Chapter:#1 Who am I? What right do I have to teach this?

Guro Dan Inosanto: The Filipino Martial Arts Know Now Publishing USA 1980

Once you have learned the basics from any instructor, you must seek elsewhere. This elsewhere is “within yourself”. Truth is in being yourself, totally and alively! There are many reasons one might question who has the right to teach martial art. I question myself all the time. Its part of a complex I have. It’s a complex that is shared by many in my position: the FRAUD COMPLEX. We seem to deny that we have the knowledge of the subject we want to teach and even if we accept that we do know something we see all that we don’t know as justification of the feeling that we have no right to teach what we know. Yes, very convoluted logic. Especially when there are REAL frauds that exist within the world of combative and martial arts. As a MENSAN I have what is called very creative intelligence. I am not necessarily better then any one else but the way in which I process information is considered different than most. Or, it’s at least different than 98-99.9% of the population. I don’t learn faster, I don’t process information better, I don’t out perform others in school all the time but I do make connections, creative connections. As with most MENSANS I have the ability that I usually assume that all others have, the one of self-teaching. That is, I read, therefore I learn. Add video to this and it’s like being there in person. Add real time interaction with an instructor and it all comes alive. What does this have to do with this book? A LOT! I don’t have a list five miles long with all my supposed black belt ranks to prove how good I am. I don’t have lots of fancy paper on my wall. Yes, I know a bunch of them, the one’s with all the paper and titles and impossible to verify training with far away masters, one of them has gone as far to call himself an “Expert-Grandmaster”… I do have real time learning experience and lots of years of real time teaching. I have been doing martial arts since 1965-66. How good am I? I don’t know, but I do know that my students are usually better than I am. I do know that my students usually are good instructors and they always ask about what and how I teach. For them I wanted to put the way onto paper. I wanted to give people a book I myself might have wanted to read and learn from. (I’ll probably reread what I have written in this book and discover new things as well as “Wow… I really wrote this?”) I hate reading a book that is supposed to teach me something and the photos have no connection to the text or the text itself is a waste of the author’s experience. Its like taking a famous martial arts instructor and having that instructor write a book that basically tells one how to stand or make a fist or hold a weapon. Who needs that? Hell the instructor’s students could have told us that information. To quote the famous old WENDY’S commercial “Where’s the beef?” Some books have great photos but if one isn’t a martial artist nothing makes sense. Others talk about the essence of the style but have no step by steps. Other martial arts books are the supposed history of martial arts of course seen through the eyes of the style written about by the author. Most martial arts books do a little of all that. An example of one that doesn’t and I have worn out the pages, is written by a friend of mine, Dan Anderson. Pound for pound it might be one of the best martial arts books out there, great info at really cheap price! Dan wrote a book that he himself would have wanted as he came up through the ranks. Another friend of mine, Mike Janich wrote a guide to using knives; knife fighting. Is it the ultimate book on knives? Probably not, (if you personally ask Mike) Mike could come up with new things to write about. But it is one of the best texts out there for anyone who wants to understand the reality of using a knife in a self-defense combative situation. Gads what a novel concept: a usable book! Bob Orlando’s books on Martial Arts in America and SILAT are right up there as well. Dan Inosanto’s old book on Filipino Martial Arts is another classic. His book is usable and enjoyable to learn from. Are there others? Yes, there

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are I just wanted to give a couple of examples. Are there really rotten books? Hell yes and I’ll be politically correct and not get into insulting or naming them. I have spent over thirty years learning various martial arts. I have studied with many instructors, attended seminars, read books, viewed videos and applied common sense. Do I have black belt ranks? Yes I do. For example several years ago I became a LAKAN TATLO: a Third Degree Black Belt, 4th level Advanced Instructor under Professor Remy Presas in Modern Arnis. Recently I was awarded my 5th Degree Black Belt in Arnis by Datu Shishir Inocalla and the Arnis Maharlikha Association of the Philippines. Am I the best, a magnificent grandmaster ready to share the secrets with the world? No way… Maybe somehow after all these years I’m an undefeated champion of some federation, quickly dispatching all comers? Yeah, right! Hell, I’m just beginning to truly understand martial arts. As for Combative reality? It’s a whole different animal. Professor Presas always says he’s a slow learner but once he knew something it all became clear. Well. I’m a slow learner too. But once I know something its mine and my gift is that I can then express it and teach what I know. I’m not the toughest fighter, the ultimate warrior, nor am I the wisest most knowledgeable person on martial arts or combat. I am a very good instructor. A very dear friend of mine, Martin Starr has known me forever. We have always considered each other brothers and as we grew up people outside our actual families BELIEVED we were real brothers. My daughter only knows Martin as her REAL Uncle. Anyway, Martin always said I was a true Renaissance man, an inventor, painter, sculptor, martial artist, designer…a true Leonardo Da Vinci. I always thought he was really off the mark, but like a German Shepherd I might not be the best at any of what I do but I’m pretty good. (German Shepherds rate out good to very good at most things...being best at one thing is not a typical German Shepherd!)Yes, like a true renaissance person I continue to learn, grow, teach and understand the world around me. Like a true Renaissance man I love to teach what I know, for knowledge should be shared to enable it to grow. I also see connecting threads and translations. It is these threads and translations that I hope I can convey to those of you that read this book. I believe in PRINCIPLES… unchanging foundations built according to physical laws to build on. I believe in building with concepts for no two people or situations are ever the same. I do not believe in “ my style is better than your style” type of situation nor will I waste valuable ink in trying to prove anything as stupid as that attitude! I believe that Filipino martial arts have a wonderful way of opening ones eyes. Professor Presas likes to call Arnis and Filipino martial art “the art within your art”. The Chinese believe that martial arts are part of ones soul, a part of ones being. The two interact with each other very easily. I hope that my interpretation of the concepts and principles of Filipino-Chinese arts opens someone’s eyes and makes them smile. I hope that in some way I make the arts and combat clearer for those that read this book. Some of you might be lost at the formatting of the book. I thought that I better establish several guidelines, such as: What is Modern Arnis? What do the terms and names mean? Give some historical background without getting into a complete discourse. Give an over view of what makes up Modern Arnis. Show weapons and the usage especially the edged tool: the knife Define Principles, and concepts; then further break concepts onto concepts of motion or of usage.

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In some cases I refer to A as attacker and D as defender. That makes keeping score fairly easy. In others where I want you included closely I will exchange either the attacker or defender with you the reader, so you are part of what’s going on. WHY? Well, because I hate reading books that are one way or the other. I like being moved around from different points of view. It keeps me and you on our toes and if forces one to see that all things change by one’s point of view or perspective INCLUDING reading about it! It also means you can’t skim this material and not read the book. It demands you pay attention. There are no techniques in here. No secrets to defeat all comers. Yes, there will be spots you will yell at me through the book, “hey, Bram, you could have done this instead!”…or “gee Bram, how could you not see this!” If you do respond this way then I did OK. You are using the book and you see the options! Those of you that cry out “Hey that’s not MY Modern Arnis”…OK it might not be so I suggest you read on till you find YOUR Modern Arnis within… Directions of motion change as I talk you through all this so let’s set WHERE we are all coming from. All directions of action are from a first person view. That’s correct, out of your own eyes. Forward vertical circular motion is from your center line outward. Your hand moves outward and down and into a circular motion that keeps coming UP your center. Backward vertical circular motion is from your center line inward. Your hand moves down your center, outward and upward coming back into your center. Counterclockwise circular motion is a right to left circle parallel/ vertical to your body. It is as if for example, your right hand / arm is going a close-to open position, making a circle in front of your body. Clockwise circular motion is a left to right circle parallel/ vertical to your body. It is as if for example, that your right hand / arm is making an open -close position, making a circle in front of your body. Obviously if one does it in a vertical plane one can do it in a horizontal plane as well. I talk the reader through several situations and variations and I ask that you visualize what I’m saying. WHY? Because visualization is important to any physical endeavor especially fighting arts, one must be able to “see in one’s head” what one wants to do. When I talk of directions, angles, or the motions of movement, you must visualize being in that person’s first person point of view, seeing out of their eyes. Visualization is one of the secrets of mastering any martial art. Practice it while using this book and your own art will be better! I cannot possibly put all that is Modern Arnis into one book. An encyclopedia would be needed to capture all there is to Modern Arnis. What I did try to do was encapsulate and give one a conceptual taste of Modern Arnis. If you like it then I suggest you find a Modern Arnis instructor or school near you and go to it. Yes…I will give you some pointers of where to look. Professor Presas has taught thousands of people over the years, so look carefully and you will find someone who can share REAL modern Arnis with you! “To be aware is to be alive!”

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Chapter:#2 How to use this book Ok I’ve got your attention. If you skipped the first chapter “who am I?” no problem! I’ll repeat some of that chapter right here. This small chapter will tell you HOW TO USE THIS BOOK. First of all I try to open each chapter with a quote from one of Professor Presas’ three early books on Modern Arnis. Some of the chapter openings have quotes from Guro Dan Inosanto’s out of print book on Filipino Martial art. Both men have told us to seek out the truth. Second of all, no chapter can stand on its own, as the way to do Modern Arnis or Renegade Modern Arnis. You will need to read of all of the chapters, at least once, sometimes several times to get the point of what is being written. I give basic situations where I expect you the reader to use your imagination. You’ve got no imagination? Try harder! Well, the fact is that imagery is very important to success. All professional athletes, champions, old time warriors used imagery to focus…sometimes it was called meditation but the goal was to actually visualize what one was trying to learn or understand. See and feel what is written as if it was really happening. OK? That will make it easier to understand. I talk the reader through several situations and variations and I ask that you visualize what I’m saying. WHY? Because visualization is important to any physical endeavor especially fighting arts, one must be able to “see in one’s head” what one wants to do. When I talk of directions, angles, or the motions of movement, you must visualize being in that person’s first person point of view, seeing out of their eyes. Visualization is one of the secrets of mastering any martial art. Practice it while using this book and your own art will be better! Point of view is very important. When I talk of situations, as I describe what is going on its from a first person point of view. In other words I’m looking OUT of your eyes AT THE OPPONENT. There is no third person point of view, so you need imagination to see the attack, as it would be coming directly at you. This leads to the question of where is RIGHT or LEFT? Obviously RIGHT is your right and LEFT is your left. Not stage directions, not facing directions but right and left as you would see out of your own eyes facing forward. The same goes for forward or backward. Forward and backward are in relation to your personal direction. In some cases I refer to A as attacker and D as defender. That makes keeping score fairly easy. In others where I want you included closely I will exchange either the attacker or defender with you the reader, so you are part of what’s going on. WHY? Well, because I hate reading books that are one way or the other. I like being moved around from different points of view. It keeps me and you on our toes and if forces one to see that all things change by one’s point of view or perspective INCLUDING reading about it! It also means you can’t skim this material and not read the book. It demands you pay attention. There are no techniques in here. No secrets to defeat all comers. Yes, there will be spots you will yell at me through the book, “hey, Bram, you could have done this instead!”…or “gee Bram, how could you not see this!” If you do respond this way then I did OK. You are using the book and you see the options! Those of you that cry out “Hey that’s not MY Modern Arnis”…”or “that’s not how I do it!” OK it might not be, so I suggest you read on till you find YOUR Modern Arnis within…

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Directions of motion change as I talk you through all this so let’s set WHERE we are all coming from. All directions of action are from a first person view. That’s correct, out of your own eyes. Therefore the following are true: Forward vertical circular motion is from your center line outward. Your hand moves outward and down and into a circular motion that keeps coming UP your center. Backward vertical circular motion is from your center line inward. Your hand moves down your center, outward and upward coming back into your center. Counterclockwise circular motion is a right to left circle parallel/ vertical to your body. It is as if for example, your right hand / arm is going a close-to open position, making a circle in front of your body. Clockwise circular motion is a left to right circle parallel/ vertical to your body. It is as if for example, that your right hand / arm is making an open -close position, making a circle in front of your body. Obviously if one does it in a vertical plane one can do it in a horizontal plane as well. “When in doubt, look at the accompanying photos!…” “To be aware is to be alive!”

Chapter #2 Part B: Teaching Arnis by Concept & Principle Professor Presas: Modern Arnis: Philippine Martial Art Stickfighting........Manila Philippines 1974 Basic Concepts in Arnis and the essential principles: The true power of Arnis does not end with its techniques. although, basically, the techniques are powerful enough, there is still much power left untapped if these techniques are not executed along the essential principles underlying its execution. Modern Arnis and CSSD/SC – Combat Arnis are conceptual arts; techniques are used to illustrate concepts rather than be a reality unto themselves. Drills /Anyos / Sayaws / Forms are not literal translations of applicable fighting techniques but rather they suggest concepts and patterns that the students and instructors can grow from. The translations of the forms/ drills shows the higher expression of Modern Arnis as one is able to see the universal concept of the movement applied to many applications / situations not necessarily the immediately apparent usage. One learns to find the underlying, unchanging principle of motion that is expressed by the conceptual motion and usage of those concepts. CTAT is used to teach CSSD/SC and Modern Arnis. CONCEPT, TECHNIQUE, APPLICATION, TRANSLATION: A concept containing a basic principle or truth is expressed. A technique within that concept is used to illustrate the use of the concept. There are many techniques to illustrate a single concept. Then there is the direct application of that concept with any given technique. Translation is where one gets a hold of the concept and can apply it in any given situation without regard to what is the attacking weapon or where the attack originates from. Modern Arnis has overall discarded the old Filipino terminology in naming techniques of movements due to the vast number of languages and dialects in the Philippines causing one movement or concept to have several names. Modern Arnis uses English or American terminology to express themselves in the vein of Chinese arts particularly Wing Chun where the name actually describes the motion being used. A simple concept within itself to call something as it really is.

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We teach Americans in America so we speak English / American. In Germany we’d speak German. An example is the "slant block" which due to the angle of the stick slants down away from the body; or the "umbrella block" which makes a circular conical shape / umbrella around the head...the name of the motion describes the actual motion used making identification and learning easier. Modern Arnis- CSSD/SC is reality based so we BLOCK the incoming attack and use our checking hand (left hand) to reinforce the block. As an example: Stick first to stop or intercept the attacking motion, then hand to reinforce the block as well as stop rebound from a forceful attack. Blocking an attack comes in three basic concepts: Force to force, Meet the force, and Go with the force. Force to force, we stop the attack directly. Meet the force, we engage the attacking motion as in force to force and yield to the force and direction of the attack. Go with the force, we blend with the attacking motion and force never trying to stop the motion or intent of the attack. Due to the reality of combat we stress defense and immediate counter striking. Attacking is easy. Anyone can master attacking with empty hand, stick or blade. Defense and counter striking must be taught for this is the art. To survive one MUST be able to stop an incoming attack and then quickly counter-attack. Use of the checking hand becomes natural and part of ones response to an attack. Block, check and counter is the name of the game. This is reflected in the basic drills and progression of these drills. Fundamentals are always stressed and done all the time. 12 strikes (with body shifting), 10 blocks (walking the blocks), block-checkcounter, counter for counter (Tapi -Tapi), Sinawali (brush, trap, strike,) Parrying (Hubud), three count drills and "Flow drill" are the building blocks of CSSD/SC and Modern Arnis. The use of the blade is one of the ultimate expressions of Modern Arnis. There is finality to the use of the blade. One must be able to achieve "FLOW" in combat and to respond to the opponent’s movements and intent. Understanding the universal concepts is paramount; for cutting cannot be taken back. Use of the checking hand must be understood for flesh cannot meet steel. Steel cuts flesh, flesh can only block / check flesh, Steel can check steel or flesh. Cutting must be done with conviction and intent. Fighting / study with the knife allows understanding of the use of the point / thrusting. Thrusting is a sub-art all by itself, which reaches a pinnacle in Filipino martial arts especially Modern Arnis. Thrusting is the junction between striking and cutting; it is the connective concepts for combat. Sungkitti (thrusting) drills teach concept of space / distancing within attack and counter attack. All slashes -strikes become thrusts: all thrusts become strikes - slashes. The use of a knife also insures the understanding of stroking / cutting and making use of the blades main area: the edge itself. With stick or empty hand staccato hitting, rhythmic blows with space between them is not only possible but also preferred. A blade has no space between strokes. Very little space / time interval is needed to make cut become thrust and back again. Stroking the cut / slash is needed to insure maximum utilization of the edge. A blade teaches the overall concept of "Flowing". Modern Arnis makes one understand that even though the concept is valid the technique that illustrates the concept must change with the choice of weapon or the tool used. A #3 horizontal blow done to the deltoid area with a stick would be better done with a knife. A knife would cut and impair usage of the deltoid whereas the stick would only bruise the area. A #3 horizontal strike with stick readjusted to strike to the elbow or floating ribs would cause incapacitation due to structural

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damage. The same #3 horizontal blow with empty hand would need to be directed to the side of the neck / plexus or the floating ribs / kidney area. The axiom of Arnis is that knife teaches stick, stick teaches empty hand and empty hand teaches structural knowledge and mortality. Modern Arnis teach the reality of combat and the understanding of concepts as they apply to self defense; for Modern Arnis as designed by Professor Remy Presas is the “Art within your art”. OK. You’re ready to use the book. Read on and enjoy!

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Chapter: #3 Modern Arnis: a living conceptual art Professor Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

I have modified many antiquated techniques and introduced new ones, which are easy to learn. The improvement has proved effective in the field of self-defense. Historically Arnis is categorized into three basic techniques: Sword and Dagger, Single Stick, and Sinawali. Into these three ancient techniques of Arnis was added a fourth technique which I have devised, modernized from the more relevant and applicable techniques, in the process to complete the set up of what I have arbitrarily termed “Modern Arnis”. But the more significant innovation I have made on Arnis is the principle I have formulated to the effect that the cane or bladed weapon is merely the extension of the hand, and that, even WITHOUT these weapons, the hand remains an effective defense or combat weapon in Arnis play. What came out is what I call “Modern Arnis “ today! Modern Arnis is an eclectic style. Professor Presas traveled around the Philippines for many years studying various types of Filipino martial arts. He assimilated these arts into his existing body of Martial Arts knowledge. There is no such thing as pure Modern Arnis. There is no such thing as traditional Modern Arnis. Modern Arnis is in some ways a generic term for Professor Remy Presas’ personal interpretation of Filipino martial art. Professor Presas was trained in the family style of Arnis, PRESAS Style by his grandfather. Other Filipino martial arts masters taught him as he grew up. Eventually Professor Presas studied under Grandmaster Venancio Anciong Bacon while in Cebu. From Bacon he learned and mastered Bacon’s version of Balintawak Arnis. Balintawak and Presas Arnis are the foundation of Modern Arnis. Are they the only blocks that lead to Modern Arnis? NO. Professor Presas continued his search for knowledge and as he learned more styles, was exposed to more masters of Filipino martial arts his own style changed again. Experience alters knowledge. Experience allows for use of knowledge. Personal experience tempered the martial arts knowledge that Professor Presas was accumulating. As for inputting only Filipino martial art, Prof. Presas was an avid practitioner of Shotokan Karate and Judo. He studied Kendo. He studied Kuntao Silat and Filipino Dumog. In his quest to learn he became obsessed with learning the guiding principals of Filipino martial arts. As he traveled and studied within the Philippines he taught everyone who would listen. Professor Presas studied and mastered the Filipino style of BALINTAWAK, a counter for counter style known for aggressive counter attacks. Grandmaster Bacon taught him the in close fighting of BALINTAWAK and even today one can see the foundation of Modern Arnis is in the art of BALINTAWAK. Presas always says that teaching is how one really learns. He set up programs in the Universities and schools. Professor Presas taught police and military and the realities of combat and enforcement came into the art. As he taught he mastered the concepts that make up the core of Filipino martial art. He called it “The art within the art.” All this blended together and started to be distilled down into what would eventually be called Modern Arnis The process continued. In 1957 Professor Presas established “Modern Arnis” and he was officially declared the father and founder of “Modern Arnis” by the Filipino Government. When Professor Presas arrived in America, he traveled all over the country teaching Modern Arnis to any and all who would listen. He became good friends with Professor Wally Jay, the founder of “Small Circle JuJitsu” and Master George Dillman the foremost proponent of Ryukyu Kenpo: “Kyushu Jitsu, Pressure Point”. The three masters have traveled and taught together for many years, and the principles of both these other masters’ arts have merged with the art of Professor Presas. Modern Arnis is a living breathing art that continues to grow. Professor Presas himself states “I

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have just started to learn, there are those that think they know everything already, but I learn each day. More… Now I begin to understand the art. Modern Arnis is the art within the art.” With that guiding principle to follow several of Professor Presas’ students have marched on. The Professor showed them the way and opened the doors to knowledge. Several have stepped through the doorway. But by treading down those paths of the unknown they have become the so-called “Black Sheep” or Renegades of Modern Arnis. Many in Modern Arnis, like in the art of JKD have become content to accept “as is” the knowledge that they have received. The Flock of Black Sheep knows better than that, they know that learning is a constant learning, review and paring down to essentials. In JKD there is a rift between several groups of thought concerning what was and is to be taught as JKD. All the groups outside the Inosanto clan state with conviction, “Oh I was taught this technique by Bruce at this time.” “In Oakland Bruce taught this!” “Oh no… In Chinatown Bruce taught this!” “OH no, Bruce meant to do this ONLY”! People have taken one point in Bruce Lee’s teaching or in the evolution of JKD, or as taught by its leading exponent Guro Dan Inosanto, as the focal point of the experience. Whatever they grasp and understand becomes the gospel truth, the “Holy Grail” of martial art. Most of them cannot accept that JKD is not anything but a growing experience. They are in a comfort zone of knowledge and way of doing. They have come to epitomize exactly what Bruce Lee abhorred traditional stagnation. Conceptual usage escapes them. They cannot see that Guro Dan Inosanto, is not leading them down a set path, but illuminating a way to see down one of the many paths available. Some believe they have discovered the truth that they believe eludes even Guro Dan Inosanto one of the founders of JKD. Guro Dan Inosanto believes in a strong foundation of principals of motion and economics of fighting as founded by Bruce Lee; Jun Fan-JKD. He helped establish the conceptual usage of the principles of what is accepted today as JKD. And as with Bruce Lee before him Dan Inosanto is still learning, trying to understand the guiding principles of combative reality. These guidelines are just that, a framework for exploration of ones self. A chance to see the truth of martial art. Inosanto believes as Lee did, that JKD is an exploration and expression of combative principles, which must reflect life itself: an ever-changing situation. All one has to do is listen as he speaks, “ Continue to learn, to seek knowledge no matter where it’s from. Everyone has a small piece of the truth!” His truth may not be your truth: but all truth is based on the principles of reality. The same type of situation exists in Modern Arnis. People exclaim, “The Professor meant this when he did that technique”. “Hey, Professor Presas just taught this last weekend!” “I learned the REAL way from the Professor in California”. “Hey, he taught this way at the old camps”. “Oh well I grew up with him and he showed me this way in the old days in the Philippines”. “ I‘ve been to over 40 seminars and camps over the last few years, I know the truth of being a Modern Arnis “Master”...I am one!” Professor Presas himself is constantly changing, growing. Most learn from him at any given point in his progression of knowledge and that point becomes the gospel, the ONLY way to express Modern Arnis. This is clearly seen in the attitude of several of the groups of Modern Arnis factions all of whom claim to hold the truth of Professor Presas. They are the order of the Holy Grail of Arnis. Any who do it differently are wrong or disrespectful of Professor Presas and Modern Arnis. Nothing could be further from the truth. By exploring, by using principles of motion and conceptual action, by exploring new ways and truths these “Black sheep” actually do homage to the art of Professor Presas. They do as he did. They seek the art within the art. Only unlike the Professor when he started out, they are blessed with a framework within which to work. The framework is the Professor’s art within the art, “Modern Arnis”. No having to go back to square one or figure out where a circle begins. The basic foundation is established; all that is needed is to feel the flow, to grow, to teach. For each individual this experience will and can be different. Modern Arnis has basic building blocks of knowledge that allow for personal growth. Professor

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Presas calls this personal growth, the understanding of conceptual usage as “translations”. These translations allow the practitioner of Modern Arnis to express the art as a living one not one bound by paper rules. The foundations are guides not rules. They suggest paths of action rather than dictate. Modern Arnis is a growing art that needs to be fed and allowed to change. It needs to be understood so that it can be shared with future generations. Modern Arnis, like JKD has its internal problems, those that want it to stay the same. Luckily there are practitioners in each art that follow the guidelines of the Presas and Inosanto: and using those guidelines they color OUTSIDE the lines! Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- The Filipino Art of Stickfighting Publications USA 1983 Ohara

“ Arnis makes many martial artists discover new things about their own style,” says Presas. “They recognize the beauty of Arnis because it blends naturally with the best movements from many arts. Most of my students continue to study their own styles-they just use Arnis to supplement their understanding.” Arnis is a growing art, expanding in this country rapidly. Arnis tends to transcend stylistic distinctions, and discovery seems to be a primary benefit from the study of Modern Arnis, especially under the methods of Remy Presas. Modern Arnis contains many parts. There are empty hand forms, stick forms, Filipino JuJitsu, Dumog or grappling, kicking, Sinawali Boxing, stick and dagger, knife, double stick, single stick, anti-stick grabbing, as well as combinations of all the parts mentioned. Professor Presas likes to say it’s all covered in three forms of “play”: Espada y Daga, Sinawali, and Single baston. Professor Presas: The Practical art of Eskrima: 2nd edition 1980 Manila, Philippines “Eskrima or Arnis today is popularly played with the use of the cane, it being less lethal than the bladed weapon like “ITAK” or “Broadsword”. The cane is assumed to be the extension of the hand so that Arnis is called in Spanish “ Arnis de Mano”or Eskrima. Among the Tagalog Provinces, Arnis is known as Estocada, Arnis de Mano; Ibanga’s is to the Pagkalikali; Kalirongan to the Pangasinense; Kinaadman to the Visayans; Eskrima or Garote to the Cebuanos; Baston to the people of Panay and Negros occidental; and Sinawali to the Pampangenos. As a fighting art Arnis has three forms of play. They are Espada y Daga (sword and dagger) or the long wooden sword and the short wooden dagger; the Solo Baston (single stick) in which a single long muton or baston (wooden stick or rattan cane) hardened by drying or heating is used; and the Sinawali, so called because the intricate movements of the two mutons used invariably resemble the Sawali, a native material for house walling made of bamboo splits, woven in a crissacross fashion. In teaching Arnis, three traditional training methods were used by early Filipinos. These were (1) Muestrasion or Pandalag, an artistic execution of the swinging movements or strokes for offensive or defensive purpose in repetitive drills; (2) Sangga at Patama or Sombrada Tabak, technique in striking, thrusting and parrying in a prearranged manner; and (3) Larga Muton or Labanang Totohahan where two trainees engage in free practice, trying to out maneuver each other with all their skills.” I hope that I can express the essence of Modern Arnis in the short space I have allotted. It would truly take an encyclopedia to write and show all the aspects of Modern Arnis in minute detail. If at any time what I state is different than Professor Presas, then the fault is mine, for I can only see and understand from my limited point of view. He is the final answer in Modern Arnis and what he sees as Modern Arnis at that particular time! Yes, Modern Arnis reflects Professors PERSONAL view

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at any given time. AS Guro Dan Inosanto seems different over time, in emphasis or teaching, so does Professor Remy Presas, for all things change. CSSD/SC-Modern Arnis or how I personally see Modern Arnis, tries to adhere to the principle of not coloring between the lines. New variations on color are used and each practitioner is an artist unto himself. Under the tutelage of Presas and Inosanto and others, the truth is sought out with an open mind. This guiding principle of not following the truth but seeking the truth is what this book is all about. No apologies to those who do not see my way and heart felt thanks to those that continue to explore. This book is a guide not the bible, nor is it an instructional manual. It might be right but it might only be situationally correct. Use it carefully and find your own path. Learning is a complex thing! Combat is a conceptual living thing that needs to be understood not learned.

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Chapter: #4 Learning is a complex thing Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting 1974 Manila, Philippines

So that the art may be easily understood, I have decided to use terminology popular to all. I have labored to present the art with utmost simplicity and clarity without necessarily sacrificing the soul of the art. Its modernized presentation will help the student understand the intricate styles and techniques presented… This is where the grace of the art lies. Its challenge is fascinating and once mastered, it is as thrilling as it is graceful. Learning is a complex thing involving many variables, variables with oneself, the situation and the subject matter itself. Any one of these variables can change in an instant, which will and can effect the overall act of learning. Professor Presas always stated that the way to learn was to teach. It is one of the governing principles of Modern Arnis; learn by teaching others. By attempting to teach, one negates the effect of situation and the subject matter and one can concentrate on one’s self. Really… It does work that way. When one teaches something the very act of teaching brings forth questions, questions from those being taught and more importantly questions for the teacher, Who am I to be teaching? How am I teaching? Is that what really happens? What comes next? Is that the progression? Am I making sense? Each question brings forth another in a cascade. Being involved in the physical act of teaching allows only a small amount of attention to be paid to these questions as the teacher goes about answering the questions by sheer force of will. By doing, by illustrating by demonstrating the questions are put to rest as others rise to replace them. With each question answered a stronger base is created on which to build the structure used to hold more raw information that in time by being taught will become knowledge. Usable knowledge: Knowledge that can then be translated and taught to students. In learning a complex thing such as combative arts the simpler the equation the better. Lots of instructors try the mass approach, they teach thousands of possible responses to a given situation. These responses have no basis in reality, have no combative foundation but they are necessary functions of that teacher. Teaching something complex must be complex and therefore confusing. Why make it simple. Right? Wrong! Within the complex art of combat there is a given variable, highly mutable yet constant. The variable is the act of combat itself. Combat is different every time for every situation for everyone involved. This is a constant variable. This is a true unchanging principle of real combat. This principle has NEVER changed even though the concepts using this principle change all the time. Mankind has fought thousands of wars, millions of personal conflicts and never have two instances been the same. Therefore that variable IS the constant and it is the first principle of combat: Combat itself is mutable and cannot be contained or structured. With this first principle of combat established, the way one teaches or learns takes on new meaning. Since the principle is one of constant change then one cannot learn set responses to a combative situation. The response most likely will not match the situation, which in combat could lead to serious problems such as death. This gives rise to the second principle of combat: One cannot learn a pre-recorded response to a spontaneous situation. Human combat involves actual human bodies. Direct confrontation between people on a physical level. Human bodies are built that form follows function. A human body is a wonder of construction able to do many tasks as long as it conforms to our actual structure and form. Humans are bound by this structural restriction. For example we cannot look directly behind us, our arms

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cross over our bodies in front, not behind, our legs hinge and bend one way. The list of what we cannot do is long but what is amazing is what we are capable of. This gives us the third principle of combat: Human combative actions and reactions must be within the bounds of actual - natural physical response. Combat is very stressful, as is any confrontation. The human mind and body prepare for this by shutting down unessential parts and honing in on self- preservation skills. These skills are at the instinct level. They are referred to as gross motor skills while the higher functions the body shuts down are called fine motor skills. This gives the fourth principle of combat: Combat must be simple With these principles to guide one, learning combative arts takes on new meaning. To learn about combat yet to violate these principles gives rise to unnatural conflict. The conflict is that naturally we want to respond in one mode but are taught to or forced to respond in another, a pre-conceived mode. Humans have an inborn natural response that can be honed for combative response or can be shaped into an artificial copy of those that teach them. Learning must echo the natural response and ignore the ego of creating another in ones image. This is where by teaching, the teacher gains understanding of these principles, which then can be taught to the students. Awareness must come to first to those that are teaching. It is part of the learning curve. Again to state the obvious: learning must be simple. It must be based on simple principles. Easy to learn, easy to use, easy to teach. “Any technique, however worthy and desirable, becomes a disease when the mind is obsessed with it…Learn the principle, abide by the principle, and dissolve the principle. In short, enter a mold without being changed in it, and obey the principle without being bound by it.” Bruce Lee, 1967 Because combat is mutable pre-recorded or set techniques cannot work in real time. Responses must be established that allow a combatant to change with the variables of the combative “flow”. Since set techniques are useless and one needs some kind of defensive responses, the only way to accommodate both of these variables is to learn conceptual patterns of motion. Conceptual motions allow for instantaneous changes within the flow of combat for there is no set response, no right or wrong, but action – interaction. For example using principle #3, that humans can only respond with actual-natural physical responses, we have the concept of Open- Close. Open-Close is the conceptual guide for the use of human arms within principle #3. Humans can only have their arms OPEN (spread out wide from the body- in front) or CLOSED (crossed over the body –in front). Open-Close is “form following function”. Human beings are bounded by the parameters of anatomical function. This means no form or usage without functional reality. Using Open-Close as a template, secondary concepts of motion becomes available. Right arm open, the left arm closed, and then alternating to the other side, left arm open, right arm closed. Done in sequential patterns we have weaving. Weaving itself has concepts of motion: meeting, passing, shearing, and alternating. This weaving itself works conceptually under the rules of the universal planes of motion: horizontal, diagonal, vertical or any combination of the three. With this conceptual motion we have numerous responses possible with the arms without any specific technique. The responses are based on natural movement therefore anyone can learn to do them for the actions- interactions do not violate any of the principles of combat. The response “happens”. This means as a response to an attack, the response can change as needed on the moment, a spontaneous reaction to a spontaneous action. This response a person can learn. It is intrinsically simple but within it is the complex variable of change, of mutability. Since combat itself as stated in principle #1 is mutable, ever changing, then a conceptual response that is mutable and changing is the only logical response.

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To see this concept in action we need to set up a situation needing a variable response. In defining this concept a “set” attack must be given to illustrate the concept. In this case a limb, the right limb of an attacker coming in towards the defender. With arms open there are several responses that could happen. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) closing the right arm horizontally could be “block left” or “strike left” closing the right arm in a horizontal circular motion could be “pass left” closing the right arm in a downward diagonal could be “scissor down” closing the right arm in a upward diagonal could be “scissor up” closing the right arm in a straight line could be “jamming” closing the right arm in a downward vertical could be “pinning” closing the right arm in an upward vertical could be “lifting- umbrella” closing the right arm diagonal high to low rolling could be “wing arm deflection”

If the attacker uses his left arm to attack the defender, the same responses with the right arm could be used. This is the use of conceptual motion to deal with an attack. There is no set response yet the basic motion of CLOSE works in many conceptual ways. The response works equally as well with the conceptual motion of OPEN. The two motions can be used sequentially to produce a compound effect. Passing to locking is an effect of sequential OPEN-CLOSE usage. When OPEN-CLOSE is used alternately the effect is more dramatic for the motion becomes meeting, passing or more intensely: shearing. The OPEN-CLOSE conceptual motion used was with one arm. The use of one arm sequentially or alternately is simple weaving. The use of two arms becomes the conceptual motion of complex weaving. Complex weaving entails the conceptual usage of two arms at the same time: mirroring the same motion, alternating the motion or sequentially using the motion. . Because the motions of OPEN-CLOSE are “form following function”, even the most complex motions are at principle very simple. This means at the grossest level, in a total combative situation when the “the crap hits the fan and fine motor skills go right down the tubes”, combative responses remain at their highest level. That is simple learning rather than complex learning. It goes with the principle of combat that COMBAT ITSELF MUST BE SIMPLE. That is why Modern Arnis is taught by conceptual means, not technique driven. Simplicity must always be paramount within the learning structure. Concepts though complex in nature are still very simple to use with many different variables. Using these concepts allows difficult situations in combat to become clearer because the focus is on the way of doing not in the exact technique of doing. Note: Many types of martial art utilize the principle of open close. No one style owns the exclusive “rights”. Wing Chun in any of its many forms, Filipino, Malaysian, and Indonesian martial arts are examples of fighting systems that rely heavily on the principle of “OPENCLOSE”. Bruce Lee’s JKD as taught by many of those in JKD Concepts teach this way. JKD as a whole makes use of these principles even if they don’t express it as such. The “so called” traditional martial arts such as Tae Kwon Do, Karate, Gung –Fu, Judo even JuJitsu use these principles even if they never talk about the conceptual ways or usage. Look carefully and one can find the underlying principles that guide the martial way. The conceptual usage of this principle is discussed in the section on CONCEPTUAL STRIKING PATTERNS.

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Chapter #5 Combat must be simple. There can be no other way! Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

Long ago, Arnis was a dying Filipino martial art, because of the wrong concepts in teaching the art to every student…For in my own little ways, based on long experience in the practice and teaching of the art, I have modified many antiquated techniques and introduced new ones which are easy to learn. Combat must be simple. During a confrontation memory gives way to instinct which quickly deevolves into the animal response of survival. Detail work and fine motor skills quickly vanish leaving only gross motor skills to remain. Colonel Rex Applegate the father of close quarter combat stressed these facts during his lifetime. After many years of personal experience in actual combat and the subsequent training of soldiers for that combat, Applegate came upon certain truths that are considered true principles of combat. He advocated simplicity, directness, attitude, targeting, and use of weapons on a sliding scale from possession of weapons to empty hand. (A situation he advised was to be avoided at all costs!) Martial artists take a dim view of Colonel Applegate for they are conditioned to believe that their techniques or tricks will always work on an opponent. Empty hand will win over any adversary including one with a weapon. “Karate” the art of empty hand comes from the warriors. It was developed to fight other warriors. Proper martial art technique can and will predominate over an armed opponent. This myth prevails, continues, and is self perpetuating. Some instructors teach martial arts techniques that they say will be the cure all for combative situations. Some current day “Grandmasters” actually advocate restraint holds that they claim will allow an average citizen or student of the arts, to stop an enraged attacker. Most of what these “Grandmasters” teach is based on the principle and idealistic concept that the opponent will remain passive throughout the restraint technique. One even stated during teaching “ grab my wrist, no, not that way, this way” as if ANY attacker would grab him, as he needed them to. Worse, these expert “Grandmasters” actually call what they teach self-defense or street combative techniques. Locking up an opponent with a joint lock, BEFORE the opponent has been disabled is almost fantasy. Some current self-defense instructors with real time experience such as Kelly Worden, and James Keating, Bob Orlando, Graciela Casillas, advocate what Datu Kelly Worden has aptly named the “DTL” method. Destroy, trap and lock. “Destroy” the limb, traps the limb or opponent, THEN joint lock them. “DTL” is a serious street effective way to locking up an opponent. Most martial arts instructors take a personal perspective on combat or self-defense and everything is judged by way of that instructor’s ability to perform the techniques that are taught. This might have validity IF the instructor himself was involved in the attack but most of the time it is the recipient of the instructor’s knowledge that becomes involved with the altercation. The person involved in the attack cannot possibly respond as the instructor did, yet will try to imitate the instructors teachings even when faced with total loss of fine motor skills and memory of “how to” causing further deterioration of the person’s response in the face of attack. Most of the time the martial arts student “loses” and the art itself gets’ maligned as being ineffective. Actually it was how and what was taught that was ineffective not the art itself. Current martial arts instructors still cling to the old belief of “learn this in the order I teach it. WHY? I learned it that way, so will you.” There is a need to control the knowledge as well as an adherence to linear learning. Instead of looking at combat, especially street combat as a living opportunity, some instructors of today try to teach learned responses to spontaneous situations. “The attacker will do this, then you respond with this!” Well that doesn’t work, for while a student

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is doing the script from page three, the attacker hasn’t seen page three. More than likely the attacker has no idea that a script exists and while the student tries to mold the situation to fit page three as described by the instructor the attacker is adlibbing his way through. Spontaneity wins over a prerecorded response almost all of the time. Yes, there are a few exceptions to the rule and it’s these exceptions that are used to establish the pre-recorded response rule for the masses. Certain martial artists can actually pull off what seems to be prerecorded responses to actual attacks. What is really happening is that these highly trained people are actually responding a ½ beat to a full beat ahead in thought and action over the attacker. To the casual observer the martial artist is reacting with the known answer to a supposedly random attack but in reality the martial artist is acting to a stimulus not reacting. This is what Bruce Lee wanted people to do; to instinctively feel the attack starting and intercept the attack BEFORE it became an attack. “When you get down to it, real combat is not fixed and is very much alive. The fancy mess solidifies and conditions what was once fluid and when you look at it realistically, it is nothing but a blind devotion to systematic uselessness of practicing routines or stunts that lead to nowhere!" Bruce Lee As the JKD clan and other self defense groups have discovered this is easier to say than to do. It takes constant practice, reality of training, perseverance and a good amount of luck. Due to this fact, practitioners of any style of JKD stress that combat, especially street combat must be simple. Steve Grody a self-defense expert and an instructor of JKD from the Inosanto clan has stated, “self defense must be essential, self-evident and contain good basic percussive skills”. Dan Inosanto, the foremost practitioner and instructor of JKD in the world, is constantly learning new skills and researching other martial arts. At any seminar or in his classroom he explains the insights he has made while studying these new arts. Inosanto is the epitome of Colonel Applegates’ feeling that combat must be simple. He is the best example of an instructor who learns more to know less. Inosanto doesn’t add to his skills by how many techniques he knows, he is constantly honing truths in martial arts into basic principles and conceptual usage of those principles. As Bruce Lee stated and Dan Inosanto does by example, ones’ martial skill in combative reality is based on paring down to the base essentials not padding on endless techniques. Dan Inosanto has found the connecting thread in the different martial arts which leads to reality in combat. Simplicity. Martial Arts instructors and combative arts instructors could take a page from Dan Inosanto’s’ teachings. It is a conceptual understanding of the principles of combat. Dan Inosanto calls it JKD Concepts. Is it teachable? Yes, one only has to look at the number of instructors that have come from the Inosanto clan. Are there other instructors from other arts that teach conceptually and strive for combative reality? Yes there are. Professor Remy Presas, Professor Wally Jay, Judo Gene LaBell, James Keating, Michael Janich, Graciela Casillas, Kelly Worden, Paul Vunak, Hock Hochhiem and Burton Richardson all teach conceptually, just to name a few. There are others as well who teach self defense this way. Some of these are warriors are getting older while some are the new class of conceptual instructors, so there are instructors that one can go learn from! Professor Presas, the founder of MODERN ARNIS says after all these years of teaching and training that he is just beginning to understand the art and always asks his students “Do you see? It is all the same. Do not make it too hard!” As teachers of conceptual ways get older a new generation MUST be taught to see and to teach conceptually, to stress simplicity in combat. Future generations that understand reality of combat must be taught. For example one of these instructors, James Keating with his COMBAT TECHNOLOGIES or COMTECH leads the way in teaching conceptual combative reality. Why single out Keating?

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There are many who teach conceptual martial art, martial art that is based on Combative realities, and they are great instructors, Keating is an example of someone who teaches ONLY Combative art: sticks, knives, firearms, and empty hand in a conceptual way. Keating by the way does Filipino martial arts, JKD, Silat, Wing Chun, traditional Goju-ryu as well as having exposure and personal training with Professor Presas and others in the Modern Arnis clan. Yes, there are others who also teach combative reality without the martial art mentality. One must seek out these types of instructors for combative reality. If one cannot be found locally then it is the time to travel to an intensive seminar taught by one of these reality based instructors. COMTECH sponsors many combative reality seminars that anyone can attend. Why go? Because the active principles of combat don’t change as time goes on. Society and technology may change with time but the concepts that they and Colonel Applegate stressed will always be true. Combative reality doesn’t change. Combat is spontaneous. To engage in combative reality the combative way must be simple. A simplicity that can be understood, learned, taught and passed on. Datu Kelly Worden continually expresses an example of Modern Arnis combative simplicity. One needs only to watch him and see that he is the epitome of Modern Arnis expression in street combat. What Professor Presas wants us to know and use Datu Kelly does! As Keating expresses combative simplicity from outside Modern Arnis, Datu Kelly uses and teaches Modern Arnis in a way that even under great duress, one could and can react instantaneously to protect one’s self! Both of these instructors set a great example of teaching Combative simplicity! What I have tried to illustrate in this book is the principles that drive the simplicity of Combative Arts as taught in Modern Arnis. I continually mention others who are not Modern Arnis or those other than myself and the Professor who teach Modern Arnis because others also hold the truth and they express the same principles of motion that Modern Arnis wants us to learn. Modern Arnis is a conceptual Art that allows one to understand and move within the framework of a combative situation no matter what is actually happening. The beauty of the art is that it can be taught to others and applied by them immediately without sacrificing their whole lives to understand what they have been taught! Professor Presas has given us an art of combat that reflects exactly what Colonel Applegate would have wanted us to see: Combat must be fundamentally simple! If at any time it seems too complex, go back and re-read what’s written there, for simplicity contains complex thought!

