is a useful framework for developing quality and excellence within an organization. These include modern methods such as Balanced Scorecard. TQM IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK AND BLUEPRINT 62 ..traditional indictors ... Here is an explanation of benchmarking.that impact on final outputs..
It includes the following elements: • TQM Processes Tools and techniques People and teamwork Quality management system Performance measurement EFQM Excellence Model® Self-assessment • • • • • • This blueprint for achieving organizational excellence is based on many years of research. Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. information and advice initially from the UK Department of Industry. education and advisory work in the European Centre for Business Excellence (ECforBE). KAIZEN Kaizen is a very significant concept within quality management and deserves specific explanation: 63 .Here is a framework and 'blueprint' for the implementation of a quality improvement or 'excellence' initiative. now replaced by the Department for Business. It is. along with the other resources in this section. and the research and education division of Oakland Consulting plc.
To eliminate waste of time. Kaizen should be 'lived' rather than imposed or tolerated. Kaizen is a core principle of quality management generally. embedded in the philosophy and values of the organization. resources and effort • and increase productivity. 64 . working and behaving. Originally developed and applied by Japanese industry and manufacturing in the 1950s and 60s. commonly translated to mean 'continuous improvement'. stable. Kaizen is a way of thinking. money. and has for many years since been interpreted and adopted by 'western' organizations all over the world. Kaizen continues to be a successful philosophical and practical aspect of some of the best known Japanese corporations. The aims of a Kaizen organization are typically defined as: • To be profitable.Kaizen (usually pronounced 'kyzan' or 'kyzen' in the western world) is a Japanese word. and specifically within the methods of Total Quality Management and 'Lean Manufacturing'. materials. sustainable and innovative. at all levels.
• To create a harmonious and dynamic organization where every employee participates and is valued. providing feedback and suggesting improvements to their area of work. analysing.• To make incremental improvements to systems. • Evolution rather than revolution: continually making small. however apparently insignificant. less disruptive and more sustainable than improving one thing by 100% when the need becomes unavoidable. every minute of every day. has valuable knowledge and participates in a working team or Kaizen group (see also Quality Circles below). • Everyone is expected to participate. Key concepts of Kaizen: • Every is a key word in Kaizen: improving everything that everyone does in every aspect of the organization in every department. 1% improvements to 100 things is more effective. processes and activities before problems arise rather than correcting them after the event. 65 . • Everyone involved in a process or activity.
and is trained and informed about the company. Kaizen is a carefully nurtured philosophy that works smoothly and steadily. with 'soft' management issues such as motivation and empowerment. and which helps to align 'hard' organizational inputs and aims (especially in process-driven environments). or worse cause them to be counter-productive. Management practice enables and facilitates this. • Every employee is involved in the running of the company. Kaizen teams use analytical tools and techniques to review systems and look for ways to improve (see Quality Tools below).• Every employee is empowered to participate fully in the improvement process: taking responsibility. without fixing the basic structure and philosophy. poor interpretation and implementation can limit the usefulness of Kaizen practices. checking and co-ordinating their own activities. Like any methodology however. At its best. 66 . • Kaizen is poorly integrated with processes and people's thinking. This encourages commitment and interest. Kaizen is unsuccessful typically where: • Kaizen methods are added to an existing failing structure. leading to fulfilment and job satisfaction.
Kaizen works best when it is 'owned' by people. who see the concept as both empowering of individuals and teams. whose involvement drives the change and improvement in the first place. and to ensure improvements produce not only better productivity and • profit for the organization. which is distinctly Japanese in origin notably its significant emphasis upon individual and worker empowerment in organizations . Interestingly. for example the Y-Theory principles described by Douglas McGregor. lacking meaningful purpose. Executive/leadership doesn't understand or support Kaizen.• Training is inadequate. Employees and managers regard Kaizen as some form of imposed • • procedure. As ever. the spirit of Kaizen. critically: • to encourage and support Kaizen. Herzberg's Motivational 67 .is reflected in many 'western' concepts of management and motivation. but also better recognition and reward and other positive benefits for employees. and a truly practical way to improve quality and performance. and thereby job satisfaction and reward. such initatives depend heavily on commitment from above.