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Chapter:#6 How does one teach self-defense? In the old days in the Philippines, self-defense was serious business. One learned to fight using a stick or a blade. The offending bad guy usually ended up crippled or dead. In today’s world those options aren’t readily available and the repercussions of those actions could be as serious as the attack itself! Professor Remy Philippine1974 Presas: Modern ArnisPhilippine Stickfighting Manila,

Self- defense is the soul of Arnis; it is Arnis’ reason for being as the legend goes. One learns Modern Arnis not for aggression, not to take advantage of an untrained opponent in combative art, but to defend himself, only when attacked. For Arnis is a gift of the ancient to people who are oppressed, that the forces of aggression would not triumph over those of the peace-loving who hate war for what it brings and love only peace, but who will not hesitate to fight to defend themselves when they find their backs against the wall. So how does one teach self-defense? In today’s world sometimes I don’t really know. Pick up the phone book and look through the yellow pages marked MARTIAL ARTS. “Learn to defend yourself! Defeat any attacker” Read the trade publications. Even the main stream martial arts magazines of today carry the ads. Everywhere the great martial arts myth exists. Learn explosive self-defense! Learn unstoppable Martial Arts! Teach any person martial arts skills and no matter their body type, size, age or strength they will be able to overcome an attacker. Superior technique always overcomes brute force. OK folks, it’s time for a reality check. Yes, I know that one can go to a martial arts class and see the instructor disarm, disable and defeat several attackers of bigger size and strength. And yes, I personally know famous martial artists, male and female that if put to the test would be an attacker's or even a group of attackers worst nightmare. NONE of this is reality based. The average person cannot duplicate these feats, and worse if they did try; would end up in serious trouble. Most of the great martial artists that I know have trained for many years. INTENSELY. They run, lift weights, and practice all the time. Most have at one time or another suffered great personal harm and injury within the context of training. The physical or mental injury is acceptable to achieve the training goal: competence in martial arts. Actually it sounds as if I was describing a normal athlete. That’s correct a normal high school athlete, male or female goes through incredible training to stay competitive today. College athletes train harder than professionals of the past and an elite few make it to the professional level where training is their life. There are millions of ex athletes out there. Many people continue to train by lifting weights, doing aerobics, or playing pick up games of varying intensity. Gang members, outlaws, criminals all have labels which society has applied to them which somehow the average person uses to identify and confuse the issues. Society uses the labels to degrade the people labeled and to raise themselves over those labeled criminals outlaws, gangs are all “inferior” in some way to the rest of society. Labels don’t change the fact that these segments of “labeled” society contain the athletes of the past or current status. Before the righteous indignation comes out, before you start screaming at this writer’s opinion, go check out the jails. Watch the inmates. The average inmate would literally tear an average person limb from limb. They lift weights, run, box, wrestle, and live in an environment soldiers of old SPARTA would have approved of. Hidden cameras have shown those inmates actually train in their own version of street oriented martial arts. The socially unacceptable segment of our society, which we try to prepare to defend against are actually closer to the ideal of what, we expect to be. That’s right. We take the average citizen with no physical ability and a couple of hours

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a week to give up between life issues and we expect to teach them to overcome real opponents. It’s not going to happen. Not only does the attacker usually have the training advantage but the other “cards” are in the attacker's favor as well. Mentally the attacker is geared to do harm to another human being without thought or care as to the repercussions of such an action. Neither civil nor criminal liability affects the attacker's state of mind. As in a true warrior “mushin” exists, “no mind” or directs mind of purpose, directed action driven by thought. When the attack happens, spontaneity is in the advantage of the attacker. Surprise is only on the victim’s part, one moment safety, the next fighting for ones life. Scientific research has shown that under great duress, fine motor skills disappear and only gross motor skills are available. That means the average person training twice a week to learn complex self defense skills is left with only basic skills when an actual attack happens. So much for great self defense! So much for defeat any attacker. Does this mean that everyone who isn’t a trained fighter should stop training? Should all people doing “Martial Art” with the emphasis on ART stop training? Should we give up and just accept the fact that the bad guys are better trained so they have the advantage? Actually in some ways we should! I can hear the screams now! The righteous indignation of “who is this jerk? Accept the ‘facts’ as stated? NO WAY!” We need to accept that most of the bad guys have intent and ability to perpetrate ANYTHING they choose at the time they choose. The way of self-defense as taught today is flawed. Several self defense systems actually tell people that the average person in a few hours of course work can learn “combat joint locking” and safely immobilize an attacker. “We have eliminated forms, high kicks, throws and all the useless parts of our foundation art to make a real self defense system which anyone can learn!” They infer in their training scenarios and seminars that street attacks occur in certain ways rather than spontaneously. “ Grab my wrist, NO, not that way! Like this!” Others tell the average person that they can kick, poke or punch their way to safety. A select few might. The women, children and elderly won’t be able to and nothing will enable them to. “Oh just eye poke them!”... “Kick them in the knee!” “Disengage from the attack and counter attack!” all good statements but what if one lacks the size, strength, or ability to achieve the goal. That’s correct. Size does matter. So does strength! With that premise in mind self defense takes on new meaning. One needs to stop martial arts prejudices, martial arts bias and move on to reality. No one style can solve the problems of selfdefense but old style war attributes can go along way in helping out. No warrior of ANY era would have gone to war without weapons. Weapons are the great equalizers. Those in Modern Arnis and other Filipino martial arts know this fact. Before the readers get uppity again, the reality is that no unarmed person is taking out of action an armed opponent. And no average citizen is going to defeat a trained bad guy with only empty hand. Americans have this John Wayne mentality and we tend to believe the fables of one punch and the bad guy falls down. The bad guy will drop his weapon to fight unarmed cause that’s the way and the HERO will always drop his weapon to even the odds. NO WAY! A weapon? Yes a weapon and tool that is mankind’s oldest and dearest friend. The knife has been with man for over 1 million years. It’s better than a stick. It is an edge that cuts flesh. The principle of “an edge that cuts flesh” has never changed. The concept of what an edge is has changed as stone and glass gave way to bronze then steel. But the principle is unchanged for all time. Warriors and war arts have for thousands of years tried to solve the riddle of steel. Steel cuts flesh. Flesh drives steel to cut flesh. Steel ALWAYS cuts flesh. Armor was designed and redesigned. Shields and helmets were used. Techniques of avoidance were invented. Steel still cut flesh as well as just about anything in its path. New defenses for knives are invented all the time. They just don’ t work.

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That’s why weapons are used. That’s why a knife is the ultimate self-defense tool. Its hard to defense, it works on a heavily worked principle of physics “an edge that cuts flesh” and it takes little or no strength to make it work. Very scary if you’re the one on the receiving end! Its just as scary to a bad guy as it is to a good guy… add to this the fact that knives have reached a new level of sophistication. Technology has kept pace with need and knives of today have evolved from fixed blades to folders. As for the legality of carrying a folding knife there are many myths, street stories and “ I know a cop and he says…” The laws and ordinances about weapons vary and the shade of gray is, useful tools which can double as self defense tools or “weapons”. One needs to check ones local laws and ordinances. Don’t ask the police. They don’t know. Go to the library, research with the Attorney generals office, request copies of the actual laws and any amendments. Remember there are laws to contradict other laws. That’s why we have attorneys and Judges. BLADE Magazine has a great column written by a Judge who happens to be a knife maker… Judge Lowell Brey, and back issues of his columns carry the laws and discussions on the way the laws are interpreted. Basic rule of thumb is this: Federal law allows for the carrying of folding knives with a “blade length” of 4 inches or less. Some states have other blade length requirements. California allows for blade length of 5.5 inches as of this writing. There are exceptions to all the laws within each state. Lots of cities and towns as well as airlines prefer “blade lengths” of 3 inches or less. The FAA requires 4 inches or less for airline carry and several airport security companies such as GLOBE have added the phrase of “or menacing” to the rules…This is to allow for officers discretion and a way to circumvent the written actual law. (Try to stay within the confines of the law for the law enforcement and security officers have a hard enough job as it is without ordinary citizens making it any harder.) The sad part of all this is that today’s laws make simple percussive tools such as ASP, or Monadnock collapsing batons illegal. That’s right. If the LEO community uses a tool then it is usually forbidden to the public or declared a weapon. Modern versions of sticks are mostly illegal but pocket-knives are legal. With that said, there now exists a modern self-defense tool that can be carried, is assessable and is legal. How hard is it to teach the average person self defense using this tool? It’s Not very hard at all! The advantage of an edged weapon / tool is that it has an edge that cuts. It takes no strength to cut. Anyone of any size or age can cut someone else. Size and strength don’t matter here! A good basic rule of cutting is that any cut is good, that some cuts are better than others are and a few cuts are “show stoppers”. This brings up the axioms of knife work: Rule#1: Steel cuts flesh, Rule#2: one can’t change rule #1, Rule #3: unless one has a blue suit with a big red “S” on it Rules #1 & #2 always apply! If one can hold a knife it will work. Anyone can make a knife cut. ANYONE!! Even a disabled person who has use of their hands can cut with a knife! Most people including children have used some kind of knife in daily life such as in a kitchen, cooking, at work, even playing knights in armor. We, as a people are accustomed to knives. Most of us have learned to keep the edge away from what we don’t want cut. This obviously leads to we point the edge towards that which we do want cut. Ahh, simplicity! NOTE: Someone once commented that I needed to discuss blade size, configuration and the reality of clothing. He said all these things affected the use of an edged tool and were vital considerations. Actually they’re not. That’s detail stuff that muddies the water. Clothing against today’s steel? I’ve seen Sal Glesser of SPYDERCO cut a 1½ inch rope with a 1 inch blade in one clean cut. I’ve seen Andy Stanford cut over 6 inches deep into a carcass of meat that was wrapped in duct tape and blue jeans using a 2 7/8ths inch blade. Lenny McGill on his Meat man cutting, cuts through a leather jacket, a sweater, a shirt, through the meat/ flesh and into the bone underneath…all using a 3 inch blade. I personally have cut through

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several layers of blue jeans, tape and cut through the flesh and bone underneath using a 3 inch blade…so Rule #1 holds true: STEEL CUTS FLESH Punches to body parts need focus, strength and ability to cover distance. It is the same with kicks, If you can just reach your attacker his mass might be too great and your touching will only enrage or encourage them, Not so with a knife. When you reach out and touch someone with a knife its serious. A “touch” can become a stab. A “touch” can slide and become a fillet. A “touch” can become a slashing cut. Cutting, stabbing, and filleting muscles bio mechanically impairs body function. People retract from cuts and hurt. An obstruction or a barrier appears. The opponents arm to yours. “Slap the arm! block it away! Drive it into them. Clear the obstruction and then counter strike!” Only they are too strong and push back into you. Not when one blocks or enters with a knife. Put that edge into their arm, the obstruction and the attacker will pull away not push into it. Pushing into the edge of a knife cuts, push hard it cuts deeper. You push on the arm, they move the arm and the connecting body out of the way! The average person can use an edged tool for self defense easily. I can hear it already. The attacker will just disarm them. Use the weapon / tool against them. Ron Balicki one of the premier martial arts and knife instructors / disarming experts in the country starts out his video series with the warning that folding tactical knives can turn a disarming experience into a nightmare. Graciela Casillas, one of the world’s most famous martial artists, author and knife instructor, tells students and readers that disarms appear and disappear in seconds making them almost impossible to pull off. James Keating the PREMIER Knife Guro shows disarming as an aside. He has several disarming flows called unarmed and dangerous but he shows combative disarming: cut off the attacker’s fingers and the attacker is disarmed. He teaches that at last resort, when one’s life is about to be taken, THEN one puts one’s empty hands into the mouth of the blender to try and affect a disarm. This means in reality that on the street, an attacker intent on harming the average person will be unable to deal with an armed defense let alone disarm them or turn the weapon back against the defender. Wave your hands in front of your face. Try vertical figure eights, upward figure eights or downward figure eights in the air with your hands. Try side to side motions, back and forth. Do eye stabs or jabbing motions. Try “Karate chop” motions…now imagine a knife in your hands while you do these motions. Picture the knife’s edge meeting flesh each time. Can’t picture it? Go into the kitchen, take a sharp knife and cut an apple, cut a carrot, cut some meat…see how LITTLE force it takes. Now go back and try the motions again! (of course LEAVE the knife and food in the kitchen! ) It’s pretty easy to do. Anyone can cut something. Access the knife? Try being aware of how many times in a day in the middle of doing something you pause momentarily to wipe your face, scratch an itch, pat you hair, straighten out your clothes and immediately go right back to whatever you were doing. Reaching for the knife is as simple as scratching that itch. Accessing is as simple as continuing the original motion. This holds true for senior citizens and disabled peoples as well. I know that people (including some so - called self defense systems) say that a disabled person can be taught to kick or punch or even worse can be taught to try to joint lock an attacker. Try seeing how much leverage one has without leg power sitting in a wheelchair. (don’t be fooled! Sit in a chair, cross your ankles and hold your legs in the air.. Now try the great joint locking technique! Try that punch. ) If the “Physically challenged” person can use their hands then self- defense with an edged tool is VERY effective. No strength needed. Just “reach out and “touch” someone!” The same applies for senior citizens. Agility and strength don’t matter when steel is involved. In an assault when the bad guy attacks the senior citizen all they need do is “reach out and touch someone” and the bad guy is in a world of hurt!

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This wasn’t said to try to convince anyone of the need to carry a knife. This wasn’t to make anyone a knife expert. The point wasn’t to say this method of knife training is better than the other method. It wasn’t to say that knife is better than stick. It was to inject reality into the realm of self-defense discussion. It was a rational response to several absurd self-defense points of view. The point was to hopefully open some eyes… to make one think “what if ” … or “really, I never thought that way before!” Hopefully to make one understand that the way of the warrior still exists and not to believe in the martial arts myth. Learning the art of the blade will enrich your self-defense skills and give you a new base to teach self-defense from! Live long and prosper! What does this have to do with Modern Arnis? Modern Arnis is a Filipino fighting art that has not been tempered by time. Just as with other Filipino arts, Indonesian, Malaysian fighting arts, Modern Arnis teaches the concepts that allow for real time self defense. I wanted you, the reader to feel the reality of self-defense so that as I relate the concepts of Modern Arnis you’ll see the connection. Modern Arnis teaches the reality of weapons, the translation to empty hand and the mindset to allow for the way of the warrior in real time street combat! Professor Presas: Modern Arnis-The Filipino Art of Stickfighting Ohara Press USA 1983

Presas does not merely combine techniques-he encourages the individual student to adapt Arnis principles to his own feel for each technique. The methods should suit the person and not the other way around. This is known simply as using the “flow”. The “flow” is Presas’ universal term for defining the comfortable place where the movements of Arnis and the individual human body meet for maximum effectiveness; body and weapon blend to achieve the most natural fighting style based on an individual’s needs and attitudes. The Beauty of Arnis is in the translation from stick defense to empty hand defense with no modifications in reaction.

Chapter: #7 Drills are only for understanding: they have no life of their own!

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Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- the Filipino Art of Stickfighting

Ohara Press USA 1983

Another purpose of many Modern Arnis drills is to get the student comfortable with reacting instantaneously with either hand, to the inside or the outside, without any difference in response or ability. What is important is quickly parrying the potential punch, checking the attacker’s arm out of the way and delivering the counterstrike! Drills such, as the Cadena de Mano-De Cadena (of chains) is an exercise in trading off hands with a partner to practice the flow and to increase speed and agility. The Filipino Martial Arts such as Modern Arnis use drills to impart a sense of combative reality and the ability for two parties to learn at the same time yet at different comprehension levels. These drills must be done slowly and with an attitude of understanding. Acting is important, for as the drill progresses, one must try to act the part, to FEEL the situation: not careless, not headstrong, not anger, but to feel the energy, INTENT and let the whole body and psyche become one with the drill. LIFE, Emotional content must be added only after the drill is basically understood. Freesparring is OK but the drill keeps safety parameters intact as the action grows. Freesparring can degenerate into chaos, which has its advantages at certain times. During weapons sparring safety is an issue. During weapons sparring understanding state of mind is a fundamental “must”. Weapons sparring must be understood that the first one to degenerate into chaos ends up dead. The drills are not rules, coloring book lines to stay within. The drill gives a parameter to work within that is one of continual growth and expansion. The drill with a partner is a safe environment for both parties to learn the drill, understand the drill and then feel the drill. Drills themselves must be “open ended” not “close ended”: there must be a continual growth potential so that endless variables can be added in and the flow increases with knowledge. The variables must come in singularity while the growth is exponentially. By doing a drill, both parties can grow while in free sparring one party can overpower or control the learning environment to the detriment of one or both parties. Drills allow for continual two-way action. Drills should be pieces of a whole learning process so that drill “A” becomes drill “B” and then drill “X” fits in as well. A true learning process is when the practitioner sees how an unrelated drill or piece of conceptual motion can be added into an existing drill WITHOUT an instructor’s guidance. This is a true learning environment. Drills can become “safe exploration of uncharted lands”. These uncharted lands contain treasures of information to be discovered but no “secrets”. There is no “SECRET” knowledge just lack of understanding. One who claims to have secret knowledge that must be “bought” or bargained for usually is hiding a profound misunderstanding of the knowledge or is trying to maintain an “ego” / control situation. Knowledge is usable information, and the more one uses drills to break out of a set mold, to understand flow of motion, to feel concepts come alive, secret knowledge becomes stale stuff. Knowledge that is “secret” is knowledge one hasn’t discovered yet for one’s self. The knowledge exists and many know it or practice it. Once understood one usually sees the “secret” knowledge was only a tiny variable in the context of a “drill”. The treasure is in the discovery of the usage of that new found knowledge. Unfortunately some people and instructors have given the act of drilling a life unto itself. That the drill is an exact unit that must be followed: a gospel of information that resists the flow of change. That doing the physical act of the drill is more important than the information contained within the drill. This kind of rigidity causes actual stagnation of thought, for the drill becomes mindless repetition without need for life or thought: feeling is left behind for the sake of doing. Drills should

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ENCOURAGE freedom of thought by being a basic framework in which one can explore certain conceptual motions and let them grow. Drills should encourage usage of new ideas and thoughts. There is no right or wrong in a drill, just newly acquired variables that keep adding onto the original form. If the drill overpowers the users it is simple to go back to the original framework and build upon it again. Drills allow for progressive motion either forward or backwards without repercussion. Simple or complex, a drill is mutable, changing constantly to keep up with the users’ need. Mankind has used edged weapons / blunt weapons for over a million years. It is extremely doubtful that there exists any secret knowledge of weapon use. Knowledge may have been forgotten or not used frequently due to weapons current position in the society of the time, but its not secret knowledge. Look and one will find. Train, drill, and one will discover! Let’s take a look at a simple counter for counter drill as taught in Modern Arnis: Three count Drill: A attacks with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. D blocks the attack with an inside deflection- force to force and checking motion. D counter attacks with a number #4 strike- a horizontal closed strike A checks the hand with the weapon while stepping back and using a cut block-go with the force. A counters with a number #12 strike- a vertical downward. D blocks the attack with an umbrella block-meet the force and checking motion. D counters with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. A attacks with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. D blocks the attack with an inside deflection- force to force and checking motion. D counter attacks with a number #4 strike- a horizontal closed strike A checks the hand with the weapon while stepping back and using a cut block-go with the force. A counters with a number#5 thrust D blocks the attack with a inward block-go with the force. D counters with a number # 2 downward diagonal strike. A blocks with a Slant block-meet the force A counters with a number #12 strike- a vertical downward. D blocks the attack with an umbrella block-meet the force and checking motion. D counters with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. A attacks with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. D blocks the attack with an inside deflection- force to force and checking motion. D counter attacks with a number #4 strike- a horizontal closed strike A checks the hand with the weapon while stepping back and using a cut block-go with the force. A counters with a number #7 thrust D blocks with an outside block-force to force with checking hand. D counters with a number#6 thrust A blocks with an inward sweeping block-go with the force A counters with a number#5 thrust D blocks the attack with a inward block-go with the force. D counters with a number # 2 downward diagonal strike. A blocks with a Slant block-meet the force A counters with a number #12 strike- a vertical downward. D blocks the attack with an umbrella block-meet the force and checking motion. D counters with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal.

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A attacks with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. D blocks the attack with an inside deflection- force to force and checking motion. D counter attacks with a number #4 strike- a horizontal closed strike A checks the hand with the weapon while stepping back and using a cut block-go with the force. A counters with a number #7 thrust D blocks with an outside block-force to force with checking hand. D counters with a number#6 thrust A blocks with an inward sweeping block-go with the force A counters with a number#5 thrust D blocks the attack with a inward block-go with the force. D counters with a butt strike-number #12 strike A checks and blocks the attack with the empty hand D counters with a number # 2 downward diagonal strike. A blocks with a Slant block-meet the force A counters with a number #12 strike- a vertical downward. D blocks the attack with an umbrella block-meet the force and checking motion. D counters with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. A attacks with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. D blocks the attack with an inside deflection- force to force and checking motion. D counter attacks with a number #4 strike- a horizontal closed strike A checks the hand with the weapon while stepping back and using a cut block-go with the force. A counters with a number #7 thrust D blocks with an outside block-force to force with checking hand. D counters with a number#6 thrust A blocks with an inward sweeping block-go with the force A counters with a number#5 thrust D blocks the attack with a inward block-go with the force. D counters with a butt strike-number #12 strike A checks and blocks the attack with the empty hand D counters with a number # 2 downward diagonal strike. A blocks with a Slant block-meet the force A counters with a number # 8 strike D blocks with a low outside block- force to force D counters with a number # 7 thrust A blocks with an outside vertical block-force to force A counters with a number #12 strike- a vertical downward. D blocks the attack with an umbrella block-meet the force and checking motion. D counters with a number #1 strike- a downward diagonal. Obviously the drill is open-ended and can continue to grow. As the variables grow in number the drill starts to approximate actual combative flow. Again this is approximate for deadly intent is not seen, felt or needed. Modern Arnis wants each person to understand and feel want combative flow is like to them, up close and personal WITHOUT endangering the practitioner. Tapi-Tapi: Single Stick Sparring Drill Modern Arnis uses the term Tapi-Tapi as a catch all drill. what I mean by this is that in the early days of training we learned four basic drills...simple drills that allowed us to attack each other. We called it Single stick Sparring Right to Right. Why? Because we each held our stick in our right hands. The Drill allowed us to learn passing, parrying, clearing and striking, both from long range, or close range with the butt of out stick. We learned these basic drills as Units.

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Unit #1 consists of : Both A and D strike the same strikes at each other at the same time: 1) hit a # 1 downward diagonal from the open side 2) hit a # 8 upward diagonal from the closed side 3) hit a # 2 downward diagonal from the closed side 4) hit a # 9 upward diagonal from the open side As both partners do this hitting, without crossing the center line, one develops a basic feel for impact and follow through and retraction of one’s weapon. Unit #2 consists of: Both A and D alternating checking and striking: A upon hitting a #2 to the opponent’s, D’s #2, A’s left hand checks the opponent’s , D’s stick, clearing a line for A to insert a butt strike into the opponent. The opponent, D, checks the incoming butt strike and tries to hit the attacker, A with an outside butt-strike. A passes the incoming buttstrike inward while retracting A’s own stick under A’s left arm ( butt still aimed at D) As soon as D’s stick is clear from the center, A strikes a butt-strike at D. D checks the strike with D’s left hand, while chambering D’s own stick under D’s left arm, and with the butt aimed at A. A and D butt-strike each other and use Redonda checking, a circular forward checking to constantly clear the center and attack the opponent. When one wants to break the cycle, upon checking the incoming strike, A or D, ...lets call it A, can pull the butt –strike of D, down and outward, at the same time clearing A’s own weapon from the center line. D reaches over and from underneath clears A’s hand from checking position, and A and D are in a position to start unit #1 all over again. Unit # 3: Consists of using the Umbrella Block and Clear. At any time that A and D cross sticks in a # 2 to # 2 strike or a #1 to #1 strike one of the two can clear the center line using an Umbrella Block and then Unit #1 starts over again. Unit #4 : Consists of a sweeping stroke, using the butt of one’s stick to enter or attack the opponent. 1) Upon A hitting #2 to D’s #2, A moves or sweeps the butt of A’s stick forward , counterclockwise into D’s face. D checks it downward and while retracting D’s own stick, butt toward A, and counters with a butt strike into A. A and D are now into Unit #2. 2) Upon A hitting #1 into D’s #1, A moves or sweeps the butt of A’s stick, (palm up) forward and clockwise into D’s face. D inserts D’s left hand, passing down the incoming strike, while retracting D’s own stick. D counters with a butt strike at A. A and D are both now into Unit #2. After that was established and one could play striking at close range or long range another facet was added. Passing with the stick, slant passing or umbrella passing. Unit #5 consists of actually using the stick to pass the incoming attack. While engaged in Unit #2, A checks the incoming butt strike with A’s stick on D’s weapon’s arm. A uses an Umbrella motion to pass the attack out of center. D counters with an outside butt-strike. A rotates A’s stick to palm up, intercepts D’s incoming attack, and using a slant block motion, passes the attack out of center. 1) After A passes D with a slant block motion-pass, A can check D’s weapon and enter with a butt-strike. D counters by passing from outside downward...where Unit #2 starts for A and D.

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2)

After A passes D with an Umbrella Block motion-pass, A reaches underneath A’s stick, checks D’s weapon and strikes a butt-strike at D. D checks the incoming strike, and while passing the butt-strike down to center, counters with an outside butt-strike. A passes the attack from the outside to center and A and D are into Unit #2.

I’m sure you can see that one can start mixing and matching these motions into an endless play. Striking and countering become second nature. Ok this leads to today’s version of Tapi-Tapi. Professor Presas is left handed so he used to change up from right to right single stick sparring to LEFT to Right single stick sparring. Yes, he’d mess us up because he’d change within the flow to using his left hand. We all started to learn this left to left. Because of the difference of left to right opportunities came up for trapping and locking one’s opponent and the opponent’s stick. Today’s Tapi-Tapi game includes many versions of left to right sparring, sweeping , trapping striking etc.. Its base is still Right To Right Single Stick sparring. It is a perfect example of an open ended drill that then becomes left or right upon contact regardless of the opponent’s moves or attacks. Don’t get me wrong. You have no idea how foolish one feels when someone good at Tapi-Tapi starts stick sparring with you and then everything you do is countered and then you find yourself trapped with your own stick.. Bruce Chiu, Roland Rivera, David Ng, Andrew Filardo....gads can they tie one up using Tapi-Tapi. As for the drills? Well the ultimate expression of the drills is when one can mix and match the drills concepts within the FLOW without actually thinking “ Which drill am I doing?”...

Chapter:#8 Abecidario: the Alphabet of the angles of attack

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Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Philippines 1974

Manila,

The Twelve striking techniques are the life and soul of Modern Arnis. They are the hinges around which other techniques in Modern Arnis revolve! Angles? Angles like those where lines intersect? Like in a geometry class? ANGLES? Exactly, angles just like in geometry! Filipino martial arts such as Modern Arnis use angles to understand motions of attack and defense. An angle #1 is a downward diagonal. An angle #5 is a straight-line center thrust. An angle #7 is an inverted thrust. These different angles of attack describe “universal planes of motion” which change in orientation and rotation in relationship to each other. The angles and planes of attack which fill a three dimensional space in front of and around a each person’s body are used as “universal planes of motion”. These “universal planes of motion” become a sphere of attack and defense occurring in real time space. The intersection points of these angles are the defensive planes of “motion”. These planes of motion are bounded by the person using them: principles of motion that work within the parameters of natural response of human bodies. Conceptual usage of these angles and planes of motions MUST be understood to allow for one to be in combative reality. At first glance, the Filipino martial arts sound like a geometry class. In reality the Filipino martial arts have a unique way of getting practitioners to understand the foundations of the art. All motions are tied to a basic alphabet of movement the Abecidario, the numbering system. A numbering system based in a conceptual format. Abecidario a conceptual numbering system which shows the way to combative reality. Note: Abecidario as a term itself has several translations and usage by many instructors. Some consider it the teachings of strikings with the counters included. Some consider it the feeding of unorganized strikes with or without counters. Some call the basics by the name Numerado: the feeding of strikes with foot-work. I personally consider the additions of the counters part of Sumbrada or box drills. My reference to Abecidario as the basic alphabet is not meant as an insult to others that teach the meaning or translation as something different. Every style of Filipino martial arts has their own numbering system. The numbers reflect the teacher’s conceptual ideas of important motion. Numbering systems though different usually embody the same planes of motion and the same angles even if the label on each angle is different from one style to the next. The difference in actual labels is the stamp of uniqueness between each style of Filipino martial arts in general. Some of the numbering systems believe that less is more; feed very basic motions and the practitioner will grow to understand these simple planes as the whole sphere of motion. Others give the practitioner every conceivable angle and plane of motion to start with, each angle unique unto itself and allow the practitioner to fluidly use multiple angles that really express the basic planes of motion. More becomes less. Neither is better than the other just different approaches to the same study. How did the Filipinos of all the martial arts come up with such a unique way of teaching? What made the Filipinos decide that angular attacks were the best way to deal with teaching and learning while all other martial arts styles didn’t? The truth lies in the history of the Philippines itself. The Filipino people occupy a space in the world that allowed contact with many cultures. Traders, pirates, official navy vessels, invaders, and immigration brought them into contact with many cultures and styles of fighting. Many cultures gave to the Filipino way of life. Only one group of peoples coming to the Philippines would truly influence and meld with the native martial arts of the area. In Europe around 1100 AD to 1600 AD some of the best sword fighters in the world were the Spanish. Of all the classical styles of sword work the Spanish used principals of motion and

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conceptual usage of those motions. They taught these motions. Not that others didn’t know these motions or concepts but the Spanish organized schools of swordplay. They were the embodiment and spirit of the true warriors. In the name of God and the Pope they set out to convert the world and bring home the riches to Spain. Spain itself responded to this by making the warriors of god the CONQUISTADORS. Spanish swords such as those forged in Toledo, were some of the best swords in the world. Damascus was not just the domain of the Japanese. These swords were carried by the Spanish soldiers and the Conquistadors all around the globe, and used in actual combat. Spanish steel tasted steel from other lands for centuries. Spanish methods of swordplay met sometimes losing, most of the time beating other styles of swordplay. Many countries like England were saved from the Spanish only by divine intervention, natural disasters which at the last minute devastated the invading Spanish armadas as no human force had ever been able to do. Where the Conquistadors went the Spanish culture arrived. The Spanish came in force to the Philippines while trying to find their way around the world. The Spanish explorer Magellan came to the islands of the Philippines in the 1500’s and established a base of operations. Magellan himself died after a bloody encounter with the native Filipino warriors led by the Chieftain Lapu-lapu. Wherever the Spanish went they claimed the land as their own in name of the King, Pope and God. They brought with them their ideas and concepts of living and their culture. A cultural point of view tempered by the fact that the Spanish culture was being spread its “supreme” warriors. Warriors that viewed combat reality as the way of survival and spreading the word of GOD and of Spain itself. What the Spanish brought to the Filipino martial arts was a western approach to fighting. A style of fighting totally unlike that of the easterners. This style influenced even the Japanese through the person of Miyamoto Mushashi who had encountered and learned the art of double blade from the Spanish. ( yes, this is a radical thought but it has been discussed many times in recent histories) The sword was the soul of the warrior to the Spanish and many famous schools had been teaching the art of the blade for hundreds of years. Spanish fencing schools were famous throughout the world for teaching conceptual footwork and body movement. The edged weapons taught by the Spanish were the short sword, long swords, cut and thrust swords, rapiers, short sword and long sword, dagger and rapier, buckler and sword as well as saber and two handed swords. Over the years the secrets of movement and use of the sword as taught by the Spanish was sought out by anyone intersected in surviving edged weapons encounters. The Spanish literally wrote the book on the art of the sword. As with their sailing “rutters” or navigation books, Spanish fencing manuals were treasures that were bought, stolen and traded. They were then translated into French, Italian, German and English The basic motions used in Spanish fencing are the angles of attack. “Universal planes of motion”. Intersecting angles and planes. This is why no other eastern martial art offers angles of attack. They were not exposed to western fencing. The Spanish and others came and went to many eastern cultures but the Spanish found the Philippines to be a center of transportation and a stopping point for their imperial navies. For over 400 years the Spanish ruled the Filipino people. During that time the Filipinos rebelled against the attackers constantly with each encounter bringing with it new insights. Contrary to popular myth, a lot of Filipinos absorbed and adjusted to the ways of the Spanish. Many Filipinos went to Spain to be educated and some went to the famous fencing schools that existed at those times. Fencing masters came to the Philippines to teach and open schools. The cultures blended. War and oppression make strange bedfellows and the ways of war merged. Western fencing using rapiers and cut n thrust swords was a serious affair, some people died others were maimed. Thousands gave their lives in personal duels and tens of thousands died in inter European warfare. Use of the blade was important with the competition between the use of the cut or the thrust rising to paramount importance. Encounters with the blade were swift and deadly. Countering attacks made with over three feet of steel involved intersecting angles of the attack and immediate counter attack along the opened line. To establish this as a learned response the

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Abecidario was invented. Students at places like the famous Toledo fencing schools practiced cutting along charts on the walls with the 8 universal planes of motion on them. They practiced footwork on charts drawn on the floor depicting proper foot motion, stepping in quarters and triangular stepping. Disengagement’s, parries and counters were learned. Death could come in an instant from attacks so responses were made instinctive. The Abecidario taught that the type of weapon wasn’t as important as the incoming angle of the attack. Learn to deal with the angles and the answer was apparent; intercepted attack with counter. The Abecidario has become the main stay of Filipino martial art. The Filipinos saw it was good and took this method of teaching and cleaned it up. Teaching in the Philippines was done tribal style, from one to the next, everyone different, sharing conceptual motions without regard to linear learning as in the old formal schools of Europe and even the Far East. The Abecidario was and is an easy format to learn. Complex motions are hidden inside but the basic foundation is simple to see understand and to use immediately. In Modern Arnis for example there are 12 angles of attack. These angles establish the planes of motion that Prof. Remy Presas had determined were the core movements to be understood by his students. The angles taught in Arnis teach downward and upward diagonals, back and forth horizontal, upward and downward vertical and intercepting straight line thrusting, along with upward diagonal thrusting. Within these 12 angles are the natural body movements necessary to make them work. Modern Arnis is a bladed weapon art. By being based on the Filipino BOLO, Modern Arnis truly reflects the Spanish angles of cutting. Other styles of Filipino Martial Arts reflect the same intents and lessons of learning. There are in existence hundreds of numbering systems. None are better than others are, just different, for the difference was in the founder’s interpretation of the motions, the order of the strikings, for the angles themselves are the same. Lameco, Balintawak, Doce Pares, Canete, Ilustrisimo, Sayoc, Serrada, the list goes on and on; Abecidario of many masters of the art of striking preserved in the Filipino Martial Arts. .Note: Many Modern Arnis instructors do not know that Modern Arnis was truly a bladed art. This is due to its founder Professor Presas and how he teaches the art currently. Over the years due to Professor Presas abhorrence of the violence of cutting, his personal philosophy and fear of the image of teaching a deadly art, Modern Arnis has been taught as a “stick art” to many in America and abroad. This teaching in no way negates its usefulness as a combative art but only changes its conceptual usage. By recognizing the angle of attack rather than what is attacking all secondary thoughts is put aside. A learned, correct and immediate response comes into play. This comes from the tribal aspect of teaching, as one is sharing the knowledge with another, one is also learning. As one learns the attack, someone else is recognizing the attack and the counter; the fencing aspect of learning the angles. The attacker sees the counter from the attacking side giving rise the ability to see and deliver a counter to the counter. The Defender sees the attack and responds and then recognizes the counter -counter. This endless cycle continues with each person learning from the other. There is no central figure teaching by handing out or with holding knowledge. The angles of Modern Arnis, just like the other Filipino arts are just conceptual angles. At first the twelve angles are taught as specific attacks to certain parts of the body. As time goes on and experience builds they become methods of attack delivered to any part of the body or as counters. This innovation of using the attacks as conceptual allows the Abecidario to become a Rosette Stone, a key to understanding the basic offensive and defensive planes of attack in Filipino martial art. Since these attacks can be delivered anywhere it forces the practitioner to think, to imagine “what if?” and move on. As one practices the Abecidario it becomes natural to move with the strikes

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almost in a dance type motion adding to the effective use of the strikes. This natural state of motion is when the Abecidario calls into play what Professor Presas and other Filipino masters and instructors calls translation drills. Even though the strikes are conceptual, the base strikes are aimed at specific targets. By aiming for specific target zones one is familiarized with the various planes of motion and begins to understand the conceptual usage. These target zones also reveal the history behind that specific Abecidario. The zones targeted show if the art comes from the later generation of stick fighters or the earlier generations that based the Abecidario on the striking patterns of the Spanish blades. The stick fighters patterns allowed for percussive striking to hard bony surfaces where the stick could do damage. Stick mashes bone. The art of the blade called for slicing motions usually cutting from soft tissue area into connective tissue area. Steel cuts flesh. Blade to bone though workable, could chip a blade, the blade could become embedded in the bone or glance off with little or no damage. The Abecidario tells the secret of origin of the strikes. Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- The Filipino art of Stickfighting Ohara Press USA 1983 The 12 angles of attack in modern Arnis are both a way of memorizing the major, vital areas of the body that can be attacked, and also a sequence of strikes practiced as a drill in a specific order to familiarize the student with the 12 basic strikes. The 12 basic areas are: the left and right temples, the left and right shoulders, the stomach or groin, the left and right sides of the chest, the knees, the eyes, and the crown of the head. Stick strikes or bladed strikes to any of these areas are all injurious, many fatal. The Arnis student learns the strikes in a prescribed sequence and practices striking to these areas over and over in order to understand the angles of attack in approaching these zones, and how an opponent’s approach often telegraphs his own intended target area. Professor Presas: Philippines 1974 Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Manila,

What should be emphasized, however is the fact that the cane is only for practice purposes only for its basically less lethal in nature. For in actual combat, the standard weapon is still the Bolo or ANY bladed weapon, which is more suitable and convenient for this kind of combat technique! Professor Remy Presas, Guro Dan Inosanto and other Filipino masters have always taught that knife teaches stick and that stick teaches empty hand. The translation of the Abecidario is in the usage of empty hand, the angles of attack and defense. There is no set pattern, no direct usage, only guiding angles, concepts. . One learns the basic alphabet and uses it to construct sentences. Just like a builder pours a foundation on which to build a house. Any style house or building may arise from the foundation. No two houses will necessarily be the same even if the foundation and knowledge of how to build that foundation is the same. The same builder or two different builders will use the knowledge according to what they need to build at that time. That is the beauty of the ABECIDARIO. The knowledge hidden within seeming simplicity. That simplicity allows for freedom of expression and realization of that knowledge. It allows a practitioner to readily use the knowledge, for it is an understanding of concepts not techniques. It is a key to an understanding of the physical world. The Abecidario is the intersecting of angles and planes in the real world. The simplicity of the Abecidario truly reflects combat for Combat must be simple. That is combative reality. Simplicity wins under stress. Conceptual usage of the Abecidario comes from striking or cutting the angles. As the understanding of the universal planes of motion comes into focus, conceptual usage is understood. Form follows

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function, therefore as one understands the conceptual usage, a single plane of motion becomes several “intersecting” or “continuing” planes of motion. At this point of understanding the conceptual usage of the planes of motion, one can apply the conceptual motions in combat reality. This understanding of combat reality rises from the foundation of the simple Abecidario. The warriors and soldiers of the past such as the Conquistadors, learned combat reality by doing the Abecidario. The principals of combat, the actual base realities lie within the practice of the Abecidario. All one has to do is build on the foundation. The actual strikings of MODERN ARNIS will be shown later on in the chapter on striking and cutting. MODERN ARNIS expects those that learn its ABECIDARIO to understand the translation between stick, sword, knife and empty hand. The numbering is only to help those during training and is not an art unto itself. One should learn to understand the numbering and the principle of the ABECIDARIO. Professor Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Philippines 1974 Manila,

Arnis today has experienced changes in the weapons used. Although the art still makes use of the Itak or Bolo now and then, it has relied on the cane as a self defense weapon. This is not because the cane is less deadly than bladed weapons but mainly because in the later years, Arnis is engaged in more as a sport. However even in sporty competitions in Arnis a long bladed weapon is sometimes used. The basics of Modern Arnis, the 12 strikings and the corresponding stepping are truly the foundation of the art. One can never practice them enough. I personally practice them like Tai Chi to feel the flow of energy within the movements! Note: Professor Presas always told me “ Bram, be sure of which system you are using! Forgetting can get you into trouble while you train.” I promptly put it where it belonged, in the back of my mind where it wouldn’t bother me. Once at a seminar of LAMECO Eskrima while working ABECIDARIO with Grandmaster Edgar Sulite he asked me to strike several strikes at him. I got into the flow and he called out striking patterns. As he called out the numbers faster and faster, returning the counter strikes and the set up for the next strike, my Modern Arnis training took hold of the motions. Upon calling out a strike #8 to me, I launched an all out Modern Arnis #8 strike to his legs. Unfortunately he wanted HIS #8, a thrust to the right side of his chest. No, I didn’t thwack his legs. Luckily, he caught it in time and we both laughed about it. When one is training with someone of another style of Arnis, one should always find out what numbering system one is using at a particular time and if the ABECIDARIO is structured, free form and if counters are included.

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Chapter:#9 The truth in using sticks: steel hidden inside Professor Remy Presas: The Practical art of Eskrima 2nd Edition Manila, Philippines 1980 Eskrima or Modern Arnis today is popularly played with the use of the cane, it being less lethal then the bladed Itak or Broadsword. The sound of banging sticks. The smell of burning wood. Impressions not forgotten as one enters the area where Modern Arnis is being taught. Everyone has come to know Prof. Remy Presas as the “man with the sticks” The man with the “Flow”. What’s Modern Arnis? It’s the art of using sticks: Redonda X, Sinawali, Tapi-Tapi, and Abaniko. The art of Filipino stick fighting: with its new universal translations to empty hand. Modern Arnis and stick fighting, the two terms have become interchangeable. To most people they mean the same thing, except they don’t. When Prof. Presas developed Modern Arnis one of the things he did was change one of the old Filipino customs of protecting the weapon. People used to hit stick onto flesh even in practice for the belief was that the stick was sacred, therefore one didn’t hit stick to stick; one hit stick to hand. It was a practice that stopped lots of people from learning Arnis. The old practice for learning Arnis was synonymous with pain. This belief was a common way to protect the hidden secrets of the Filipino martial arts of Kali, Eskrima and Arnis. Modern Arnis and the Filipino arts in general, used this system for many years. Only true warriors underwent the pain willingly, which was a means unto itself to keep the art of the blade secret. Hitting stick to stick wasn’t sacred. A stick is only a stick, driven by the hearts and souls of the warriors wielding them. Hitting flesh wasn’t the way. Hitting flesh just proved how tough the practitioner was. Hidden inside the art of hitting was a sensitivity drill, a conceptual motion that had to be learned. Hitting contained a conceptual usage that needed to be felt and passed on. The concept contained in the old style of the Filipino martial art was of “steel to flesh”. Hitting steel to steel ruins ones blade. Hitting steel to steel exists in the movies to add excitement and noise. In combat one strikes steel to flesh. Direct response to direct action. Eliminate the offending weapon. Destroy the opponent’s weapons’ hand. The art of “Defanging the snake”. The culmination of Filipino fighting arts is the use of the blade and to preserve this culture it was hidden within the context of stick fighting. The Filipino’s simple stick fighting was the living library of the old way of steel. The etiquette of steel is strong and is a common denominator in many cultures. In many arts the blade is sacred, the blade embodies the soul of the warrior. The use of the stick was “magic”, the art of misdirection, so the art of the blade wouldn’t be stolen or misused. The art of the blade was revealed only to those that survived the art of the stick. When the Spanish came to the Philippines they brought with them some of the deadliest forms of blade fighting ever seen by mankind. These skills were honed over hundreds of years fighting all over the world: Espada y Daga, Double Daga, Espada Largo, as well as the art of stepping and motion: In-quartata. In-quartata became the stepping of the triangle, male and female, instead of the stepping in quarters. These fighting systems blended with the native arts and continued through to today. The Spanish also brought with them blade etiquette, the respect for the blade and a profound feeling of honor about the use of the edge and the point. The merging of these two cultures, along with the myriad of cultures already in the Philippines containing martial arts, ensured that the use of the blade would be hidden from the common eye. Teaching and learning this deadly art became the grounds of stick fighting. The art of steel was hidden in dance, tradition and the art of the stick. An area where the uninformed and the unknowing

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changed the striking techniques to reflect the percussive aspect of the stick rather than the cutting aspect of the edge. An area where as in playing the telephone game the story never seeming to change actually changes with each retelling. The result was that the art of the stick truly developed unto its own. An art bathed in the aspects of Spanish blade but with the soul of the new Filipino warriors. As the art grew the knowledge of its origins became hidden even from those that practiced the art. Some misinformed instructors to this day point out techniques that grab or deflect thrusts with empty hand as examples of stick art, rather than as corruption of the art of the blade. No one realizes that the art of grabbing the blade lives on. Misdirection is rampant and as in the telephone game each retelling loses more and more contacts with the true telling. For around 400 years the Spanish occupied the Philippines. Rapiers along with cut and thrust swords, were the predominant weapons for most of those 400 years, and the Spanish used the art of deflecting live blades with their gloved hands. They used quick patting or deflections on the flat of the attacking cut and thrust blades to give a moment to counter attack. Rapiers in specific have no discernable edge except for the tip end of the rapier, which was like a dagger and grabbing the blade was an extremely effective technique. Killing was done with the point. Grabbing a rapier gave moments’ pause to allow for the finishing blow. Grabbing a stick leads to painful joint locks and takedowns. Sticks have different conceptual usage than a blade. Today no one attempts to find the difference between the two arts. All people talk about is how the arts are the same. They use the same conceptual usage for the two weapons when they are not interchangeable. Ignorance wrapped in self-secure knowledge. The end result of misdirection and the telephone game. If one listens carefully, to Professor Presas when he teaches, the truth slips out. “He cannot touch you, he is cut, you see this is cut.” “He touches you and you cut this”. One example of this is Professor Presas’ favorite motions of Abaniko double action. This conceptual motion works well with a stick, but is deadly with an edged weapon. Watch the Professor carefully. As a strike comes at him, he strikes with his stick in a fluid motion while exclaiming “you cut this”. He uses a stroking motion: a conceptual usage based on an edged weapon not a blunt one. The first motion of the combination against a number one angle attack slices the opponent’s flexors. The second motion, the first Abaniko motion, thrusts the eyes and rotates cutting the outside carotid. The second Abaniko motion cuts “blue worm” the lower intestinal line and the third motion then cuts the abdominal aorta followed by a cut to the throat. Translation in Modern Arnis is everything. Over the years the Professor has taught many students the basic concepts of Modern Arnis. Almost all of these people have exclusively used sticks and the Professor himself tells of the real horror of killing that he learned from his grandfather. That killing, that horror, that reality of Arnis is not what he wants Modern Arnis to be. Modern Arnis is no longer taught as in the old days, where the victor went home and the loser went into the ground. The responsibility for being a good person is tempered by the art as reflected in today’s society. No one is taught the art of the blade to ensure that it cannot be misused. The Professor and others like him will not take the responsibility on their souls of maybe teaching the WRONG person the art of the blade. They want a good image for Arnis, and a long future. They have turned their backs on the old heritage for fear of the connotations of using the blade. It is a choice they have the right to make. Some of the Professor’s students have taken it upon them selves to duplicate the moves as they know them into knife movements and attempt to teach knife as part of their Modern Arnis curriculum. The problem is that Knife teaches stick not the other way around. Sticks call for percussive motion. Hard beats out of time. Edged weapons like knives need stroking NOT striking. Using an edged weapon like a knife demands sensitivity and the understanding of “FLOW”. The knife asks that the user understand planes of motion and of breaking those planes to keep edge orientation. The knife demands that the user understand conceptual usage and the interplay of planes of motion. Knife asks that the user understand life and death. One cannot truly learn knife

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from stick. The stick can be casual, the knife demands attention. Loss of attention spells injury or death. Many of Professor Presas’ students today are content to use the sticks. They play at TAPI-TAPI drills as if it the drill itself represents the reality of combat. Several of Professor Presas’ personal students have gone the other route. Who are they? There is actually a whole flock of Black Sheep. They use Modern Arnis to illustrate the truth in combat. Some have seen the truth in steel. They have learned the art of the blade to understand conceptual motion. The art of the blade tells them conceptual usage of the planes of motion, of how to mix and match them. They see the conceptual motions as ways of utilizing the edged weapon to its fullest. Steel cutting flesh: Arnis as it was meant to be; souls wrapped in steel. These are the Black Sheep of Modern Arnis. Three of those Black Sheep Modern Arnisadors are Datu Kelly Worden, Hock Hochhiem and myself, Bram Frank. Independently of each other we each sought out the art of the blade .The act of cutting stirred both of our souls. We all saw and immediately realized what was hidden inside the conceptual patterns of Modern Arnis. Most of the time we were both encouraged indirectly by the Professor himself. Datu, Hock and myself, own copies of and had seen old copies of the Professor Presas’ original book from the Philippines, which showed the primary weapon of Modern Arnis as a “Bolo”. A Bolo is a small Filipino sword, with approximately 22 inches – 26 inches in overall length. A Bolo is just about the same size as the standard stick used in Modern Arnis today. Add to this the fact that Datu, Hock, and myself truly listened to the Professor talking as he taught. It’s hard not to be captivated by the Professor as he teaches. Datu, Hock, and I both have found what the Professor said captivating because we saw it was the way of the blade. It was so obvious to us yet it remained hidden from the others. As a matter of fact many others in Modern Arnis thought that Datu, Hock, and I were totally crazy! The knowledge drove us on to see and learn more! No one really believed the art of cutting was what the Professor was teaching and most of the other Modern Arnis guys thought that it was different from the art of the stick. The art of the stick can be intricate with trapping, counters and locking while the art of the blade is finality. The blade teaches mortality and an understanding of the worth of human life. Dr Jerome Barber, Guro Tom Bolden, Guro Doug Pierre, Guro Andrew Filardo, Guro Mark Kline, Guro Richard Roy, are examples of others that are part of the Flock of Black Sheep....reality in combat as in reality in steel is important in their Modern Arnis...These are a few of the flock that understand combat and the ethics and worth of human life. Over the years Professor Presas has become the man with the flow, the man with the sticks. He abhors violence and as other Filipino masters, he fears what the blade can do in the hands of a trained person. He has become content to not teach the blade. But the truth of it remains, that Modern Arnis is truly the art of the blade. “What should be emphasized, however, is the fact that the cane (of Modern Arnis) is only for practice purposes, for its basically less lethal in nature. For in actual combat, the standard weapon (of Modern Arnis) is the bolo or any bladed weapon which is more suitable and convenient for this kind of combat technique.” Professor Remy Presas. Hinnigaran, 1973-74. One need only look at the original strikings of Modern Arnis to see the truth of Professor Presas’ statements. Strike #1 and #2 were to the temple / eye region of the head, a spot that for many thousands of years has been known to able to be cut open by the force of a swinging blade. If one missed the cut and only got the surface, a severe bleeding into the opponent’s eyes would occur. Lower the cut and the blade slips past the line of the jaw and severs the neck of one’s opponent. Strikes #3 and #4 were directed to the deltoids, the outside shoulder muscles, for if these are cut

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ones opponent cannot use his arms. Striking here with a stick or blunt object would not result in combative stoppage! Thrust #5 was to the abdominal aorta region. Thrust #6 and #7 were tip rips and heart thrusts designed to immediately stop an opponent’s combative ability. Strikes #8 and #9 were directed to the outside cutting of the legs and the connective tissue just over the knees. The result of such an attack would be limited or no mobility from one’s opponent. A stick or blunt object needs to strike upward into the knee to do damage or biomechanical stoppage. Downward percussive blows bounce off while downward cutting terminates all motion. Thrusts #10 and #11 are directed toward the eyes and head. If one connects, sight is impaired and severe head injury can accompany the thrust, miss and a jabbing hit with steel hits the opponent’s head. Strike #12 is to the crown of the head along the seam of the skull, an area that can be split open by a bladed attack. There is no upward strike into a groin, for a blade may get stuck in the pelvis area and disarmed and the attacker might actually be killed or maimed by the defender’s last struggles. Many instructors have modified the Professor’s angles of attack over the years, and with some justification. They didn’t work very well as stick actions. Each group taught the next and the telephone game continued: Modern Arnis de-evolved for those people. The use of angles #6-#7 as well as #10 -#11 are shining examples of that corruption. Today angles #6-#7 are used to illustrate horizontal thrusting while angles #10-#11 are used to illustrate downward thrusting angles. In the old way the angles #6-#7 come from down low thrusting upwards toward the rib cage at an oblique angle. This would allow the blade to slip underneath and between the ribs of an opponent by passing the ribs natural protective station. Ribs are angled, pivoted and “overlapped” as the go down the body: straight angle shots go directly into the bones. It sounds great to say one can thrust into the chest and causes damage but in reality the ribs are too tough. Ask a cardiac surgeon. To get inside the rib cage a doctor uses a power saw, not a knife, not a scalpel: the rib cage is sawed apart and then held open with spreading jaws. Pounding on the rib cage with a stick leaves bruises. Stabbing the rib cage results in sliding up the blade, cutting off ones’ own fingers or chipping the blade on the ribs. Thrusting with the tip on an upward angle results in blade insertion, and if caught on the ribs it quickly becomes slicing of the rib musculature. Thrusting upwards allows for heart thrusts, lung punctures and cutting of the aorta. All deadly blows with danger to the user. Angles #10-#11 also come from inside, down below, thrusting upwards. These thrusts come from the opponents blind spot, shooting upwards into the eye cavities. If moved lower the thrusts come to land on the carotids or the neck in general. Definitely stopping motions! In today’s version most Modern Arnis practitioners NEVER question that they thrust #6 horizontally into the rib cage. It’s how they were taught, its how they do it. Many Modern Arnisadors feel they hold the truth of Professor Presas’ art and the secret they hold is all there is. Granted it hurts to be hit in the ribs with the end of a stick but in real combat the blow wouldn’t stop an enraged opponent. That is the measure of Arnis, combat reality. If one tells a practitioner that the blow is ineffective, the practitioner will defend himself by saying, “if I had a knife or sword and thrust that way it would kill my opponent”. Words of wisdom from someone that has never cut anything nor attempted to stick a blade through a rib cage. Without a doubt, thrusting horizontally with a blade would embed the blade into the ribs or worse send ones hands sliding up the guard onto ones own blade. Yet the answer is in front of ones eyes. Watch Professor Presas as he teaches the motion and LISTEN to him exclaim, “You strike this, it is cut. THEN upon impact you poke this. Right here! It is done!” The motion is an upward diagonal thrust from the center. When I teach my students the #6 thrust of Modern Arnis, I teach it as a blade motion. Each student is made to feel the ribs, the overlay of the whole rib cage and the possible access points. The ribs are open in horizontal and diagonal horizontal planes, especially under the sides. Hidden within the rib cage are the lungs, the heart, and the abdominal aorta, any of which are fatal targets. The #6 thrust is taught and used conceptually as “cutting with the tip”. The conceptual usage shows rotation planes of motion around which the knife can follow. Using the conceptual motion as a counter to a

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strike, the #6 thrust, if done correctly, leaves little chance for the opponent to attack again. The initial cut of the #6 motion uses the secondary edge of the knife. The change in wrist rotation brings the secondary edge out of play and engages the primary edge, which cuts into the opponent as the blade is disengaged. A great way to terminate one’s opponent. To deal with today’s legalities, I teach bio-mechanical cutting. Utilizing the actual cutting motions has changed the target zones of the strikes and cuts. Death dealing strokes are replaced by de-animation cutting. Connective tissue is cut immediately so that the body refuses to function in an attacking mode. Where the old Filipino ways would thrust to a kidney, my Modern Arnis students and I thrust into the buttocks. Not as deadly but it’s a real stopper, for mobility ceases immediately usually ending a threat without the repercussion of doing deadly damage to one’s opponent. I have found a way to follow the Professor’s belief that Arnis should not become a force for deadly usage while still teaching the soul of Arnis, the blade. To understand Modern Arnis, understanding its conceptual motions is paramount. In Modern Arnis the main point to grasp is translating the conceptual motions of Arnis into conceptual usage. Counter cutting becomes second nature. Combat reality comes alive, as the concepts of Modern Arnis become clear to the students. As the Professor says, “you do this he is cut!” To see Datu Kelly one might believe that Modern Arnis is just about ANY weapon one can pick up and use. (which of course it is in reality of usage!) Datu uses Sabat (long pole), sticks, swords, and of course knives. The key is in watching Datu use the blade. His WOR-Tac#1 Tactical-folding knife was designed to do Filipino destructions AND slice and dice the way of Modern Arnis. Not only did he design a knife to capitalize on the truth of Modern Arnis, he invented and made The SILENT FIGHTER, a modern padded version of the wooden dummy made for hitting with sticks, hands and especially for practicing cutting. Datu is definitely the leader of the flock for the Black Sheep! He’s got a series on Modern Arnis from what he calls Natural Spirit and a full series on Modern Arnis conceptual usage of collapsing Batons, and tactical knives from PALADIN PRESS! (His Renegade JKD video seems a lot like Modern Arnis Street fighting to me!) W.Hock Hochhiem, known to all of us as “Hock”, is one of the few to have trained with both Presas brothers. Grandmaster Ernesto Presas and Professor Remy Presas. Hock took the Arnis he learned and made it into Combat Arnis, specializing in the use of the blade, Grandmaster Ernesto was so impressed that he gave Hock a title of Master of Arnis Blade... Hock has gone on to further the use of the blade by making the American Congress of Knife-Fighting, a group that utilizes the reality of the blade from Modern Arnis, and teaches the legal and real implications of blade usage. Hock has revolutionized Blade-craft by structuring it as a Guild learning system...and he has books and tapes to go with it. His masterpiece is the Encyclopedia of Knife Fighting. Many times observers have asked me (Frank), “Are you sure you do Modern Arnis?” I always respond in the affirmative. “Of course I do”. In Modern Arnis translation is everything. One needs to understand where Modern Arnis came from and where it’s going. Modern Arnis embodies the conceptual core of Filipino fighting arts. The understanding of the conceptual usage of those arts is the goal of those that study the art. It is the art within the art. The soul of Filipino fighting is the blade. The soul of Modern Arnis is the blade as well. With that thought in mind I designed a Modern Arnis tactical folding knife made by SPYDERCO: The GUNTING. The GUNTING is the only tactical folder designed to do translations from “empty hand to all the way to cutting and it opens within the flow of usage. The ONLY kinetic opening knife in the world, and it is designed to use the concepts of Modern Arnis. “ Yes I’m sure that I do Modern Arnis!” The next opportunity one has to train with Professor Presas one should listen to the words and hear the meaning. Watch what the Professor himself does and listen carefully to the comments, the

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asides. The truth is there! Do not forget the stick, just become aware of the way of the blade. This book is dedicated to finding the paths of Modern Arnis that many others have not yet discovered. Note: Are there any others beside Datu Kelly and myself who use steel in their Modern Arnis? Yes…and I meant no disrespect to them in not mentioning them in the text! Datu is close to my heart…and I feel “steel” with him! Hock is a true brother in Steel. Some of the other Modern Arnisadors are: Guro Billy Bryant, Dr. Jerome Barber, Guro Donald Zanghi, Guro Tom Bolden, and Datu Shishir Inocalla, who all use steel in teaching their Modern Arnis. They all understand the use of the blade! I have mentioned others in the text that don’t use steel but are still part of the flock for they understand the reality of steel and the reality of combat. The Flock of Black Sheep is many and varied! Just because I don’t mention someone here they might still be part of the Flock. The Flock follows the Shepherd, the Professor ,but are not the Shepherd themselves, they are individuals who move together because of the thread of Arnis...Modern Arnis. May the Flock grow bigger and stronger in honor of the shepherd that leads them: Professor Presas.

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Chapter:#10 Ranges of Combat: he’s how far away? OK. Reach out and touch someone Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- The Filipino art of Stickfighting 1983 Ohara press USA

There are only a few specific stances or ready positions in Modern Arnis, but learning them is essential before they become part of your automatic response in a self defense situation. Effective balance and the ability to move swiftly backward and forward to facilitate blocking and striking are the backbone of Arnis or any martial art...The body flows into each appropriate stance as the situation demands. Modern Arnis as with most Filipino martial arts depend upon ranges or distance from the opponent known as the Ranges of Combat. The Ranges of Combat usually refer to the critical distance between two conflicting parties and how these distances change or interrelate. There are many ways these distances are referred to by various martial arts styles, martial arts instructors and military instructors. Colors are used, actual distances are cited, and elaborate equations are invoked to express these ranges. There are of course simpler descriptions/ explanations of these ranges, which fit in with the principle of “Combat must be simple”. Keeping the notation simple means it can be understood and used, for Ranges of Combat must then be experienced, and felt. They don’t become part of one’s usable combative repertoire unless one practices these ranges in actual physicality. Therefore the only way for one to understand Ranges of Combat is to engage a training partner in some form of drill exercise. The training partner need not be alive, a training dummy will suffice to start, but eventually a live partner will be needed for ranges of combat are not static! Ranges of Combat aren’t static? Range of combat changes every moment within the flow of combat. Why? Because every move made by either person involved with the conflict changes the range between them. One must constantly check and re-evaluate the critical distance between one and one’s opponent. Some of the best training at maintaining critical distance or range of combat can be found through the regular training progressions and drills of Bruce Lee’s JKD. JKD as taught by Guro Dan Inosanto has incorporated many mirroring drills that allow for one to learn an instinctive way to maintain distance with one’s opponent while staying within the flow of combat. There are others that teach ways of maintaining the ranges of combat but the JKD way is fairly simple and works. Guro Dan Inosanto as well as Professor Presas knows that to attack and successfully counter attack one must understand and utilize the range of combat; the space between the opponents. I use JKD to illustrate because just like Modern Arnis, JKD asks that the practitioner be bold and enter the opponents range to attack and counter attack. Neither are arts for the timid! NOTE: If one doesn’t believe that ranges change QUICKLY then I suggest sparring. Or try to play tag with a friend. It is harder than it seems. When I first started sparring (many years ago) I was amazed at how many times my kicks that seemed to be launched from within kicking distance yet fell short. Punching was the same. Physical distance is deceiving. One needs to practice covering the distance and feeling contact to understand distance. Add to this the target is moving and the variables multiply. That’s why from a third person view boxers seems so sloppy. How many times have you heard the following.“ Oh man, I could do better! Come’ on hit’em already!” or watching a football game “ hey How could you miss that tackle?!” The combative ranges changed quicker than the professional athlete could compensate for. But from the athlete’s point of view it was possible to attempt the punch or the tackle, but it wasn’t.

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Actual ranges Of Combat: physical ranges Out of Range: This is the outmost range. The opponent is actually far enough away that the longest weapon one has will still fall short of reaching the opponent. The distance increases with the use of an additional weapon such as a stick or a knife. It is a deceiving range for it usually FEELS like one should be able to “reach out and touch someone” but it’s a false perception. Long Range: kicking range The farthest actual fighting range, the range where one can just reach to attack or counter attack an opponent and they cannot reach back to you. This is the range where with empty hand skills one depends on kicking. One can not reach an opponent with ones hands but one is able to kick ones opponent. Middle Range: long punching – checking range This is the most comfortable range to fight in. One usually feels comfortable. One can usually punch ones opponent with either hand at extension or full power punching and the opponent’s hand or weapon can be checked or monitored with the non-punching hand. Locking is limited to arm bar type locks. Short Range: trapping – elbow range One can trap, tie up, joint lock and control an opponent at this range. One can reach an opponent’s head with an elbow strike. Forearms become the weapons of choice along with a short-“straight blast” punch, uppercut or elbow. This is the deadliest weapon range for the hands move much faster than the eye and only weapon sensitivity can prevail. Spontaneity and formless reaction are a necessity to survive. Close Range: head butts – grappling range This is the range that one is nose to nose with an opponent. Opponent’s bodies actually touch and rub on each other. Punching is not possible. Body striking, the actual use of the body comes into play. Head butting is the major form of percussive hitting at this range. Choking, biting, and of course grappling are the main tools of this last combative range. Personal Combative Range- where you feel comfortable These ranges are different than personal combative ranges. Personal combative range is how far away can one’s opponent be and one can execute a fighting technique that actually does damage. Watch out for the “if I extend my hips I can kick you” trap. Kicking someone with intent and just tagging them with the fullest extension of one’s hip, leg, foot and toes DOES NOT COUNT. It does in point sparring but not in combat. If an enraged opponent is surface tagged by a kick and one thought it would stop the opponent two immediate reactions happen: 1) the opponent is now totally enraged and counterattacks, 2) one finds one’s self confidence and combative flow disrupted as the “great stop all” kicking technique fails. Yes, there are exceptions such as Savate practitioners, (French cane and foot fighting, in which the kicking is done many times with the toe) wearing very hard, pointed, extended toed shoes that were designed to penetrate further than ones regular reach. Exceptions and specific out of context situations to add credibility to one’s method or to rationalize why one’s training would work are the path to destruction. In combat the ONLY credibility is who goes home. An old Chinese adage of range is, if one cannot extend one’s arm and touch the opponent with out stretched fingers the opponent is too far way to kick. Not reach with a kick but KICK, as in to do damage, as in to stop an opponent. Same adage, different range, if one cannot put one’s palm flat on the opponent, one is too far away to punch. Not establish distance with a jab, not tag the opponent, but hit the opponent with a power

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punch and stop the opponent or damage the opponent. For example if one can put one’s palm flat on the opponent, a finger jab will enter the eye orbit area, not just touch the eye. Weapons by their physical properties actually change the distance of the ranges along with presentation, perception and ability to use range. If one chooses to use a weapon one must not assume that because one is proficient in fighting in ranges with empty hand that the skill transfers immediately to ranges with weapons. One must train as one wishes to fight. Otherwise the result could be fatal. This is where a fighting dummy such as the SILENT FIGHTER by Natural Spirit comes in handy. Because the fighter has arms and a leg one can effectively practice personal combative ranges till it is encoded in one’s basic pattern of movement. A Wing Chun dummy, Fighting Man dummy, a hanging grappling dummy or even a heavy bag are ways of training the personal ranges of combat. WARNING: Ranges of Combat are to get one to understand the feel of combat. Ranges of Combat are part of a learning progression and fighting drills. Ranges of combat are descriptions of momentary points within the flow of combat and they appear and disappear in no specific order. Ranges of Combat can change in an instant. Ranges of Combat are not entities unto themselves. They exist ONLY within the actual context of the flow of combat. One must understand Ranges of Combat within ones self. Without this understanding and an ability to constantly adjust these ranges will lead to fatal mistakes. One must cultivate the ability to use and cross these Ranges of Combat at will and while one’s opponent is attempting to do the same thing. Combative ranges are only reference points within the flow of combat itself and are unique to each individual fighter. Professor Presas says we should not be afraid but move in, engage the opponent. This is combative reality! Combative engagement at whatever range is necessary. “the longer the weapon, the greater the range: the shorter the weapon, the closer the range” Paul Vunak NOTE: I have had people tell me that fighting with a knife in reverse grip ONLY works on the short range / close range and they like the middle and long range. ( yes, true, the effective range of the blade itself is in close range) That they can and will keep the opponent at the range they like best. At this point I usually will then hand out training blades to all involved and then wait with my knife in forward grip. I will tell them “anytime you are ready”. Before they can illustrate this profound statement, I am reversing my grip and I am generally in their face, up close and personal and for the next panicked seconds all the fighting is done at short / close range. Then comes the “well I could have cut you on the way in…” to which I generally respond “absolutely, you could, might have or did, and at most I went to the hospital for surgery and repair and you got a toe tag.” I designed my GUNTING Tactical folding knife, made by SPYDERCO, to exploit this close range style of combat as well as the ability to change ranges (and grip) upon an instant notice. Any knife will actually do the job. This illustrates that ANYONE can cover distance when intention is in the closer’s repertoire. One does not dictate ranges, one must learn to move within them. I have seen the reverse situation in that people have told Master at Arms James Keating that they would close the distance before he could react. Upon closing the statement and without warning, these people have launched themselves at Keating only to feel the jab of steel rock them off their feet with a stop hit motion. Usually it is a thrusting from an In-quartata motion that is aimed at a spot between the eyes but for illustrative purposes usually is struck into the breastbone. All forward motion comes to a jarring halt. Intercepting the motion before it got going, as in combative fencing, Bowie Fighting or JKD works, for it illustrates the idea of range as mutable. Within seconds of rocking them, Keating was inside, moving from long range to medium range while slicing them. Luckily for the “egos” involved only training knives were used! Keating designed his Crossada-

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neotoric knife, to utilize the principle of the point and stop hit from long range. His Crossadaneotoric knife made by custom maker, Bob Dozier, is a fighting Bowie on the scale of a BagwellHelles Belles Bowie: a true fighting knife with a blade of about 13 inches overall. Yes, Jim certainly can use it in all ranges! “ Combative range is the canvass upon which physical combat is painted. Each artist perceives it differently and it constantly changes as new mediums are introduced!” FOOT WORK: the key to ranges of combat-How one moves one’s feet. The way one moves one’s feet in getting to an opponent for an attack and away from an opponent’s attack are varied. Many systems have been devised but the ones based on the art of steel or fencing work the best. They have been designed to save one from imminent death or injury and place on in a spot to counter attack one’s opponent from an optimal position. Stepping: a natural way to not be there Stepping in martial arts means how one reacts physically by moving ones body from within and without the flow of Combat. Filipino arts have several ways of stepping within the flow of combat and these are based on traditional Filipino movement, Chinese footwork and on the footwork of the Spanish fighters to whom Modern Filipino fighting arts were exposed to for hundreds of years! One can move one foot, both feet or as with open –close of the arms, a weaving pattern can be used, one foot following the other, mirror image, or alternate stepping. It all depends on the actual combative situation. Filipino footwork varies with each instructor and Modern Arnis is no different. Modern Arnis uses several conceptual motions to illustrate combative usage of footwork. Some only use one piece of the footwork or due to limited understanding only teach one way of stepping. Some only teach stepping as a defensive position, others teach it as an attacking position. In reality, all the stepping becomes one. Like with learning Drills, there is no beginning or end. The different Conceptual motions of stepping begin to run into each other as Conceptual usage takes over. Female Triangle The forward female triangle is used to move away from an opponent’s attacking force while maintaining counter attacking range. The base of the triangle is at the opponent’s front or leading edge while the tip of the triangle is located at the defender’s center. As the attacking force comes in, the defender steps up the triangle, at a 45 degree angle off the incoming attack, to either the right or left side, neatly shearing away from the attack yet moving into counter attacking range. If the attack is very deep then a rearward female triangle would be used to temporarily zone off the attack along the base and then step back off the 45 degree to maintain counter attacking range. Male Triangle The forward male triangle is used to zone away from the incoming attack and then to intercept the incoming attack or attacker. The tip of the triangle is at the opponent’s front or leading edge and the base is located at the defender’s center. As the attacking force comes in the defender zones right or left along the base of the triangle then enters into the opponent’s space with an intercepting 45 degree angle. If the attack is very deep then a rearward male triangle would be used to then step back, right or left off the 45 degree or side of the triangle, then zone off the attack along the base to maintain counter attacking range. Zoning: backward, sideways, and forward Zoning is a way to step off an attack while keeping one foot within the attacking range. This allows for immediate counter attack. In zoning the motion is one of parallel or perpendicular motion to the incoming attack. The conceptual picture that one steps on is a cross whose base is at one end art the opponent’s front or leading edge and the other end is at the defender’s center. At either end and at

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the halfway mark between the attacker and the defender, are the perpendicular, crossing lines. In zoning one usually only moves one foot at a time so as not to move away from the counter attacking range. Facing: Front, half, and side Facing is how one’s body actually turns in relationship to the opponent’s body and attacking force. One can be Front facing; that is one’s front faces directly into the opponent, one can be half facing; where one is at a 45 degree angle to the opponent or one can be side facing; where one’s side directly faces the opponent’s front or attacking force. Usually facing or body shifting is done as one steps to properly align one’s self with the opponent while stepping away or into the attack to be in position to counter attack. Modern Arnis uses basic stances. These stances are based on natural foot positioning and body shifting. There are no artificial stances in Modern Arnis. The changing of stances is based on usage of the conceptual motions of footwork not arbitrarily set up by a “standard” that all practitioners must follow. Stances are not static positions to be assumed and held or maintained; they change constantly within the flow of actual usage and combat. They are learned to allow the practitioner to move in balance at all times in any direction as needed. Fighting stance: A fighting stance is as one would assume a boxing stance. Feet are about shoulder width apart, one foot in front of the other: heel to toe, feet in a 45 degree placement from the opponent. The balance is even with the weight on the balls of the feet with the heels slightly raised. The whole body is 45 degrees to the opponent and the front knee actually protects the groin area. Balance is exceptional. In a fighting lunge stance, the distance between the feet in a front to rear position is increased but unlike a traditional martial arts stance, one can move one’s feet forward or back, one can step to either side WITHOUT losing or changing one’s balance. This comes from combative fencing. Horse stance The feet are shoulder width apart and the weight is centered between the feet. Contrary to traditional horse stances this one is neither deep nor immovable even though one’s knees are bent as if riding a horse. One is on the balls of one’s feet able to move in any direction without loss of balance. Neutral stance A neutral stance is one where both feet are on the same alignment about shoulder width apart, in a relaxed state. Neither side is forward or closer to the opponent. One can move immediately to any other stance or shift into a right or left neutral stance. Right Neutral stance From a neutral stance one rotates on the balls of one’s feet so that one’s right side is marginally forward, or closer to the opponent. Both hands are still able to reach the opponent. Both feet are still on the same base line. The feet are 45 degrees facing to the left. Left Neutral stance From a neutral stance one rotates on the balls of one’s feet so that one’s left side is marginally forward, or closer to the opponent. Both hands are still able to reach the opponent. Both feet are still on the same base line. The feet are 45 degrees facing to the right. Back stance From a neutral stance, one steps one of one’s feet back along a rear male triangle; the foot is facing 45 degrees outward, about shoulder width apart. The weight is rear biased to allow for zoning

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actions. The feet make an almost perpendicular position to each other if a line is drawn from heel to heel. One is still on the balls of one’s feet able to move immediately to attack or counter attack. When all of these motions, stepping and stances are used within the FLOW of Combat without thinking, one’s use of weapons, be they percussive, edged or empty hand improves drastically! The goal of Modern Arnis is to get one to be able to incorporate all of these elements into ones combative usage. Footwork serves as a base for offensive and defensive motions. Evasion sometimes is the quickest response to a fighting situation. Evasion that is only possible if one understands footwork.

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Chapter:#11 Sectoring: counterattacking within the appropriate space. Guro Dan Inosanto: the Filipino Martial Arts 1980 Know Now Publications USA

A point to remember, however, is that in combat or even in more advanced training where one strike quickly follows another, your weapon will not always be in a favorable position to apply your favorite moves. Often, you’ll find that your weapon is pointed in the wrong direction and there just isn’t time! Sectoring is the ability to use the opponent’s position to counter attack. Where are one’s own two limbs and where are the opponent’s attacking limbs? What sector of space do the arms and hands actually occupy at the time of attack and counter attack? Some sectors actually overlap. Compound sectors are where one’s counter leads into another sector…sectors are not only for empty hand but for all weapons attack –counter attack as well. Modern Arnis touches on all of this in a secondary way usually…by experience. Professor Presas uses “upon contact” as his cue and his hands are ALWAYS in the right spot. I have found it is easier to try to teach some of this up front, by using a format. Sinawali as a conceptual motion actually uses sectoring within its framework. This also works in reverse for knowing sectoring allows one to pick up and use Sinawali as a conceptual motion no matter where one’s hands are. Steve Grody, well-known and respected Jun-Fa- JKD-Filipino martial arts Instructor, (in my humble opinion he is the BEST JKD instructor I know!) has described sectoring as the space between JKD trapping and Filipino empty hand. Steve has a way of teaching sectoring that I have adapted to fit Modern Arnis. I want to give Steve the credit for structuring the sectors and for giving me away to teach it to my Modern Arnis students! Steve Grody has a video series on Sectoring & Filipino empty hand available from Unique Productions. SECTORING PRINCIPLE: one can ONLY be: Inside an attack, Outside an attack or Down the middle of an attack. The Conceptual variations become where are ones hands in relation to the attack and to each other. These examples of sectoring and sectors are for reference point, muscle memory and information. They are not written in stone and sometimes the sectors flow into each other. For better understanding of the Sectors, these 10 basic sectors are set using a right side forward position and the opponent is using the right hand to attack. 10-Basic Sectors: 1. Split Sector: One’s hands are about even height and are spaced apart, even with the shoulders. The only opening is between one’s hands. When the opponent uses, for example, a straight right jab towards one’s head, with one’s hands apart, you will zone to outside of the opponent’s motion, your left hand deflecting the hit/jab while your right hand enters and hits up middle. This is the same position for an inside Gunting move to “destruct an opponent’s limbs. Arms – hands neutral. 2. Inside Parry & hit: Your hands are such that the right hand is higher and rearward, the left lower and forward. The opponent jabs with the right, you parry the jab with your right (to left) while zoning to the inside and hit with your left, underneath your parry hand. This is the position for an inside horizontal Gunting move “destructing” the opponent’s arm.

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3. Outside Parry & hit: Your left hand is higher and right lower and in line. The opponent jabs with the right hand. Side step to the left and parry the incoming right jab with your left hand. Hit from under your left arm and OVER opponent’s arm. This motion is the same as an outside horizontal Gunting move to “destruct” the opponent’s arm. 4. Outside Slap hand & hit: The opponent starts to jab with the right hand. The motion is just starting. You go straight in, at the opponent and Pak-Sao/slap block in with your left. You push down & in, forcing the opponent’s right arm into his body and you hit over with your right hand. This motion is the same as catching the incoming jab with one’s hand and using an Elbow Gunting to the incoming hand. 5. Angle & Cut: This one requires timing and the sudden realization that the opponent has actually struck at you. One’s hands are such that the left hand is forward and closest to the incoming jab. The right hand is in no position to effect the incoming motion. With timing and angling, you use body shifting so that your left forearm intercepts the right jab. Your left is cutting in, cramming with forearm into the hitting arm. Your left hand continues forward striking the opponent. 6. Inside slap & hit: Your right hand and left hand are on the same plane with the right hand forward. The opponent starts to jab with the right. As the opponent starts to jab you intercept the jab by slapping downward with your right hand catching the inside of the opponent’s forearm. Your left hand shoots over the inside slap block and hits the opponent. 7. Inside Guide & Hit: Your rear hand, in this case the left is highest and guarding your face. The opponent jabs and with body rotation, counterclockwise, (to your left) you guide the jab past you with the rear hand palm up (Tan-Sao) or palm down (Bil-Sao). As you guide it bye with Bil-Sao or Tan-Sao…your right hand strikes the opponent. 8. Outside Guide & Hit: Your right hand is back and closest to your face and in a closed position. As the opponent jabs, you use body rotation to bring your right hand either Palm –up (Tan-Sao) or Palm down (Bil-Sao) to guide the strike away from you. (On the outside of the opponent’s arm) At the same time your left hand strikes at the opponent, with your forearm cutting into the outside of the jab. 9. Pass & hit: The opponent’s jab is in contact with your left arm. Using a hand circle (yes making one’s hand make a clockwise circle around the opponent’s jab) circle the jab away with your left hand. Then at the same time counter with a right hand strike…Best used as secondary sector AFTER counter in high range. Is great to deflect low strikes. Circling or passing can be done to set up a secondary strike especially into the opponent’s limbs. 10. Rising Elbow: In wing Chun it is referred to as the Bong Sao...As the opponent jabs with his right hand, your left arm encounters the attacking forearm, and upon contact rolls to an elbow up position. This rotation to an elbow up position deflects the incoming jab. There are two possibilities from here. One is referred to as the wave or elbow rolling. Your left elbow rolls up and over the opponent’s arm with your left hand following in a forward circle towards the opponent. Strike with either the left or the right. The second option is that your right hand shoots underneath the left, cutting into the opponent’s arm as it continues on to strike the opponent. This is sometimes referred to as wedging.

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Combinations of sectoring If the Sectors are understood as a set way of referencing point of contact and orientation, then one can begin to understand usage of the sector. Once you understand SINAWALLI or the concept of weaving, one hand following the other, then combining sectors is just a way to understand the actual usage of Sinawali. Translation is the key to sectoring and its usage as in most of Modern Arnis. For example if one uses a Split-sector on an incoming right jab, and one’s right hand strikes and retracts, then you are in position so that the opponent’s immediate second strike, a left cross is intercepted by an inside deflection and hit. Or with good body rotation it could have been Split-sector to Guide and Hit sector. The opponent strikes with a right, you do an Inside deflection and hit. Your right hand deflects as the left hand shoots underneath to strike the opponent. Upon your motion the opponent throws his left hand, which is met immediately with an inside Slap and hit. Your left hand immediately from its hit position crosses over and slap hits the incoming left while your right shoots over it and down the middle to strike the opponent. Your opponent strikes with the right hand, which you intercept with Outside deflection and strike. As the opponent strikes with his left you use your right hand to initiate Guide and hit. Your opponent strikes with a right jab, which you defend with a Split sector. Upon contact of your hitting the opponent, you enter with your left hand that goes from deflection to an Outside slap and hit sector. You slap (Pak-Sao) the opponent’s right arm into his body while your right hand strikes the opponent. As the opponent attempts to check with his left you rotate clockwise and use a right hand Inside Guide and Hit sector. Your right hand palm up (Tan-Sao) guides the left hand away as your right hand strikes into the opponent. There are no limits to the combinations that flow out of sectoring. You don’t decide the sectors. Where you are and where the opponent is decides that. How you react, how sensitive you are to the changes within the Flow of combat that determines how quickly and efficiently you respond! I am not going to nor can I possibly spell out all possible combinations but as you practice these conceptual usages, they will become part of your Sinawali Concepts. Sectoring can be used empty hand, stick or with blade.

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Chapter:#12 Gripping the Weapon: as if it’s obvious Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting 1974 Manila, Philippines

The grip is the soul of all fighting techniques in Modern Arnis. It is the correct grip that packs power to control the cane or weapon! One of the biggest discussions in the World of Weapons and Filipino Martial arts in general is one of how does one grip one’s weapon. There are lots of ideas and concepts of what one NEEDS to do but most are only based on which particular instructors or fighters personal feelings are expressed at that time! Here we are going to see that gripping the weapon is NOT a personal choice with only one way reigning supreme but a factor that has many mitigating factors! So in the spirit of saying the truth and getting directly to the point read on! Gripping a weapon sounds pretty obvious. One reaches out with one’s right or left hand and grabs hold of the weapon...RIGHT? Wrong! There are many ways to grab a weapon and the reasons given would fill volumes of books. Each instructor, practitioner, or style has a specific reason for holding a weapon as they see as correct. Many of these styles, instructors and practitioners feel their way is not the ONLY way but also the best way. A grip for all seasons! Unfortunately for the student of these styles, instructors and other practitioners, there is no rational reason for what they do or what they loudly claim is wrong. I think the best response to how should one grip one’s weapon came from an old Filipino who stated “You should hold onto your weapon as if your life depends on it!” Or as a friend and fellow knife instructor has stated it’s very simple to teach how to hold the knife. “There are only two ways to hold a knife, forward or hammer grip and reverse or ice-pick grip” Paul Vunak I know of one edged weapon instructor who has a very peculiar grip on his knife and he executes an upward backward hacking circle with his knife. Now all his students emulate him completely. Their trust in what he does is implicit. When they attended one of my seminars and as I talked of gripping the weapon, several of them interjected their views. When I asked why? they told me some standard gibberish about that’s how it’s done. Sometime later that month when I went and politely “confronted” their instructor he told me that’s how his father had used a knife long ago in a war. Upon further questioning it turned out his father was in a specific spot in the world, had a specific style of knife used in that part of the world and the ensuing grip and usage came from him successfully using it several times. This made it (the grip and usage) not only acceptable but also mandatory to be used in all situations and with all other style knives. Gripping a weapon means to hold it in one’s hand or grasp. Weapons can be held by either hand or with both hands. The weapon itself imposes certain parameters or restrictions on HOW THAT PARTICULAR WEAPON WILL BE HELD. All grips have a strength and a weakness to them. That’s the rule of nature, plus and minus add up to a whole. I have heard instructors say in person and in print insulting things about various grips and WHY they won’t use them or teach them. The infamous “cancer grip” of the Filipino practitioners. The “ broken-finger grip” of the Koreans and the Japanese practitioners. The list goes on. Sounds to me like a way to express bigotry rather than to discuss grips or how and why one grabs a weapon a certain way. That type of insults will not take place here in THIS DISCUSSION.

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I have another example of subtle differences that express personality and how one grips a weapon. Jim Keating and I teach basically the same dexterity drill. When we both get to the twirling part of the drill our personalities come out. Jim usually explains WHY the blade ends up EDGE INWARD. On the same move I usually explain why one ends up with the EDGE OUTWARD. We do the same twirl but where we intend to go with it influences how we re-grab the knife as it’s twirling. Neither is better than the other is and I’m sure that Jim and I could discuss the pluses and minuses of the two twirls till “the cows come home.” My gripping is in accordance to my concept of blade orientation as is his. Bear that in mind as we go on about gripping the weapon. The human hand is a marvel of anatomical engineering: Four fingers and an opposing digit. No, not five fingers…what makes our hand unique is that the four fingers have an opposing digit that locks them into place either individually or as a combination of any of the four fingers. It is not just the digit end of the thumb that humans use to lock the fingers. The opposing digit (the thumb) has a large meaty base that also is hinged to roll inward locking the fingers into place. Locked into a fist with all the fingers rolled tight and with the thumb locking them into place it is very hard to pull something out of the hand. (Pulling or pushing against the fingers or the thumb is not easy, yet it is fairly easy to slide out along the axis of the fingers and thumb because the rolled fist makes an internal tube with pressure ONLY on the outside surface.) Let the hand grasp something that ONLY allows the fingers to go around the object, with the thumb opposing the action and just touching the fingers and a weakness comes about. All kids have played this with their friends and parents: to free one’ self from a gripping hand pull towards the point where the thumb and the fingers meet. It is the weakest point. Again as in the concept of “OPEN-CLOSE”, the fingers and thumb are perfect examples of Form follows function. Digression is necessary here. Everyone’s hands are different in size, strength, sensitivity, dexterity, and flexibility. How something feels and fits into one’s hands is extremely personal. To illustrate that point one need only look at the profusion of handles that exist for Knives, fixed blade and folders, as well as handguns. Sticks, be they folding batons with their myriad of custom foam handles or regular fighting sticks, wood, rattan, or plastic, come in a variety of diameters and lengths. No two hands are the same as each other and no two handles are alike, for those that buy a standard handled weapon, which almost fits their hand, there are handle adapters to customize the handle to fit one’s hand. Taking into account that hands are different and how things fit and feel is different for each human being, there are certain ways to grip weapons handles that are fairly universal. It also means that a grip that is seemingly correct and right may not feel correct or right to everyone. Gripping a stick: Gripping a stick is fairly simple. One places the stick inside the center of the palm and wraps ones fingers around the stick using the thumb to hold the stick locked into the fingers. It is just like making a fist with the stick in the middle. There are several ways to make a fist but by having a stick in the middle of one’s hand it eliminates several of these options, most of which differ in the placement of the thumb. In this case the thumb is slightly over the second joint of the first finger. This is called the Hammer Grip. Why? Because it is how most people would grip a hammer. Variation: Some people grip the stick as in the hammer grip but the thumb rides up the stick almost as in a fencing or saber grip. Commonly called the Hitchhiker Grip. Why? Because it looks like someone’s hand that is hitching for a ride. Unless the base of the thumb is shifted over to lock the fingers in place of the thumb digit, this is a less powerful grip than the regular Hammer Grip. Variation: The thumb and first finger of the gripping hand are not gripping the stick. Some mistakenly use this as a full grip on the stick and attempt to strike with the stick while using this grip. There is no

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structural integrity to the hand for percussive blows while holding a stick this way. The stick can easily be dislodged from the hand. As a transitional grip used to grab the opponent’s body, hand, or weapon immediately after contact from a blow using a standard Hammer Grip, it is very acceptable. The Cancer Grip: is how some people refer to this grip. As with the edged weapon this grip allows for Braille feeling of where one’s body is in relation to one’s sticks; the thumb and forefinger feel their way through the twirling motions. Upon actual striking one’s grip changes. The only question and variable in gripping a stick from this point on is WHERE does one grab the stick, not HOW. This part of WHERE one grabs a stick is based on a particular style’s, instructor’s or practitioner’s personal preference. In addition there are certain physical parameters to be considered. One needs to adjust WHERE by certain factors:

• • • • •

How long is the stick? How heavy is the stick? What range is the combat to be in? Forward Hammer Grip: stick comes out top of gripping hand Reverse Hammer Grip: stick comes out bottom of gripping hand

Generally one has the following choices of WHERE to grab a stick. Forward Hammer Grip 1. Flush grip with no butt showing from gripping hand 2. Grip with butt showing from gripping hand • One fingers worth • Two fingers worth • Three fingers worth • One hands worth • Two hands worth 3. Grip stick in the center of the stick Reverse Hammer Grip 1. Flush grip with no stick showing from the top of gripping hand 2. Grip with stick showing from top of gripping hand • One fingers worth • Two fingers worth • Three fingers worth • One hands worth • Two hands worth 3. Grip stick in center of the stick Gripping a stick while Twirling This is an area on contention between many styles of martial arts that use sticks. Some styles insist that one open the lower fingers, pinky, ring and middle to allow the stick to twirl easily in one’s hand and one can build up a great amount of speed. This is very good in practice but seemingly poor in combat. A hit on the twirling stick can send it flying. Not that it will happen but it could happen. This type of twirling is better in controlled fighting such as challenges rather than the spontaneity of actual unrestricted combat. The other method is to grip the stick in a tight Hammer Grip and let the wrist roll to twirl the stick. This is a safer but much harder motion for one needs to have flexible wrists. In combative situations the last thing one would want to do is lose one’s grip

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on the stick. Note: I once was twirling a stick so fast I could envision it as a mini tornado with my hand as the center. Professor Presas hit my stick unexpectedly and the stick flew out of my hand. He looked at me and said, “ Now you are dead!” I picked up the stick and started to twirl it between my fingers again, holding on with more determination and he casually knocked the stick out of my hand again. “What I tell you? You are dead!” I now no longer twirl with my fingers but I hold the stick with my hand and rotate my wrist. Gripping a Knife Gripping a knife is very different than gripping a stick. A stick has no sides to it, no edge to it and only asks for a percussive response. Knives have many variables and how one grips a knife dictates how one might use the primary and secondary parts of a knife. One needs to be able to make use of several parts of the knife: • The primary edge of the blade • The secondary edge or clip of the blade • The tip of the blade • The flat of the blade • The butt of the handle The cutting motions one wishes to execute need different types of gripping the knife. Arm extension, i.e. how far one attempts to reach with the knife in one’s hand, effects the type of grip used to hold a knife or edged weapon. An example would be holding the knife in a forward hammer grip allows for maximum extension and reach. As one’s arm and hand extend, the wrist cocks forward and downward adding reach to the motion. In Reverse Ice Pick grip, the same extension asks one to extend the base of the wrist outwards to achieve reach. This is an artificial, forced motion that impairs the wrist function and the arm itself needs to be partially cocked or loaded to achieve reach and power in the reverse grip. Later in this discussion combative range will come into play to help determine which grip is best for each situation. The type of carry or holster one uses can effect how one grips the knife! This factor can be compensated for at the time of engagement, therefore let’s look at the basic universal gripping of the knife: Forward Hammer Grip: One holds the knife upright, blade coming out the top of the gripping hand, as one would grab a hammer. Generally one’s hand is not jammed up tight to the knife guard. There is enough space between the top of the hand and the guard of the knife that the change to Saber Grip is only a change of thumb placement not re-gripping the knife itself. The actual amount of space is about one thumb’s thickness. Placement of the thumb is again different in various styles. The standard is the thumb can lock the first finger second joint as if in a closed fist actually grasping a hammer. This position allows for rotation of the wrist and proper position for slicing motions. NOTE: If one’s hand is pressed against the guard and an opponents blade rides down the flat of one’s knife, hits the guard and is deflected, the first thing the opponents blade catches on is one’s hand and fingers. If there is space between the top of the hand and the guard, when an opponent’s blade hits the guard, it is deflected and the first thing the opponent’s blade hits is open air, not fingers, not hand, for the deflection trajectory is AWAY from the hand. Fingering Grip variation: This grip was used with Sword & Dagger during the combative phases of their usage. The first finger rides over and around the guard allowing for better balance and ease of thrusting. Because the finger was exposed swords and daggers developed what were known as “finger rings”. These rings were placed over the guard along the blade to protect the user’s fingers from an opponent’s blade. The use of fingering also worked for most swords and daggers had ricasso’s (the portion of the blade just above the hilt or guard) with no significant edge. Today the use of fingering is best left to knives such as sub-hilts, such as made by Loveless and functional fixed blades such as Randall knives which have a finger space and no edge over the guard which

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allow the use of a Fingering Grip. Folders are not made to use this Fingering Grip. The Fingering Grip if used in blade to blade work, or combative usage, and one has no finger guard, such as steel plate, steel rings, gauntlet, glove or something to prevent the cutting of one’s finger, one could become finger-less. Variation: The thumb can ride on the side of the handle slightly over the hand. NOTE: If the hand were just below the guard, then the thumb along side the knife would be OVER the guard on the side of the blade. It can be done but if one’s opponent’s blade makes contact with one’s own blade and continues down the blade, one COULD lose one’s thumb… Saber Grip: One holds the knife upright, blade coming out the top of the gripping hand, as one would grab a hammer. The difference between the Hammer Grip and the Saber Grip is the placement of the thumb and the actual use of the knife while in the different grips. One’s hand is not jammed up tight to the knife guard. There is enough space between the top of the hand and the guard of the knife that the thumb can rest on the spine of the handle pushing gently into the guard. The actual amount of space is about one thumb’s thickness. On a knife without a guard the thumb would rest on the spine of the knife. Saber Grip due to the placement of the thumb is best for tip ripping, thrusting, and cutting thrusts (toe to heel). By placing the thumb in an upright position over the hand, (up the spine of the knife into the guard area) the muscles in the joint of the wrist and thumb tighten, wedging the knife into the hand but decreasing the amount of wrist rotation and slashing ability. Fencing Grip: The Fencing Grip has the advantage of allowing draw cuts with any type of weapon including a straight razor without fear of losing one’s own fingers. The grip is on the sides of the weapon holding the edge parallel to the ground. It has little combat meaning and usage with fixed blades today, but with the advent of tactical folders that open one handed by thumb rotation, fencing grip is very important. When a tactical folder is opened by way of a thumb ramp, thumb stud, thumb disc, or a thumbhole, the initial position upon opening is the classic straight razor Fencing Grip. The thumb is on the flat of the blade and the knife is in a horizontal position. This is a slicing grip. This grip has no power for striking or hacking or thrusting but it is very effective for circular slicing. Upon slicing a re-grip is done to change into a Hammer Grip. The Fencing Grip rotates into Reverse Grip very easily within the actual motion of the cut. Reverse Grip: The common name of the Reverse Grip is the ice-pick grip because an old fashioned ice pick is held in that manner. It is the same as a Hammer Grip except the blade comes out the bottom of the hand rather than the top. This grip is not the ultimate grip nor the sign of a true knife fighter…but when one is up close and personal, reverse grip is the strongest for punching and slashing the knife into an object and trapping the opponent’s limbs. Picking with the tip works great while using the Reverse Grip. Power in the Reverse Grip comes from the bending of the elbow and the hinging action of the arm from the elbow coupled with the swinging motion of the whole arm. A straight arm with the elbow locked out and the wrist thrust forward to achieve extended reach, defeats the power of the Reverse Grip. Reverse grip may have more power for stabbing into an object but it has less reach and slashing ability. A closing motion slash is very powerful using a reverse grip but the reverse grip is in a compromised wrist position. An upward slash is powerful even if at the end of a shortening arc while a downward has the same problems as an opening motion slash: lack of articulation of the wrist and a compromised position of the wrist. Knife grips change according to range. There is no best overall knife grip. Each grip has its own place. From long range to medium range Hammer Grip, Saber Grip work best. From medium

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range to close range Fencing Grip and Reverse Grip work best. That’s why dexterity drills are taught so that the act of changing grips within the flow of combat is a natural occurrence. As for blade orientation on each grip, that varies by instructor, BUT I must say that I teach that the edge MUST ALWAYS be pointed towards the opponent. This is my personal feeling for I believe that the opponent should first have to run THROUGH the edge of my knife to come into contact with me. Cancer Grip: and related special grips Contrary to the insulting names given to specialized grips, these grips do have their legitimate spot within knife usage. The so-called “Cancer Grip”, that of the thumb and first finger having no contact with the knife is not a grip that exists unto itself according to some instructors. They seem to have missed the point of usage. Within the actual flow of combat, this grip allows one to maintain hold on one’s weapon WHILE trapping or grabbing with the weapon hand, the opponent’s hand or weapon. When thrusting in an inverted position or slicing this grip actually works for the bottom three fingers are held in place with the base of the thumb stronger than using all the fingers… That’s why this grip is used by Aikido, Ju-Jitsu, Hapkido, JKD, Filipino and other martial arts that use it for grabbing and fighting. The Filipino’s use it in thrusting with a knife as well. The grip of inverted thrusting with one, two or three fingers running along side the flat of the blade have no place as an actual “hard” thrust. While using this grip to do a “hard” thrust, one’s fingers would be severed, cut, or damaged and one’s hand would slide up the blade upon contact with an opponent’s body. But when used as a concealment grip whose thrust eventually went to the opponent’s eyes, or as a short poke to an opponent’s soft areas, the grip not only works but also has great validity. Then again the type of knife dictates if this grip is actually useful in combat. Using a Filipino Punal, a Middle Eastern Shabaria or an Indonesian Kris necessitates using this grip for the butt of the handle rests squarely in the palm of one’s hand. Thrusting with these knives is VERY similar to using a palm strike. The force of the blow / thrust is absorbed and cushioned by the pad of one’s own hand. There is no handle to slip up on as if one used a traditional knife. Another point to remember or consider that as one goes through the standard Filipino patterns of motion with one’s knife the edge passes closely to one’s body and hands. By using the so-called “Cancer Grip” one is able to use the Braille method to feel where the edge of one’s knife is. The thumb and first finger constantly rub against one’s body parts allowing one to always know where the edge is! In combat under stress this grip allows the practitioner to fly through the motions without fear of cutting one’s self with one’s own knife. The “Broken-Finger Grip” used by many of the KI oriented arts, (the KI finger directs the energy) actually holds a firm grip with the thumb base and the middle, ring and pinky fingers and is a transitional grip or sometimes is actually the same grip as the “Cancer Grip”. Both of these grips lead to locking or trapping. By themselves, out of context, these grips not only seemed foolish, but seemingly dangerous to the user. Common sense and proper teaching eliminates the dangerous part of these grips. In review there is only one way to grip any weapon: “As if ones life depends on the grip”. The posture of the grip may vary from position, combative range and intended usage. The final authority is the one gripping the weapon: use common sense. Combative Range and Personal Combative Range effect how one goes about gripping the knife. Many people like to argue the detail of combative ranges change all the time but as true as the argument is, it is not credible when used to substantiate why only one grip should be used. Each range has a grip that is best for that range. Not that other grips cannot be used, but there are certain grips that fit best in each combative range. Target zones within each range also mitigate which grip can or should be used.