tools.which might be regarded as cold and detached and focused on 'things' not people. and • people. and keep them aligned. and Charles Handy's motivational theories.the 'soft' inputs and outputs ('right-side brain') Kaizen helps to align these factors. Maslow's Needs Hierarchy and related thinking. and • progressive 'humanist' ideas about motivating and managing people . processes.the 'hard' inputs and outputs (some say 'left-side brain'). 68 . teamwork. recognition and reward . Fascinatingly. motivation.which might be regarded as too compassionate and caring to have a significant place in the optimization of organizational productivity and profit. we can now see that actually very close connections exist between: • the fundamental principles of Quality Management . Adams' Equity Theory. communication. The point is that in all effective organizations a very strong mutual dependence exists between: • systems. profit .Theory. productivity.
potentially used in brainstorming.typically in 'quality circles' or Kaizen work teams to analyse and review activities and uncover inefficiencies. See fishbone diagram and usage examples for project management.asking 'Why?' at least five times to uncover root cause of a problem. Quality Tools are used at all levels of an organization . also found in business process modelling.Quality tools 'Quality Tools' refers to tools and techniques used in support of Kaizen and other quality improvement or quality management programmes and philosophies. The main Quality Tools are: • The '5 Whys' . • Run Charts . • Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams . in which primary categories are generally pre-determined according to context. 69 . • Flowcharts .a graph which plots data/change along a timeline.boxes and arrows method of examining activities. Based mainly on statistical and manufacturing process tools.fishbone-structured diagram for identifying cause/effect patterns.
which acts as a template to check conformance and deviation. often in Run Chart format. frequency. Others tools such as the Fishbone diagram have stayed quite specific to the engineering and manufacturing disciplines. which traditionally have a strong focus and expertise in Kaizen. have become part of mainstream management. 70 .a graph which plots points (typically very many individual instances) according to two variables.pre-formatted lists for noting incidence. 'Lean' management and other quality management methodologies. especially biggest relative cause.a line and bar graph displaying cause/effect ratios. • Histograms . based on Pareto theory.a bar graph displaying data in simple categories which together account for a total. etc. which produces a useful visual indication of the relationship between the two variables. • Scatter Diagram/Scatterplot . according to known useful criteria • Control/Shewhart Charts - a standard pattern of performance/time for a given process. like flowcharts and checklists.. • Checklists/Checksheets .• Pareto Charts . Some quality tools.
In this context the word 'circle' refers to a team of people.QUALITY CIRCLES Quality circles. rather than a strict adherence to technical Total Quality Management or related processes. This article contains a summary of implementation of TQM improvement projects in the Manufacturing and Service Sectors over the last 5 years. similar to Kaizen teams. especially focused on problem-solving and improvements. cooperative way. and review working practices with a view to making suggestions for improvement in their work and the systems. the specific use of Quality Circles is chiefly concentrated among manufacturing and engineering organizations or in technical departments of this sort. in which case the name tends to imply or symbolise that teams are working in an empowered. The term Quality Circles may be found in more general use outside of these traditional areas. It 71 . Teams or small groups (the circles) meet to analyse. As with many Quality Tools. are a key part of any continuous improvement programme.
a common methodology was used as a systematic way to 7 QC tools are widely employed within this methodology 1. TQM IMPROVEMNT METHODOLOGY Throughout these TQM improvement projects. The DEFINE phase 72 .highlights difficulties encountered in using specific improvement tools as well as handling of the team members.
In this phase. goal and target. A Problem Statement is used as a summary of this phase to state the nature of the project. Some of the common difficulties encountered are as follows:a) Team leader cannot decide whether to use the above tools to select project even though project is already assigned by the management b) Team leader lack experience in directing team members 73 . boundaries of the process to be improved. often team members are faced with difficulties for some valid reasons. Some tools commonly used to help members to select improvement projects are as follows:a) Brain Storming b) Multi Voting c) Selection Grid d) Problem Statement Upon completion of using the tools. resource required and potential constraints While this is a simple phase to accomplish. team members will be able to select and agreed to a project which may be an opportunity for improvement or problem. team members are required to identify improvement projects.