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At Out-of-Range or at Long Range the grip that affords the most distance and long reach striking ability is the Forward Hammer Grip. One can use this grip to attack the opponent while keeping one’s own body parts out of the line of fire. Fencing Grip works for one is slicing at a small target without impact as a concern. Saber Grip could be used, for it is possible to thrust at this range but improbable to use it effectively. The best use of Saber Grip at out- of- range is for tip ripping or back cutting with the very tip of the knife. Reverse Hammer Grip doesn't have the reach to be effective. Middle Range allows for several grips to be used. The Forward Hammer Grip works fine for striking, cutting, slicing and all types of thrusts. Reverse Hammer Grip works for one can slash, hook, trap and thrust with great force. Saber Grip works for one can thrust to the arm or body or use it for back-cutting motions. Fencing Grip works as well for one can slash to the arm or body without thought of impact. Short Range things start to get crowded. Forward Hammer Grip extends one’s weapon well past any target zone. Saber Grip has the same limitations as the Forward Hammer Grip. Too much reach for too little space. Fencing Grip is an acceptable grip if one keeps one’s elbows close for again this is a low impact grip. The most usable grip here is the Reverse Hammer Grip. The Reverse Hammer Grip can do picking, thrusting, slashing, hammering, trapping and deflections. Close Range has only one available and usable grip, The Reverse Hammer Grip. The opponent’s body and mass are too close for any other grip. Reverse Hammer Grip allows for punching power to penetrate the opponent, to hook, and to slash with one’s body torque using short choppy motions! The ability to change grips while changing ranges must become natural. To develop that ability one needs to do the “Six-count dexterity drill” which focuses on grip changing within combative ranges. This is not a knife fighting, offensive or defensive technique. This is a DEXTERITY drill to allow one to learn how to change grips surely and safely while in combative flow. D, our defensive partner gets to hold out for cutting, D’s right arm. D simulates a position and moment in space within the flow of combat. As the drill gets advanced D can move the arm around. A, our attacker will be the one learning the dexterity drill. • • • D extends D’s right arm as if striking a #1 strike from D’s open side. A in a Forward Hammer Grip stays just out of range of D’s weapon’s full extension and cuts D’s inside forearm with a #1 cutting strike. A passes D’s right arm with A’s left in a close-trapping motion. A strikes through D’s arm and after passing to the outside of D’s arm, a spins the knife between A’s thumb and first finger, counterclockwise. A’s weapon’s hand is making a larger counterclockwise circle at the same time. A maintains passing trapping adhesion with A’s left hand on D’s right arm. A re-grabs the knife in Reverse Grip, edge outward, and as A finishes the counterclockwise large circle, A is in position to again cut D’s right inside forearm in a #1 cutting slice, this time using Reverse Grip. (close motion) A completes the close motion, then reverses the motion into a clockwise (open motion) hooking D’s right arm from the outside with A’s knife. A steps up with A’s left leg, closing the range. A traps D’s right arm with A’s left hand and Reverse Grip stabs D in the chest with a # 12 downward thrust. A pulls back and using A’s right thumb to rotate the knife clockwise within A’s hand, A then upward spins the knife into a forward Fencing Grip. A then slices D’s right biceps with a horizontal cutting strike #3 using the Fencing Grip.

• • • •

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For A to get around D’s right arm barrier, A inserts the lower two fingers (ring and pinky) of A’s weapon’s hand onto the inside of the knife handle. Pushing outward with the two fingers, the knife twirls inward to a reverse position, where A re-grabs the knife in Reverse Hammer Grip. A then continues the flow of motion, striking an inward, downward forward circle, toward D’s lower regions, such as D’s groin and or upper thigh. • A traps D’s right hand with A’s left hand and stepping back with A’s right leg turns and #11 cutting strike in Reverse Hammer Grip on D’s right arm. • A pulls back and using A’s right thumb to rotate the knife clockwise within A’s hand, A then upward spins the knife into a Saber Grip. A then thrusts an inverted thrust # 6 from the open side at D’s left chest. This completes the Six- count dexterity drill. Using common sense usually works out best in choosing the way one grabs a weapon. If one chooses to delicately hold a weapon in two fingers, allowing for artistic twirling, and one then subsequently loses grip and possession of one’s weapon in combat…well like I said…common sense goes a long way! NOTE: I once held a stick between my first two fingers and my thumb and I was rapidly twirling the stick. Professor Presas suddenly hit my stick with his stick and my stick flew out of my hand. “You are DEAD” was all he told me. I picked up my stick and started to twirl it again. This time upon impact with my stick, which again went flying, Professor Presas smacked me lightly in the head with his stick and said, “What did I tell you?” I picked up my stick and I learned how to make my wrists supple and to hold the stick in my hand, WITH MY FULL HAND, as if my life depended on it!

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Chapter:#13 Disarms are incidental: they just happen within the flow! Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting 1974 Manila, Philippines

When the defender has NO THER MEANS to repel an attacker, his ONLY choice left is to use his bare hands in disarming his opponent. This is rather risky! Only people with adequate skills must attempt this feat. Remember your adversary can EASILY exploit his advantage with the proper use of his weapons. Disarms have a romantic connotation to them. Everyone who wants to learn disarms has this image of an attacker coming at them, swinging away with deadly intent as they, the defenders, step in and redirect the poor attacker into a disarming technique. The deadly weapon snatched away at the last possible moment and sometimes even used by the defender to counter attack the attacker. This is not reality based thinking. Disarms, as we know them appear in split seconds, momentary positions within actual movements that might allow the attacking weapon to be removed from the attacker’s hand. These moments in time appear and disappear with regularity. Each full motion or partial motion of an attacker has the potential to be used to disarm a weapon. The possibility of doing a disarm abounds, the probability of actually doing a disarm is almost nil. In a classroom situation one can insert disarms with intent and with total disregard for the consequences. This reenforces the attitude that disarming is a skill that exists by itself. The act of disarming is seen and taught as a means unto itself instead of what disarming is really supposed to be. To be more specific, let’s give a very vivid example of “disarming”: try imagining a Cusinart or a kitchen blender with the cutting blades turned off. It’s a simple matter to reach in and remove the blades. Now turn it on. Would you reach into this whirling mass of sharp steel and remove the blades? No way, for the ONLY thing to be removed would be one’s fingers. The blades would keep merrily turning and cutting completely oblivious to the attempt to “disarm” them. In theory it was simple. In a set environment, let’s say for example of getting the machine ready, ANYONE could learn to remove the blades or disarm the machine. In reality it’s impossible EXCEPT in a very specific time…like when the machine is completely turned off. With the blades in action, moving slowly or really fast, it becomes impossible to remove the blades. In many schools of martial arts and schools of supposed Combative arts, disarms are routinely taught to the students. These disarms are based on the instructors pre conceived ideas of what an attacker will do with weapon while attacking and how that attacker will respond throughout the disarming technique. No one mentions the unmentionable: that not only does the attacker respond to the attempted disarm but the attacker might actively counter the disarming. To avoid dealing with this situation, most instructors teach the disarms as separate from combative reality. These disarms are taught as a set of responses to a particular type of attack. Worse yet these disarms are taught as UNIVERSAL disarms applicable to blunt OR edged weapons alike. This universal approach has the potential to harm, maim or at extreme get the defender killed. Blunt and edged weapons utilize different conceptual motion usage even if the attacking planes of motion are identical. Instructors don’t understand that and deem them the same and teach the response patterns as the same as well. Since Combat is an ever-changing variable, the ability to interject some control over the act of combat is indeed enticing. Disarms give one the ability to seemingly control part of the act of combat. If disarms are taught in a conceptual manner they can be used to a defenders advantage. If disarms are taught as a set response to an attack, then they will fail as often as any pre recorded empty hand response. Conceptual motion is the only way to respond to spontaneous attack. To learn

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conceptual motion allowing for immediate natural response to a spontaneous attack takes learning with in a framework based on a variable reality. For one to learn disarms, the learning has to be done within the framework of “what if and where is…” The “what if” is how is the attack being delivered, from what position or grip, and with what type of weapon. The “where is” considers on what plane of motion the attack coming from. This framework is not anything but a basic framework. It allows for understanding the act of disarming but is not disarming itself. It is at this early point that most people teaching disarming go wrong. They give the basic framework life unto itself, a separate meaning as if disarms could stand on their own. All the basic framework does is give one a clear reference point, an alphabet to readily see “how disarm is spelled”. Learning how to spell disarm, does not mean one understands how to use it in a sentence, the meaning of the word “disarm” nor the connotations of the word spelled. The grammar of disarm is what needs to be taught and the grammar is what most instructors themselves don’t understand! Some noted Filipino instructors, such as Angle Cabales and Johnny La Costa have stated (while they were alive) that if one can understand how to defend against angles #1 and #2, one can defend against ALL POSSIBLE angles of attack. Professor Remy Presas, the founder of MODERN ARNIS, likes to tell his students “ you see? It is all the same. When you understand there is no difference!” In general this can be applied to disarming as well, as long as the weapon being disarmed is a blunt weapon and not an edged one. But what most people miss is the underlying concept that instructors like these wanted one to understand. One hears this universal statement and tries to do exactly the same technique or pre-recorded response to any angle of attack. These instructors wanted one to understand the planes of motion, to see the conceptual usage within the motion, so that one could solve the problem of multiple angles of attack. The Filipino way of conceptual motion is still the best foundation on which to build disarming skills. Within this conceptual foundation lies the heart of the “disarming motions”. The disarms, whether set up with weapon to weapon or empty hand to weapon teach certain fundamental concepts and reference points. The disarms are taught to specific angles of attack not because these attacks need these responses but to understand the concepts used. Using certain responses to specific attacks allow for an easy to see illustration of the concept. There are many ways to set up or name angles of attack. In CSSD/SC two sets of 12 angles of attack are used: one for blunt weapons, one for edged weapons. These numbered angles allow one to start spelling disarm in a safe context! The first thing the disarm teaches is the correct way to approach an attack. If one starts out from the wrong approach one NEVER gets to the disarm, for one is immediately filleted. With that caveat in mind lets look at a #1 attack and what can be learned about spelling “DISARM”. An attack, in this case is a number #1 downward diagonal strike delivered from the open side, (top right to lower left) with the weapon in the right hand. The basic defensive conceptual motion is the primary one of “OPEN-CLOSE”. Anatomical function dictates that to “close” ones’ arm across ones’ body the palm needs to be up. (Actually the same concept of function works with a strike across the body, for one ending position of closed is palm up.) Bringing the outside forearm (in this case and point a palm up position) into contact with the inside of the attacking arm again follows function in that the flexors, the arteries and the main nerves of the defensive arm face AWAY from the force of the attack. This same rotation keeps the elbow close to and protecting the body in a natural position. With this position and contact there is now a reference point: outside forearm (palm up) to attacking arm. Many martial arts styles have a name for this position/ reference point but the Wing Chun Kung Fu people have the best name: TAN SAU…PALM UP. Simplicity. Call something by what it is or

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does. From this reference point the arm moves to the “open” position. The “open” position is “open downward” away from the body: FUT SAU…SWINGING HAND. This swinging motion force the reference point to stay the same while the point of contact (the forearm) rotates around the attacker’s arm through the full plane of motion. The “open” arm is still outside forearm (reference point) palm down to attackers outside forearm. The Filipinos call the full range of these two conceptual motions used together, PALLASOOT. It is also part of the conceptual motion usage in Single Sinawali (single arm weaving) Due to the use of “open-close” several things happen at the point of contact: The point of contact is on the nerve that controls the attacker’s hand Two different re-directional forces have occurred: A rotational force has intercepted the attacking force shifting its plane of motion A defensive horizontal plane has become a vertical forward plane AWAY from the body The attacker’s mobility and balance have been shifted At the end of the motion with the right arm “opening” the left forearm “closes” (an alternating sequential motion) palm up to the NEW point of contact; the outside of the attacker’s arm. The right arm withdraws to the body. The left arm does a mirror image of the defensive conceptual motion done with the right arm: going from “open–close-open” (across, down, away). There is no spelling of disarm but the sound of speaking “disarm” is now understood. Within the complete motion lie many spellings of “DISARM”. To spell “disarm” the attackers wrist, or hand or thumb will be grabbed and controlled by the non- passing arm (the one not engaged in point of contact or changing planes of motion) It is this point that learning “disarms” for specific angles comes into play. As stated before each angle is not to teach a specific disarm but to allow one to illustrate each conceptual usage: to understand the spelling. Each angle teaches from a reference point, the best parts of one’s anatomy, to use to enact or spell a particular disarm. That way, when in combat, when one feels a reference point, a disarm is automatically spelled using the appropriate parts and motions. When utilizing a weapon against a weapon, BIOMECHANICAL disruption can easily cause “disarms”. Weapon to weapon, using biomechanical destructions or disruptions are the safest way to disarm an opponent / attacker. One stays out of range of the attacking weapon and attacks the weapon supporting hand or limb. This form of disarming is not romantic, is not pretty, but it is extremely effective. For example cutting off an attacker’s fingers that hold a weapon will disarm the attacker. Cutting the attacker’s flexor muscles will cause a disarm. Cutting off the attacker’s thumb on the weapon hand will disarm the weapon. Hitting the attacker’s weapon bearing hand with a blunt weapon breaking the hand will cause a disarm. Breaking the fingers of the weapon bearing hand with a strike from a blunt weapon will cause a disarm. Striking the nerve plexus in the attackers forearm with a blunt weapon can cause a disarm. Striking the head with blunt or edged weapons can cause a disarm. None of these disarms asks one to spell “disarm” in a conventional way. NOTE: In the extreme, De-animation, termination or killing the opponent / attacker will cause a disarm as well. The first and most common conventional image of a disarm is one of controlling an attackers weapon or weapon hand and stripping the weapon out of it (usually with the weapon bouncing across the floor with a loud bang). The second conventional image is for the ADVANCED weapon disarmers who not only strip the weapon out of the attackers hand but gain control of the weapon and feed it back into the attacker as a counter attack! The difference between the conventional image of a disarm and a conceptual one is that the conventional grabs the disarm out of any starting point without consideration of the flow of combat. The conceptual image of a disarm is one that starts from within the context of the flow of combat. Both end up with the weapon stripped and or fed back into the opponent. The non-conventional image uses the concept of destroy the attackers

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weapon hand or base to enact a disarm. Only the conventional disarm has no basis in reality for its image. There are several groups of concepts of actual disarms: Empty hand to Blunt weapon Empty hand to edged weapon Blunt weapon to blunt weapon Blunt weapon to edged weapon Edged weapon to blunt weapon Edged weapon to edged weapon Each of these groups uses the same basic framework as a point to acquire its reference points. The difference is in the actual tool used to enact / spell the disarm. Each tool has unique principles to itself and its own conceptual usage. Because the attacking weapon also has these unique principles and conceptual usage, care must be given to understand where the interception of these planes of motion or usage occurs and to use them to spell out disarm. A response to each group is discussed in “step by step” conceptual motion format. Empty hand to Blunt Weapon Response: 1) 2) Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Sticks break bones. The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking stick outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of stick range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the thumb of the attacking weapon hand. Without losing adhesion roll the right hand in a clockwise forward vertical circle (inward / upward toward the body, between the attackers hand and ones’ own body) and continue the circle out and downward stripping the weapon out of the attackers hand with either the hand or the forearm.

3)

4) 5) 6)

Empty hand to Edged Weapon Response: 1) Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Steel cuts flesh. The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. 2) Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the

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3)

4) 5) 6)

outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking knife outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of knife / blade range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the meat of the thumb of the attacking weapon hand. Without losing adhesion with the attackers arm, roll the right hand in a clockwise forward vertical circle (inward / upward toward the body, between the attackers hand and ones’ own body). Continue the circle out and downward stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand with the outside of ones’ own forearm. (rotate the forearm onto the side of the edged weapon NOT into the edge itself)

Blunt weapon to Blunt weapon Response: 1) Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Sticks break bones: The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. Basic variations or possibilities: Stick to arm is acceptable, stick to stick is acceptable: stick to stick MAY cause rebounding and loss of adhesion. Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking stick outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of stick range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the thumb of the attacking weapon hand. Without losing adhesion roll the right hand in a clockwise forward vertical circle (inward / upward toward the body, between the attackers hand and ones’ own body). Put the tip of ones’ own stick under the ones’ own left arm in the armpit and continue the circle out and downward with the butt of the weapon, stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Use either the butt of the weapon or the ones’ forearm.

2)

3)

4) 5) 6)

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Blunt weapon to Edged weapon Response: 1) Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Steel cuts flesh: The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. Basic variations or possibilities: Stick to arm is acceptable, stick to knife is less acceptable, because the knife is a small target. Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking knife outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of knife / blade range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the thumb of the attacking weapon hand. Without losing adhesion roll the right hand and the stick in an outside clockwise forward vertical circle (outward / upward toward the attacker, outside of ones’ right side). Put the portion of the stick just over the hand onto the side of the edged weapon. Continue the circle out and down, towards the attacker, stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Variation: Use either the butt of the weapon or the outside of ones’ forearm.

2)

3)

4) 5) 6)

Edged weapon to Blunt weapon response: 1) Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Sticks break bones: The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. Basic variations or possibilities: Knife to arm is acceptable, knife to stick is unacceptable…the stick can overpower the steel by leverage or percussion. The edge can become embedded in the stick. Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking stick outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of stick range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the thumb of the attacking weapon hand.

2)

3)

4) 5)

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6)

Without losing adhesion roll the right hand and the knife in an outside clockwise forward vertical circle (outward / upward toward the attacker, outside of ones’ right side). Put the portion of the knife just over the guard onto the attacker’s fingers. Continue the circle out and down, and toward the attacker, cutting and stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Variation: Use either the butt of the weapon or the outside of ones’ forearm. OR without losing adhesion, carefully with self preservation in mind, WITHOUT cutting ones’ self, roll the right hand with the knife edge DOWN in a clockwise forward vertical circle (inward / upward toward the body, between the attackers hand and ones’ own body). At the top of the circle rotate the edge outward (functionality of form). Put the portion of the knife just over the guard onto the attacker’s fingers. Continue the circle out and down, and toward the attacker, cutting and stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Variation: Use either the butt of the weapon or ones’ forearm.

Edged weapon to Edged weapon Response: 1. Step up 45 degrees with the right foot while body shifting inward toward the attack. One must step up to engage the arm of the attacker NOT the weapon. Steel cuts flesh: The arm is moving slower than the weapon and is vulnerable. Basic variations or possibilities: Knife to arm is acceptable, knife to knife is unacceptable: loss of fingers is possible...steel slides on steel Catch the inside forearm of the attacking weapon arm with the outside forearm of the right arm: one does a closing motion (palm up) intercepting the attacking arm with the outside forearm of the “closing” right arm. This rotation force redirects the attack and injects a disruptive signal into the nerve controlling the hand with the weapon. (The nerve must be hit from behind and moving towards the hand to be effective.) “open” the arm in a circular downward motion, maintaining a forward pressure as well as keeping the outside forearm of the defending right arm to the inside of the attacking arm. The defending forearm will rotate over and around to the outside of the attacking arm. The “open- close- open” from a high plane of motion to a low plane of motion will pass the attacking knife outside the range of the body. Step back to center then backwards and outwards 45 degrees as one finishes the “openclose-open’ motion. This stepping in phase helps move the body out of knife / blade range while keeping adhesion of the arms. Insert the left hand with a “close” motion, palm up onto the attackers forearm, momentarily trapping the forearm BETWEEN the two arms. Rotate the left hand clockwise to grab the thumb of the attacking weapon hand. Without losing adhesion roll the right hand and the knife in an outside clockwise forward vertical circle (outward / upward toward the attacker, outside of ones’ right side). Put the portion of the knife just over the guard onto the attacker’s fingers. Continue the circle out and down, and toward the attacker, cutting and stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Variation: Use either the butt of the weapon or the outside of ones’ forearm. OR without losing adhesion roll the right hand (carefully with edge awareness)in a clockwise forward vertical circle with the knife edge DOWN(inward / upward toward the body, between the attackers hand and ones’ own body). At the top of the circle rotate edge outward (form following function). Put the portion of the knife just over the guard onto the attacker’s fingers. Continue the circle out and down, and toward the attacker, cutting and stripping the weapon out of the attacker’s hand. Variation: Use either the butt of the weapon or ones’ forearm.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

Are there structured disarms?

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Yes, there are structured disarms and they exist as the basic alphabet to see how we spell disarm. Drills designed to “feel disarms” are a framework to understand the grammatical usage of disarms. Neither are actual disarms for as stated disarms are moments in time that translate into interception of motion and reorganizing of the flow of combat into a momentarily controlled situation. Can the basic spelling of disarm be taught? Can the spelling and grammar of what one perceives as “disarm” be learned? Yes, the “disarm can be “learned” and to understand the relationship between weapon and hand, a Filipino based learning framework is used. The classic system of framework is based on empty hand to stick or knife and stick to stick. Conceptual usage comes from this basic framework. Again, remember this framework gives spelling of disarm, gives reference points of contact and conceptual motion that MUST BE read into the basic framework itself, by the practitioner and the instructor. In a physical state there are three basic hand positions that are considered “disarm” reference points. The hand position is always the hand of the opponent / attacker which holds the weapon. The reference points are from the final spot of motion IMMEDIATELY before the actual disarm. Position KEY #1: palm outward, knuckles up, thumb up, back of hand inward Position KEY #2: palm outward, knuckles forward, thumb down, back of hand inward Position KEY #3: palm inward toward body, knuckles out to side, thumb up, back of hand forward These are called KEY spots. If these hand positions were to be animated; that is shot on single frames of film and then played back, they describe the full possible rotation of ones wrist: form follows anatomical function. Key #1 is the extreme top outside rotation of the wrist and arm. Key #2 is the extreme bottom inside rotation of the wrist and arm. Key #3 is the midrange non-rotated position of the wrist and arm. The three keys are situational points in a conceptual motion of rotation, and become part of the spelling of disarm. Therefore the three points are the KEYS to the full range of motion. Anyone position is a reference point that unlocks the other positions in that range of motion. These KEYS if used together give the conceptual motion of single arm weaving: Single Sinawali. These KEYS give the ability to unlock many of the possible motions based on the principle of “OPEN-CLOSE”. The most common disarming known, the easiest to recognize is basic stick to stick disarming. The old learning adages is that Knife teaches stick, stick teaches empty hand and empty hand teaches function. The translation doesn’t quite work in that orderly a progression BUT learning stick to stick is an easy way to understand conceptual motion and reference points. There are many different versions of stick disarms that are taught by many Arnis instructors. None are really better than the others are and usually the concepts are the same and if taken to the core the principles are identical as well. These particular basic stick disarms that I am discussing are based on the foundation and teachings of MODERN ARNIS: theFilipino Martial art of REMY PRESAS. Let’s take a look at basic stick to stick disarming. Remember in Modern Arnis there are also counters to the disarms that are taught as well. Basic Stick to stick disarming: Basic counter blocking on the strikes is done for example #1 against #1 and is referred to: strike #1 and blocking strike #1. Blocking sets up the disarming The disarms will be done as A against D. (A -for attacker, D- for defender) Disarm against a #1 angle. Downward diagonal from the open side. • A strikes with a #1 strike downward diagonal to D’s neck / left shoulder from A’s open side.

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• • • •

D steps up right 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #1 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike. D slides the checking hand from junction of sticks to the left, onto A’s upper stick D, grabbing the stick, makes a forward vertical circle: a rowing motion, drawing the upper stick into D’s body. This rowing forces A’s hand to rotate to position Key #1 D pushes forward and outward with D’s stick, stripping A’s stick from A’s hand.

Disarm against a #1 angle. Variation #1 • A strikes with a #1 strike downward diagonal to D’s neck / left shoulder from A’s open side. • D steps up right 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #1 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike. • D slides the checking hand from junction of sticks, to the right, onto the base of A’s thumb • D does a forward vertical SMALL circle rotating A’s hand (by the thumb) into position Key #1 • D strips the stick out of A’s hand with D’s right outside forearm. Disarm against a #1 angle. Variation #2 • A strikes with a #1 strike downward diagonal to D’s neck / left shoulder from A’s open side. • D steps up right 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #1 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike • D pushes D’s stick from the checking point in a forward vertical circle, then rotating the tip of D’s stick counterclockwise under A’s wrist and onto the inside of A’s right wrist. • D’s motion rotates A’s hand into position Key #1 • D continues counterclockwise motion stripping the stick from A’s hand. Disarm against a #2 angle. Downward diagonal from the closed side. • A strikes with a #2 strike downward diagonal to D’s neck / right shoulder from A’s close side. • D steps up left 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #2 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike. • D slides the checking hand from junction of sticks to the left, onto A’s upper wrist, lower forearm • D turns left hand PALM UP, D rotates A’s arm open down-close up, while retaining adhesion and D’s hand rotates around A’s arm. (Simultaneous single arm weaving in the plane of motion around the arm itself and single arm weaving of the arm within a plane of motion relative to the body.) • D rotates D’s left hand PALM up into a “close” position on D’s chest, locking A’s hand against D’s chest in position Key #2. • D’s left hand rotates palm down, maintaining its vertical plane, D quickly pushes the left palm down toward the ground. Before reaching full extension D’s hand disarms A’s stick.

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Disarm against a #2 angle. Variation #1 • A strikes with a #2 strike Downward diagonal to D’s neck / right shoulder from A’s close side. • D steps up left 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #2 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike. • D slides the checking hand from junction of sticks to the left, onto A’s upper wrist, lower forearm • D turns left hand PALM UP, D rotates A’s arm open down-close up, while retaining adhesion and D’s hand rotates around A’s arm. (Simultaneous single arm weaving in the plane of motion around the arm itself and single arm weaving of the arm within a plane of motion relative to the body.) • D rotates D’s left hand PALM up into a “close” position on D’s chest, locking A’s hand against D’s chest in position Key #2. • D steps up right and rotates D’s body, pivoting on D’s left foot, inward toward A’s trapped arm. D raises right elbow while pivoting inward. • D drives right elbow down through A’s right arm, over the elbow on the triceps tendon zone, causing extreme pain and A’s stick to stripped from A’s hand. Disarm against a #2 angle. Variation #2 • A strikes with a #2 strike Downward diagonal to D’s neck / right shoulder from A’s close side. • D steps up left 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward and strikes a #2 blocking strike. D uses the left hand to re-enforce the block and catch the rebound of the strike. • D slides the checking hand and the stick to the left, onto A’s upper wrist, lower forearm • D turns the tip of D’s stick clockwise under A’s weapon hand., D rotates A’s arm open down-close up, while retaining adhesion and D’s hand rotates around A’s arm. (Simultaneous single arm weaving in the plane of motion around the arm with the stick while the arm moves in a rotational plane from the body) • D continues the circling as D’s wrist and A’s wrist maintain adhesion. D brings A’s hand to position Key #2 in front of D’s body. • D grabs A’s stick using D’s left hand, near A’s hand and continuing the circular motion with D’s right hand: D’s stick strips the weapon from A’s hand. The basic disarms, done on angle #1 use the same conceptual motions to move through the planes of motion. The conceptual usage is slightly different in each case. In the first Basic disarm #1, the left hand grabs the stick and rotates the weapon hand into position Key #1, so that the defender’s stick can disarm it. In the next variation of Basic Disarm #1, the hand rotates the hand to the same position Key #1 and the defender’s forearm does the disarm. Then in the last variation of Basic disarm #1, the inserted stick rotates the arm and hand to the position Key #1 and the defender’s weapon bearing arm does the disarm. • Left hand does rotation by stick to position Key #1 • Left hand does rotation by hand/ thumb to position Key #1 • Stick in right hand does rotation by wrist and stick to position Key #1 The same can be said of Basic disarm for angle #2. Conceptual motion is the same but the conceptual usage is slightly different on each variation. • Left hand-palm up does rotation and rotates again to position Key #2 • Left hand –palm up does rotation and body rotates inwards for elbow to be in position Key #2

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Stick in right hand does rotation by wrist and stick to position Key #2

Reference points are being learned so that within the flow of combat, when the reference points are engaged, in that moment in time, a disarm is possible. Motion is constant and variable, so the reference points come and go. Learning recognition of the reference points and the conceptual usage of motion to engage the Keys needs to become as close to a natural response as possible. When this happens, the probability of discovering a disarm within the context of the flow of combat rises. The Angle #2 a downward diagonal from the closed side has the ability to be put into position Key #3 very easily. This is based on “form follows function”. When entering the plane of motion of an attack from the closed side, anatomically one receives the attacker’s hand in a position Key#3. Disarms from this Key #3 spot are usually referred to as “quick strips” due to the almost immediate ability to respond to the attack with a disarm. Disarm against #2 angle using KEY #3 position: • • • • • • A strikes with a #2 downward diagonal strike to D’s neck / right shoulder from A’s closed side D steps up 45 degrees left along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s #2 strike with a #2 blocking strike. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand to control any rebound of the stick. D slides D’s left hand onto A’s weapon hands’ thumb, gabbing the meat of the thumb. D rotates upward / inward and has A’s hand in position Key#3. D immediately strips the stick from A’s hand with a forward vertical DOWNWARD circular motion. Variation: D immediately shifts D’s weapon hand up, placing the butt of the stick on A’s stick. Using a forward vertical downward circular motion, D strips the stick from A’s hand.

Disarm against #2 angle using KEY #3 position: variation #1 • • • • • • A strikes with a #2 downward diagonal strike to D’s neck / right shoulder from the A’s close side D steps up 45 degrees left along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s #2 strike with a #2 blocking strike. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand to control any rebound of the stick. D slides D’s left hand under A’s weapon hands’ wrist. D rotates upward / inward and has A’s hand in position Key#3. D immediately strips the stick from A’s hand with a clockwise downward circular motion. Variation: D immediately shifts D’s weapon hand up placing the butt of D’s stick on A’s stick. Using a clockwise downward circular motion, D strips the stick from A’s hand.

Disarm against a #3 angle: Horizontal strike from open side to close side • A strikes a #3 horizontal strike to D’s left side / left elbow from A’s open side.

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• • •

D steps up right 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward toward A’s attack. D blocks A’s strike #3 with a blocking strike #1. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand to check and catch the rebound. D slides the checking hand to the right and inserts D’s left hand between D’s stick and the outside forearm of A’s weapon hand. D does a “close to open” counterclockwise circle with the D’s left arm, rotating around A’s wrist while rotating A’s arm through a vertical circular plane of motion to position Key #1. Conceptual motion of single arm weaving: ( Palm down and outward to palm up and inward) D drops the tip of D’s stick behind and to the left side of D. D uses D’s right forearm to disarm A’s stick. The disarming motion is that of drawing a sword.

Disarm against a #4 angle: Horizontal strike from close side to open side • • • A strikes a #4 horizontal strike to D’s right side / right elbow from A’s close side D steps up left 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle. D body shifts inward toward A’. D blocks A’s #4 strike with a #2 blocking strike. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand to check and control the rebound of the stick. D rotates D’s check hand to the right ( D’s fingers point to the right), while maintaining adhesion to both sticks. Then using A’s stick as fulcrum, D guides the tip of D’s stick (with D’s fingers) in a forward horizontal close circle, bringing the tip of D’s stick onto the outside of the thumb of A’s weapon hand. D grabs both sticks with D’s left hand (base of D’s hand toward A’s hand) and slides the left hand towards A’s weapon hand. D squeezes the two sticks together. Note: The disarm MIGHT happen at this point even if unintentional for the circular motion locks D’s stick on the median nerve in the thumb. Intense PAIN occurs D moves D’s left hand and the tip of D’s stick, toward the left side of D, in an “open – close” clockwise forward vertical circular motion. The motion traps A’s weapons hand in a combination thumb-lock, wrist center-lock. Position Key #2 D does conceptual usage of “close-open” (single arm weaving) a forward downward vertical circular motion toward D’s right side and strips A’s stick from A’s weapon hand.

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Disarm against a #5 angle: thrust to midline / center thrust: Tip of stick is in down position • • A thrusts a #5 angle, straightforward, into D’s center / abdomen – groin- solar plexus. D “zones” right, stepping right along base of male triangle and body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s #5 thrust with an inward downward vertical blocking motion (D’s hand is inverted, tip of stick toward the ground, weapon hand about chest / abdomen height). D reenforces the block with D’s left hand checking under D’s weapon hand. D rotates the butt of D’s stick in a vertical downward forward circular motion over the back of A’s weapon’s hand…while D’s left hand grabs A’s stick. A’s hand rotates into position Key #1. D drives the butt of D’s stick into the back of A’s weapon hand. D pushes forward on both sticks with D’s left hand. D steps back with the right 45 degrees, body shifting away from A while pulling D’s stick hand back to D’s right side stripping the stick from A’s weapon hand. Close – Open conceptual usage.

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Disarm against a #5 angle: thrust to midline / center thrust: Tip of stick is in up position • • • • • A thrusts #5 angle, straightforward, from close to A’s open side into the center of D’s body. D “ zones” right, stepping right along base of male triangle and body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s #5 thrust with a blocking strike #1. D’s left arm does an “open” downward motion trapping A’s stick between D’s stick and D’s left forearm. D’s left hand disengages from the trap and reaches over D’s weapon hand to grab A’s weapon wrist. D’s grabbing of A’s wrist rotates A’s wrist to position Key #3 D shifts from stick to stick contact to putting D’s right forearm onto the top of A’s stick. Both of D’s hands execute a counterclockwise upward vertical circle (sequential single arm weaving on a single plane of motion. D’s left hand pulls up on A’s weapon wrist while D’s right forearm pushes on A’s stick) stripping the stick from A’s weapon hand.

Disarm against a #6 angle: inverted (palm down) / upward- horizontal thrust from open side • • • • A thrusts a #6 angle from A’s open side, into D’s left chest area D steps up right 45 degrees along outside of female triangle and body shifts inward toward A. D blocks the #6 thrust with a blocking strike #1. D’s left hand re-enforces the block and checks the rebound. D rotates D’s left hand to the right (fingers point to the right) while maintaining adhesion to both sticks. D grabs both sticks with left hand while rotating D’s right hand (weapon hand) in an upward counterclockwise vertical circle. D’s weapon hand leads BUTT first under A’s weapon hand. The upward motion of D’s weapon hand puts A’s weapon hand into position Key #2. Both of D’s hands execute a clockwise, upward vertical circular motion from the “closeopen” position (sequential single arm weaving on the same plane of motion). D’s right hand finishes the “close-open” in full open position by D’s right side, with D’s left hand following the same path. The motion strips the stick from A’s hand.

Disarm against a #7 angle: inverted (palm up) / upward – horizontal thrust from the close side • • • • A thrusts a #7 angle from A’s close side, into D’s right chest area. D steps up right 45 degrees along the outside of female triangle and body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s thrust with a blocking strike #2. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand, checking the rebound. D executes a close-open conceptual motion: inserting (close) D’s left arm between A’s stick and D’s right forearm, then (open) with A’s stick being grabbed in D’s left hand. At the end of the “open-close” motion, A’s weapon hand is in position Key #1. At this moment D’s stick rests vertically on A’s weapon arm (right forearm) and A’s stick is horizontally across D’s stick. A’s weapon hand is now in position Key #1. D executes a “shearing motion: right hand in a clockwise forward vertical circle turning palm up, while the left hand holding A’s stick does a downward clockwise forward vertical circle. The intersection of these planes of motion is the fulcrum point of A’s stick and D’s stick. A’s stick is stripped out of A’s weapon hand.

Disarm against angle #8: upward diagonal from the close side. • A strikes a #8 upward diagonal from A’s close side towards D’s right leg / knee.

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D steps up left 45 degrees along the outside of a female triangle and body shifts inward toward A. D blocks A’s #8 strike with a blocking strike #8. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand, checking the rebound. D does a forward clockwise downward circular motion, pushing the butt of D’s stick over A’s weapons hand. D’s left hand grabs both sticks. D executes a “close-open” large clockwise circular motion (the motion goes low close high open) catching A’s weapon hand from the outside with the butt of D’s stick. The action puts A’s weapons hand in the position Key #2. The close-open motion ends by D’s right side. D steps back with the right, rotating D’s body to the right, stripping the stick from A’s weapons hand.

Disarm against angle #9: upward diagonal from the open side. • • • • • • • A strikes a #9 upward diagonal from A’s open side towards D’s left leg / knee. D steps up 45 degrees along the outside of the female triangle and body shifts towards A. D blocks A’s #9 strike with a blocking strike #9. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand, checking the rebound from underneath D’s weapon’s hand. D circles D’s left hand in a clockwise horizontal circle catching the back of A’s weapon’s hand by the wrist. D rotates the wrist slightly into position Key #3, while pulling A’s weapon’s hand to a close position D Pushes D’s stick through A’s stick into a close position, stripping the stick from A’s weapon’s hand. The motion is “closing” with both arms simultaneously.

Disarm against angle #9: upward diagonal from the open side. Variation # 1 • A strikes a #9 upward diagonal from A’s open side towards D’s left leg / knee. • D steps up 45 degrees along the outside of the female triangle and body shifts towards A. • D blocks A’s #9 strike with a blocking strike #9. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand, checking the rebound from over D’s weapon’s hand in a close position. • D circles D’s left hand in a clockwise horizontal circle catching the back of A’s weapon’s hand by the wrist. • D rotates the wrist slightly into position Key #3, while pulling A’s weapon’s hand to a close position • D lets the pressure from both sticks move the tip of D’s stick to rest along the outside of D’s right arm and D’s hand rotates slightly palm up. This is a very strong position. The butt of the stick is toward A, the tip of D’s stick is past D’s right elbow and the stick is reenforced by D’s forearm. • D Pushes D’s stick through A’s stick using D’s forearm and with hip rotation, into a close position, stripping the stick from A’s weapon’s hand. • The motion is “closing” with both arms simultaneously. Disarm against strike #10: upward inverted thrust from the open side. Palm down. • • A strikes a #10 upward inverted thrust toward D’s left eye / face area from A’s open side. D blocks A’s #10 thrust with blocking strike #1. D re-enforces the block with D’s left hand.

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D executes an “close high-open low” motion (single arm Sinawali) with D’s left hand, trapping A’s weapon’s hand between D’s left forearm and D’s stick. The motion of D’s left hand / arm is along a vertical forward counterclockwise circle. D continues the motion of D’s left hand catching A’s weapon’s hand behind the wrist in position Key#2. D has A’s stick trapped against D’s left shoulder. D continues the circular motion of D’s left hand stripping the stick from A’s weapon’s hand. D’s arm / hand is in a close palm up position. The conceptual motion is alternating open- close with both arms.

Disarm against strike # 11: upward inverted thrust from the closed side. Palm up. • • • • A strikes a #11 upward inverted thrust toward D’s right eye / face area from A’s close side. D steps left 45 degrees up the outside of the female triangle and body shifts toward A. D blocks A’s #11 thrust with a #2 blocking strike and re-enforces the block with D’s left hand, checking the rebound. D moves D’s left hand in a forward vertical upward circular motion, grabbing A’s weapon’s hand from underneath: D’s thumb on the meat of A’s right thumb, D’s left fingers on the back of A’s right hand. D’s grabbing hand is palm up. A’s weapon’s hand is palm up in position KEY#1. D pulls A’s weapon’s hand to an open position while pushing D’s stick against A’s stick into an open position. The conceptual usage of the OPEN motion strips the stick from A’s weapon’s hand.

Disarm against strike #12: Downward vertical strike from the close or open side. D is in a close position. Attack is either “open or close”. • • • • A strikes a #12 downward vertical strike toward the top of D’s head. D steps up right 45 degrees up the outside of the female triangle and body shifts toward A. D from a close-low position brings both arms upward to a close-high position, intercepting A’s downward vertical strike. D’s left-hand checks A’s weapon’s hand while D’s left forearm re-enforces the block (this is a matter of form following function D rotates D’s left hand from underneath D’s weapon’s hand in a forward downward vertical circle, rotating around D’s and A’s weapon’s hands. D grabs BOTH sticks with D’s left hand while rotating the butt of D’s stick over the back of A’s weapon’s hand in a forward downward vertical circular motion. This helps continue A’s downward motion creating the space to clear A’s stick. D ‘s motion and grabbing of both sticks rotates A’s weapon’s hand into position Key #1. D hooks A’s weapon’s hand with the butt of D’s stick. D drives the butt of D’s stick into the back of A’s weapon hand. D pushes forward on both sticks with D’s left hand. D steps back with the right 45 degrees body shifting away from A while pulling D’s stick hand back to D’s right side stripping the stick from A’s weapon hand. Close-Open conceptual usage.

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Disarm against strike #12: Downward vertical strike from the close or open side. D is in an open position. Attack is either “open or close”. • A strikes a #12 downward vertical strike toward the top of D’s head.

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D steps up left 45 degrees up the outside of the female triangle and body shifts toward A. D from an open-low position brings both arms upward to a close-high position, D’s weapon’s hand rotating to palm up. The Butt of D’s stick moves toward A while the tip of D’s stick points downward toward D’s right side. D’s stick is in a slanting position. D’s slanting stick intercepts A’s downward vertical strike. D’s left-hand, closes to check the back of A’s weapon’s hand from the outside. D’s left forearm re-enforces the block (this is a matter of form following function. : the usage of the motion positions D into the proper space orientation) D slides D’s left hand onto A’s weapon hands’ thumb, gabbing the meat of the thumb. D rotates upward / inward and has A’s hand in position Key#3. D immediately strips the stick from A’s hand using D’s forearm with a forward vertical DOWNWARD circular motion. Variation: D immediately shifts D’s weapon hand up, placing the butt of the stick on A’s stick. Using a forward vertical downward circular motion, D strips the stick from A’s hand. Variation: D immediately shifts D’s weapon hand up, striking the butt of D’s stick on the back A’s weapon’s hand. Using the strike and a forward vertical downward circular motion of D’s forearm, D strips the stick from A’s hand.

In learning these disarms Modern Arnis wants the practitioner to understand that they, the disarms, happen within the flow of combat, upon actual impact of the opponent’s stick. Again upon that impact if you are he one being disarmed, Modern Arnis gives basic counters to the disarms. An example would be that as one’s number # 1 strike is blocked and the opponent starts a number #1 disarm of grabbing and rotating the stick, you execute a Pak or slap block the opponent’s stick hand into the opponent’s checking hand. (Which has grabbed the end of your stick) You bring your stick hand palm up and rotate the butt into the opponent’s stick hand, ripping the opponent’s stick out of their hand, freeing your stick. There are counters to every disarm. They exist to understand flow and sensitivity. Disarming an edged weapon is very different in conceptual usage. One cannot block the incoming attack to set up disarming. There is no percussive motion to deal with. The motion is a radius cutting a plane without barriers. Picture a Jedi Knight with a Light saber. The Light-saber cuts arcs into the air, arcs, which cut through anything in its’ path. There is no blocking the light-saber. Just as there is no blocking the knife! Steel cuts flesh all the time! Setting up knife disarms truly needs the principle of OPEN –CLOSE. One must use sensitivity and body mechanics just to survive and find the moment in space that allows one to attempt a knife disarm. WARNING: These DISARMS are for information and understanding ONLY. Attempting to disarm a knife-wielding opponent using ones’ empty hands can result in injury, maiming or DEATH. Therefore knife disarming is ONLY to save ones’ life when there is NO OTHER OPTION! Knife disarms carry a high degree of romantic imagery, the good guy attacked by the bad guy with a knife, steps in and with the grace, dignity and perfect technique, strips the offending weapon from the attacker’s hand, diffusing the situation with both parties unharmed. Learning Knife disarms is to allow one to feel where disarms might occur in the flow of combat. It’s a momentary reference point within the flow that says NOW! DO IT or LOSE IT! WHY? Because in a split second what seemed like a disarm is now the blade cutting into ones’ flesh. When that happens, one is now emotionally and physically a step behind the attacker and the attacker’s advantage continues to build in geometric proportions. The cutting WILL NOT STOP because one wishes it too. One can literally be cut to ribbons while the seconds tick by. Paul Vunak a JKD-Filipino martial arts weapons- street Combat instructor has many times tried to tell people that to disarm a blade

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wielding opponent is akin to holding out ones arms and saying, “OK…cut me” Paul has taught many official agencies about edged weapons and his mantra never changes. Don’t stick your empty hand in front of flashing steel…you will get cut, maybe very seriously or die! WARNING: These DISARMS are for information and understanding ONLY. Attempting to disarm a knife-wielding opponent using ones’ empty hands can result in injury, maiming or DEATH. Therefore knife disarming is ONLY to save ones’ life when there is NO OTHER OPTION! Practicing knife disarms can build sensitivity, speed, feel of the flow of combat and in practice it can be enjoyable. In some ways doing knife disarming is empowering, one feels as if one could control a deadly opponent. As one gets better at the disarming, more confident in ones’ ability to defeat an opponent with an edged weapon one must still maintain the realistic attitude of cynicism. Practice is not reality and one MUST NEVER get over confident when engaged with edged weapons, for one miss could end the whole situation. NOTE: I realize I will upset a lot of so called knife instructors, combat instructors, and martial arts instructors but this reality has been borne out in actual combat. Street combat can be worse than wartime combat for emotions run amok. Steel cuts flesh and no amount of training is going to change that! No matter what ANY instructor wants one to believe, all the great techniques in the world go down the tubes very quickly as the blood starts to flow. One is not going to take a CUT to get to the knife! “ One person drips, the other gushes!” “ One guy gets surgery the other guy a toe tag!” I don’t want someone, anyone, to watch my tapes, read my books, my articles and then decides that they are ready and WILLING to face an opponent armed with a knife. GOT IT? GOOD! I know I may be “beating a dead horse” but this is a very serious matter and I see it taught with no sense or feeling of the intensity of the subject! Several of my peer group and those that I learned from stress the same feelings. Listen to those that know. One attendee at a RIDDLE OF STEEL asked Jim Keating what he would do if confronted with a knife-wielding opponent. Being a very smart instructor, Jim replied RUN AWAY! The attendee asked again saying he wanted a REAL answer to which Jim replied “that is a real answer.” Jim Keating, Chris Sayoc, Mike Sayoc, Rufino “Raffy” Pambuan, Paul Vunak, Ron Balicki, Graciela Casillas, Diana Inosanto-Balicki, Kelly Worden, Liz Kennedy, Mike Janich, Hock Hochhiem, Cliff Stewart, and Burton Richardson are examples of real time knife/ edged weapons instructors who might pull off actual combative disarming. Yes there are others that might pull off disarms and there are those that taught this group of instructors, like the late Edgar Sulite, Guro Dan Inosanto, and Professor Remy Presas. These people are out there and stress edged weapons usage. They teach reality of combat. All echo the same beliefs. Check with them! If you won’t listen to me, listen to them! The average person cannot disarm someone in the heat of combat while the opponent attacks with deadly intent. Knife Disarms: the disarms are based on the principle of “open - close” and follow the principle of “Form follows function.” Because knives can be held in forward or reverse grip there seems to be the belief held by the common person and many instructors that the way one approaches disarming an opponent with a knife varies as to the way the opponent holds the knife. This sounds good in theory but since combat is spontaneous one needs to react without thinking. A spontaneous attack doesn’t allow for “Oh, he’s holding the knife in a reverse grip”. As stated in disarming Blunt weapons there are only three position keys to strip the weapon from the hand. These are principle positions, and they don’t change because the weapon held has changed. Form follows function, therefore there are still only the three ways to position the hand to strip the weapon out.

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In a physical state there are three basic hand positions that are considered “disarm” reference points. The hand position is always the hand of the opponent / attacker which holds the weapon. The reference points are from the final spot of motion IMMEDIATELY before the actual disarm. Position KEY #1: palm outward, knuckles up, thumb up, back of hand inward Position KEY #2: palm outward, knuckles forward, thumb down, back of hand inward Position KEY #3: palm inward toward body, knuckles out to side, thumb up, back of hand forward Knife is assumed to be in forward grip, in the right hand of the attacker. Disarms will be taken as within a FLOW. As one disarm ends another will begin. The disarms are not done in numerical order. Knife disarming is done within motion so by learning a flow of disarms, a sensitivity is developed to reference points of physical contact within the flow. One must recognize motion and feel not specific angles of attack. The knife can change direction too quickly. The disarms CAN be applied directly to a specific angle but that is not reality in the area of combative knife. NOTE: I have seen many disarms and disarming FLOWS, some good some bad. Most contain the same elements and conceptual usage. In Modern Arnis we have some knife disarming concepts but it became up to each instructor as to how to teach the flow. Each generation further from the Professor has less emphasis on Knife disarming or cutting. This Flow is based on the Disarming Flow as used by Ron Balicki. Ron’s Flow contains disarms from several instructors, some of whom we have in common. I have modified it and added in elements that I felt were important. But the credit for the core Flow belongs to Ron. Some of the disarms in the drill are other teacher’s variations on standard Filipino drills. The actual disarms are universal Filipino disarms which many of us know and teach. Up to this point I have ONLY seen this base Flow from Ron, my self and a couple of others but I believe, rightly, that Ron should get the credit for the base pattern of the disarming Flow-drill! Ron and his wife Diana Inosanto run edged and blunt weapons seminars and have educational tapes on knife usage and disarming. Modern Arnis itself has no known pattern of dealing with an edged response such as disarming a slashing attack. Modern Arnis as I was taught, used several responses to thrusts, and overhead hacking with a knife, but we were to learn about dealing with knives by transferring the stick work to blade. This doesn’t work, and as I worked and trained with several others and watching the Professor himself, the way of approaching a blade became clearer. I use Ron’s Flow that comes from the late Punyo Guro Edgar Sulite, Guro Dan, and others, for I feel it is a proper Filipino flow and works within the parameters of Modern Arnis. Disarm Flow starts against a #1 attack: downward diagonal slice from the open side. Disarm Flow #1 • • • • • • A attacks with a #1 strike towards the left side of D’s neck. D steps up the right side of the female triangle while body shifting towards A. At the same time that D begins stepping, D using a close motion, brings D’s right arm / hand palm up to intercept A’s right forearm. D steps back right along outside of male triangle while using an “close high-open low” motion (Counter-clockwise motion) with D’s right hand / arm. D maintains contact / adhesion with A’s attacking arm. D’s right arm rotates around A’s weapon’s arm from inside top to underneath outside. D’s motion allows A’s strike to move past D to D’s right side. D reaches across D’s body in a close motion with D’s left hand. D’s left-hand grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the outside top of the thumb. (D’s fingers grab the meat of the A’s right thumb) D’s left-hand pulls A’s weapon’s hand in a counterclockwise open motion. (from right to left). At the same time D maintains adhesion with A’s weapons arm with D’s right forearm

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which rotates around A’s right arm. D stops the motion at midpoint with A’s hand in position Key #3 upright. D maintains the grip on A’s thumb with D’s left hand. D strips the weapon, (which points vertically 12- o’clock ) from A’s right hand by pushing forward toward A, on the side of the blade, with the outside of D’s right forearm.

Disarm Flow #2: begins at end of Disarm flow #1 • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand. D’s right hand re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand, by the meat of the thumb, therefore controlling A’s right hand. With a small clockwise “close” motion, D brings A’s weapon’s hand to D’s left side into position Key #2. (The knife is in a downward vertical 6 o’clock position.) D’s left hand moves to a close position to D’s chest at the same time: a vertical backward counter clockwise motion; rolling. D steps back left along outside of male triangle at the same time as D initiates the re-grab and circular motion. D’s outside left forearm moves underneath A’s weapons hand and goes against the side or flat of the blade. D strips the weapon with an open motion by moving D’s left forearm forward and outward while pulling D’s right hand to an open position. Simultaneous open motion with both arms.

• • •

Disarm Flow #3: begins at end of Disarm flow#2 • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand. D maintains the hold on A’s weapons hand with D’s right hand and D’s left forearm makes a forward vertical circular motion between D’s body and A’s weapon’s hand. D’s left forearm comes to rest on the top of A’s weapon’s forearm just below A’s elbow. D executes a snapping inward rolling motion with D’s left forearm on A’s weapon’s forearm. At the same time, D steps back right along the outside of male triangle while pulling A forward off balance and ending up with D’s left forearm still on top of A’s forearm and D’s left hand palm up close position. D extends D’s left hand palm up, striking A in the right side of A’s neck with D’s extended fingers under the ear by the base of the jaw or in the carotid area. The strike gives A’s weapon’s arm completely into D’s control. D makes a backward vertical circle with D’s extended left hand, grabbing A’s weapon’s arm by the radial muscle. (top of A’s forearm just below the elbow) D steps forward right, up the outside of a female triangle, and body shifts toward A. Using a simultaneous “left- open/ right- close” motion; D pulls A’s weapons arm with D’s left hand in a horizontal counter clockwise open motion while D’s right hand closes in a horizontal counterclockwise circular motion. This places A’s weapon hand in a gooseneck lock – position Key #3 and brings A’s knifepoint into A’s neck area. Using a snapping downward motion of D’s right hand strips the knife from A’s weapon’s hand.

• • •

Disarm flow #4: begins at end of Disarm flow # 3 • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand. A cuts a counterclockwise vertical circle out towards D. D’s left- hand releases A’s weapon arm as D steps back left along the outside of a male triangle.

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• • • • •

D’s right hand maintains its ‘ hold on A’s weapon’s hand and mirrors its motion with a clockwise vertical forward circle. A’s striking motion along with D’s mirroring the motion while stepping back, puts A’s weapon arm locked out straight. A’s weapon’s hand is in position Key #2. D brings D’s left hand, palm up to A’s weapon. D grabs the weapon palm up from underneath as close to A’s hand as possible. D steps up left along the outside of a female triangle body shifting toward A while maintaining D’s hold on A’s knife. D’s motion strips the weapon from A’s hand and puts A into an arm bar position.

Disarm flow #5: begins at end of Disarm flow #4 • • • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in the position key #2. From a #6 thrusting position, A attempts to cut D with an inverted open side “C” cut to the body. D releases D’s left hand and swings A’s weapon hand in a counterclockwise circle. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the meat of the thumb, from the backside of A’s hand with D’s left hand when A’s hand is at a position key #3 in front of D: A’s weapon is in a horizontal position. D releases D’s right hand and pivots D’s right hand clockwise while keeping adhesion to the back of A’s weapons hand. D steps with the right foot into A, and strips the knife from A’s weapon’s hand using a forward counterclockwise horizontal circle (from open to close) bringing the knife past A’s body and under A’s right arm.

Disarm flow #6: begins at end of Disarm flow #5 • • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in position key #3. D steps back left and pivots to D’s left while rotating A’s weapon’s hand in a small decreasing counterclockwise vertical circle. (open position to close position) D’s motion rotates A’s hand into a classic backwards wrist lock, position key #1. D maintains the wrist lock with D’s left hand and strips the knife out of A’s weapon’s hand with D’s right hand

Disarm flow #7: begins at end of Disarm flow #6 • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in position key #1 Maintaining the hold on A’s weapon’s hand with D’s left hand, D strips the knife out of A’s hand by inserting D’s right hand under the butt of the knife using the palm of D’s right hand. D pushes forward and strips the knife into D’s right hand in a reverse grip position.

Disarm flow #8: begins at end of Disarm flow #7 • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand or D’s right hand slips past A’s knife while attempting butt end strip. D releases D’s left hand’s hold on A’s weapon’s hand. D passes A’s weapon’s hand with the back of D’s right forearm in an close-high –low open motion that maintains A’s weapon hand in position key #1 D passes A’s arm in front of D. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand with D’s left hand at the junction of A’s wrist and hand.

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D slides D’s right forearm down to the flat of the blade. D slides D’s left hand down at the same time to A’s weapon’s hand. D strips the knife out of A’s weapon’s hand with a forward/outward push from the back of D’s right forearm.

Disarm flow #9: begins at the end of Disarm flow #8 • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in position key #1with D’s forearm. D reaches over the top of A’s hand grabbing the butt of A’s knife with D’s right hand. D strips the knife out of A’s weapon’s hand by pulling the butt in ward toward D.

Disarm flow #10: begins at end of Disarm flow #9 • • • • • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in position key #1by pulling on the butt of A’s knife. D steps up forward left, putting D’s left foot alongside of A’s right foot. D pivots clockwise, while stepping back left, ending up standing alongside of A, D’s left shoulder to A’s right shoulder, while maintaining the hold on A’s weapon’s hand. A’s arm twists upward and outward, bending at the elbow and ending up in position key #1 D lifts D’s right forearm, placing it along the flat of A’s knife blade D steps up right along the side of male triangle while pivoting inward toward A in a counterclockwise direction. D’s pivoting motion causes D’s right forearm to disarm / strip the knife out of A’s weapon’s hand.

Disarm flow #11: begins at end of Disarm flow #10 • • • • • • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s weapon’s hand in position key #1by pivoting inward. A cuts at D with an inverted cut from thrust #7 in a “C” cutting motion into D’s belly. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand with D’s right hand. D pivots inward toward A while stepping back left along the female triangle. A’s cutting motion misses / passes D. D follows through with A’s motion and A ends up in position key #2. A’s right arm is extended out to A’s right side. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand with D’s left hand from underneath. (D is palm up grabbing A’s thumb which points down) D releases D’s right hand, re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand from the top, pivots inward toward A while lifting and placing D’s elbow over A’s elbow. D pushes down with D’s elbow, forcing A down with an arm bar. D pulls A’s knife with D’s right hand, palm down stripping the knife (in a reverse grip) from A’s weapon’s hand.

Disarm flow #12: begins at end of Disarm flow #11 • • A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife and arm bar. D steps back right, pivoting clockwise, maintaining hold on A’s weapon’s hand in position key#2 with D’s left hand.

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• •

D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand with D’s right hand and puts A into a classic reverse wrist lock. D strips the knife from A, with a forward, palm up motion of D’s left hand.

Disarm flow #13: begins at end of Disarm flow #12 A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s hand, and resist wrist lock by bending A’s arm at elbow. D while maintaining hold on A’s weapon’s hand, D steps in toward A, forcing A’s elbow to bend upwards. This creates a reverse gooseneck wrist lock. D uses A’s weapon’s hand and wrist as a pivot point and swings A’s hand in a horizontal clockwise circle towards A. D uses the force of the clockwise motion to bring A’s weapon against A’s back. D continues the motion pulling A’s weapon’s hand from A’s back through to A’s front. The force of the motion and the impact on A’s body, strips the knife from A’s hand. Disarm flow #14: begins at end of Disarm flow #13. A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife against A’s body or D misses the body. D maintains the hold on A’s wrist and using A’s weapon’s hand and wrist as a pivot point, D makes a horizontal counterclockwise circle with A’s weapon’s hand bringing A’s weapon inward toward A’s body. D continues the motion and pulls the knife against A’s front and follows through to A’s back stripping the knife from A’s hand. Disarm flow #15: begins at end of Disarm flow #14 A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife against A’s body or D misses the strip. D uses A’s weapon’s hand and wrist as a pivot point and swings A’s hand in a horizontal clockwise circle towards A. D releases D’s right hand and re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the meat of the thumb. D continues the clockwise motion. D releases D’s left hand hold but maintains adhesion to A’s weapon’s hand with D’s left palm, and as the clockwise motion continues from close – open position, D’s left hand re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by its hand edge (by the pinky and ring finger) D pulls A’s weapon’s hand out straight locking the arm palm up. D slides D’s right palm onto the flat of the blade and with a forward motion strips the knife from A’s hand. Disarm flow # 16: begins at end of Disarm flow #15 A resists D’s attempt at stripping the knife. D maintains the hold on A’s weapon’s hand with D’s left hand and with D’s right hand, D grabs the butt of A’s knife. D pulls the knife towards D, away from A’s weapon’s hand, stripping the knife out of A’s hand. Disarm flow #17: begins at end of Disarm flow #16 A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A’s hand. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the meat of the thumb. D rotates A’s weapons hand away from D in a forward downward circle, bringing the knife to A’s right leg / hip area. D pins A’s weapon’s hand and knife against A’s leg / hip joint.

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D releases D’s left hand and re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the meat of the thumb. D strips A’s weapon’s hand from A’s knife by pulling A’s hand toward D. Disarm flow # 18: begins at end of Disarm flow #17 A resists D’s attempt to strip A’s hand from A’s knife. D inserts D’s left hand, palm up over A’s weapon’s hand. D releases the pinning action with D’s right hand while D’s left hand and arm make a vertical clockwise circle, entrapping A’s weapon’s hand in position key#2. D has A’s hand trapped in a joint lock by D’s left shoulder. D reaches over A’s right arm and grabs A’s knife. D pulls the knife downward toward A, stripping the knife from A’s hand in a reverse grip. Disarm flow #19: begins at end of Disarm flow #18 A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A D releases D’s right hand and reaches D’s right hand to the inside of A’s right elbow. D pulls upward sharply on the inside of A’s elbow, lifting and bending A’s right arm. A’s weapon’s hand slides onto D’s left biceps while D reaches upward with D’s left hand. D’s left hand reaches up and grabs over the back of A’s right arm, on top of A’s triceps tendon. D shifts inward toward A, stripping the knife out of A’s hand by acute gooseneck locking of the wrist. Disarm flow #20: begins at end of Disarm flow #19 A resists D’s attempt to strip the knife from A by rotating A’s weapon’s hand forward, away from the pain of the lock. D re-grabs A’s weapon’s hand by the meat of the thumb and continues A’s rotation toward the font to escape the hold. D’s left hand, grabs A’s pinky and ring finger of A’s weapon’s hand as they move by in the motion. D raises D’s left elbow to shoulder height, parallel to the ground. D continues the motion, bringing A’s right arm outward, palm up, locked over D’s left elbow in a joint lock. D’s left hand pulls back on A’s pinky and ring finger, doing a two finger palm lock with arm bar insert. D reaches over with D’s right hand and strips the knife from A’s hand. Are there more steps? Probably! This Disarming Flow was ONLY to show moments in a Combative flow where disarming MIGHT be possible. The conceptual motions and conceptual usage works most of the time with reverse grip as well. There are separate reverse grip motions that can be learned. There are disarms that can be learned that apply to thrusting, stabbing, threatening and just about every conceivable position. The important tying to see is that disarming is a “Do it or lose it proposition”… One cannot just reach up and disarm someone attacking with intent. Disarming is very romantic. The seemingly easy ability to disarm an attacker is very empowering. One needs to be able to separate reality from fantasy and not get seduced by the feeling of invincibility, the feeling that empty-handed one will stop a weapon-wielding opponent! Therefore let’s repeat the warning. WARNING: These DISARMS are for information and understanding ONLY. Practicing this Disarming Flow will teach sensitivity and a set of reference points that exist within the flow of combat. Attempting to disarm a knife-wielding opponent using ones’ empty hands can result

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in injury, maiming or DEATH. Therefore knife disarming is ONLY to save ones’ life when there is NO OTHER OPTION!

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Chapter:#14 Conceptual Striking patterns: Filipino patterns of attack Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- The Filipino Art of Stickfighting 1983 Ohara Press, USA

The variations of Sinawali are numerous…and are the basis of the Arnis system. Sinawali are weaving motions made with two sticks in Arnis that are practiced in precise, prescribed motions. There are three basic types of Sinawali in Modern Arnis: the Single Sinawali, the Double Sinawali and the Reverse Sinawali. The Sinawali are also taught without sticks, empty hand fashion, to illustrate how the Sinawali motions can be easily translated for empty hand defense. Sinawali employs the same motions, up and down, left to right, at the same time… Over the years, Filipino striking patterns have been given names. Names that have become synonymous to the motions used in each of the patterns. Over the years these patterns have been taught to many students and instructors of the Filipino arts and they are used, as is. How and what composes these patterns is no longer important. Just like the technology of today: if it works use it, how it works is unimportant, the fact is that when it’s needed, and used, it works. It’s the same general attitude towards a telephone, a TV or a stereo. The patterns are actually conceptual USAGE of conceptual motions; conceptual motions based on motion that moves through various planes. The space-involving individuals’ motions are the geometric planes that describe the physical reality of the (3D) three-dimensional space surrounding an individual or individuals. These planes are known as the Universal planes of motion for attack and defense. The way one navigates the paths and angles, which move through and connect these planes, is the basis for conceptual motions. Using these conceptual motions is what the lay person commonly calls patterns. Applying these conceptual motions or patterns in a fighting application or within the flow of combat is actually Conceptual usage. Conceptual usage changes as the tool utilized to express these concepts change. These patterns are based on the principle of “OPEN-CLOSE”; parameters bounded by the physical reality of human beings that states, “form follows function”. MODERN ARNIS: teaches these conceptual patterns of motion to understand the foundation of Filipino martial art. Some are actually sub systems or concepts that follow main principles or they are conceptual usage of other main categories of conceptual motions. Modern Arnis-common Filipino names for patterns of motion: • Single Sinawali • Double Sinawali • Reverse Sinawali • Redonda • Redonda X • Rompida • Banda y Banda • Abaniko Corto • Abaniko Largo • Florette • Sungkiti • Hubud y Lubud • Ocho y Ocho • Double zero • Up and Down • Crossada • Cirkulo

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Espada y Daga

NOTE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open is with the arms spread open away from the body; close is with the arms closed across the body. The angles of attack are constant. The attacking hand is variable: therefore a #1 strike with the right hand comes from the open side WHILE a #1 strike with the left hand comes from the close side. Left- right / right – left, IS NOT MIRROR IMAGE. Open means the open side of the body. Close means the close side of the body. These patterns of motion are just that “Conceptual patterns” They need to be applied to have meaning other than a conceptual motion. Application becomes Conceptual usage. There will be overlap in what one conceptual motion does as compared to another. The actually name of the motion is not as important as what the conceptual motion teaches. If you know it as something else, don’t get hung up on the name! A rose is a rose by any other name.

SINAWALI: weaving of the arms or planes of motion Single Sinawali: Covers the basic and “principle” motion of “open-close”. Close high- open low, open high -close low. Single arm weaving. When both arms are used to do advanced single Sinawali it still is sequential single arm weaving. (One arm weaves, other arm follows at end of motion) An outward, forward cone of defense is formed. The strikings are the basic diagonals covering all Four Corners, from open and close positions. Example: #1 striking downward diagonal from the open, #8 striking upward diagonal from the close, #2 striking downward diagonal from the close, #9 striking upward diagonal from the open. (Both low strikes retract rather than follow through.) Single Sinawali can be done as simple, as shown above, it can be done as Single Sinawali with a fold, where the arm folds underneath after the low strike, or as Single Sinawali Three count. In Single Sinawali Three count the hands strike high –low-high and then change to the opposite side. Double Sinawali: High count: Covers the motion of open-close on a high horizontal plane. The conceptual motion used is double arm weaving in an alternating pattern. Close -open –open/close. Or Forehand to close, backhand to open- backhand to open / close. The strikings are horizontal circles or straight line intersecting motions. Example: starting with right hand open, left hand close (under right) Right hand strikes a high #3 horizontal strike from open, the left strikes a high #3 from close, the right strikes a high #4 from close and retracts to close on left side under left arm. Left hand strikes a #4 from open, right hand strikes a #4 from close, left hand strikes a high #3 from close and retracts to close on right side under right arm. High –Low count: Covers the basic motion of “open-close” Close high- open low, open high -close low. Single arm weaving is done alternately with both arms. Sequential single arm weaving. (One arm weaves, other arm weaves at end of motion, both individually doing single arm weaving on intersecting planes.) an outward , forward cone of defense is formed. Forehand – backhand – backhand is still used as format. Example: starting with the right hand open, the left hand close

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(under right). The right hand strikes #1 from open, the left hand strikes #9 from close, the right hand strikes #2 and retracts to close (under left), The left hand strikes #2 from open, the right hand strikes #8 from close, the left hand strikes #1 from close and retracts to close (under right) Low count: Covers the motion of open-close on a low horizontal plane. The conceptual motion used is double arm weaving in an alternating pattern. The initial close motion is low/Close – low/open –low/close. Or Forehand to close, backhand to open- backhand to open / close. There are a couple of variations to do Low Count. Example #1: starting with the right hand in an open position, the lefts hand in a close position (over the right). The right hand, from underneath the left, strikes a number #9 from open - close. The left strikes a number #9 from close- open. The right strikes a number # 8 and retracts to close (over the left), The left strikes from underneath the right, a number # 8 from open, the right strikes a number #8 from close, the left strikes a number # 9 from close and retracts to close (over the right) Example #2: starting in left hand in close under the right hand. The right hand strikes a number #1downward low diagonal strike from open – close. The left hand strikes the same number #1 strike from close- open. The Right hand then strikes a number # 2 low downward diagonal strike to open then close under the left. The left hand strikes a number # 2 low strike from open –close. The right hand which was under the left, strikes a number # 2 low strike from close – open. The left hand strikes a number #1 low strike open to close under the right. Reverse Sinawali: covers the motion of open- close on an upward diagonal, with body rotation. The format is still forehand open- backhand close with rotation (step through umbrella)- backhand close. The strikings cover vertical to upward diagonal circles or straight-line interceptions. Example: Starting with the right hand open (under the left) the left hand close (over the right). The right hand strikes a #9 underneath the left, from the open, the left hand strikes a high #9 from the close and retracts in an umbrella motion, the body rotates/ steps into the umbrella motion. The right hand strikes a #8 and retracts to close (over the left). The left hand strikes a #8 underneath the right, from the close, the right hand strikes a high #8 and retracts in an umbrella motion, the body rotates/ steps into the umbrella motion. The left hand strikes a #9 and retracts to close over the right. SINAWALI: motions of weaving that have a point attack to them. If, one has a pyramid of defense coming out of ones’ personal space, the base on ones’ body and the point going out towards the opponent, then Sinawali hand / arm motions will follow any one of the four triangular sides to the point. Even if Sinawali is done within a circular plane of motion, the impact of the hand is at a tangent to that plane of motion or comes through that circular plane of motion like the radius of that particular circle. REDONDA Redonda: Is a repeating circular motion that maintains the singular plane. The edge orientation of the weapon is always towards the opponent. Redonda can be done on ANY angle and any size circular plane. Redonda X: Is double arm weaving on a vertical, horizontal, or diagonal plane of motion. Redonda X does not have to contain only one type of motion any combination of the three is possible. All circular motions are done forehand with the edge orientation toward the opponent. • Variation #1: Starting with right hand open, left hand close (under the right). The right hand strikes #1 from the open. The left hand strikes #1 from the close. The right hand strikes #1 from the close and retracts to the close under the left. The left hand strikes #2 from the

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open. The right strikes #2 from the close. The left hand strikes #2 from the close and retracts to the close under the right. Variation #2: Starting with right hand open, left hand close (under the right). The right hand strikes #1 from the open. The left hand strikes #1 from the close. The right hand umbrellas, then strikes #1 from the open and retracts to the close under the left. The left hand strikes #2 from the open. The right strikes #2 from the close. The left hand umbrellas, then strikes #2 from the open and retracts to the close under the right. Variation #3: Starting with right hand open, left hand close (under the right). The right hand strikes #1 from the open. The left hand strikes #3 from the close. The right hand strikes #12 from the close and retracts to the close under the left. The left hand strikes #2 from the open. The right strikes #4 from the close. The left hand strikes #12 from the close and retracts to the close under the right. Variation #4: Starting with right hand open, left hand close (under the right). The right hand strikes #1 from the open. The left hand strikes #3 from the close. The right hand umbrellas, then strikes #1 from the open and retracts to the close under the left. The left hand strikes #2 from the open. The right strikes #4 from the close. The left hand umbrellas, then strikes #2 from the open and retracts to the close under the right. Redonda can be done in REVERSE. The arms cross with the same set up as reverse Sinawali. The lead attacking arm starts from underneath. The strikes come at an upward diagonal angle. The right hand is under the left on the right side. The right strikes a #9 upward diagonal from the open side all the way through and comes to a stop on the close side. The left in a closed position strikes a high #9 and upon contact, follows through to the open side. The right hand strikes a #8 strike and stays on the closed side. One is now in mirror image of one’s starting point. The right arm is in closed position OVER the left arm, which is now in open position. The strikes make cutting not percussive motions at first to understand the conceptual pattern! One learns about edge orientation through Reverse Redonda!.

REDONDA X: Is done within a circular motion usage. Unlike Sinawali it is not a point impact usage. Redonda X impacts with a circular strike, just as a point rotating around the circumference of a circle. I have seen some people become sloppy while executing REDONDA X movement and their strikes are actually slaps or back-handed strikes that in a real combative situation would have little or no practical value. Redonda is a full striking motion. NOTE: REDONDA, REDONDA X, SINAWALI, and DOUBLE SINAWALI are not restricted to application against one specific target zone. Any of these conceptual patterns when in conceptual USAGE, may cover many target zones such as covering from limb to limb to body to limb again. The common mistake is to use Sinawali on a target zone, all on one plane of motion or with several planes of motion converging on that one zone to the exclusion of any other variation, making the pattern a technique rather than a concept. EXAMPLE: Sinawali done to the outside of any attacker’s limb, is generically called “brush, trap and strike”. If the attack is with alternating limbs, instead of expanding the conceptual usage of Sinawali, the defender usually tries to REPEAT the whole conceptual motion on the next attacking limb. This type of thinking / responding to an attack violates principle #4 of Combative Reality: Combat MUST be simple. The conceptual usage of Sinawali is inclusive not exclusive. As a concept of motion it is designed to handle variables, unknown and spontaneous. That is the advantage to learning conceptual patterns of motion with conceptual usage because they are based on principle #1 of Combative Reality: Combat itself is mutable and cannot be contained or structured. These conceptual patterns when used allow for dealing with principle #2 of Combative Reality: One cannot learn a pre-recorded response to a spontaneous situation. In Modern Arnis

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this conceptual usage is learned through Anyo or Forms practice; conceptual forms. Check out the chapter on Forms: Empty Hand. An interesting physical reality based on principle #3 of Combative Reality: Human combative actions and reactions must be within the bounds of actual – natural physical response. Situation: attacker strikes with right hand. Defender has both hands up in open ready position. If the defender strikes a closing motion with the defender’s right hand, towards the inside of an opponent’s attacking right arm, and steps with body rotation or just body rotates, the defender’s left hand naturally comes across the body to the close position. The defender’s left hand is in proper position to open against the attacker’s right arm. The process of opening the defender’s left hand / arm puts the defender’s right hand / arm into a natural position to open. With natural body rotation or counter rotation to drive the defenders right hand / arm, the defender counter attacks with an open motion, returning to the original ready OR with retraction to the close position brings a continuation of the alternating arms: SINAWALI or REDONDA X Florette: is related to Redonda in that the “conceptual usage” motion is one of constant repeating circles. Florette’s difference is that it travels ACROSS or WITHIN several planes of motion with its’ repeating circles, while traveling on its own plane of motion and Redonda’s repeating circles stay within the SAME plane of motion. Florette’s circles just like Redonda’s have no size restriction but usually Florette is ever decreasing circles / circular motion following a single plane of motion across other planes. Florette uses the wrist to twirl the weapon but the power comes from the arm motion. Cirkulos are a type of Florette that use ONLY wrist power and generally stay within one plane of action. Cirkulos are usually seen as the set up to ready positions or to move the arm from preparatory position to ready position, rather than just move the arm. Double Zero actions are in a class of Florette. Double Zero has a circle within a circle to build speed and power. Double Zero can be offensive or defensive. Double Zero striking allows one to have a build up in speed by twirling the stick, then launching the attack off of the momentum gained. It can also be used as an immediate counter to a blocked strike. Variation #1 A: Strikes #1 at D D: Blocks the attack with an inside blocking strike #1. A: upon contact of D’s block, A quickly retracts the stick and re-strikes along the same path only using a Florette conceptual usage i.e. The plane of the stick shifts slightly to offset the blocking position of D’s stick. D may or may not check A’s attacking arm with D’s left hand. Variation #2 A: Strikes a #1 at D D: Strikes a #1 blocking strike at A’s #1 attack. D then immediately retracts the stick along the same circular path and counterstrikes in a circular motion at A. D may or may not check A’s attacking arm with D’s left hand Variation #3 A: Swings the stick in a small forward circular motion, building up speed and on the second or third rotation strikes outward in a #1 attack at D. Hubud y Lubud: to tie and untie Hubud is another way to conceptually use alternating double arms in an “open-close” concept. It really is a version of Sinawali with some variables introduced. It is not a striking pattern itself but a way to utilize the pattern. It serves as a drill / learning tool to understand the conceptual usage of the Sinawali concepts. It is a simple, alternating side, sequential pattern of “open-close”. Left hand /

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arm opens, right hand / arm opens, left hand / arm closes, right hand / arm closes. Because it is a drill, there is another individual involved doing the same conceptual motions, learning the same conceptual usage at the same time. Hubud is a drill that allows simultaneous learning between two individuals. EXAMPLE: Attacker, A attacks with a right hand #1 strike from the open side. Defender, D engages A’s #1 attack, striking inside A’s attacking forearm with D’s left hand while body shifting / rotating toward A’s attack. D’s left hand came from a close to open motion. D’s motion and rotation bring D’s right hand to close position, therefore D opens the right hand / arm, catching A’s attacking arm from underneath and moving it to across D’s body to an open position by D’s point of view. (a closed position by A’s point of view for A’s right arm is now closed across A’s body.) D closes D’s left hand ONTO A’s right attacking arm, trapping it momentarily. D counterattacks A with a #1 strike from the open side. A is now the DEFENDER, and engages D’s right arm #1 attack from the open side with the only available option, A’s left hand / arm. A’s left hand / arm does a close to open position. A body shifts/ rotates toward D’s attack. This body shift / rotation causes A’s trapped right arm, which is in a close position, to be freed. This allows A to, with an open motion, catch from underneath D’s attacking right arm and pull it across A’s body to an open position from A’s point of view. (a closed position from D’s point of view for D’s right hand / arm is across D’s body.) A’s left hand / arm closes onto D’s right hand / arm momentarily trapping it close. A strikes a #1 attack from the open side with the right hand / arm. The drill has just started to repeat. Other variables can be added in to understand insertions of variables but the basic drill is the framework for understanding. UP and DOWN: Up and Down literally does just that. One strikes upward and downward without rotating the wrist or “breaking the plane” of motion. Up and Down actually as a concept is used by some as a way to strike side to side. The rational is that the strike is very quick and the sharp tap from a blunt weapon like a stick will distract or temporarily injure an opponent. With a percussive tool like a stick the very tip of the weapon must be the contact point. This works best in a classroom situation where INTENT or combative reality is of no concern. Tip ripping or tapping works best with an edged weapon. The motion of Up and Down is ONLY effective in combat with a double edge weapon. The weapon’s edge can cut in either direction, and an edged weapon generally needs no strength to make use of its principle of cutting. Even with an edged weapon this can pose dangers to the user. The DOWN motion is with the strength of the hand following principle # 3 of Combative Reality. The UP motion, done without turning ones’ wrist, actually violates this principle for anatomically it puts the user into a potential disarm just by its use and direction. A stick IS disarmed immediately in the UP motion without damage to ones’ opponent. An edged weapon, such as a knife or machete, may damage an opponent but become lodged in that opponent. Then ones’ own force could strip ones’ weapon from ones’ hand. Losing ones’ weapon in combat could be a potentially dangerous situation. Up and Down works very well with a Rapier where the tip is moving very fast and the toe portion of the blade is the part that actually carries a cutting edge. A Cut and Thrust sword works as well as a Rapier. One is far enough away from one’s opponent that one’s blade being trapped in a fighting situation, either by contact with the opponent or by one’s opponent is non existent! Why? Well the tip of the blade is moving so fast that the Up and Down literally cuts right through an opponent. OCHO Y OCHO: Figure eight Figure Eight is a misleading name unto itself. Any eight that one sees is really an infinity sign or an eight on its side. There are vertical figure eights, but the most common planes on motion are connecting diagonals either upward or downward, which place the eight on its side. The name of the motion itself asks for non-linear thinking and for one to visualize conceptually. Under the general

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heading of Figure Eight come several types of striking that are related to figure eight; Banda y Banda, Double zero, and Rompida. The concept of figure eight is to connect two basic striking motions that are close ended into a NEW striking motion which is open ended or repeating. . Figure Eight:

Downward Figure Eight: the most common figure eight pattern is connecting downward diagonal strikes of #1 and #2 in a continual pattern. This is generally done with a single weapon or arm. Double arm or weapon figure eight is a version of REDONDA. Downward figure eight works best with a percussive striking for it brings the tool onto the bony protrusions and protective structure: sticks seek bone. Upward Figure Eight: is the connecting of upward diagonal strikes #8 and #9 in a continual pattern. Double arm or weapon figure eight is a version of REVERSE REDONDA. Upward figure eight works best with a cutting motion, for upwards cutting into the body sets the edge into joints, into soft tissue allowing for: steel seeks flesh.

Application of double arm FIGURE EIGHT can become the drill called: FLOW DRILL Flow drill is a conceptual usage of the principle of “Open-close”. Figure Eight can be come the connecting thread between several planes of motion. Figure Eight can then be the connector between conceptual motions as well for it adds a circular ending to a linear striking motion to allow for the mirror image of that motion to appear. Figure Eights don’t have to be symmetrical or same size. All they have to do is have a connecting link. Figure Eights can be a link such as a conceptual motion within the flow of combat as well as an integral part of a technique or usage. Striking with immediate secondary striking, blocking and countering, are all areas that are good situations for application of Figure Eight striking! Professor Presas used to ask me all the time “ Bram can you see? it’s all the same?” No matter how I tried I could not understand how it possibly was all the same. When I first started learning it certainly looked the same, but I knew I was watching and learning different concepts. As time and years went by, and it all became clearer, I saw it, Modern Arnis, was made up of totally different concepts. I then realized that Professor Presas was just joking with me, checking to see if I had gotten to the point of understanding how different these conceptual motions really were. Then somewhere along the path of teaching I began to use the conceptual motions in place of each other. That each no longer had a specific place or usage. That is when I got it. Professor Presas came to me as I was helping him teach a seminar, “Oh Bram, You got the flow!” Of course after that moment for the rest of the seminar I had ANYTHING but FLOW. What had happened was that I no longer saw the Concepts as Black or White movements. I had finally got that there were principals of motion and that these Filipino names were just names to guide me to understand conceptual motions. That once they are understood, conceptual USAGE calls for them to become part of an actual combative flow: one blending into another. Modern Arnis teaches one to use that Flow, to use the art within the art!

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Chapter:#15 Checking Hand: It’s how we stay alive Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

In learning the Martial art of Modern Arnis, one has to give particular attention to the parrying techniques. Parrying (with the Checking hand) involves techniques used to deflect an opponent’s attack. Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- The Art of Filipino Stickfighting Ohara Press USA 1983

Keep in mind… that your free hand should always be poised to guard, ready to brace a stick block or grab an opponent’s stick or hand. In Filipino martial arts the use of the secondary hand is paramount to staying alive. Its sometimes called the checking hand, the alive hand, the hand of life, the helper, but here we will keep it simple as in all Modern Arnis vernacular and simply refer to the NON-weapon hand as the “CHECKING HAND”. There is a large debate as to the importance of a secondary check or the use of the left hand as an adjunct to attacking and blocking motions. This debate comes from non-weapon and non-trapping arts. In Filipino martial arts, which contain both trapping and weapons, if one did not use the second hand within all combative flows, the opponent is left free to counter one’s attack or complete the opponent’s initial attack. This is brutally simple example but it works: the opponent strikes a right punch at you. You defend by checking-blocking or deflecting it with your own right hand. Then as one lets go to hit the opponent with your counter strike, the opponent’s hand is released. Now it’s a race to see who hits who “firstest and bestest!” If the same attack occurred and one checked-trapped-deflected or blocked the opponent’s attack with one’s own right hand, then you trapped-checked or controlled the opponent’s right with your left, you would be free to counter attack with your own right. WHY? Because the opponent is controlled or restrained momentarily from attacking, counter attacking, or being in the combative flow. Do you need it to be a more graphic example? The opponent attacks with a swinging cutting motion with an edged weapon, a knife, in the opponent’s right hand. You block the attack on the inside of the opponent’s arm and counter-attack the opponent. Great! Oops. The opponent’s right arm with the weapon did not stop from your block. As you removed your right hand from block mode to attack mode, the opponent’s initial force continued toward you, with the weapon cutting a large slice into your neck and face. While you are reeling from the devastation of the attack, the opponent continues to cut pieces from you! If at the point of blocking the incoming attack one’s left hand had come into play, trapping or checking the opponents attacking limb, it could not continue its initial motion. Meanwhile your counter attack goes directly to the opponent who is actually feeling the conflict between your left – checking hand and the opponent’s attacking hand. The opponent has a momentary blank spot in the flow of combat, a half-beat that you now occupy to use, as you need. In Modern Arnis the ability to use the left hand is taught as part of the Weaving or Sinawali Skills. The drills such as the Tapi-Tapi and the Conceptual usage of Conceptual motions all teach how and where to put in the checking hand. The only detail that one needs to learn separately from the conceptual usage is where one usually checks the opponent. Obviously common sense dictates a lot of this!

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One will not, unless one’s life depends on it, check an opponent’s live blade by putting one’s hand, flesh, to an opponent’s steel. Steel cuts flesh. Do not reach into a blender. Flesh checks flesh. One will check an opponent’s hand on the base or the meat of the thumb. One’s fingers or base of one’s own thumb is used to control the opponent’s thumb. Checking the whole hand or the wrist allows the opponent to turn or rotate the hand, By checking the thumb, one controls the lever, the opposing digit to the turning and rotation. One also destroys the structural integrity of a human fist action by controlling the thumb. The checking hand is actually on a half-beat from the initial contact with the opponent. It is not, 1 then 2, it is 1-2…almost simultaneous. If you are at long range, one does not attempt to reach in and use one’s checking hand. This is common sense. If one is really Mr. Fantastic of the Fantastic Four or Plasticman, then one can ignore combative ranges. If one is not one of these super heroes, then the checking hand is used in all ranges EXCEPT long range. Obviously, at long range the opponent is no where near you to be checked! A check is not necessarily a grabbing motion. A checking motion can be a quick pat or slap, a deflection, an adhesion or at the extreme, some form of grabbing. The concept is that of a momentary stopping or realization of where the opponent’s hand is, while in actual usage the amount of force used and the amount of time in contact with the opponent varies with the situation.