Trend Charting. Team members use these tools selectively to dissect the problem into smaller junks and look at them critically. team members do not seems to able to grasp the use of these tools effectively. Data collection.c) Lack of initial data to support decision making d) Team members are not well verse with the subject matter e) Lack understanding of the improvement tools 2. these steps are performed using common improvement tools include 7-QC tools such as Brainstorming. Fish-Bone Diagram and why-Why Analysis. Often than not. This analysis is done systematically and logically as follows:a) The scope of the subject matter b) Current performance (problematic) trend c) Identify possible causes of the opportunity or problem d) Detail diagnostic to the root cause of the confirmed true causes Certainly. The ANALYSE phase This is a critical phase where the current state of the subject matter as well as root causes will be analysed in detail. team members 74 . As expected.
the team members would have some ideas what are some of the causes of the problem. planning to improve them is the key 75 . some of them are as follows:a) Team leader dominate in team discussion b) Some team members used past experience to make conclusion c) Data collection is tedious d) Lack data analytical skill e) Lack focus during brainstorming on possible causes f) Did not spend enough time to validate the possible causes g) Too judgmental on the causes h) Root cause analysis is often skip after possible causes is identified 3. The reasons for this are several. the root causes of the problem is identified. Upon completed the Analyse phase. The IMPROVE phase There are two steps in this phase.make conclusion to the "root cause" too soon without factual data to support. Based on these causes. And to some extend. namely. plan the improvement and Implement the improvement plan.
Sometime when they are implemented. There are several tools involve in doing so. team leaders failed to stay control of the "excitement of success" when action / solution is identified. they are implemented without considering the risk involved. During my consulting projects. these action / solution cause different set of problem. Some of the difficulties encountered by the team members during this IMPROVE phase are as follows:76 . when an action / solution is identified.objective of this IMPROVE Phase. namely:a) Brainstorming of action / solution b) Selection Grid c) Benchmarking d) Cost-Benefit Analysis e) Control lot and testing f) Pilot the action / solution g) Force-Field Analysis h) Prevention Planner Traditionally. often than not. Risk analysis was not enough or lacking before they are implemented.
a) Action / solution taken causes other problem (Jump into the action without further evaluation of the risk) b) Action / solution does not yield long term result (Member got over exited about the action / solution and forgot about the root causes. The CONTROL phase This is the most neglected but critical phase to ensure action / solution put in placed are permanently yield expected results. Managing the change is often neglected) d) Some action / solution are not carried out as expected 4. forgot about the human factor. Not only team need to control the improvement result but equally important the action / solution. It cannot be over emphasized the importance of CONTROL. members tends to keep track of the result without realizing it is the action / solution that bring about the improvement of the results. Besides tracking and monitoring. New action / solution involve change. These are the critical components of the whole Improvement Projects to ensure sustainability of the improvement. c) Line workers refuse to abide to the new action / solution (Focus too much on technical aspect of the action / solution. it is important that new action / solution are standardized across the company 77 . However.
with simple yet effective work instructions and Standard Operating Procedures. However. least difficulties were encountered by team members. Perhaps it was due to the fact that most action / solution are taken placed in the work area they are in charge. team members faced with the following difficulties:a) Action and solution are not carried out consistently 78 . namely:a) Trend Charting b) Control Chart c) Documentation d) Audit e) On-job training f) Re-certification During this phase. They are some basic tools used in this phase. there are cases where teams are set up for a cross-function project in which action / solution to be taken are in work areas not the responsibility of the team members. In which case. That Management team has included these items in their operation review meeting until such a time they feel it is sustainable. And they are periodically audited for compliance.
b) Some of the line workers are not aware of the changes c) Tracking is focus on results but did not extend to the action / solution The above article is a compilation of issues in several TQM projects facilitated by the author in various manufacturing and service sectors from year 2001 to 2006. These projects are categorized as:Sales Improvement Projects such as:a) Customer & Market Analysis b) Reduction in Customer Complaints c) Production Uptime d) Delivery Cycle Time e) Loan Processing And Cost Reduction Projects such as:a) Quality Improvement b) Process Optimization c) Increase Boiler Efficiency d) Reduce Material Losses 79 .
team member work well together as a team than before. other aspects not included in this article are management commitment. sustainability and Reward & Recognition. the above projects were completed and their duration varied depending on project complexity. In summary. there are several intangible benefits too. However. improvement and its related cost saving varied too. As an indication. the cost of project. sustaining the effort and so on. Also.e) Reduce Electricity Consumption f) Reduce Machine Downtime g) Reduce Repair & Maintenance h) Reconcile Insurance Policy Premium etc This article deals with some common difficulties encountered during the implementation of improvement projects with regards to the use of tools. gain analytical and project improvement skill etc 80 . the project saving ranged from few thousand to a million Malaysian Ringgit. To name a few. gaining extra understanding to the processes. Besides these tangible benefits. implementing action and solutions.