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The checking hand is truly one of the least known best tools available. The checking hand gives one the space to survive an attack and within the flow of combat utilize a Braille or “touchy-feely” method to keep tabs on the opponent’s force and intent. Remember: Checking the motion IS not meant as a Black or white response. Checking can be momentary, a sustained period of time, a tap, a trap, a grab, a deflection....application changes the usage and how we perceive “Checking”. Without a check, an opponent’s strike will and can continue to do damage!

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Chapter:#16 Strikings; Conceptual usage of planes of motion: “Strikings and Cuts” Guro Dan Inosanto: The Filipino Martial Arts Know Now Publishing USA 1980

There are an uncountable number of styles in Filipino stick fighting, but they all have one common denominator that gives them adaptability. Their principles of combat are based on a pattern of angles that attacks (and defense) must fall into, regardless of the style, regardless of the weapon… A knowledge of these basic striking angles and how they often follow each other naturally, gives the Escrimador an almost psychic appearance in battle… a point to remember is that the numbers given to the angles are for training purposes. In Modern Arnis the Filipino concepts of “planes of motion” are used to understand attack, counter-attack and defense. To gain an understanding of these planes of motion in a simple to use format, Modern Arnis like other Filipino based systems, uses the Abecidario or numbering system. A numbering system gives a tangible concept to hold onto while the underlying principles are being explored. At its simplest level the numbering system does just that: assigns numbers to specific motions or angles of “attack”. At an advanced level the Abecidario gives the basic strikings as well as their counter strikings. NOTE: Some call this Numerado, where the strikes are done in order and one learns to counter with the flow around it. Some call it the Abakada: the alphabet, while others call it by various names. Here it will be called Abecidario, and teach the strikings and later the counters to each strike. These angles of attack will move through various “planes” as they move from a start point to an end point. The angles of attack and counter-attack are called “strikings” if a blunt weapon is used or “cuts” if an edged weapon is used. Due to the great number of Filipino systems and the fact that they are referred to generically as ARNIS or KALI or ESKRIMA, the term Arnis will be used to refer to the any and all of these systems. The basic strikings or cuts of any Arnis/ Kali/ Eskrima system give certain truths to the student of that system. 1) basic targeting 2) importance of target zones: priorities 3) blunt or edged weapons principles: i.e. foundation from which system Abecidario is based 4) numbering of the strikes based on one of the following methods: random numbering, numerical numbering, anatomical numbering, pattern numbering 5) conceptual attacks 6) Body positioning and movement The instructor, founder or inheritor of any Arnis system has reasons for teaching a specific numbering system. Sometimes that reasoning is not readily available or understood by those practicing or seeing the system. Most systems have twelve major strikings or planes of motion. Some systems actually have MORE than twelve and expect the student to learn the variations of the strikings as they progress. I have learned the striking patterns of several Arnis systems. Each system of Arnis reflects the concepts of the practitioner themselves, such as the late Ted Lucaylucay with ESCRIMA-FILIPINO FENCING, the late Edgar Suilte with LAMECO ESCRIMA, Dan Inosanto with JKD-FILIPINO ESCRIMA, Cacoy Canete with his version of DOCE PARES, Dionisio A. Canete with traditional DOCE PARES, Jimmy Tacosa with TACOSA SERRADA ESKRIMA, Mike and Chris Sacoy with SAYOC KALI and Bobby Taboada with BALINTAWAK ESCRIMA. I have enjoyed seeing the truth of “striking” through all their eyes. In Modern Arnis, there are

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twelve strikings. In my Modern Arnis the numberings are different with an edged weapon than a blunt one such as the stick. I have personally found that the original thrusting patterns of BALINTAWAK (a single stick fighting art) on which Modern Arnis has a foundation and is conceptually based, make more sense in a continual striking pattern if viewed superficially. Professor Remy Presas mastered the BALINTAWAK system under Master Venancio Anciong Bacon long before he developed and founded Modern Arnis. Currently there is another version of Modern Arnis, Modern Arnis: Presas Style taught by Grandmaster Ernesto Presas, Professor Presas’ younger brother. The strikings of both Modern Arnis styles are the same even if other parts of the art are different. All three, both Modern Arnis styles and Balintawak are similar but have a unique personal flavor to each art as taught by these instructors. While practicing and teaching the Filipino martial art, Modern Arnis of Professor Remy Presas, I have found that the revamped numbering of the thrusts forces a realization of counter attacks. Neither numbering system is superior to another. This text is about Modern Arnis of Professor Remy Presas as a separate art, and I will use the Modern Arnis twelve strike numbering system as my reference point. An innovation of Professor Presas was that in Modern Arnis all odd numbered strikes, i.e. #1, #3, #9 go to the left side of the opponents body, all even strikes #2, #4 & #8 go to the right side. #12 strike can be either due to its nature of being a downward vertical strike. The thrusts, #5, #6, #7, #10 and #11 go into the center and structurally follow the principle of the strikings. The twelve strikes in this case teach, at a fundamental level, actual targeting zones. I state zones because the strikes could be as specific as a certain body part or as diverse as ALL strikes delivered to a certain part i.e. a limb. By using zones, anything within that zone is a legitimate target and it forces one to see general planes of attack or motion rather than “this attack” for this specific target. Zones are taught and used because specific targeting is an assumption of conceptual usage not conceptual motion. The zones change as the usage or tool used changes. A cutting tool needs different targeting than a percussive tool. For more specific details on actual usage go to the chapter on Bio-mechanical stoppage where actual usage of cutting and percussive tools are discussed by target! If a strike is from the open side it refers to the arms being open, away from the body, while closed side refers to the arms being crossed over the body. Generally the stick or blunt weapon is in the right hand BUT since it can be in EITHER hand I will only refer to the open or closed side. Unless specified I am referring to the weapon being in the right hand. Note: When the weapon is held in the left hand, the strikings or cuts ARE NOT mirror image. Some teach it mirror image but then the angles and universal planes of motion don’t match. For example a #1 strike with the weapon in the right hand is from the open side and is from upper right to lower left. To be the same angle and follow the same plane of motion with the weapon in the lefts hand, the strike or cut would have to come from the closed side as if it was a mirror image of a right handed strike #2. Abecidario: the strikings Strike #1 is a downward diagonal to the side of the head (temple region) to the base of the neck (collar bone area) from open side Strike #2 is a mirror image of #1: downward diagonal but from the closed side Strike#3 is a horizontal to the shoulder (end of deltoid region) to the hip…with the arm it includes the elbow and if the arm is raised it attacks the torso from the open side Strike#4 is a mirror image of #3: horizontal but from the closed side

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Thrust #5 is a straight thrust within the vertical plane on the centerline of the body…targeting the stomach, abdominal aorta, and solar plexus, from an open low position. Hand position may vary but usually with palm towards the center, or slightly palm up. Thrust#6 is a slightly upward diagonal thrust off the open horizontal plane. Directionally outside to inside. It is an inverted thrust, palm down, towards the rib cage / chest region or the solar plexus / heart region. Thrust #7 is a mirror image of #6: slightly upward outside to inside, the thrust is inverted, palm up, and NOT palm down. Strike #8 is an upward diagonal to the thigh zone (hip included) to the knee region from the closed side Strike#9 is a mirror image of #8: upward diagonal but from the open side. Thrust #10 is a slightly upward diagonal thrust towards the face (eye region) and the exposed neck. It occurs in the blind zone. It is inverted palm down as in thrust #6 Directionally outside to inside. Thrust #11 is a mirror image of thrust #10: slightly upward, outside to inside, done invert with the palm up as in thrust #7 Strike #12 is a central downward vertical towards the crown of the head. It works best if coming off the closed side because of our body dynamics. Open side tends to use the arm only and the shoulder tends to bind up upon striking. The next stage in the Abecidario is to learn to block the attack. Then comes the block attack and counter strike the attacker. There are many variations to the counters. To set up the TAPI-TAPI drill introduction all counterstriking goes to the opponent’s head. This cultivates a counter –counter response that then can travel to any level or target. Tapi-Tapi drill itself will be covered later. The counterattacking shown is the first basic level of response to an attack. It is the most natural response to an attack following a block and check. Note: To understand the concepts of blocking in detail check out Blocking the attack. There the conceptual drill of “Walking the Blocks” is discussed in detail. It actually seems it would fit in progression AFTER one learns how to strike but basic blocking with counterstriking comes after striking in combative usage. Concepts and conceptual usage come first then details follow! Abecidario: The strikes and Counterstriking There are many different blocks that can be used and obviously different counterstriking. Combative range, (including footwork), the type of weapon, and the Flow of combat are mitigating factors in actual Block, check and counterattack. This is not an expose on all the variables but a basic idea of Attack- Block, check and counterstrike. One’s translation and creativity come in later! That’s what Abecidario training is all about! Endless variations that become part of one’s natural combative flow and response! A is attacker or striker. D is defender or counterstriker. Strike #1: A strikes #1 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a blocking strike #1. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #2 strike at A, over A’s attacking arm. Strike #2: A strikes a #2 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a blocking strike #2. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #1 strike at A, over A’s attacking arm. Strike #3: A strikes a #3 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a blocking strike #1. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #4 strike at A under A’s attacking arm. Strike #4: A strikes #4 attack at D. D blocks the attack with blocking strike #2. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #3 strike under A’s attacking arm. Thrust #5: A thrusts #5 attack at D. D blocks A’s attack with an inward tip-down vertical block. D checks A’s weapons hand and counterstrikes a #12 strike over A’s attacking arm. Thrust #6: A thrusts a #6 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a #1 blocking strike. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #2 strike at A over A’s attacking arm.

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Thrust #7: A thrusts a #7 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a #2 blocking strike. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes a #3 strike over A’s attacking arm. Strike #8: A strikes a #8 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a #8 blocking strike. D checks A’s weapon’s hand. D rotates D’s weapon in a low slant motion, and in an open side- forward circular motion, counterstrikes with a #12 strike. Strike #9: A strikes a #9 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a #9 blocking strike. D checks A’s weapon’s hand. D rotates D’s weapon using a low umbrella motion, and in a close side- forward circular motion, counterstrikes A with a #12 strike. Thrust #10: A thrusts a #10 attack at D. D. blocks the attack with a blocking strike #1. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes with a #4 strike under A’s attacking arm. Thrust #11: A thrusts #11 attack at D. D blocks the attack with a #2 blocking strike. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes with a #3 strike under A’s attacking arm. Strike #12: A strikes a #12 attack at D. D blocks with an Umbrella blocking motion. D checks A’s weapon’s hand and counterstrikes with a #1 strike. At this point A becomes D and D becomes A, and the drill continues. Both practitioners get to understand the attacking mode and the Block-check and counter to the attacking mode. Once the basic is understood other blocking motions and counterstriking can occur. Countering the counter strike can be added as well which leads to the Tapi-Tapi drills of Modern Arnis. Targets change with weapon usage: The targeting zones change with the changing of the weapon. The same twelve strikes could be used but the conceptual teachings hidden inside would be lost. An edged tool specifically asks that the edge be used. It is the edge that gives the power. It is the double inclined plane of the edge that parts flesh. A pulling, stroking motion or a pushing stroking motion is needed whereas the blunt weapon needs a percussive “feel”, a “hit”, an impact to make best use of its physical reality. Either could be misused and still achieve results BUT we are looking for optimal usage of each tool. Percussive striking also involves rebound, or the physical reality that two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time. When a blunt object meets another object, several factors come into play. Either the object being hit must move away from the impact path or the hitting object must move. In the case of a blunt object such as a stick hitting a body, the stick has less mass so it must move away from the impact. This rebound covers “out and back” along the same plane of motion as the original strike. This means the rebound happens faster than the original strike. One must be prepared to deal with this rebound and many Arnis systems teach rebound awareness. An edged tool has no rebound for it parts the object struck, forcing it out of its path of motion. A wound channel is opened by the use of the edge unlike the path of a blunt object. Most people readily understand the act of pulling a stroke through an object, as in heel of the knife blade to the tip. The reverse situation, the pushing-slicing stroke from toe to heel seems strange only to those that have never cut food in the kitchen. All slicing motions in a kitchen are done for example with a French Chef’s knife slicing by pushing – rocking the knife-edge through the food, toe to heel. A pushing slicing motion can become viable and practical after a thrusting entry. This leads to a brief note on THRUSTING: Thrusting is NOT stabbing. Thrusting reflects the origin of a sword art, which included “cutting with the tip” while stabbing is oriented from a pushing of the tip as in a rapier or a dagger type art. A thrust can be used as a stab BUT it generally will refer in Modern Arnis or Filipino martial art to “cutting with the tip”. A “ripping stab” can be generated from the thrust motion as well using the tip of the blade as the cutting point within a stabbing motion. Several styles refer to the thrusting cut as an arcing cut.

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The Twelve cuttings: steel seeks flesh The twelve cuttings shown here reflect the teaching of James Keating: Master at Arms of COMTECH. There is a slight variation in my approach than Keating’s on cut #11 and the approach on the thrusts BUT the basic cutting is from Keating’s COMTECH- Filipino Martial Arts. As my good friend James Keating has openly said “take what I offer, use it, modify it, make it your own”. Professor Presas believes in the same concept of learning and teaching. As it is said, so it is done! I use these “cuttings” instead of Modern Arnis Strikings for I find that it makes the conceptual usage of the smaller blade easier to understand. In reality it is no different from Professor Presas’ 12 Strikings as shown above. Jim’s variation works better in setting up small to large size knife cutting concepts and I teach it as part of the Professor’s Modern Arnis. The Professor’s strikes when used for cutting with a large blade, such as a Bolo, sword or even a Bowie, work extremely well. Cut #1 is a downward diagonal that targets the temple region of the face but its primary target is the neck region from the head to where it joins the body. This is from the open side. Cut #2is a mirror image of #1: a downward diagonal from the closed side Cut #3 is a horizontal cut aimed at the arm (deltoid region) to the elbow (the elbow itself is NOT a target due to the bony structure but the biceps and triceps are.) If the arm is raised away from the body the region under the arm / armpit or the region from the bottom of the ribs to the hip are the target zones. (Hitting ribs with a horizontal cut will cause discomfort BUT will not do immediate de-animation) This is from the open side Cut#4 is a mirror image of #3: a horizontal but from the closed side. Thrust#5 is a center thrust within the vertical plane to the abdominal region, groin region, solar plexus, or even into the throat. All these targets are along the center vertical plane. The thrust is accompanied by an immediate pushing forward of the leading edge. Thrust#6 is a slightly upward diagonal inverted thrust from the open side. Directionally outside to inside. The palm is down and the tip leads the edge. The thrust is designed at mid level to slide up inside between the ribs. At a high level, to come up into the eyes from the blind zone, or to slide up inside under the arm into the body cavity. Again at high level slide up inside the neck / base of skull region and at a low level it would allow for insertion into the femoral artery. Thrust #7 is a mirror image of thrust #6: slightly upward thrust outside to in, but from the closed side palm up. NOTE: Thrusting is very body specific in usage. The human arm only can supply power from a specific position: i.e. form follows function. An outside thrust such as #6, must come in an outside to inside motion with a decreasing radius from arms length to opposite shoulder. If the thrust originates from the right side closely held to the body, rather than away from the body, the wrist is bent into a weakened position that works only in non-kinetic application. An inside thrust such as #7 is not an arcing blow but a straight line motion that in conceptual motion travels at a 45 degree from the left shoulder towards the center and out to the right shoulder. If it is thrown in an arcing motion or directly forward from one’s left side to an opponent’s right side the wrist is in an unsupported position which could lead to loss of the weapon or breaking of the wrist upon kinetic application. Cut#8 is a forward downwards vertical cut, allowing for circular motion or repeating. It is from the closed side. Target zones are horizontal limbs, body surface such as chest to abdominal, front of the head specifically the face. Cut#9 is an upward diagonal cut from the open side. Target zones are the side of the leg from just above the knee to the top of the thigh. Used at middle level it would allow for cutting in the same direction as the rib openings or to open the thoracic cavity, or the abdomen. At a high level it would follow the natural contours of the neck. Cut#10 is a mirror image of #9: upward diagonal but from the closed side.

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Cut#11 is an inverted, palm out, thumb down, edge up, upward vertical cut. Closed position to open. If double edged, the weapon could possibly be used to pull straight up without inverting the fist, BUT this position could lead to the knife being dislodged from the hand. Cut#12 is a vertical downwards motion from the closed side targeting the shoulder / trapeziums region. It could target the top of the head but there is a lot of bone to contend with so a downward slashing / cutting of the face is better. The actual physical motions seem the same for blunt and edged weapons but they are conceptually different. The principal of the motion is intact. Both weapons utilize the same physical planes of motion and both are dictated by the restrictions of the principle of biomechanical motion of “openclose”. The conceptual usage of the principal changes with the tool used. (Blunt weapons being “percussive” and edged weapons being “stroked”.) How that concept is used in a specific point and time becomes technique. It is easy to confuse one with the other or if not understood correctly, to become one of those who firmly and anally retentively holds onto his or her strikings as the only way and of course to only certain specified targets. “Well my instructor said…” In the case of Modern Arnis the strikings and or cuts just taught us zones of preference to attack. The next level is that the strikings or cuts actually teach conceptual motion when done together. #1 and #2 when done in succession teaches downward figure eight pattern. #3 and #4 teach side to side horizontal motion with wrist turning or a figure eight done long on its side. Thrusting #6 and #7 gives us disjointed figure eight connected by forward and inverted “C” motions…or rotation in space around a central point. Cut #8 teaches repeating forward downward vertical circles as done OUTSIDE the personal space i.e. outside the shoulders not inside. Striking #8 and #9 teach upward figure eight. Cut#9 and cut#10 teach the same figure eight. Cut#11 and #12 teach vertical figure eight. As one progresses, the angles can be mixed to have diagonal planes of motion or intercepting planes of motion. Strike#1 and #8 give diagonal figure eight and so on. Any of these planes of motion can also be adjusted by height in a linear fashion. All planes of motion can be done high, middle or low depending on the needed circumstances. Target zones can become target specific or area specific i.e. a limb such as the arm can be substituted for the whole body with all planes of motion acted out upon it. One might want eyes, body, femoral artery, and abdominal aorta. This would be a plane of motion to specific targets rather than one target area utilizing all the planes of motion. Cutting to specific targets: The Sayoc family has taught cutting and the art of the blade for many generations. In contrast to Modern Arnis, which is target- zone oriented, the Sayocs have a different approach. The Sayocs, in their Art of the Blade, use this concept of angles of attack to specific targets. Each set of targets is part of a template of attack. These targets are still part of their fighting heritage and have not been tempered by the legality of where one cuts one’s opponent. There are sets of templates within three levels of cutting. Alpha, Bravo and Charlie level, and they are called by their military names. There are many templates in the SAYOC systems with left and right hands each having different templates. Each cut has a corresponding counter: For example one of the simple right hand templates of cutting within the “Flow” without the counters is as follows: Angle #2 downward diagonal close side- to outside carotid- Vargas nerve Angle #1 downward diagonal open side- to inside carotid- Vargas nerve Angle #3 horizontal cut from open side- abdominal “blue-worm cutting (the cut is just below the abdominal wall letting the intestines pour out.) Angle #4 forward horizontal circle coming from close side- punching into the chest, then cutting downward and inward deeply, severing the abdominal aorta

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Angle #5 forward thrust into groin- peritoneum area, splitting open the opponent. Angle #6 inverted punch / thrust into close side deltoid process then inverted thrust, close side, into brachial plexus and neck Angle#7 counterclockwise “C” cut, deep insertion into femoral artery from close side Angle #8 inverted thrust into heart region from open side Angle#9 “C” cut into open side horizontal cut to decapitation strike. Tuhon Chris Sayoc and Tuhon Mike Sayoc teach the art of their blade to only a limited group of people. The program is not intended for the general public! To them biomechanical cutting means all function has ceased! A true but sobering concept to use in today’s society. Motion and utilizing planes of motion, as well as angles of “attack – counter attack” are like learning to speak. Letters are learned, then words are put together and finally sentences and thoughts are to be written out. Using this knowledge or speech asks for a physical sense or understanding that must be felt: one must speak to understand. The same is with the numbering system. First the numbers are learned then the concepts start to make themselves known. When these planes of motion, the numbering system are understood and felt in a real physical sense, the next level of awareness or learning starts; body movement or shifting. As in any physical endeavor certain body mechanics are needed to make these strikings or cuts work. Natural body motion as in dance is the best way to describe the basic motion imparted by using the numbering system. As the angles and planes of motion are understood then the corresponding body motion to enhance the strikings or cuts is used. These same body motions utilizing the angles can be used in defense to lessen the power of an attack while increasing the power of any counter-attack. By stepping forward while executing a #1 strike, the power of the blow is increased but the actual angle of attack decreases for one has stepped directly into the path of the opponent. Stepping right or left DOES make a difference. If one steps forward at a 45-degree outward angle while stepping forward the power is increased but the distance has been maintained to allow for a full power strike. If this stepping was with the left foot, the power of the strike was increased but plane of motion of the body will directly confront the opponent in a force to force situation. Stepping forward at a 45degree outward angle with the right foot while striking a #1 blow will give maximum power and move one to a position in space that bio mechanically works best. Stepping 45 degrees forward and outward moves the body into a zone of less pressure or less power from an attacker’s base. This space of maximum power is again a situational position for if the opponent shifts or moves into another relative space, the body or attack may have to move with the left foot to maintain optimum position for striking. As this is experienced and felt, then applied in kind to the rest of the strikings or cuts, the act of practicing the numbering system gives the understanding of utilizing multiple planes of motion, one of which is moving the body. To compliment the act of moving the body with certain planes of motion is the act of body shifting. After the body has moved in space from one point to the next, the body shifts its location within that space /point WITHOUT moving out of the space it occupies. For example, stepping forward into a 45 degree outward motion propels the body forward towards the opponent but the from of the body’s surface is actually AWAY from the opponent. By slightly bending the knees which alters the horizontal plane and pivoting on the balls of the feet inwards towards the opponent, brings the front of the body directly facing the opponent. The attack is now directly facing the opponent but the bodies are still on an oblique angle to each other protecting the attacker from counter attack. This will be covered in detail later on in a discussion of body shifting and planes of motion as they relate to stepping offensively and defensively. In Modern Arnis and other Filipino based arts the important thing learned about body motion is to let it come naturally. By doing the basic strikings or cuts ones body will naturally fall into a flow of motion. This motion will become “educated”

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later on but still follow natural inclinations of movement. One must be able to fit into the “FLOW” if one is to succeed at utilizing the strikings and cuts in real combat.

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Chapter:#17 Types of striking and cutting: reality in combat Guro Dan Inosanto: the Filipino Martial Arts KnowNow Publishing USA 1980

Basically there are four striking motions that may occur in any attack: the long arc stemmed blow, the shortened arc or stemless blow that is pulled inward halfway through the swing, the rap which is a blow that returns along the same path it went out and the thrust or jab. Presentation How one strikes or cuts is vitally important in combat. If one cannot properly deliver ones’ strikes or counter strikes, the results could be disastrous. It is therefore important to learn HOW to deliver ones strikes and cuts with maximum efficiency: ones’ life could hang in the balance. There are many instructors who teach blunt and / or edged weapon usage. Most of them do not understand the body dynamics to execute proper striking or cuts. If one doesn’t understand the conceptual dynamics of proper striking, one cannot possibly teach those dynamics to others. Some base their method of striking on a previous instructor; some base it on tradition. In Modern Arnis as in most Filipino martial art, the way to strike is based on physical reality and the laws of physics: two very good overall parameters to work within. Presentation is important in weapons usage. Not what one looks like but what does one present to the opponent. In a combative situation the weapon should be presented to the opponent BEFORE anything else happens. WHY? The weapon is usually held in ones’ hands. The human hands are our fastest part of our bodies in action and reaction. That’s where the old adage “the hands are quicker than the eyes” comes from, the fact that the hands are VERY fast. The adage compares the hands to the eye because the eye has incredible recognition speed of motion and movement. Think of the number of times people get startled by a sudden subtle movement, one which was seen out of the corner of ones’ eyes. And the human hand actually moves quicker than the eyes can perceive its motion. Add to this the eyes can be fooled. Because humans have BI-ocular vision, that is two eyes set apart actually seeing from different points of view we get the wondrous effect of 3-D sight. The down side is the placement of the eyes allows for blind spots, actual distortion of physical reality, and perspective misalignment. Which brings one right back to presentation. How a weapon is presented can effect the outcome of the combative situation. Presentation is not how one looks holding the weapon, nor just putting the weapon motion first, but how does the presentation effect what the opponent actually perceives coming at him. The knockout punch is never seen but felt. You don’t see the bullet that kills you. The sword has returned before the opponent knows it was drawn. Warriors, common people, martial artists have all heard these or variations of these statements. They are used to illustrate or be morals of stories. They come from combative reality: with proper presentation an attack is OVER before it is even perceived to have begun. A short digression to targeting zones is necessary. In the Abecidario of many systems the #1 angle, a downward diagonal has come to mean a downward diagonal aimed at the neck or the shoulder. With the coming of Stick- fighting, the shoulder / collarbone became the appropriate target of the #1 strike. In the old days when a bladed weapon was used, the targeting zone of this first strike was the EYE zone. If ones opponent shifted out of the way, the very next zone in range was the neck, and if the evasion went further, last zone was the shoulder. Presentation was to attack the eyes, from an angle that is considered the “blind-zone” of human vision. If the strike actually hits the target zone, then the whole zone became blind. Human eyes function as one unit. Poke into one eye and BOTH eyes close. Poke into one eye, and BOTH momentarily lose vision. The eyes rest near the temporal region of the skull, a very sensitive, thin part of the skull that is on the sides of the head to better protect it. This region of temple and eye is exactly where the #1 strike comes to, generally moving in a downward diagonal curving motion from back to front. A blow that was unseen, un-perceived, hits the opponent in the temple region of the head, stunning the opponent. The impact of the strike

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also hits the eyes, blinding the opponent in the midst of real combat. There is no question as to what the result in combat will be at this point: a disaster for one, a victory for the other. This angle is repeated in many forms of motion. In the modern era, Bowie fighters, the last of the great “Bladesmen” of our time, used a motion called the back-cut to accomplish the same end. Evasion of the blow was so slow due to presentation, lack of perception, that IF the cut “missed”, immediate disfigurement was the result. Death usually followed. Swordsmen have used these motions for hundreds of years. Over time the translation has been misplaced, but those that seek the way of the weapon are rediscovering it. The art of presentation has returned. To start a strike one needs to lead with ones hand or weapon. After the weapon is on the way to its target, then the body moves to follow. The presentation is one of “nothing” then sudden motion and then realization that the body is moving as well towards the target. The hands can fool the eyes, but the body can’t. The body has too much mass to overcome, inertia to initiate movement. Therefore the hands launch toward the target, almost pulling the body along with them. Yes, I know that stepping on the triangle, body shifting and “setting” to strike has a great deal of power. That stepping / shifting/ setting is within the flow of combat within the conceptual idea of “mobility”. To attack, the hand must lead, and the body must follow.” Stepping the triangle”, if done in combative reality actually follows this pattern, hand, foot-body, shift…and the strike is there AS the body shifts its position and weight. Some instructors call this explosive action. What it is, is proper combative presentation. The Lunge in fencing or sword fighting is a perfect example of two types of presentation. The first is that the sword is aimed tip towards the opponents’ eyes. The presentation of the weapon this way makes the weapon almost invisible for it is not within the perspective focus. It also is coming upward at a slight angle from under the nose area, a blind zone often taken advantage of by practitioners of Wing Chun Gung–Fu. (trap the forward arm with a palm block, occupy the space, and deliver a straight blast to the face). The second presentation is that before there can be recognition of the attack, the hand with the weapon has already arrived at the target. The hand shoots out and pulls the body along into the lunge position. The weapon makes contact as the foot touches down in its forward position. What makes this so unstoppable is that one perceives the hand sometimes, the body always, but one never takes into consideration that the weapon was at the target LONG before the hand or the body. One is stuck as one begins to perceive that an attack was initiated. In terms of combat reality, it’s disastrous for the attacked and good for the attacker. In martial arts systems most teach a lunge punch. The standard comment of today is that learning about a lunge punch is pointless because no one in the real world punches like that. Very true statement. Only trained people know this move and very few of them apply the conceptual usage of the lunge punch. Since most people step (robotically), then punch, (with a punch aimed at the midsection), the attack was seen long before it got on its way. Bruce Lee’s leading finger jab is an example of the lunge concept. His finger strike was unstoppable and is the perfect example of lunge presentation one can use. Lee’s fingers were in ones’ eyes BEFORE one knew the attack was coming. Lee understood and used the conceptual motions of fencing. His ready position was a sword-fighting stance with hands held as if in an edged weapon blind zone: slightly angled towards the opponent’s eyes. His hands’ strike lead up through a “blind zone” directly to the opponents eyes, followed by his body. This fencing presentation of not telegraphing ones’ intent has become a mainstay in Bruce Lee’s art of JKD. Bruce Lee was into combat reality. Presentation really works.

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The act of striking The #1 angle strike: “downward diagonal” NOTE: combative range will effect how one strikes an opponent. The shortest distance between two points is the straight line. Therefore one should move ones’ hands directly towards ones’ opponent. Even with a weapon in ones hand a straight line is still a straight line. Within the plane of that straight line is a human arm whose actual motion is dictated by the rule of “form follows function”. To extend a human arm, it needs to rotate within its space from palm up (upper cut) to palm down, and outward (overhand right). The position keys in the rotation of a punch: Striking Key #1 uppercut (palm up) Striking Key #2 straight punch (palm inward) Striking Key #3 overhand right (palm down & outward) These keys describe the total rotational positions possible for the human arm. The distance from an opponent determines the natural rotation of the arm. This can be over ridden by direct control of the individual person but in general “form follows function” is the natural state. The weapon is an extension of the hand, so the weapon will follow the motion of the arm and the hand. Contained within a conceptual motion, that of a forward strike following a “straight line” there are actually several planes of motion being used. Holding the weapon in the Striking Key #1 position, at a natural state, the weapon itself will be at a diagonal position at ready. Simply punching the weapon hand out, as is, will strike the opponent with a downward diagonal blow. The actual total body position is a boxing or natural fighting stance, feet shoulder width apart, elbows in, and hands up. The strike could be “punched” outward: with or without rotation • with no arm rotation the butt of the weapon could be the impact zone • with no arm rotation the lower edge of the weapon can be the impact zone • with arm rotation the butt of the weapon could be the impact zone • with arm rotation the lower edge of the weapon could be the impact zone • with arm rotation the middle to tip of the weapon can be the impact zone • With rotation, the angle of the strike while still downward diagonal changes at full rotation from the open side to the closed side. This rotation brings with it a forward downward whipping action to the plane of the weapon itself. All of this is without swinging the arm or body movement. It is one small part of the available movement to actual striking. If rotation of the body is added, then power from the hips goes into the strike. Not only is there added power, but the arc of the strike, the plane of motion itself is changed into a shortened arc. The motion of the hips rotating in a horizontal plane, (inward toward the target) moves the forward motion of the arm into a shortening diagonal response. This is with no arm rotation but it could be done with arm rotation as well. With or without rotation of the arm, the point of impact on the weapon moves outward towards the tip of the stick. The greatest force in a rotational motion is the outside edge where the object must move faster to keep up with the speed of the center mass. Remember the hips are rotating horizontally in a small plane of action. Attached at the far end is the weapon itself. With only rotation of the hips the weapon has increased its impact force. If the feet pivot on the balls of the feet, at the same time the hips rotate (a very natural motion) an even greater force is transmitted to the weapon for there is now a whipping effect. When the hips reach a final point in space, the weapon hand tries to catch up to that point. This generates a great deal of energy that is applied to the strike. Now, if one bends ones’ knees slightly while

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rotating ones’ hips, dropping ones’ mass as it rotates, the weapon cuts a downward rotational shortened whipping arc into the target. The weapon is now in a position to catch up with several rotational forces that cover a small rotation area while it must cover a large rotational area. Within that rotation its’ arc is shortened even more, causing even greater speed. The impact of the weapon is now many times stronger than if struck by arm strength or hip rotation alone. The strike could be swung outward in an arcing motion: with or without arm rotation The image of striking with a weapon is one of an arcing blow. That is that the weapon itself traces an arc through the air into and through the opponent. This arcing strike comes from a natural position. Somehow one just reaches out and the strike finds a way to cut a circular plane of motion through the air. The strike is a downward diagonal strike no less. This is a fantasy, a conjured image by those who would ignore “form follows function”. To enact a downward diagonal SWINGING strike several things MUST take place: • • From a natural stance, Striking Key #1, the weapon hand would have to use a small downward diagonal circular motion to get the weapon into a larger downward diagonal plane of motion. A forward cocking motion. The elbow and the hand must be raised away from the body, in a cocked position, allowing the strike to descend into a downward diagonal strike. The cocked and ready position can range from in front of the body to the side of the body. Holding ones’ elbow up, the forearm and hand up, (perpendicular to the ground) palm inward, the elbow shoulder height (upper arm parallel to the ground), one can trace an arc from in front of the body to the side of the body. Any point in this zone of arm rotation can become a downward diagonal swinging strike.

This downward strike could be done with arm strength alone. Without arm rotation causing a cutting action at the tip of the weapons strike, holding a weapon out at arms reach by arm strength alone and swinging it to cause damage would take a VERY strong person. Or one could take a very light weapon and swing it with greater speed to try to cause damage. The weapon itself mitigates this striking action. If the weapon is a percussive weapon such as a stick, there needs to be great speed and little weight. If the weapon is an edged weapon, any contact with the moving edge will cause damage. Either way, striking with just the arm needs strength to insure good striking. By adding the same hip rotation as in the “punching” method of striking, one can increase the power of the swinging strike. Arm strength will mean a great deal less if the hips are used to generate power. A swinging strike is definitely designed for an edged weapon where the circular striking motion would bring into play the whole edge of the weapon. An edge designed to cut flesh. This circular swinging motion or stroking, works fine with an edged weapon and only causes superficial damage with a percussive weapon especially if the strike is on the middle portion of the percussive weapon. Note: if one strikes with the very tip of a percussive weapon in a stroking motion a great amount of energy will be transferred to the object struck and the movement of the tip may cause a cutting action. Types of strikes • • • • • Punching motion, hand punches out and doesn’t return all the way Jabbing motion, the hand punches out and retracts immediately Swinging motion, with follow through, the hand completes a swinging arc Swinging motion, without follow through, the hand swings in an arc and upon contact retracts Swinging motion, with shortened arc, the hand swings in an arc and just before contact pulls the arc short

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• • •

Fanning, the turning or snapping of the wrist causes the striking action Long Fanning, the turning of arm at the elbow causes the striking action Thrusting, hitting or cutting with the tip of the weapon can be used with punching, jabbing, swinging or fanning.

NOTE: these strikes are effected by combative range: how far away is the opponent? A full swinging blow for example will not work in close range. It is better suited for long or medium range. Punching strikes are good medium to close range but lack crispness in long range. Jabbing motions are best in long to medium range. This is not arbitrarily decided. Functionality of ones arms within a certain range determines what type of strike will be used. There is no set distance for everyone has different length arms. The idea of range is a conceptual one and its usage varies with each individual as needed by combative realities. Using the proper tool at the correct time works in combative reality. The most natural response, the one of combative simplicity usually is the correct one. Striking is the sum total of the actual strike, stepping, and body rotation. All work with each other to generate power in a simple way. A natural way to generate power in combat that is not based on fine motor skills. Stepping, balance, body rotation are things all humans have done since they learned how to walk. These skills are used daily. Add to these normal skills some knowledge of striking, again based on natural gross movement and one has the base of combative principles for striking. Combative skills that when stress levels rise and fine motor skills abandon one, the combative skills remain, gross motor skills available to save ones’ life. Counterstriking: body torque or hip rotation is important. Block, evade, & counter Counterstriking involves a facet of combat that striking doesn’t even consider. The biggest variable in striking is trying to hit the target. In counterstriking, the most important variable is that first, one must survive the preemptive strike, then counter the attack, therefore evasion is paramount. Evasion is the defenders variable. Evasion is not only body motions but also the stopping of the incoming attack: blocking. Blocking in a combative sense is striking the strike. The strike might be to the weapon of the attacker or to the weapons’ hand. There is a big difference between the two and most teach that one defensive strike is better than another is. This is not the case. They involve different variables; variables that are mitigated by the type of weapon itself. Striking to the weapons’ hand is commonly called “Defanging the snake”. As a strike is executed, the defender strikes the attackers’ weapons’ hand ending the confrontation. Depending on the circumstances this is in concept a great idea. If executed properly this is also a good way to disarm an attacker. In a spontaneous attack, a true combative situation, one might not be able to just “reach out and defang the snake” on the first motion. Again another mitigating factor is the weapon itself. If the attacker has a large edged weapon and the defender has a blunt weapon, trying to defang the snake has the potential for trouble. The attacker could strike a violent #1 strike at the defender. As the blunt weapon strikes the attackers weapons’ hand the momentum might carry the edged weapon INTO the defender. The momentum and the velocity might be unimpaired. The final result? The defender hurts the attacker’s weapons’ hand and after passing through the defenders counter hit, the attacker’s weapon splits open the defender, sending blood and guts everywhere. GREAT! The checking hand, the ultimate safety valve everyone is silently yelling about was cut off trying to stop an unimpeded blade. The Art asks one to do deflection blocks with an immediate checking hand. Combative reality asks that one STOP / block the incoming attack cold, THEN counter attack. In combat one CANNOT look up and say, “oh that’s not supposed to happen! My check hand is supposed to have stopped you!”

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If the defender AS WELL AS the attacker has an edged weapon the variables change drastically. The attacker launches a violent #1 strike at the defender. The defender immediately counters with a blocking strike #1 to the attacker’s weapons’ hand. Minimally the attacker loses all of the flexors in the weapons arm and control of the weapon: without working flexors, the weapon CANNOT stay in the attacker’s hand. If the weapon is not lost immediately, then upon contact with the checking hand the weapon will be dislodged. Due to blood loss the attacker is going into acute shock. Maximum stoppage would be as the defender executes the blocking strike; the attackers weapons hand is cut off completely. If the check hand cannot stop it, the arm without a hand can continue with its momentum into the defender safely. Blocking the strike is the best combative solution. Force to force. Stop the action immediately. If the force becomes too great the block turns from a force to force block into a meet the force. With a meet the force, when the pressure is too great, one yields to the force allowing it to pass but redirecting it as it goes. Both force to force and meet the force need evasion and counterstriking to end the engagement. Evasion in combat is moving to the point of least force: least force within the attackers striking motion. There are many forms of evasion and in Filipino martial arts the foundation of evasion starts with the female triangle. The female triangle’s point is into the defender and flares out from the defender. The base of the female triangle is where the attack originates. It is a leading arrow of the attack INTO the defender. Basic stepping is stepping along one of the sides of the triangle to the point of least pressure: the best being away from the attack, the other is jamming the attack as it initiates. Evasion makes blocking the attack much easier. It is much harder to hit what isn’t there. Counterattacking is enhanced by evasion and blocking the attack. The attacker has a blunt weapon, a stick and strikes a #1 strike at the defender who also has a blunt weapon, a stick. The defender moves the weapons’ hand first, and uses a blocking strike #1 to stop the attacking strike #1. As the defender’s hand moves to block, the defender steps away from the force yet closes the gap, by stepping up right, 45 degrees, up the outside of a female triangle. Using a force to force block the defender stops the attack while body shifting inward toward the attacker and uses the left hand to check the sticks. Moving the checking hand from the sticks to the attacker’s weapons’ hand the defender prepares to counterstrike. Variation #1 The defender, whiles holding attacker’s weapons’ hand; starts to rotate his hips counterclockwise on the balls of the feet. The defender counterstrikes under the attacker’s arm with an opening motion, #4 horizontal strike from the close side. The defender finishes the rotation of his hips. The impact of the strike and the full rotation of the hips coincide. The counterclockwise torque supplied by the motion of the rotating hips ads power to the counterstrike. Variation #2 The defender, whiles holding attacker’s weapons’ hand; starts to rotate his hips counterclockwise on the balls of the feet. The defender starts to counterstrike under the attacker’s arm with an opening motion, #4 horizontal strike from the close side. As the counterstrike is delivered the defender now rotates on the balls of his feet clockwise in the direction of the strike. The rotation -counter rotation of the defender’s hips ad power and speed to the defenders counterstrike. Both of these variations could have the defender counterstrike with just arm power. It is taught that way in a lot of schools. To have combat reality one needs to have hip rotation so that the counterstrike stops the opponent. Bumping, bruising, or tagging the opponent in a combative situation is unacceptable. The counter must have the potential to stop the opponent and end the encounter. In attacking or counterattacking the way one strikes is of vital importance. Striking and counterstriking in a combative situation must be done with proper presentation, frame of mind and power. Ones’ life could depend on it.

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Cutting: using the edge Cutting is very different than striking. Cutting needs to make use of an edge, a wedge (double incline plane) shape that parts the object that the edge intersects. There are several ways to make use of the edge AFTER or WITHIN the striking motion itself. The conceptual motions are the same but the conceptual usage changes. Percussive striking is the culmination of the striking motion whereas cutting involves another variable for the striking motion itself may not make maximum use of the principle of the edge. Cutting motions: Sawing: back and forth slicing within a spot using the primary edge Sawing is done upon contact with the opponent’s body. Adhesion is necessary for contact is NEVER lost between the knife-edge and the opponent through out the sawing motion. Each sawing motion forward and back has a penetrating angle to it, forcing the edge to bite deeper with each stroke. This is no different in concept than using an actual saw where one tends to let the blade move back and forth while pushing forward through the object being sawed. Here the blade rocks its way through the sawing motion. Slicing: toe to heel or heel to toe using the primary edge Slicing with a knife is, as it seems, drawing the edge along an object to be cut. It is the most common and natural of the entire range of cutting motions and is used with all edged weapons from swords to knives. Within the stroking motion of using a knife, the heel of the knife, the part of the blade closest to the guard, makes contact with the opponent. The force of the striking motion pulls the knife-edge from that point of contact, all along the edge the knife, up to the toe or the tip of the knife. A foreshortened arc is generally used to enact this type of cut. The reverse of this is Kitchen cutting or cutting from toe to heel. Kitchen cutting works as well to bring the primary edge into play within the flow of combat. The slicing motion of Kitchen cutting is generally seen with a chef’s knife as one of a rocking-slicing from the toe of the knife down to the heel in a forward motion. It is an arcing cut that can be used from point of contact within the motion of “thrusting”. Hacking: chopping with the edge Hacking is a short, percussive chopping motion. It is jab like in the sense that the blade makes impact on the opponent and withdraws immediately. It is not chopping like using an axe where the chop is used to imbed the blade into an object and then wiggle it free for the next blow. However like the effect of a chopping axe, pieces may be dislodged from the opponent. Thrusting: cutting with the tip Thrusting with an edged weapon is commonly mistaken to be the same as stabbing. Thrusting is the art of engaging the tip or toe of the knife in a ripping motion, Usually the motion is an arcing strike or a direct straight entry that upon contact rotates into a tip ripping slice. Deep penetration with the blade is not the object. Picking: tip ripping Picking is a very specialized type of cutting where one combines the act of ripping with the tip and the hacking motion. Usually this is done close range in the reverse grip position. The point and secondary edge make contact and the primary edge barely makes contact before the blade is with drawn in preparation for the next strike. Picking is most effective in the reverse grip position.

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Stabbing: blade insertions Stabbing is the most commonly perceived way of using an edged weapon. While this can be deadly, organs feel no pain and humans are capable of sustaining multiple stab wounds and maintaining a combative ability. One needs to pierce an organ and cease its function to be effective. In stabbing the entry, depth and size of the weapon matter. No two stabs are the same in effectiveness. Stabbing can cause immediate shock when done or the stabbed victim might not even know that stabbing has occurred. Note: the number one stabbing implement in the world is a common screwdriver. Any sharp pointed object can become a ‘stabbing’ implement. Any inmate in today’s correction institution can verify this fact! Back cuts: hacking or slicing with the secondary edge The type of cutting needs a sharpened back edge. It can be done with a false edge but the damage is not as great and it becomes a percussive blow rather than a cutting strike. The secondary edge or clip can cause considerable damage and its usage peaked with the American Bowie Knife Fighters. Bowie fighting’s secret technique was the “Back-cut”. The actual usage comes from swordplay such as the saber. The motion is a turning or rotating of the wrist to bring into play the back edge at the tip of the knife, the clip. This is a very fast slicing motion. It can become repeating slices very easily. These repeating slices of a back cut are generally coming from a circular motion. Any of these motions can be used separately or strung together. In CONCEPTUAL STRIKING PATERNS and BASIC STRIKINGS OF ARNIS one can see how to apply these strikes and cutting motions.

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Chapter:#18 Double Weapons: two is obviously better than one! Professor Presas: Modern Arnis-The Filipino Art of Stickfighting 1983 Ohara Press USA

Sinawali ( and Redonda) are the weaving motions made with two sticks in Arnis that are practiced in precise, prescribed motions to familiarize the student with the method of stickfighting, both in free sparring or with blades. There are three basic types of Sinawali in Arnis: all employ two sticks, or hands or blades…programming one for learning to defend against another’s stick or blade. Double weapons usage seems to be what most people envision as Filipino martial art. Twin blades or sticks whirling away like a blender. Weaving intricate patterns of steel and wood that can defeat any opponent. Well, OK almost any opponent. Ok maybe some opponents. OK, so Double weapons upon closer looking seems not so practical a way to defeat an opponent in today’s combative situation. In Modern Arnis double weapon usage is there to teach concepts of motion and usage rather than specific fighting techniques by themselves. Some instructors teach each set of pairings as something different from each other but in reality they are branches of the same conceptual motion with differing conceptual usage. Double weapons can be taught several ways but they are still classes of Double weapons. Double Stick Double Sword Double Knife Long Stick and knife Long stick and short stick Sword and knife Sword and long stick Stick and Shield Sword and shield Whip and knife Whip and stick Any combination of weapons can be used. Shield and spear, spear and stick, spear and sword…The way of using them comes from the conceptual usage of “Open / Close” of the human arms and the weaving of one’s arms in patterns, either symmetrical or asymmetrical. Modern Arnis has several versions that are used to teach these concepts. What most people fail to understand is that there is no such animal as single weapon. One’s empty hand is also ALWAYS a weapon and it teaches the double weapon skill cultivated by long-short such as Espada y Daga. MODERN ARNIS tries to instill this understanding to its practitioners. In Modern Arnis these are the tools used to teach Double Weapons: Double Stick Sword and knife Stick and knife Double knife The basic patterns used to learn the double weapons of Modern Arnis are under the conceptual headings of Redonda X, Sinawali and Espada y Daga. As shown in the chapter on conceptual striking and Filipino patterns, each of these is similar in conceptual motion but different especially in conceptual usage. Redonda X is used to understand intercepting circular motion. Sinawali is used to understand horizontal straight line intercepting planes. Espada y Daga is used to

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understand combining the two motions and the ability to change ranges within the usage of the two combined conceptual patterns. Of all the combinations possible, only Espada y Daga or Sword and dagger reflect a different point of view from the standard Filipino martial arts. Sword and Knife / dagger techniques and the conceptual usage of them actually come from European combative fencing. The other double weapons can find origin in whatever martial arts have blossomed in the Filipino tradition of martial arts or in the martial arts of their neighbors. Sword and knife came to them, the Filipinos, from the occupying forces of the Spanish. Current versions of Espada y Daga have been influenced by the Filipino flavor but they are still the old fashioned cut and thrust or rapier concepts of the Spanish fighters that have survived into today’s world. Using a very long shaft of steel with a much smaller parrying / thrusting knife is not as simple as “strike with the sword, then thrust with the knife.” Ones parrying hand learns open-close in a miniature sphere of rotation, (that’s where the point of the opponents sword enters one’s personal sphere of defense.) Meanwhile, the sword is making tangerial thrusts off the conceptual motion of contact, big and small, due to the ever-changing radius of the attacking weapons length. Espada y Daga also asks that Ranges of Combat be used in several ranges at once, for there is disparity in the ability to use one’s chosen tools in a set range, so one must actually utilize range changing to make the usage of the tools effective. What seems so easy to do in theory with a stick of 26 inches and a dagger of 13 inches has no validity in the actual combat consisting of a 41 inch steel bladed sword while parrying with a 13 inch Main Gauche. In practice one can block the attack or attack with one’s “long weapon” and still be in range to use the short weapon to strike the killing blow! In real, the weapons make one utilize ranges of combat in an ongoing flow, no set place or range, because the ability to use each weapon to the fullest has two different truths: One short, close range, the other far away, long range. In other words, if I just block the opponents long weapon with my long weapon, or if I attack with my long weapon at long range, I will be no where near my opponent and my short weapon will not deliver a killing blow to anything but the air and my chances to win. The patterns of using a shield, a stick, a sword as demonstrated by some of the Masters of Filipino arts in America today all reflect the same basic weaving patterns as one would classify as Conceptual motion. This motion makes no distinction between any of the tools and some of these masters talk of the usage changing within the same Conceptual motion. The blessing is that since no one actually uses these forms of fighting anymore, we don’t have people dying because of improper instruction. That’s right dying. The use of “shield” as taught today has no relationship to the manner in which those that carried them to actually defend one’s life. How can that be? As PALADIN PRESS author John Clements has noted there are still disagreements as to HOW shields were constructed, let alone how they were actually used. What seems so simple is not as simple in reality. Don’t think so? Try mounting this huge thing on your arm and try to use it against someone attacking you with full power blows. You might see that the top of your own shield hits your weapons arm while moving, that certain motions don’t really clear one’s shield wall….hmmm it was REAL easy when all one did was bang shield to shield playing out a set box drill like Standard count- Double Sinawali. Actual application within the flow of combat modifies conceptual usage and sometimes it has little to do with the base concept of motion. Rotational ranges of combat with understanding of open-close: double arm follows begins to matter a great deal. NOTE: banging endless box drills with two sticks, or two machetes does not mean one understands using double weapons. Oh? You can bang really fast and do various versions of the same drill? So what? Can you make range adjustments at each attack and counter while maintaining combat effectiveness? Can you utilize the strengths of each weapon you wield in each hand instantaneously as needed within the flow? Can you actually fight, not just “ Do the drill”? Double weapons reality does not exist in its purest form today for it is not part of our society’s fighting reality. We can only guess at its combative reality and try to understand it. Want to see real fighting? Check out a

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classical theater group doing combative sword and dagger drills for the stage. Some of them actually use combative fencing to make the plays realistic. This brings us back to Modern Arnis double weapons. Modern Arnis double weapons are used to understand the reality of ranges of combat and that several ranges exist at the same time. Within these ranges of combat certain conceptual motions are used and specific usages occur. None of these are set in stone due to the fact that real combat changes every second and so must ones awareness of the situation. Double weapons force usage of both arms in practitioners that might otherwise choose to utilize only one arm. Using double weapons asks that one understand rotation space for weapons truly move in a 3-D area not a 2-D area. Modern Arnis asks that the practitioner actually learn to apply all the aspects of Open-Close with both arms / weapons and to be able to translate each arm independently of each other! Actual descriptions of these motions are in the section of Conceptual Patterns and Conceptual usage. Yes… you need to mix and match these chapters. They can’t exist on their own. Filipino Arts are made up of many sets of concepts that all inter-relate! In the general doing Double Weapons is to understand; the relationship of where one’s weapons are at any time, the edge orientation, direction and angle of impact, targeting from within the flow of combat and the ability to have and use several ranges of combat at once. If one can do all these things then Combative flow is as it needs to be: SIMPLE. Let’s look at a simple Espada y Daga drill. It’s a mirror image drill, that means both partners do the same motions at the same time...that allows both partners to experience the conceptual motions. A steps up right and using A’s right hand, strikes a number #1 strike, allowing the strike to go from Open position to Closed. A steps up left, ( following the same stepping position as the step up right...actually a Male pyramid stepping) A does slashing-tip rip ( inverted thrust, palm down) from Open to Close with A’s left hand. A steps back left to original position, while striking a number #2 strike with A’s right hand, from Close to Open position. A slashes a number #1 slash from Close to Open with A’s left hand. A is back in the original position. SIMPLE! Stepping, hitting, cutting and ranges all in a few steps!

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Chapter:#19 Biomechanical Cutting: de-animation of the opponent Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

In learning these techniques, the learner is taught HOW and WHERE to deliver a strike in order to achieve the maximum power and efficacy!…the learner should know the different parts of the body that are considered vulnerable and which are excellent target for strikes…some of these parts are so vulnerable that a strike or a blow to them may incapacitate, if not kill, a person. Bio -mechanical cutting is the “newest” way to apply percussive and cutting motions. I teach these concepts in my seminars and in my newest video tape series from VIDEO QUEST and PALADIN PRESS. No, I didn’t invent the hits and the cuts but I have applied them in a new conceptual way and incorporated them into a progressive training program. In Modern Arnis this is an important concept as well as other Filipino arts! It is commonly called “De-Fanging the Snake” in traditional Filipino martial arts! Biomechanical cutting means to stop all mechanical function of the body. It does not mean to end or cease the functioning of the body or terminate its life. Street combat needs biomechanical cutting to achieve its ends while military combat needs to stop not only biomechanical function but in most cases termination of the unit in general. The goal of Biomechanical cutting in street combat is to stop a body’s mechanical function. If one stops the mechanical function of one’s opponent several things become clear in combative reality: The threat of attack is removed. If one’s opponent cannot make a physical action happen then the opponent’s desire or intent doesn’t matter • The opponent’s mobility is gone. One’s escape can be implemented. The opponent cannot follow. • The opponent’s condition is a deterrent to others wanting to take similar action • Drugs, alcohol, lack of pain, great strength or other mitigating factors, which might help an opponent in aggressive street combat, are negated and become moot. • Legal ramifications are kept to a minimum: Death is hard to reconcile Using steel, the actual act of cutting, one seeks flesh not bone. The human body is basically a complex mechanical unit. There is a frame work, an interior structure that maintains form, and function with tissue that connects the pieces and connective tissues the extend or contract the pieces. There are fuel lines, lubricants, a mechanical pulley system and a complex electrical system with on board computer hook up. By interfering with any of these

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systems, the mechanical unit shuts down. Cutting any of these connections, joints or electrical pathways damages the unit till it can be surgically repaired. Cutting is the imperative word here for percussive striking may or may not do damage. One can suppose or speculate on percussive damage by theory or by inferred results but cutting is different. Every one cuts and bleeds. Steel cuts flesh. Severing living flesh and the working human mechanical system brings obvious results. Humans are very easy to injure, maim, and destroy parts of rather than terminate. The human body and spirit are very resilient and that resiliency keeps people who should have died from their wounds alive and fighting. Emergency rooms are full of should have died patients. War heroes are given posthumous citations for somehow surviving an attack and then saving others and killing the enemy before expiring themselves. This makes combat very complex! One could deliver a “death” blow and as one waits for one’s opponent to die, the opponent somehow manages to counterstrike and deliver his own death blow back at one. Tie score. Both die. This is an unacceptable combative solution. In combat therefore, instead of looking to terminate the opponent with no biomechanical cessation of function, one should “destroy” the opponent’s operating system then terminate the opponent as the progression builds. In street combat that option does not exist. If one terminates an opponent one can end up in jail or in court or both. Therefore biomechanical cutting is of utmost importance in street combat. Without terminating one’s opponent, one stops all possibility of threat or aggression by stopping the opponent from functioning. Just like the Black Knight in Monty Python’s Quest for the Holy Grail. The Black Knight has both arms and legs cut off by King Arthur and the hopping torso keeps yelling, “Come on! It’s only a flesh wound. Come closer so I can bite you!” King Arthur rides off into the sunset. Note: humans have certain autonomic responses to injuries that cannot be over ridden. Sometimes these reactions coupled with biomechanical impairment gives one total control of one’s situation and one’s opponent. For example, we have an overwhelming need to look at our injuries and THEN decide how serious it is. When we get struck on the head one’s natural response is to reach for the injury and close one’s eyes to visualize the injury. A poke to one eye causes both eyes to close protectively and to tear up. Getting severely injured causes a person to contract or go fetal to protect our self in a human ball. Simple bangs and cuts can cause one to grab one’s hand or injured part, contract the limb, and look at it while voicing some sound of pain releasing sounds...screams, moans and the like. What we do not do is get expansive, injury causes us to contract, compact and get protective. Burning a hand, cutting it, banging it causes us to retract the limb QUICLY from wherever we sense the danger is located. We do the same with any part of our body. Our bodies even have an off switch so that in event of a major injury we shut down to survive...its called shock! IMPORTANT: Many people will gladly tell you that lethal force is allowed to be met with lethal force and “Don’t worry, In a court of law JUSTICE will prevail!” Only on paper, in certain circumstances, with certain people involved, is lethal force the accepted response to lethal force. Worse yet, those that would judge one for using lethal force, a jury of one’s peers, is NEVER of one’s peers and they are truly the common people with nothing in common with the one they judge. If one’s opponent or opponent’s family doesn’t file criminal charges, the state may file criminal charges for one’s ethical self-defense actions that aren’t socially or legally acceptable. If one beats the criminal charges the same groups may file civil charges. I have heard the moans from some of you! “I’d rather be tried by twelve than carried by six! This is a misguided, misspoken, mistaken statement of gross ignorance! It goes to the “Black or White” of a situation not to the reality of the situation. One cannot take the attitude of “I’ll just kill the bastard and let a jury sort it out. All I need do is go all out to defend myself consequences be damned!” This is WHY we have bio-mechanical cutting. INTENT is everything!

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I know you’re starting to get the idea. Biomechanical stoppage is about the only way to compromise between action and legal reaction. We’ll look at some of the actual targeting zones and what happens when one cuts or hits these zones. We looked at the conceptual “Why and Why not” as to using biomechanical stoppage. Again, for those that missed the core point of the introduction: Bio-mechanical stoppage means just that, stopping the bio- mechanical functioning, and the ability to actually move or use one’s parts. This is a utilization of the concept of “form follows function” Now we’ll actually look at the cuts and the hits and WHY target zones are so important! This part will be looking at upper body. Of course the upper body is the first thing one will encounter and it is the easiest target! Biomechanical target zones: pulling the plug! NOTE: Humans have a reflex of looking at our injuries. Humans go into some form of fetal position upon shock or injury: contraction rather than expansion. Intent does not count with biomechanical cutting. The opponent may have intent or the most will power in the world but function is function: if the parts don’t work all the prayer, wishing or swearing will not make them work again until surgically repaired. This IS NOT AN ANATOMY LESSON. There are many more muscles involved than those mentioned. There are many nerves and circulatory vessels involved. This is to show WHY biomechanical cutting works at the SIMPLEST LEVEL to understand. Use of a cutting implement or a percussive implement, sometimes induces immediate shock to the body. In a small zone that means that the body actually feels “no pain” at the point of targeting, but that does not stop the reality of function being stopped! Cutting: the ultimate bio-mechanical stoppage! Remember humans are only hydraulic units with a very simple bionic pulley system. Interfere with either system or both and the function fails! The fingers, hand and forearm: The Filipino’s call it defanging the snake, or breaking the snake’s teeth, Sword-fighters of old called it “disarming” (literally!) and there are many cultures that used the concept of attack the attacking weapon. This is the first strike that one can apply to one’s opponent for the opponent willingly brings the weapon toward one’s defensive zone. • Cutting the fingers of one’s opponent usually stops an attack. Fingers house lots of nerves, ligaments and tendons and if damaged, fingers cannot be used till they are surgically repaired. Fingers are no bigger than chicken legs and can easily be broken or cut off. • Cutting the hand back or front can stop function. Cutting the back extensors can cause severe damage and bleeding and stops the fingers from opening. Cutting the front or palm of the hand will cut flexors causing severe damage and forces the hand to open. There is a lot of meat that can be cut including the opposing digit, the thumb. Note: cutting the thumb can end the use of the hand immediately until the thumb is surgically repaired. Fingers don’t work well without an opposing digit to hold them in place. The Forearm has many target areas unto itself and is an easy zone to reach. • Cutting the muscles on the outside of the forearm cuts the extensors, which uncurl or extend the fingers. The nerve functions that control grasping are located on the outside as well. Catching a cut up by the elbow and pulling down toward the thumb can send a fillet over the opponent’s hand. The fillet may go down to the bone. • Cutting the inside forearm contains the ateries and main nerves that control the wrist and the fist. Severing the nerves and /or the muscles will cause the flexors, which keep the hand

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closed not to work, or will destroy the needed nerve impulses to accomplish the same function. Fillets can be cut from the inside of the forearm as well as the outside forearm. The middle arm: biceps and triceps are only big in the gym. • The function of the biceps other than to look great is to pull the lower arm to the upper arm. Cutting either of the heads of the muscle, the belly of the muscle or picking pieces out of the biceps impairs the function. When the biceps don’t work, the arm will not contract or the lower forearm cannot be raised to an upright position. With the biceps cut or impaired it is easy to get an opponent to give the classic straight arm as used in arm bars or elbow breaks. • The Triceps extend or straighten the arm. Cutting, picking pieces out of or impairing the triceps gives one an opponent with the lower arm contracted against the upper arm. This is the classic position for enacting the classic gooseneck locking. The upper arm: shoulder; trapezium, deltoids and the chest As one works one’s way up the arm it is easy to access the shoulders. Cutting the anterior Deltoid (the one that faces front) and the lateral deltoid (the one that makes shoulders look so good) stops the function of rotation of the arm as well as horizontal adduction of the arm. Cutting the back deltoid stops extension of the arm. The junction of the arm and torso has the connection of the chest or pectoral muscles. The insertion point is the upper arm. Cutting these muscles at the junction stops adduction, horizontal adduction and rotation of that arm. Cutting the Trapeziums (the muscles that give one that powerful look from neck to shoulder) stops upward rotation of the arm as well as lifting of the arm. NOTE: Working one’s way up the arm one could cut the deltoid or the external pectorals or even higher, one could cut the trapezium muscle to impair function. There is no need to cut the torso of the opponent. One might need to justify one’s cutting actions in a Court of Law before a Judge and Jury. Everyone has cut a finger or a toe, most have gotten cut hands, and some have even gotten cut arms…people can relate to that. No one can relate to being stabbed, organs pierced, bellies cut open, throats slit, or testicles cut off. For biomechanical cutting one cuts limbs only and the cutting is to IMPAIR function not to inflict lethal injuries or de-animation of one’s opponent. We’ve stopped the bad guy’s upper torso from working. That’s great! And we’ve seen that in an ethical and moral sense we did as little damage as possible to the bad guy yet saved ourselves. This time we will go over mobility. How does stopping an opponent’s mobility give to us the stoppage/ or cessation of attacking motion we want. OK… are we getting the POINT? Well we’ve bio-mechanically stopped the bad guy with upper torso cutting. What happens to the legs and lower torso? If the bad guy can still move, if the bad guy still has mobility, he or she can still harm us. In this part I’ll show you targeting zones that leave the opponent with a base. No mobility, no attack! Perfect! The legs and hips present another type but equally as good a target as the upper torso. Cut or impair the legs and /or the hips and mobility and balance are functionally stopped. This includes the Gluteus Maximus or as commonly known as the butt. Professor Presas once asked me to kick at him. He told me kick VERY FAST. I hesitated but complied. He immediately struck my leg with a stick and laughed. I fell to the floor in great pain. “Oh Bram” he said “you kick a man with a weapon and you are now a gimp!” As I struggled to get up he told me to kick him again with the other leg. I was in pain, but I complied. The strike on my other leg dropped me upon impact.

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“ You do not learn fast! Do you know what you are now!?” Before I could answer he shook his head and said, “ You are dead…NEVER kick at a man with a weapon. He will cut off your legs and then you cannot move or run away!” I HAVE NEVER FORGOTTEN THAT LESSON! While I was teaching an Edged weapon seminar in Europe, a master of Tae Kwon Do once told me he could kick a knife out of my hand BEFORE I cut him. I had him kick my hand, which I let go limp and my hand flew away and rebounded with the knife into his leg. He tried again only this time I moved my hand at the last minute and the kick missed and I drove the knife into his leg and up into his femoral region. On his third attempt as his hip shifted slightly, I intercepted his motion. I drove the knife into the belly of his quadriceps and up into his flexor dropping him immediately in pain onto the floor. I told him and the other participants at my seminar that he was VERY lucky that I was only using a training knife otherwise he would be in serious trouble. No one tried kicking a knife out of anyone’s hands the rest of the seminar. Before I start this section I need to state the obvious. Mobility is paramount in self-defense and in most physical situations. The quarterback of the Miami Dolphins, Dan Marino stepped back and popped his Achilles tendon. End of Marino’s mobility, BOOM onto the turf. Pick any Football, Soccer, Basketball or Baseball player that pops a leg muscle and see how well they move; they don’t move at all and get carried off the field. These are tough, conditioned, PROFESSIONAL athletes and they drop like sacks of potatoes. Kick boxers routinely target the legs. Benny the Jet stopped many opponents with leg kicks and in the early days of the PKA-WKA many American fighters who ventured to fight overseas found out the hard way. Dead legs mean no mobility: End of fight. Ever get a shot in one’s butt from lets say a nurse “Ratchet” and one cannot move one’s leg except in great pain with limited mobility? I have. On board ship, I was given a shot in my butt with a normal needle that felt like six inches long and I couldn’t walk for several days… Actually there were several of us on the ship in that condition. All from a tiny needle stuck INTO the Gluteus Maximus. Legs: no legs no mobility Cutting the legs of an opponent works. Most people do not expect to be cut or hurt in their legs. Cutting legs stops one’s mobility and ability to balance. The perfect attacker / opponent is one lying on the ground still screaming “ I’ll get you, come closer so I can grab you and I’ll get you” Ah, the infamous scene from Monty Python and the Holy Grail. King Arthur tries to go across a bridge and is challenged by the ultimate bad guy, the Black Knight. The Black Knight will not let King Arthur go by him to cross the bridge. They battle intensely. Arthur cuts off the Black Knight’s arms and legs and this torso keeps screaming at King Arthur to come closer so that he can bite him. King Arthur shrugs his shoulders and “rides” away across the bridge. It works like that in real life as well except the torso will not be screaming for one to come closer so that it can bite one. Upper Leg Cutting, piercing, cutting pieces out of the opponent’s quadriceps (front) or hamstrings (back) immediately stop the action. Transitional cuts from arm to leg usually end up cutting the Sartorius. Cut the Sartorius and there is no pick up of the leg, no flexion, no abduction, and no lateral rotation. Ever pull an old style shade and let it go? It rolls up very quickly. That’s what the Sartorius will do around the knee. Aim for the Sartorius and miss and one hits the flexors and abductors of the hips. Cut these muscles and the legs pivot outward just like de-boning a chicken. An opponent with no legs is in no better position to advance on one and attack or counter attack, than someone in a wheel chair. Ok, that’s wrong! A person in a wheelchair can have mobility and an opponent with nonfunctioning legs has NONE!

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The Butt: great Glutes! OK…it sounds very funny except when it’s your butt that got hurt. One of the largest muscle groups in the body is the Glutes. When the Glutes are incapacitated the body cannot move. Ask a football player who has torn a Glute. A hurt butt keeps him on the bench and off the field for many weeks. One needs the Glutes to be able to stand, move, walk, run and pivot. Poking the opponents butt with the tip of one’s knife can cause immediate stoppage of the opponent’s movement. Tip ripping with the knife and popping a snow cone divot out of an opponent’s butt will end the confrontation. The opponent can still grab but the opponent cannot chase, run or stand. If that doesn’t finish the confrontation, then it can be a great opener to any other biomechanical cutting motion. In a court of law, when it is pointed out by the attacker, that while in the act of attacking one, to mug, rape or rob, the attacker was hurt in his butt by the defender, (yes, see you’re smiling already!) the jury will be smiling because the situation seems funny. Again this is perception not reality but people in general have a hard time taking butt injuries seriously. Especially if it happens to the bad guy! The Knee: a fragile hinged joint The knee can take moderate amount of percussive abuse. Straight on the knee can absorb some impact, from the side the knee cannot take any substantial blunt trauma. Cutting the “knee” causes severe damage and bio-mechanically if the knee doesn’t work, the body stays in one place. The Quadriceps Femoris Group actually inserts below the knee and act to extend the knee joint. If any of them are cut the knee cannot bend nor can the hip flex. The Rectus Femoris is a quad muscle that actually crosses both hip and knee. It is readily accessible to a direct cutting motion. The thick cords felt behind the knee are actually the end of the hamstrings and they control extension of the hip, flexion of the knee and rotation of the knee. Cutting through these muscles takes little effort and is as simple as removing a chicken leg from the thigh. Cut the connecting tissue and nothing is there. This is what old time “hamstringing’ was; the cutting of the hamstrings at the bend of the knee. The calf: Gastrocnemius looks great, cuts easily The Gastrocnemius or Gastro is Greek for “belly”. This muscle can act on the knee or the ankle separately but not simultaneously. A cutting of this muscle will totally immobilize an opponent till the muscle is surgically repaired. Ask Dan Marino. He stepped back to pass and the tendon ripped. No Achilles tendon, no movement. BOOM. All fall down! The Foot: protected by the shoes OK. So the opponent has shoes on, sneakers on (high tops no less), or boots. Stab right through the top of the shoe pinning the foot to the ground. Stab directly into the toes, injuring them or cutting them off. Ignore the foot and use the top edge of the sneaker or boot as a cutting guide and cut across the leg. What happens then? Go back and read the above section on calves. No feet, no movement, no mobility. NOTE: I broke my big toe when I kicked someone in a combative situation. It was a “picture perfect” round kick to the opponent’s head. He dropped like a sack of potatoes. I dropped to my knees almost as fast. The pain was intense and I couldn’t move. I had broken off part of the joint of the big toe upon impact. I once saw Professor Presas quick strip a stick from a student. It flew straight up in the air and came straight down, butt first directly onto Professor Presas’ big toe. He dropped to his knees in

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pain. Toe pain can bio-mechanically stop someone! Even someone as experienced as the Professor because he NEVER expected it. Let’s get right to bio mechanical hitting! We saw how to bio-mechanically cut someone to stop them from attacking us. It almost works the same with hitting but we actually have less target zones and less effectiveness to those strikes. The body is designed to absorb impact. As you have seen the body is not designed to deal with cutting! With that in mind let’s move into the act of percussive hitting and using those hits to stop our opponent! Yes, HITTING! Edged tools as well as blunt objects can be used for hitting or percussive hits. We need to see percussion because sometimes one might only have a stick or similar implement and the targeting is different from cutting! Bio-mechanical Hitting: the Beat goes on! Bio-mechanical hitting is the act of percussive blows to stop the functioning of one’s opponent. Due to the nature of percussive action there are several mitigating circumstances that enter into it’s usage.

• • • • • • •

How strong is the striker: mass, weight, strength itself How strong is the defender: mass, weight, strength. And especially how tough are the defender’s musculature. How fast was the strike. Speed makes up for mass. How high a pain threshold does the defender have. How prominent is the defender’s bone structure Can one access the skeletal structure of the opponent. How strong is the actual skeletal structure of the opponent.

Percussion, the act of striking with a blunt object, must seek bone. Striking with a stick or blunt object to bio-mechanically stop an opponent needs specific, fixed targets. In a classroom situation with no combative reality, striking fleshy areas and musculature can cause pain and cessation of action. In a combative situation where adrenaline is flowing and one’s sense of pain is dulled due to loss of fine motor skill interpretation, strikes must actually damage the supporting structure, the skeleton to be effective. This does not mean that striking a muscle or muscle groups with percussive blows will not work, BUT to bio-mechanically cease function one needs to break bones. Head: The skull has several areas that one can strike to stop function, but the most common, the forehead is the least effective. Yes, it can cause pain but it’s also very strong. Striking the crown of the head within the seam works better. A blow to the base of the skull by the occipital lobe / atlas area works. Striking the temple region or the eye orbit area will break the skull and possibly knock out the function of the opponent. The jaw points are useful and shattering the teeth might get a momentary pause for another strike. The same goes for breaking the nose, it’s a temporary stun while re-chambering for a temple strike. The side of the head is better than the front or the top! The problem with a head strike is that all function may cease. Death is a possibility. The outside possibility, with a medium probability is that the blow is a glancing one, the skull does what it’s designed to do, deflect the blow and the opponent rips one’s limbs off in retaliation! Shoulders: The shoulders are good targets if one remembers to not target the muscle such as the deltoid and instead targets the Clavicle / collar bone. Breaking a collarbone is great biomechanically. If there is no functioning collarbone, then there isn’t any arm motion, especially in trying to raise one’s arms.

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Note: I once ripped the end of my collarbone out of the breastbone while wrestling. I couldn’t understand WHY my arms wouldn’t work correctly. I couldn’t feel the pain, I was too excited about the match, but I could not make my arms work properly to hold my opponent. My opponent was able to twist out of my arms and I could not complete a pinning hold. I lost the match. Afterwards when I went to take my wrestling jersey off, I couldn’t move my arms and it hurt like hell. Biomechanical function has little correlation to amount of pain! Elbows: Elbows are not joints, as everyone in the general population seems to think. People talk of breaking someone’s elbow as if there is a special unit known as an elbow joint. A human elbow is the meeting of three bones held in place by muscles. The upper arm-bone, the Humerus meets the two lower bones the Radius and the Ulna. The junction of these bones, with all its woven and interconnected muscles is what is known as the Elbow. What we all know as “The Elbow” and which protrudes when the arm is bent, is actually the end of these bones. This protrusion is the twin base of the Humerus and the top process of the Ulna. This protruding lip is a great target for hitting with a blunt weapon such as a stick or other percussive tool. The breaking of this bone allows for the joint to slip bio-mechanically stopping the arm from bending. Due to the nerves that run through the channel of these connecting bones, the percussive striking of the joint can impair the function of the elbow. The same damage to the nerves can impair or cease all function in the hands as well. Hitting the muscles that surround the joint may impair function but in all probability will only cause pain without cessation of function. Ribs and Chest: The ribs and chest area seem to be a great target. This target however might be covered with muscles, breasts or protective clothing. Take a good look at any body builder, male or female and tell me how one is supposed to do bio-mechanical damage to anyone with all that natural armor made up of dense muscle tissue. The best rib target is the floating ribs because it is very difficult to build any protective musculature over these skeletal parts. Not only that, the floating ribs are just that, “Floating” non-connected ribs that terminates in end pieces rather than joins into the whole rib cage. This makes them much easier to break and when broken stop functionality including breathing! Thrusting into the ribs works almost as well as striking for one can concentrate the strike into a small area such as the ribs, the sternum, or even the soft solar plexus. Legs and Hips: Striking the hips with a percussive blow sounds and looks better than its actual effect. The hips are too powerful, and too protected to land a blow within the actual flow of combat to stop an opponent. Hitting the connective tissue or the biggest muscle group a human has, our butts, with a percussive strike doesn’t do much as well. Can it? Yes, it is POSSIBLE but the probability of actually stopping someone is virtually nil. Hitting someone’s legs looks good but the legs are capable of taking numerous strikes before stoppage is achieved. Yes I know that one can demonstrate a stopping blow in a set or classroom situation but in combat with adrenaline flowing, it’s not going to happen. And we are looking for biomechanical impairment that actually causes STOPPAGE of function. So what do we aim for? The knees. The bony protrusion of the knees or a blow into the side of the knees where the tendons and ligaments are easily accessible! Stop the bending of the knees or the ability to use the leg as a fulcrum and mobility stops. The ligaments and tendons of the knees are not made for impact. Ask any football player… Breaking the knee cap, the Patella or the joining site of the upper leg, the Femur with the lower legs two bones, the Fibula and the Tibia will stop an opponent. The inside of the lower leg, where the anterior surface of the Tibia is an exposed edge, (your shinbone!) is a great place to strike. The bone itself and the accompanying nerve are very accessible for striking! a hit here usually stops an opponent in their tracks. Sometimes a blow there, to the shin-

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bone, doubles an opponent up into a ball. All of these are good reactions for they bio-mechanically stop the incoming attack of one’s opponent. Percussive striking to an opponents feet or toes is very dependant on what kind of foot wear or lack of foot wear an opponent has on. Because of this mitigating factor, and the distance of the foot from one’s defensive tools, I would leave this target, the foot, to a personal decision at any given attack. I hope this has given you some actual thought as to how to stop an opponent! We must try to stop an opponent effectively and immediately to survive an attack. We study martial arts and self defense to do so. Now we have actual targeting zones to aid in these studies! Filipino martial arts especially Modern Arnis depend on the effective use of targeting zones! Remember a knife or edged tool can be use as a percussive tool at certain times while a percussive tool can NEVER be use as a cutting tool. Note: A great book on the use of Bio-mechanical cutting is KNIFEFIGHTING: a Practical Course by Mike Janich, published by PALADIN PRESS. Mike covers the subject expertly!

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Chapter:#20 Blocking & counter attack: anyone can attack, defense must be learned Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

It is said that the capacity of a defender to endure an attacker’s strike depends much on his ability to parry or block deadly blows effectively and to counterstrike with equal efficacy. Many Filipino martial arts instructors have talked of using weapons. Instructors such as Guro Dan Inosanto and Professor Remy Presas talk of the severity of using weapons. They have translated the Filipino ways of weapons into conceptual motions that can be used as empty hand motions. These translations have existed in the Philippines for many years but the refinement of those many ways into defined principles and concepts waited for instructors such as these men. When asked why he didn’t teach knife work Dan Inosanto has stated that it was so dangerous, that teaching the art of the blade would upset the elders of the Filipino arts. He also didn’t want to show “irresponsibly” the dangerous attacks with blade… for anyone could learn them and misuse them. Remy Presas used to politely say there was no need to teach knife for it was unlikely that one would be carrying a blade in today’s world. He told of his grandfather’s use of the blade in combat and said that it wasn’t right to destroy people’s lives over personal conflicts, that this wasn’t war. Both of these instructors can use a blade. Both can teach the use of the blade. Both these men found a politically correct way to “NOT TEACH” the art of the blade. WHY? Grandmaster Bobby Taboada teaches empty hand and single stick as a “fighting art”. He tells his Balintawak students the key is in defense and counter attack that ANYONE can strike with a stick or a weapon. Guro Dan Inosanto while teaching Bruce Lee’s Art of JKD shows direct reaction that borders on action, immediate interception of an attack with counters. Remy Presas in Modern Arnis tells of the blockings, interceptions and the immediate counter attack. “ Upon contact, you move!” For this he teaches his Tapi -Tapi drills: for attacks “happen” and one must survive and counter the attack. The Sayocs led by Chris Sayoc teach weapons usage and responses. For the Sayocs survival is paramount, so they teach immediate counter attacks and the ability to momentarily get away from an incoming attack. Chris and Mike Sayoc have said many times that if one cannot survive the incoming attack, how can one counter the attack. All these men know the great secret. Anyone can attack. Show someone the lines of attack and the attack is more ferocious. These men also understand that war arts as taught in tribal fashion take hours to impart not years. We are not talking about making a martial artist. We are not talking about teaching someone the complex art of stopping and countering. We are talking about the fact that most humans can strike out and attack someone and if shown how, can attack in a deadly fashion. Add a weapon such as a knife into the equation and the statement takes on new meaning. Steel cuts flesh all the time. It takes no skill for steel to cut flesh. It is a guiding principal that has lasted for over a million years. Show someone basic motions of attack and the steel does the rest! Size is unimportant. Strength is unimportant. Steel cuts flesh. Sticks and stones will break one’s bones. And a stick’s percussive power is such that it shatters the opponent’s body. The key to being alive is to be aware of the incoming attack and to survive and then counter attack! This awareness is called “Blocking” the attack. In JKD its called intercepting the attack, in Filipino Martial Arts it is called meeting the force, but the concept is the same. A direct action of motion used to stop, deflect or re-direct the attacking motion of one’s opponent. To be effective in real time combat, these “blocking” action must be natural, spontaneous and within the context of “Combat must be simple”. Since most real time attacks come in blows of two or three blows in succession, blocking motions must be able to cover these attacks / blows without leaving one’s self open for another attack. Blocking is NOT what one expects as from traditional martial arts or from the term

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to block…A blocking action is a momentary stoppage in the directional force that allows for counter attack. Modern Arnis also does as all other Filipino arts, and it teaches one to move out of the way of an attack. One can move or “zone” into in several places that can reduce the force of the incoming strike making it easier to deal with. For example if the opponent strikes with a #2, a downward diagonal strike from the closed side, there are two “zones “ that are very safe to step into. The Easiest would be to step up with one’s left foot and “zone” AWAY at a 45-degree angle from the power of the incoming attack. This would make blocking the attack simple for the strike would be at the end of its extension and power. The next would be to step BACK with one’s left foot at a 45degree angle so that the strike would go by. This position is at ¾ of the blow’s strike and a step away so again it would be less force to deal with in blocking the attack. The Third possibility is to step back with one’s right d foot at a 45 degree angle catching the blow as it builds up power in it’s attacking swing BUT because one has stepped away the angle allows one to block the attack. Here’s the last position and the hardest. In the old way of Modern Arnis, Professor Presas would do this. He is a much braver man than I. Professor Presas would step up with his right foot directly into the incoming force, jamming it BEFORE it built up power, and upon contact with the blow (Block to strike) he would body shift into an “oblique stance” or a twisted front stance to absorb the power of the strike and throw the opponent off balance. Then he would counter strike. He likes to be up-front and personal with his opponent! It takes great fortitude and timing. Over the years in Modern Arnis we have mostly opted to go to the path of least resistance instead of into the mouth of the tiger! Professor Presas: Modern Arnis- The Art of Filipino Stickfighting Ohara Press USA 1983 The Following are some of the basic defenses used against the 12 major strikes… they are meant to be executed in one smooth and swift motion, with no distinct pauses between the block, check and counterstrike motions… Keep in mind that when blocking one stick with your own, your free hand should always be poised to guard, ready to brace a stick block or grab an opponent’s stick. You must stay loose and move quickly, always pivoting to face the strike and keep your balance! In Modern Arnis the blocks themselves are varied but not unlimited. There are only so many basic ways to block an attack,, even if there are infinite combinations. They can all be used within conceptual motions of these blocks: The conceptual blocking motions are known as: Force to Force, Meet the Force, Go with the Force, and Sweep the Force. Force to Force: The blocking motion is directed into the opponent’s attacking line. One uses direct force to stop the attack. Power against power, force to force. One strikes a strike into the oncoming blow and reinforces the block with one’s empty hand or forearm. The checking hand or reinforcing hand does not ride on the stick, nor does it make contact at the same moment of impact. The checking hand comes into the action a ½ beat afterwards so that the stick absorbs the force of the blow and the hand absorbs the rebound impact only. An attacker strikes a #1 downward diagonal strike at a defender. The defender strikes a #1 blocking strike into the force of the incoming strike stopping that strike’s forward motion. Upon impact the defenders left hand or checking hand reinforces the blocking strike. This places the defender’s checking hand into the center of the action so that ½ beat later, the reinforcing hand can become the checking hand and without covering a large distance, control or check the attacker’s weapon’s hand. A Pak Sao or forward slap block into the oncoming attack, stopping it dead, an “intercepting hit” is an example of empty hand force to force.

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Meet the Force: The attack is met by a intended force to force blow but due to the incoming force, violence of the attack itself, the defensive blow gives way to let the attacking force go by; redirected by the defensive action. Umbrella, Roof and Slant blocks which are actually ½ beat off the flow of motion, can become redirection of attacks that have hit one’s blocks with excessive attacking force! An attacker strikes a #1 downward diagonal strike at a defender. The defender strikes a #1 blocking strike into the oncoming offensive strike. The attacking strike ‘s force is so strong that the defender can feel it penetrate his defensive blocking strike. Upon that impact and realization, the defender lets the attacking energy roll the blocking strike #1 into a Slant block motion, allowing the strike to hit and redirect to another quadrant. The attack goes from the original target zone on the closed side and is carried across to the open side where the defender is able to counterattack safely. A Bong Sao motion or elbow up is an example of an empty hand Meet-the-force blocking, where one’s arm with the rolling action meets the incoming force and then redirects it to another sector. Go with the Force: The attacking force is allowed to pass by unstopped. The defensive action actually blends with the attack, absorbs the energy and re-directs the attacking force. This is referred to as PALIS-PALIS in Modern Arnis. Thrusting motions into the oncoming force usually become passing motions or Palis-Palis. The attacker strikes a #1 downward diagonal strike at the defender. The defender uses a thrusting motion #7, from closed to open, that enters the motion of the attacking force, goes with it, re-directing it to another sector allowing the defender to expend little energy and counterattack from a safe spot! Tan Sao or palm up blocking is a perfect example of empty hand redirection of Go with the force blocking. The incoming attack is met by one’s palm up directional force that guides the incoming force away from its intended target. Sweep the Force: Most people refer to this as Deflection blocking and they seem to think that it is the highest form of blocking: the advanced method. In reality if done as most current day instructors see this blocking method, one is left very open to attack or counter attack. Supposedly one strikes a blocking strike into the attacking force and continuing through the incoming force or attack. This impact momentarily deflects and stops the incoming attack. After this motion, one’s checking hand comes into play to immobilize the attackers weapon. Looks and sounds great. Except the incoming strike does not stop! The attacking strike in class has no intent, when the attack has intent the deflection block does not stop the incoming attack, but adds a speed bump in its path which continues into the target! Oh…the checking hand? The checking hand puts itself right into the path of the oncoming attack and is rightly crushed by the blow! Done in a sweeping motion, the blocking strike actually is a Force to Force that continues on its way while the checking hand adheres to the attackers weapon. The attacker strikes a #1 downward diagonal strike at the defender. The defender strikes a #1 blocking strike into the force of the incoming strike. Upon impact of the strike, the defender lets the blocking strike continue its flow from closed to open along the blocking strike’s path of motion. As the blocking strike passes the impact point, the defenders checking hand parries and checks the attacker’s weapon’s hand while the defenders blocking strike continues to a ready position for a counter attack. The momentary impact of attack and block redirects the attacking energy and the impacting blocking strike is replaced by the defender’s checking hand. A parry or light Pak is an example of a go with the force blocking. Note: the empty hand translation of these blockings becomes what is known as using the sectors or sectoring! The ability to utilize ones weapon and empty hands as they exist in that moment in space and time of the attack is the ability to use the sectors. In Modern Arnis and its foundation art Balintawak, blocking is usually taught as a strike into an incoming strike. I have seen Professor Presas block many an incoming strike’s motion by striking into the strike. I show this to my students but I lack the Professor’s power to do this. I have also seen Grandmaster Bobby Taboada do the same thing, Strike the attackers strike so

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hard that the incoming strike just stops. Both men upon impact grab or counter strike and only one hand is used. They are both very intense powerful men who seem to have no fear! I sill teach reinforced blocking as they have taught me! Blocks: momentary protective barriers. The Blocks them selves are very simple. In Modern Arnis there are 10 basic blocking motions and several are actually the striking motions used as blocking strikes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Inside Vertical block- tip up…Blocking strike #1 Outside Vertical block- tip up...Blocking strike #2 Inside vertical block-tip down…Blocking strike #9 Outside vertical block-tip down…Blocking strike #8 Downward vertical cut block…Blocking strike #12 Roof or Rising block…rising horizontal block Slant block… open position, 45 degree-tip down, palm up Umbrella or circling block…close position, 45 degree-tip down, palm out Low Umbrella or circling block: (rotating vertical inside block tip down) close position, 45 degree-tip down, palm out 10. Low Slant block… open position, 45 degree-tip down, palm up When one reinforces the blocking motion, one must follow a certain pattern. The reinforcing hand comes ½ beat after contact of the two weapons, or as the Professor says “upon impact”. If one puts the reinforcing hand on the stick or weapon before the impact, the reinforcing hand will absorb all the impact, a very painful and unpleasant experience. Without the reinforcing hand the rebound from one’s own stick can be very painful. When the reinforcing hand meets the incoming attack ½ beat off or “upon impact” it only absorbs the rebound energy not the attacking energy. The blocking motion or strike is not passive but contains its own energy. Note: In the old way of Modern Arnis the terminology of the blocking always confused me. The blocks were called by names that reflected as to how the block was used on the opponent or on the attacking weapon rather than from the blocker’s point of view. For example, if I block an attacking strike, such as a #1 strike, towards my inside or left side across my body with a #1 blocking strike, in a closing motion, this was called an outside block. WHY? Because it, the blocking strike, blocked the opponent’s attacking motion towards the opponent’s outside area, then that was an outside block. To eliminate the confusion I have called the blocks in the direction of the actually blocking motion in relation to the blocker’s point of view. Therefore, if the stick or weapon is in my right hand, all closing motions or motions across my body toward my left side, are now referred to as inside blocking. All opening motions or blocking past my body’s right side are outside blocking motions. This will make sense to all those with previous martial arts training and to those with no prior martial arts experience no confusion will arise. The height of these blocks is not important for one can use the blocks HIGH, MEDIUM or LOW. All one does is lower one’s center of gravity or raise one’s center of gravity. That means bend one’s knees or stand up straight! To see and feel these basic blocking motions one uses “Walking the Blocks”, a short conceptual drill. Basic evasive stepping is part of the drill. To feel the motion the drill is best done with a stick, for the swinging motion allows one to feel the momentum and impact. Note: I was teaching a seminar with Sifu Eddie Pagan, the founder of JKD-Todo Extremo JuJitsuEskrima. I was talking about blocking an attack and one of the students said I wasn’t showing them the real blocking. He told me that one didn’t need to reinforce a block and that rebound was not a real time problem. I asked him to my block my strike and when he attempted it, the rebound of his own stick caught him in the head. I pointed out that two factors had to be covered. One, move one’s body off the attacking line, away from any possible rebound and two catch the rebound of the stick

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with one’s hand or arm. The student then said that if he did a deflection block for REAL he could block my attack. I attacked again, and my stick continued through his deflection only slightly slowed down, smacking his hand and continuing into his head. I then asked Sifu Pagan to strike at me as hard as he could with real intent. Sifu Pagan is a very strong UFC type fighter and instructor whom I know could deliver a very awesome strike! Sifu Pagan expressed concern and then struck at me as if to take my head off. I blocked the strike with my reinforced blocking and I thought the block had failed. Sifu Pagan’s stick had shattered on my stick; the pieces had hit my head. But, I had stopped his attack and my counter attack was neatly on the side of his head. If I had not done a reinforced block the attack would have blown right through my block carrying my own stick and Sifu Pagan’s stick into my head. Needless to say that type of blow would have ended a real fight or in this case the seminar. As it was I was able to counter the attack AND continue teaching without further interruption. I was still injured, for the pieces of the stick had cut my left side of my head and face open. The blood added impact to the point about blocking; a broken rattan stick blood running down my face and a successful block with counterattack. It doesn’t get any better than this! Sifu Pagan and his Eskrima-Kali students now do Modern Arnis reinforced blocking as their blocking technique. Blocking is serious stuff especially when the incoming attack is done with intent and violence! Walking the blocks: Walking the blocks teaches several concepts at the same time. An important concept is to move one’s feet. Another is to move ones body off the line of attack and the use of body shifting. These must be used with the blocking motions themselves. To learn these concepts and blocks, Modern Arnis uses “Walk the Blocks”, which actually teaches one to stay in a small area, body shifting and moving one’s feet while maintaining counterstriking distance! Step #1: Blocking a #2 Attack: Step up forward left, female triangle 45 degrees, from a closed position execute a #2 blocking strike while rotating towards one’s right (where the incoming attack would be coming from) Step #2: Blocking a #1 Attack: Step left foot back to right, then step back left, male triangle 45 degrees, from an open position execute a blocking strike #1 while rotating towards one’s left (where the incoming attack would be coming from) Step #3: Blocking a #12 Attack from an closed position: Step up forward right, female triangle 45 degrees, execute an Umbrella block while rotating towards one’s left (where the opponent is!) Step #4: Blocking a #12 Attack from an open position: Step up forward left, female triangle 45 degrees, execute a Slant block while rotating towards one’s right (where the opponent is) Step #5: Blocking a #8 Attack from a closed position: Step back right, male triangle 45 degrees, execute a blocking strike #8 while rotating towards the right (where the incoming attack would be coming from) Step #6: Blocking a #4 Attack from an open side. Step right to left, then forward right along left side of male triangle, 45 degrees, execute a low slant block, cramming and blocking t#4 strike BEFORE it gains power while rotating towards one’s right (where the attack is coming from) Step #7: Blocking a #9 Attack from an open position: Step back left along side a male triangle 45 degrees. Execute a #9 blocking strike while rotating towards the left (where the incoming strike is coming from)