To find out factor influencing the commitment. To study the level of commitment of employees toward their work. 3. 81 . To find the degree of TQM implemented in the organization. 2.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study are: 1.
It may understand as a science of studying how the research is done significantly. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under: UNIVERSE AND SURVEY POPULATION The universe is the employee working at mill.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a systematic manner. I have selected 100 employees 40 FROM THE STAFF. 60 FROM THE WORKER for the survey. 82 . The methodology may differ from problem to problem. yet the basic approach towards the research remains the same.
83 .I have used the questionnaire method for collecting the data. Some of the employee’s feel that thy have proper information about the policies. ANALYSIS PATTERN Data collection: This data is primary data. which I have been collected with the help of questionnaire.RESEARCH DESIGN This research is of EXPLORATARY RESEARCH DESIGN. I have prepared a questionnaire on the basis of the factors responsible for employee’s commitment in the organization MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation) The detailed analyses of the results are explained below: MOST OF EMPLOYEES FEELS THAT: Most of the staff member and worker feel that organization is quality conscious toward the employees. But some of employees feel that there is no proper communication. practices followed in the organization. This also increases their commitment toward the work and toward the organization.
so clear conclusion can’t be drawn. Most of the staff’s member feels that their performance is properly measured in the organization. Employees of the organization may hide the fact. Numbers of respondents are very less. 2. LIMITATIONS 1.Most of the facts related with the organization are hided by the management from the employees. 3. The management did not agree to disclose all the confidential data. 84 . Most of the employees feel that they don’t get rewarded for their good performance.
national as well as international level. Without quality we can not spread our product in the market and our brand name can not be get famous without quality. The food product business like ice cream can be survive only upon quality and originality.CONCLUSION After of the discussion about quality in the particular manufacturing plant we can say that the over all product is depend on quality. Ice cream is a food product where existence of quality is must. 85 . Quality can raise popularity of our product on region.
RECOMMENDATIONS The suggestions I have given for the betterment are explained below: ü It is very important to provide the opportunity to the employees of the organization to express their ideas or whatever they want to express. ü Management should involve the workers representatives in managerial activities so that the transparency could be maintained and through this they can win the confidence of the employees. ü Management should clear their vision mission and goals towards the employees in the organization. 86 . If the product quality is better then people would like our product.In the nutshell we can say that all over business depends upon the better quality.
ü There are regular review and comparison of current & past performance to detect gradual deterioration in the strategy. in a way responsible for putting that smile on the consumer's face. restraint and 'less is more'. ü Proper cooperation should be necessary in the company. we take great pride in believing that we are. ü Role clarity of each position should be defined and based on that individuals can plan their work accordingly. which make our products the best “Pleasure Food” there is. ü Reward or Praise/appreciation works as magic for an individual and motivates them for work. Moreover. We believe that people need small moments of pleasure in their lives. Self-potential system should be encouraged. providing moments of daily pleasure is still really important for our customers and their families. 87 . Our passion is inspired by our love for simple ingredients like milk. denial. fruit and chocolate. In a world of stress.ü Management should give due importance to mental relaxation &social cultural development of an employees who strives hard for the company.
from indulgent treats like Magnum and Cornetto. It is actually oxygen for the soul. to the refreshing fruit tastes of Solero and family favourites like Viennetta.The pleasure areas . So we now have scientific evidence to prove what we all already knew. Pleasure is not a sin. But while ice cream should always be fun. we've an ever-growing range of lower fat. 88 . that ice cream really does make you happy! We believe that little pleasures in life. lower sugar products.Taste the fun side of life Mention ice cream and most people think of the Heartbrand. as well old favourites . The brand with the big red heart logo is behind many much-loved ice cream classics . add up to make a huge difference.its official! A study carried out using FMRI brain scanners showed that eating Wall's had an immediate effect on the part of the brain that is activated when someone is really enjoying themselves . at some point.there's something for everyone. Ice Cream makes you happy . Making you happy Few foods are guaranteed to put a smile on people's faces like ice cream. Heartbrand now provides lighter versions for those watching the calories and smaller sizes for smaller appetites.
We say that because it is a scientifically proven fact that happy people live longer. 89 .
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