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Step #8: Block a #5 Thrust from ready: Zone right, then bring left to right, while executing an inward vertical tip down block. Rotate towards the left center where the thrust is coming from. Step #9: Block a #12 Butt Strike from the close position: Step up left, 45 degrees female triangle, cramming and blocking the butt strike before it gains power with a Roof or Rising Block. Rotate towards the right. Step #10: Block a #4 attack from close position: Step back right, male triangle 45 degrees and slide follow with left foot. Execute a vertical cut block along right side, rotating towards right (where attack is coming from) Blocking an attack: where did it come from? Basic blocking of an attack seems obvious to anyone who does any form of fighting. If one does weapons work, the blocking of an attack is only more obvious. Ask anyone who plays with Filipino martial arts and one can hear the most amazing discourse on the reasons and types of blocking distinctly unique to those arts. The problem is that none of these blockings are unique to the Filipino arts nor are they unique to Asian or eastern arts in general. I have seen and heard long lectures from other Filipino stylists especially other Modern Arnisadors who claim to know the secret of the blocking. They generally use the umbrella block, the roof block and the slant block as examples of this uniqueness. OK... for those of you going “hey, he doesn’t know, those aren’t the names of the blocks”, well I guess you skipped ahead to this part or were skimming the book. I will use American or English terminology and there are many names for those blocks. The name game works to cloud the issue as to the origin of the blocking and the subsequent evolution of the blocking usage. Picture standing ready with 41 inches of steel coming out of your right hand. There is a 16-inch piece of steel coming out of your left hand. The opponent’s steel comes into your personal space seeking your flesh. Blocking the attack is paramount. Being able to counter attack is equally as important. With one’s wrist and arm as the base carrying the weight of the sword and due to the length of the steel itself, lifting up the tip to block the incoming attack would be too little to late. By lifting up your right hand, rotating it in space to an elbow up position. (hmm sounds like Bong Sao in Wing Chun) one’s hand automatically crosses the center line deflecting the on coming attack. There is a huge “hole in space” staring back at you formed by the opponent’s weapon, your weapon and your own body. By sticking in one’s left hand there are two basic events that could happen: the attacking weapon is bound over to the left side, checked, trapped momentarily in space and time, or one’s left hand drives a 16 inch knife blade into one’s opponent. Both lead to further counter attacking. This basic combative fencing move has been transformed into the now classic Filipino blocking move called “ Umbrella blocking”. The same conceptual blocking motion is use to protect one’s self and ones horse while using a sword while mounted. The motion protects the horses head and flank while protecting the user as well. Why such a motion with large rotation? Well it helps to not kill one’s own horse while stopping an incoming attack, especially when one’s life is on the line. I could try to tell you all about the actual forms of fighting that these blocks come from and the attacks and counters but I don’t have the expertise nor do I have the space. I suggest that you forego your martial arts instructor and his or her views and get a research book such as REANISSANCE SWORDSMANSHIP by John Clements, published by PALADIN PRESS. Clements has several books on all types of Swordsmanship and he really believes in stepping on our toes and movie versions of sword-play. He speaks plain simple facts about steel and myths and

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legends be damned. Great books if you really want to see how and why swords and other edged weapons ruled the world of self-defense! The way of the sword as taught by many cultures especially the Spanish effected and influenced how the Filipino martial arts look at blocking the incoming attack. The systems blended and melded to make a new entity in the Filipino arts. Check out the chapters on Abecidario and Stick Truth to see the effect of the Spanish sword on the Filipino arts. This also brings into the light the differences between a Roof-block from an Umbrella-block. Many teach the two blocking motions as the same BUT they are VERY different. Subtly different in motion but VERY different in usage! A Roof-Block comes up just like a rising block with the stick parallel to the ground. The block intercepts the incoming attack and continues in a forward motion towards the opponent. A Roof-Block can slide off the opponent’s weapon or point of intersection and continue into the opponent as a strike. The checking hand follows the blocking motion. If it does not follow the motion and one is using a blade, then one cuts off one’s own arm or hand. Not a very good idea. In an Umbrella-Blocking motion the interception is angled and the blocking motion lifts and redirects the opponent’s incoming force. The Block itself is circular and follows the flow of stepping off the angle off attack. It actually circles one’s head, covering the area like an Umbrella. The checking hand proceeds the blocking motion’s entry into the opponent’s defensive space. The tool, be it the blade or the stick moves AWAY from one’s own hand so there is no chance to cut it. If one’s hand follows the Umbrella motion, well so much for one’s hand. “BAM!” it’s cut! OK enough divergence. Let’s get back to blocking per se. How one blocks is directly connected to the issue of Sectors and Sectoring. Where are one’s hands when the attack comes into our personal zone of defense truly decides what type of blocking motion will be made. There is no such thing, as arbitrarily deciding that one will block an attack with a certain type of block or intercepting motion. One needs to use what is in place at that particular time. If one’s hands are in an Open-position and the attack comes from above, such as an angle #12, one cannot possibly do most of the blocks that are taught as the trained response! WHY? Because there are three possible responses that dictates each motion: Responses: 1) instinctive response or natural response 2) trained response: how one is conditioned to respond 3) correct response: the proper response to a certain stimuli OK, let’s go back to the attack, a #12 attack with one’s arms in Open-position. The natural response might be to reach out with the left hand and attempt to pass the attack downward or to intercept the attack with a rising block motion with the stick in one’s right hand ready to counter attack. The problem with this is the attack generally is coming in too fast to be passed and intercepting a stick attack with one’s arm is foolish if not painful. The trained response might be to try to Umbrella or Roof block the attack. This is an elegant and skilled response to the attack which many Filipino martial artists practice all the time. The problem with this trained response is that by the time one brought one’s stick around to the Close-position to get under the incoming attack; the attack will have hit already. The correct or proper response would be to raise the butt of one’s stick from its already Open-position, bringing the butt up past the incoming attack as one slides off left, using a Slant Block motion. WHY? Because one’s hands were already there. This is why one learns sectoring and body shifting. Modern Arnis uses Walk the Blocks and drills like “Three-count: Six count” to teach where is the most obvious sector to begin one's blocking motion. These counter for counter drills and the

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simplicity of walking the blocks set up correct responses to attacking motions. To understand sectoring you’ll need to go to the chapter describing sectoring. Sectors are a Filipino conceptual idea that is akin to Wing Chun’s gate concepts. If sectors are understood one’s responses are automatic AND usually correct: in Combat anything can happen so it’s best to be as prepared as possible! That’s why Modern Arnis IS a combative art… To see Modern Arnis blocking translated into any situation I recommend Datu Kelly Worden’s DTL- Destroy-Trap- and Lock tapes from PALADIN PRESS. Datu takes simple blocking and intercepting motions and applies them in real time. Datu shows that Modern Arnis is truly a combative art! Or one can get my Conceptual Arnis tapes from Video Quest...I show the blocking as talked of here!

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Chapter:#21 Forms: Stepping into a structured Reality Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis- Philippine Stickfighting Manila, Philippines 1974

An Anyo or form is executed in a backdrop of gracefulness when the execution of the various exercises is observed in correct rhythmic order… In fact, in Anyo or form, one finds the basic techniques of attack and counterattack in the form of exercises…practice of the movement leads to perfection of the art of Modern Arnis itself because it encompasses all the basic movements executed in coordinated fashion. In MODERN ARNIS there are several empty hand and stick forms that one is expected to learn. Compared to other forms of Martial Art, excepting Wing Chun, Modern Arnis forms seem quite simple and at times to be too short to have any possible usage. This is a case of “less is more.” There are 9 empty hand forms. (I have not known anyone, except for Professor Presas, who actually knows form #9. Guro Doug Pierre is considered by some of us in Modern Arnis to be the man with the best forms. Guro Doug has always helped me out and he definitely knows the first 8 empty hand forms! He will probably be the first to learn form #9!) And depending on which Modern Arnis one studies (there are several versions of Modern Arnis just like JKD and Vee Arnis Jitsu…) there are at least 4 sometimes 5 or more Stick forms. In Modern Arnis this practice of forms teaches empty hand fighting and learning covers: KUNTAO, DUMOG, PANAJAKMAN, PANATUKAN, PRESSURE POINTS, and TRAPPING / SECTORING. In the weapon or stick part of the forms one learns, blocking and striking, body shifting, single stick sparring: right to right and left to right and TAPI-TAPI drills. Modern Arnis forms seems to have one very particular problem. It’s the same problem that most martial arts schools have that teach forms to their students. Depending on whom learned them from whom and at what time in Professor Presas’ career, the forms are different or at least look different from each other. (At one point I knew several versions of Form #1-Anyo Isa and made all my students know these versions as well as the “classic version” of the form.) This does not make them wrong. The conceptual motions are the same even if the technique is not. All one needs to do, is to look at any Korean, Japanese, Okinawan or Chinese martial art and within each related arts the forms though similar are very different. Different teachers see different things, which they feel are important to teach and so this comes out in the forms. The best example of this change is seen in some of the Japanese versions of traditional Okinawan forms, which are based on traditional Chinese forms. The forms contain the same knowledge, which is either arrived at through very similar moves or totally different means because of a teacher’s preference to another technique or understanding of the concepts involved! In the case of these forms it took generations of practitioners for the forms to change, in Modern Arnis it took only to teach them. WHY? Modern Arnis is/ was learned by people traveling to see the Professor, once a year, at regional intensive training camps. At the camps they practice and learn the art and THEN take it back to their students. As there was/ is no constant “check” on the teaching but the teachers themselves, the evolution or de-evolution came in short time periods rather than generations of practitioners. I state this so up front and loudly so that I don’t insult other Modern Arnis instructors who will be reading this and screaming at me... “ That’s not how the form goes…I KNOW, I learned it from the instructor at the summer camp back in the old days!” I personally DO NOT teach Modern Arnis like it is Shotokan, Tae Kwon Do or any style of Karate. I teach Modern Arnis forms as if they are Filipino martial art (which it is!) and my movements reflect that. One cannot have an art that is based on Flow/ combative reality and yet steps at one beat after another like a marionette. (or British soldiers marching in time through the colonial woods!) I have had many practitioners look at my students and myself and ask if we really

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do Modern Arnis for our “Anyos” (forms) flow like Chinese arts. Well, here in print is the answer again. Yes, I do Modern Arnis, my students do Modern Arnis and Modern Arnis is Filipino and we move like Filipino martial arts should: with combative reality and with understanding that the movements themselves are unimportant. They only represent a way to understanding the translation into many other ways. Yes, we FLOW, we use conceptual motion like the Chinese, Indonesian or Malaysian arts which are all cousins to Filipino martial arts! Richard Roy, a good friend and Modern Arnis instructor from Greenfield, Massachusetts, is also a Tai Chi instructor. His forms flow with a great deal of internal energy present! You should see him do a Crossada block into a turning standing center-lock. It seems as if he floats into the move. NOTE: at some of the old intensive training camps, several of us would get together after Forms practice… (We each did WHATEVER version was being taught at the camp at the time) and we would share with each other OUR versions of the form. The version we each knew to be the true form and were teaching to our own students. Yes, the version EACH of us knew as true for there are endless translations and that influences how we practice the form itself! It used to be one of the highlights of the camps! We all remained true to the principles of motion and we all expressed the same concepts…we differed in our usage. I am not going to get into all the forms and HOW to do them. That could make a book unto itself. I will look at empty hand form #1- “Anyo Isa” as an example of how the forms in Modern Arnis teach concepts and translation to the students / practitioners! There are a whopping 12 sequences of actual moves in the first Anyo –form of Modern Arnis. Don’t blink or you will miss them! Modern Arnis striking with empty hands: • Jab • Cross • Hook: body and head- (a ridge hand strike is an open hand hook) • Uppercut • Backfist • Palm strike: flat, slicing, palm heel chopping- palm up, palm down, palm away • Finger Strike: jab, poke, tap or rip • Straight Blast • Forearm • Elbow Anyplace there is a conceptual motion of striking one can insert the appropriate striking motion, or conceptual usage! Such as in BRUSH- TRAP, and STRIKE, a basic conceptual usage of Sinawali. Let’s go over Sinawali weaving again right here to be safe! • Right hand moves across the body from open position to close. (from right shoulder to left) BRUSH • Left hand comes from close position UNDERNEATH the right’s original position to an open position. (from right underarm to left out-straight position or left side of body) TRAP • Right hand goes from close position to an open position. (from left shoulder to right outstraight position on right side of body) STRIKE In form #1, Anyo Isa, one starts out by looking to one’s right, then stepping 45 degrees right, AWAY from an incoming attack from an opponent’s left punch. One executes a Sinawali weaving motion, starting with one’s right hand; brush, trap and then strike, all done off the opponent’s incoming left hand! Yes, that’s an improbable situation, and VERY static but that’s OK…bear with me. Obviously the strike could be a punch, a palm heel, a finger jab, a forearm hit, a back fist…

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whatever seems to fit. The striking motion could be more than that. By going OVER or UNDER the opponent’s arm and using the body’s incoming cutting motion itself, (Across the centerline of the opponent) the strike becomes a body throw. The next move would be to turn and repeat this motion on the left side. The very act of turning to the left side could be a follow-up or transitional move to the initial brush-trap and strike. If one stayed connected to the opponent, the act of turning would become an arm bar throw, with one’s forearm breaking across the opponent’s triceps tendon and forcing them into the ground! Actually the striking motion of the last Sinawali motion could be a biceps hack, that becomes an a transitional forearm drag with the turning of one’s body…it goes on and on… OK…what if it was a left jab, right cross, left hook? In other words a real time attack? Well the same response works, for the first motion of the Sinawali catches the jab, the second motion intercepts the right cross, and then the third motion cuts off the hook… again with the body motion making its follow up a throw. By attachment and turning the same arm bar is possible…IF (the almighty what if…) the opponent’s left hook continued due to a very forceful strike, then the cutting motion with the turning would make the arm bar a single-lock, sometimes called a “hammer-lock” hold on the opponent. The turning motion upon completion would throw the opponent. The same motion translates differently if the jab, cross, hook, combination ends with the hook being intercepted with an elbow strike/ cover move. Then the transitional move becomes a neck crank – arm lever throw. Translations are everything in Modern Arnis! Let’s look at another scenario. The opponent strikes with the right cross while still at the original position at your right side. Yes…the same static punch…it’s easier to illustrate with! The Sinawali motion catches or deflects the blow, the second motion intercepts as it traps it and the third motion strikes. The striking motion can easily become upon turning one’s body to the left, an arm-drag takedown from Filipino Dumog. Can it keep growing in possibilities as in the left side punch? Can it adapt to other variables? Yes...that’s the whole point. The first Sinawali motion can deflect the right cross, the could rake the eyes on the way to trapping the right cross, and the third motion could be a hacking to the right cross biceps as the motion carries one’s elbow into the opponent’s left facial side. The turning motion or transitional move then becomes a forearm throw off the opponent’s head dragging the opponent into the ground with intent. All that we have discussed is the very first sequence in the form. That’s a lot of “what ifs?” Actually the opponent could be leading with a kick, a kick - punch combination and the pattern of response; the conceptual motion will remain the same. The conceptual usage will change for the tools used are changed. One deflects the kick, catches the kicking leg and then does a lower leg –knee drag takedown. This takedown is a throw that breaks the opponent’s knee-cap upon impact with the ground! When the body turning is put into the motion, the opponent is thrown face down and the conceptual motion of Sinawali puts the legs into a figure 4 crab lock and one crawls up the opponent’s back breaking the legs… The Anyo-form then proceeds to repeat on the left side, for if the right side can do it, so can the left. The third part of the form takes into account an overhead attack. At least at the first look it does! One is attacked by an overhead right by one’s opponent. By stepping in with a Crossada motion and intercepting the attack, using the right hand as the main interceptor, one turns into the attack bringing the opponent into standing centerlock. If one continues to turn towards one’s opponent, an elbow strike into the opponent is possible (and highly probable!) culminating in a cross bodyspinning reaping throw. One does all this while maintaining the centerlock on the opponent’s wrist, BREAKING the wrist during the throw…OUCH! If one’s left hand is the key interceptor from the Crossada, and then the turning becomes a shoulder to shoulder lock with reverse sweeping throw…again while maintaining the lock. The opponent can be attacking with the left hand and one defends with the same interceptions, right or left, OR the

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opponent does a jab-cross combination and the same Crossada interception takes place evolving into another response. I think a pattern is emerging that anyone can see. In Modern Arnis the whole Anyo or form has no individual meaning. Each sequence of events within the form itself has meaning and many translations. It’s these translations along with the transitional moves or connecting moves that give the conceptual usage or combative usage that the practitioner seeks to learn and understand! The fourth sequence repeats a Sinawali pattern that can be a trapping, throwing or attacking section. How do you really want to get to the opponent? There are lots of ways! The fifth section seems to be an old fashioned turning low block-punch combination taken from traditional karate except it isn’t. The sequence ends from Sinawali pattern entrance and becomes a spinning neck or head throw, with a spine or neck breaking motion, which then on the seemingly traditional punch-punch motion is really an arm-bar trap and a turn over into a locking position. The next series of sequences seem to repeat the same motions but they translate differently. They are applied to several kicking situations; the first a kicking situation where the leg is trapped from a front kick into a knee drag take-down with full body turn over into a figure four leg lock and leg break. OR a leg trap from a roundhouse kick which becomes an ankle break, knee smash, then a single leg lock walk over…. These motions go from right side to left to allow each side to experience the motions. The translation could be a leg trapping with throw included and the punch-punch motion is a figure four trap itself. Yes…it could be applied to the high line of punching but it’s fun to see it as a kick response. When sequence nine repeats, it is against the high line, same conceptual motion as the leg attacks, but one intercepts a right punch with the high low motion, then inserts a throat grab with the rising block motion then turning it into a throw… OK. We use a high low motion against a left punch and then as the arm is straightened out, the first punch is actually an arm break and the second punching motion becomes an elbow grab into reverse goose-neck lock and throw! The motion repeats it’s sequencing at the right side and again offers the same or varying translations. All this and more from the 12 basic sequences of moves, that, at first glance seems to be just basic karate blocks and punches. Are there other translations and direct applications? Yes there are. That’s the fun part of doing these simple forms of Modern Arnis! Let’s take a small sequence out of Form #4 Anyo Apat. The motion as seen, is that you are throwing a ridge-hand strike at the opponent, then you pull it through to a Close-position, then rotate it back to one’s side as if retracting a punch and ending a classical form. Big deal! Well the deal is that if an opponent grabs one’s strike or arm the rotation to ridge-hand and then to close position locks the opponent’s thumb against one’s wrist / forearm. By going through the motion, one’s opponent cannot let go and your motion turns their grab into a standing centerlock on their grabbing hand. Yes it works whether the opponent grabs you with either their left or the right hand. Of course if no one is there to teach or show you the translation it truly looks as simple and dull as I described in the opening: a person standing there putting out a ridge-hand and returning the hand to a fist by one’s side. Modern Arnis forms are filled with little gems like that! Translation is everything in Modern Arnis! Kicking: Put your foot where?

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Modern Arnis of course includes kicking. There are no spinning kicks directly taught in Modern Arnis. With the eclectic nature of Modern Arnis, if the instructor already does spinning kicks they might get taught in that family circle of Modern Arnis. Modern Arnis does include the following kicks: They can be done with the front leg or the rear leg. Front kick: thrust and snap Round kick: Thai style Side kick: thrusting side kick, stomping kick Oblique kick or swinging kick Scraping kick Back kick Knee kicks: rising, sinking, driving and round Since toes can be easily damaged, and without one’s toes one cannot have mobility or the ability to fight, especially when weapons are involved, the kicking in Modern Arnis, unlike some other martial arts, is not done with the toes. Kicks are done with the shin, the instep, the ball of the foot and the heel. The kicks are hinged off of the action of the hips and the leg muscles and are not hinged off of the knee joint. It takes too little force to destroy one’s knee and without a knee one has again lost mobility and the ability to deal with weapons. The theme remains the same. Attack the opponent with one’s legs WITHOUT jeopardizing one’s own mobility and function. In the forms there are sequences that have kicking concepts. The targeting of the kicks reflects one’s translation of the sequence. Usually the kicks done are not thrown higher than the waist although thrust kicks and round kicks into the opponent’s torso are done. Weapon’s forms: One of the basic stick forms is shown in the chapter on blocking an attack. Its called Walking the blocks. It is another example of the simplicity of Modern Arnis and the complexity of its translations. There are 5 other simple stick forms that teach body rotation, blocking, striking patterns and conceptual motion. Stick form #2 has 7 moves TOTAL. Then those seven moves become 12 as it translates into a “90 degree” translation covering all 360 degrees of movement. Stick form #4 is a cutting form, it is based on the use of a BOLO (a Filipino small sword or long knife) and the movements are reflective of using an edged weapon. The basic stick forms that become Tapi-Tapi drills are actually part of single stick sparring. I classify them as two people forms because they contain certain sequences that must be followed but branch into random applications of these sequences. Single stick sparring starts out with a set of four basic responses. First response is a Sinawali motion #1that does not use follow through on its n motion but a percussive hit or Wetik. The motion contains a number #1 strike followed by a number # 8, then a number #2 strike followed by a number #9 strike and it repeats. When one’s stick makes stick to stick contact motion #2 comes into play. When the sticks make number #2 strike to number #2 strike contact, one person traps the opponent’s stick with a Pak Sao or a forward slapping palm motion, and moves in with a butt strike to the opponent’s face. The opponent traps the incoming butt down and in a circular motion both practitioners alternate butt striking and trapping the strike. Motion #3 is the clearing of the sticks, as one practitioner clears with an umbrella motion and as the stick is trapped and the counterstrike is prepared, the other participant clears the trapping hand with a downward wiping motion and immediately motion #1 is started by both parties again. The number #4 motion is off of a meeting of number #1 strikes, as one participant slides the stick around the contact point, traps the opponent’s stick with a forward slapping motion and initiating a sweeping butt strike to the opponent’s face. The butt strike is passed /or trapped down and the practitioners are into motion #2 again trading butt striking at close range. At this point one of the trapping motions is too hard and forceful making the opponent’s arm go wide in a large forward circle bringing the butt into an over head

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strike. The other participant passes the butt strike from the outside of the opponents stick hand and pulls the stick down a number #5 motion called passing, back into a motion #2 position. This continues until the clearing and the entry into motion #1, long range hitting. One could, at the point of passing the stick down, butt strike the hand itself. Then one could use a pulling strike on the opponent’s stick hand, clearing and bringing the opponent’s hand into the end of the clearing motion #3, where the other participant wipes the trapping hand off as motion #1 starts all over again. The motion number #6 is using the stick against the opponents arm to pass, disengage, then reengage and attack using the umbrella block motions. Motion #7 is using a slant block motion to disengage and reengage the opponent’s arm. Both of these motions actually engage/ contact the opponent’s arm not the stick in practice! Professor Presas has expanded the drill to include left to right single stick sparring. This includes trapping, passing, empty hand striking, locking and close range combat. This Tapi-Tapi form is based on the original Tapi-Tapi counter for counter forms of Balintawak, the style of Eskrima-Arnis that the Professor first learned before he founded Modern Arnis. These Tapi-Tapi forms are the hot “things” to learn at the MODERN ARNIS intensive training camps these days! For a different point of view on Tapi-Tapi – Single Stick sparring, see the explanation in the chapter on Drills. Translations? Of course there are. Motion #2 is actually “picking” with a knife in reverse grip and countering the picking. Motion #5 is a Palis-Palis motion or passing with the force to allow for hand insertions again particularly useful in redirecting a stabbing such as an overhead #12 or openposition #1 slicing. Motion #5 can be inserted into Motion #2 to redirect the opponent’s picking hand onto one’s own blade. Motion #3 is Crossada or crossing motion that entails the fundamental principle of Open-Close! NOTE: for a discussion or to review Open-Close I suggest you go to the chapter Learning is a Complex Thing and check out the parts on Open-Close! Stick Form #1: Anyo Isa Well lets look at an actual stick Form. You start out facing forward. Stepping out with one’s right foot, execute a Number #2 strike. ( Downward Diagonal- Left to right)Your left hand passes the opponent outward while you strike the #2. Steeping forward with the left, strike a Number #1 strike. ( Downward Diagonal-Right to left) At the same time passing the opponent inward with your left hand. Stepping forward with your right foot, pivot into a side stance (better known as a horse stance) and with your right side facing the opponent, strike a number #4 strike. ( horizontal-left to right) At the same time you open your arms...Stepping back right as you retract your stick, strike an outward block. Stepping back left strike an inward blocking strike. Step forward left and do a reenforced vertical outward block. Step forward right and strike an inward re-enforced blocking strike. Step back right and strike a number #8. ( upward diagonal left to right) Step back left and strike a number # 9. ( upward diagonal- right to left) Execute a double zero striking motion, or Redonda motion( see I told you different things fit in the same place!) and take a half step right to aid in the number #12 strike. ( downward vertical) Step back right as you do a downward vertical blocking strike. Step up right to left and the form is done. All the strikes could have been done as blocks. Many could have been done with passing motion or just as a single stick motion. The important part was understanding the concept of motion, the use of momentum, the use of body shifting,

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Modern Arnis is a conceptual art. The forms are proof of that. Feel the motion and the intent. Look for the translation and the ability to use different tools in each motion. Then the forms come alive!

Chapter:#22 Dumog: Grabbing the Filipino way…or is that Grappling? Professor Remy Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stickfighting Manila Philippines 1974

Outbalancing, Grabbing and Grappling techniques are actually complimentary to self defense and designed to stall further strikes of the opponent by putting him in a circumstance preparatory to disarming him or rendering him helpless to a counter attack. These techniques, so to speak, necessitate the use of feet and hands, which should coordinate each other in the execution of movements…that render the opponent harmless or ineffective! There are many expressions of Filipino grappling; Dumog, JuJitsu, Chin-na, or whatever name one wants to call this part of the art. Modern Arnis also includes in it’s Dumog what is called Sinawali Boxing. Sinawali Boxing is a way to express the conceptual motions of Arnis in a different light: the conceptual usage of empty hand. Basic Single Sinawali is the concept of using Open-Close. The arms / hands Close high, as in bringing the hand to ones opposite shoulder, then down and away from the same side knee on the open side, then to pick straight up in an open position. This motion of Basic Single Sinawali has six major conceptual empty hand translations. Right to Right translation: • The opponent strikes with a right punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position at long range. Upon the pick up of your right arm, the motion has become an outside wristlock on the opponent’s right hand/ wrist. • The opponent strikes with a right punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position. The opponent continues to advance within the force of the attacking motion coming into medium range. Upon the pick up of the right arm, you also bring your left arm upward bringing your forearm into the opponent’s right triceps. The motion has become an arm bar/ elbow break of the opponent’s right arm. A variation or a what if, comes from the opponent bending the elbow, then the motion continues into a reverse hammer lock or reverse single lock with neck crank. The opponent strikes with a right punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position. The opponent continues to forcefully advance within the force of the attacking motion coming into close range. Upon the pick up of the right arm, which encircles the opponents neck, trapping the opponent’s right arm between your head and his own head; you bring the left arm upward bringing your left hand to the opponent’s right shoulder. The motion has become a close range, Sinawali- choking motion with take down.

Right to Left translation: • The opponent strikes with a left punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position at long

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range. Upon the pick up of your right arm, the motion has become a reverse wrist-lock on the opponent’s left hand/ wrist. • The opponent strikes with a left punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position. The opponent continues to advance within the force of the attacking motion coming into medium range. Upon the pick up of the right arm, which encircles the opponent’s elbow forcing it to bend as the right hand circles behind it. This circling and bending brings the opponent’s arm into a locked position. You bring the left arm upward bringing the hand into the opponent’s left deltoid plexus, trapping the arm. The motion has become a single-lock or hammer-lock of the opponent’s left arm. The opponent strikes with a left punch and you intercept with a right closing motion. The intercepting closing motion continues downward and outward to an open position. The opponent continues to advance forcibly within the attacking motion coming into close range. Upon the pick up of the right arm, which encircles the opponent’s shoulder forcing it and the arm to lock upward, the right hand circles behind the shoulder. This circling and bending brings the opponent’s body into a bent over, locked position. You bring your left arm upward bringing the hand into the opponent’s left side of the head and forcing it to be trapped by your body. The motion has become a mobility throw position or mobility lock of the opponent’s body.

NOTE: The translation can be within the flow as well, and go from high to low. • The opponent strikes with the right, you intercept with a Sinawali close motion with the left hand. The hand deflects and momentarily sticks causing upper body gyroscopic rotation of the opponent. This motion exposes the opponent’s lower body to twisting. Your right hand comes up to trap or maintain the opponent’s rotation by trapping the opponent’s right arm at the elbow, pinning it onto and into the opponent. With the downward outward motion of your left hand the opponent’s leg is encircled at the shin/ ankle area. The pick up of the left hand becomes an ankle leg lock with takedown. At this point one uses a closing motion of BOTH hands and the ankle is crushed and twisted to one’s chest, throwing the opponent’s face into the ground. Any number of follow up moves can be used from this point.

Basic single arm Sinawali or “clapping hands drill” also has the ability to become locking motions. “Clapping hands” is done High –low, high, and low with the same hand. The right hand makes a closing motion to one’s left shoulder, then it swings open-low outward from the knee. It returns high –close, from the left shoulder towards the right to open, then close-low outward from the knee. The cycle then repeats with the left hand. As Professor Presas says, “Upon contact, you grab this!” If one is doing right to right/ left to left motion or interception of motion, there are several locks that come about. We will look at the basic right to right cycle. • The opponent strikes with the right hand and you intercept with your right in a Sinawali close motion. Upon contact, you grab the opponent’s hand and in an abbreviated opening motion, you rotate the opponent’s hand outward and toward his/her inside, into a standing center locking position. • The opponent strikes with the right hand and you intercept with your right in a Sinawali close motion. The force carries through and you make contact on the low side of the open position instead of the closing high side. There are two variations here: upon contact if the thumb is there, you grab the opponent’s thumb, rotating on the thumb itself while picking one’s arm back up to the starting position. (of close-high, open-low, pick up to side) Bracing the your left hand behind the opponent’s locked right thumb gives one a center thumb lock.

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The other variation would be that upon contact of your low motion, one catches the ring and pinky fingers of the opponent’s hand, which you grab and rotate while picking up your hand to finish the motion. This picking up of the hand gives one a two finger B-type center lock. Your left hand braces the top of the opponent’s right forearm below the elbow locking the forearm muscles and finishing the two finger center wrist lock. • The opponent strikes a back-hand strike at you and you use the second half of the Sinawali motion as the defense. Opening high, closing low gives you two possibilities: either one has a standing centerlock on the opponent or one has a classic arm-bar takedown position. The opponent strikes a low blow or a low thrusting motion and you use the second half of the basic Sinawali motion. Closing –low, opening high, gives the possibility of either of two variations. The first is that upon pick up of the hand one has open palm lock. The other is a palm lock with reverse elbow lock (palm up, left hand under opponent’s right elbow, breaking upward.)

I will not go into every type of locking, breaking, throwing or trapping. They exist in Modern Arnis as they do in other grappling type arts. What I do want is one to see that the applications of the same conceptual motions translate into locking and throwing as well as striking or cutting. It is this interchangeability that gives Modern Arnis the FLOW within combat. It is this conceptual usage that allows Modern Arnis practitioners to be able to take simple concepts and apply them real time in spontaneous situations. Modern Arnis has its share of Lock-flow drills to help the practitioner understand the way locks move from one point to another, to understand changing of grips within the flow of locking and to develop the sensitivity to know WHEN to change one’s lock into another. Here is an example of the series of elbow breaking flows: The opponent grabs right wrist to right wrist. This is a closed position for your arm is now across your body. By turning one’s right wrist palm up and to an open position while rotating inwards toward the opponent the force is dissipated and the grab is dissolved. The opponent’s hand is now also palm up. You grab the back of the opponent’s right hand with your left making a palm lock. From the palm lock you reach your fingers into the hand grabbing the pinky and the ring finger making two-finger lock. You rotate toward the opponent and raise your elbow under his right arm making two-finger elbow break. Then one picks up the opponent’s arm by the two finger lock and you put your left shoulder under the opponent’s elbow giving you two- finger, outside- shoulder elbow break. Re-grabbing the opponent’s hand with both hands, one lifts the opponent’s arm over your head placing the elbow over the right shoulder, giving inside shoulder elbow break. Lifting the opponent’s arm off the shoulder and pulling it into your right side while rotating away from the opponent gives one body-elbow break. You then turn toward the opponent’s outside while placing the opponent’s palm against your abdomen. Your left arm rises under the opponent’s elbow making the move into body-brace elbow break. By sliding the opponent’s palm off your abdomen and towards your right shoulder to an open position your left arm straightens out making rising arm elbow break. Pulling your left arm back and grabbing the opponents inside elbow and rotating it inward and downward, as you rotate your whole body clockwise UNDER the arm, gives side by side elbow break. Then reaching toward the opponent with his trapped arm and placing the opponent’s arm over his own head while rotating the hand outward gives neck-choke elbow break. With a sharp tug, you pull the arm outward, spinning and unwinding the opponent like a top and you are then back to the first position of palm lock elbow break. From here the flow starts over again.

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Here is an example of changing center locks flow: The opponent grabs your right wrist with his right. You lock the hand in place with your left and turn inward toward the opponent and step under the opponent’s right arm. Your left hand keeps holding onto the opponent’s right wrist and it becomes standing centerlock. Reaching over with your right hand, one turns the opponent into the nock of his own arm making the hold center lock choke. Then one rotates the opponent all the way through to a palm lock elbow break position. Rotating one’s right hand thumb down ward, you grab the opponent’s first finger and rotating it clockwise and upward brings the opponent into single finger lock. By continuing the rotation the opponent is brought back into center lock but this time single finger center lock. You re-grab the hand and wrist with both hands to have standing center wrist lock. One then reaches through, between the opponent’s locked hand and body with one’s left hand and grabs the right thumb of the opponent. You release the wrist hold with your right hand and rotate the opponent’s hand forward, with your left, by rolling on the thumb and into a thumb palm lock. Your right hand captures and traps the opponent’s right elbow, guiding it into the space between your left arm and your body. Regrabbing the back of the opponent’s right hand with your right hand rotate it clockwise and downward into a goose neck wrist lock. Slide your left hand down to the opponent’s elbow and push upward while pulling the goose neck lock out straight. Slide your left hand down to the right hand and rotate through and under the opponent’s arm and into the first position of standing center lock. These flows are endless and at any point one can jump to another flow when a connecting bridge is found. There are hundreds of different flows and I won’t go into each and every one of them. I just wanted to give an example of Modern Arnis locking flows! Transition and translation are again everything. If you look closely the motions are still follow the principle of Open-Close. Modern Arnis also includes in its arsenal of empty hand usage; throwing, ground grappling, and leverage throws. Leverage throws are ones such as doing an arm lever, locking onto the opponent’s hand or wrist and using a rolling motion on the trapped forearm to induce a throw. Throwing techniques are body throws, locking joints to throwing or one of the Professor’s favorites: mobility throw. Mobility throw actually is an application or usage of Weaving or Sinawali. In Mobility throw the opponent strikes with a right punch or grab or strike. The defender uses a closing horizontal motion or shearing to attack the limb and deflect it. The defender’s right hand passes through the opponent’s right arm horizontally, retracts back to the left side of your body, then in a vertical forward circular motion attacks up to the opponent’s head. Your left-hand stays adhered to the opponent’s right hand, trapping it downward and into a sideways, clockwise, vertical circular motion. By rotating both the opponent’s head and arm simultaneously in a clockwise motion, the opponent is twisted off balance and thrown onto the ground. The opponent if now lying face upwards, head to your left, with the opponent’s right arm up in the air, trapped by your hand. There are many variations that can come from here, but my favorite is; step left around the opponent’s head. Maintain hold on the opponent’s hand with both hands. Spin backward, with your right foot, placing it about shoulder width apart behind your left foot. This spinning motion will pull the opponent onto his /her face with a forceful impact. Continue your spin and the opponent’s arm will come to rest between your legs. The opponent’s elbow will be upward, trapped by your left knee and your right leg will trap the opponent’s forearm. With a small turning in of the left knee, the opponent is put into a painful arm-bar-elbow break lock. At this point you can let go of the opponent’s arm with your hands, freeing your hands to do whatever one chooses! variation #2: The opponent strikes with a right punch or grab or strike. The defender uses a closing horizontal motion or shearing to attack the limb and deflect it. The defender’s right hand passes through the opponent’s right arm horizontally, retracts back to the left side of your body, then in a

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vertical forward circular motion attacks up to the opponent’s head. Your left-hand (the defender’s) stays adhered to the opponent’s right hand, trapping it downward and into a sideways, clockwise, vertical circular motion. The opponent stops the incoming strike to the head with the opponent’s left hand: now there are four sub variations on this actual part. #2A: opponent grabs your incoming strike and holds on. You reach over to the opponent’s left wrist with your left hand and grab it, locking it onto your right wrist. Lifting and rotating inward with your right elbow gives inverted centerlock. Continuing the motion either spins the opponent as in original Mobility throw or it drops then flat onto the ground. When the opponent hits the ground, you grab his left elbow with your left hand to steady it and you roll your right elbow in a forward vertical circular motion. This traps the opponent’s left hand in bent elbow palm lock. #2B: opponent grabs your incoming strike and attempts to pull it back. Using an opening motion, you rotate your right hand forward with the opponent’s pulling motion, circling the opponent’s left arm, forcing, the hand into standing centerlock as the elbow bends and the palm and wrist rotate inwards. The opponent’s own thumb locks the hand so it cannot be removed. The defender reaches up with the right hand and grabs the opponent’s triceps completing the locking motion and then reaching up with your left hand you spin the opponent’s head into your body and past your body into mobility throw. The motion drops the opponent flat onto the ground. When the opponent hits the ground, you grab his left elbow with your left hand to steady it and you roll your right elbow in a forward vertical circular motion. This traps the opponent’s left hand in bent elbow palm lock. #2C:opponent blocks-Paks, the incoming strike while shifting to the left. You Pak or slap the opponent’s blocking hand off yours, striking the inside of the opponent’s left forearm. UPON the impact of your slap –Pak, you repeat the strike to the opponent’s head. Your left hand is adhered to the opponent’s left hand/arm, and in an open-low motion, the defender passes the opponent’s arm to an open position. By straightening the opponent’s arm with a jerking motion, it brings the opponent’s elbow to your right forearm. Using your forearm against the opponent’s elbow an Arm bar, arm lever takedown is used, dropping the opponent flat onto the ground, face down. #2D: the opponent pushes/ deflects the incoming strike to the head forcing your arm back towards you. Releasing your left hand, the defender reaches under the right hand, between the space of the opponent’s left hand and your right hand. This is a wedging motion or Lop. Grabbing the opponent’s left with your left and using the opponent’s pushing motion, the defender pulls the opponent’s left arm out straight in an opening motion. With a small forward circular rotation, your right hand clears the opponent’s left arm, bringing your forearm into and against the opponent’s left elbow. Using your forearm against the opponent’s elbow an Arm bar, arm lever takedown is used, dropping the opponent flat onto the ground, face down. There are many versions and variations of ground locking, ground grappling in Modern Arnis. I am not going to go into all of them here. But let’s look at mobility throw and the opponent is on the ground: In Mobility throw the opponent strikes with a right punch or grab or strike. The defender uses a closing horizontal motion or shearing to attack the limb and deflect it. The defender’s right hand passes through the opponent’s right arm horizontally, retracts back to the left side of your body, then in a vertical forward circular motion attacks up to the opponent’s head. Your left-hand stays adhered to the opponent’s right hand, trapping it downward and into a sideways, clockwise, vertical circular motion. By rotating both the opponent’s head and arm simultaneously in a clockwise motion, the opponent is twisted off balance and thrown onto the ground. The opponent if now lying face upwards, head to your left, with the opponent’s right arm up in the air, trapped by your hand. Step with your left foot around the opponent’s head. Maintain hold on the opponent’s hand with

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both hands. Spin backward, clockwise, with your right foot, placing it about shoulder width apart behind your left foot. This spinning motion will pull the opponent onto his /her face with a forceful impact. Continue your spin and the opponent’s arm will come to rest between your legs. The opponent’s elbow will be upward, trapped by your left knee and your right leg will trap the opponent’s forearm. With a small turning in of the left knee, the opponent is put into a painful armbar-elbow break lock. At this point you can let go of the opponent’s arm with your hands, freeing your hands to do whatever one chooses! Variation #1: The opponent if now lying face upwards, head to your left, with the opponent’s right arm up in the air, trapped by your hand. The opponent’s body is literally flat on the ground. Your feet are between the opponent’s head and right arm. Take your right hand and in a thumb down, palm up position, reach between your body and the opponent’s right hand, and grab the opponent’s hand by the palm pad-pinky side. Rotating the opponent’s right hand in an open-downward motion along the outside of your right leg, bend your knees and squat down. While squatting down, the defender’s knees turn outward. The defender’s left knee presses into the opponent’s face turning it away from you. Your right knee traps the shoulder, and the position of both knees keeps the opponent from turning. The defender then continues to push the opponent’s right palm onto the ground. This position locks the wrist and elbow with a ground-palm lock elbow break. Variation #2: The opponent if now lying face upwards, head to your left, with the opponent’s right arm up in the air, trapped by your hand. The opponent’s body is literally flat on the ground. Stepping over the opponent with your left foot, between the opponent’s head and right arm. Step onto the opponent’s exposed left front deltoid tendon with your left heel. The defender’s stepping onto the tendon will rotate the opponent’s body upward and onto it’s left side. You now step right trapping the opponent’s right arm between your legs, The defender now rotates clockwise into the opponent trapping the opponent’s right elbow against your right knee. The rotation causes your left leg/ knee to push outward against the opponent’s trapped forearm making it a knee-elbow break. The opponent is trapped. If the opponent tries to curl away under you, you step the right foot out and backwards from between the body and the arm. Spin backward, clockwise, with your right foot, placing it about shoulder width apart behind your left foot. This spinning motion will pull the opponent onto his /her face with a forceful impact. Continue your spin and the opponent’s arm will come to rest between your legs. The opponent’s elbow will be upward, trapped by your left knee and your right leg will trap the opponent’s forearm. With a small turning in of the left knee, the opponent is put into a painful arm-bar-elbow break lock. At this point you can let go of the opponent’s arm with your hands, freeing your hands to do whatever one chooses! Variation #3: The opponent if now lying face upwards, head to your left, with the opponent’s right arm up in the air, trapped by your left hand. Grab the opponents elbow with your right hand, your thumb is up. Step with your left foot around the opponent’s head. Maintain hold on the opponent’s hand with both hands. Spin backward, clockwise, with your right foot, placing it about shoulder width apart behind your left foot. This spinning motion will pull the opponent onto his /her face with a forceful impact. Continue your spin and rotate the opponent’s arm by hinging off the trapped right elbow. The opponent’s arm will come to rest in a single lock-hammer lock position. If the opponent attempts to straighten out the arm, slide down the arm with both hands trapping it against your left shoulder, place both of your hands behind the opponent’s elbow and begin elbow compression-break lock. Are there other variations? Yes. It takes application of conceptual usage of the conceptual motions. You, the defender-practitioner, need to explore and find these endless variations for they are part of the Flow of Modern Arnis. In the chapter about Modern Arnis History and Professor Presas, I mentioned that he has spent the last 20 years or more traveling with Professor Wally Jay, founder of Small Circle JuJitsu and Grandmaster George Dillman the founder of Dillman Kyushu Jitsu-

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Pressure Point fighting. What I consider Modern Arnis Dumog has been highly influenced by the combination, the synergistic effect of these men’s combined teachings. That is why older Modern Arnis people who learned the art BEFORE the Threesome – or Big Three as we call it got together have no idea of the synergy that exists. Later groups have an extremely pressure point attitudeorientation to their interpretation of Modern Arnis. I am a member of the middle and later groups. Some of the later groups and current groups have gotten less of Professor Wally Jays input. Again as with Wing Chun and JKD the art continues to evolve. Go back and read that chapter again. Modern Arnis also has within its system the fact that one can grapple with a stick. Yes. Stickgrappling. In its’ simplest form this grappling is referred to as Take-downs with cane. These takedowns can come from direct application or from cane insertions that occur within the actual flow of combat. Let’s look at a regular Takedown with cane. Attacker strikes a number #2 strike at you. Defender blocks with an outside blocking number #2 strike and check. Upon contact, you, the defender, counterattack with a thrust number #10 at the attacker’s face, while using a waslik passing, low open motion, with your checking hand forcing the attacker’s stick arm from close to open position. Your number #10 thrusting motion carries the tip of your stick through the attackers face over the attacker’s right side. Your left hand’s passing motion has opened the attacker’s arms placing the attacker’s right arm between your left arm and your right arm. Grabbing your own stick, as close to one’s stick hand as possible, one brings it down onto the top of the attackers right arm. Rolling the stick toward one’s self and downward, one executes a takedown with cane, elbow-breaking arm bar. The attacker’s arm is trapped against your upper left arm and against the force of the stick. OK…Let’s make it a cane insertion takedown. Attacker strikes a number #2 strike at you. Defender blocks with an outside blocking number #2 strike and check. Upon contact, you, the defender, counterattack with a thrust number #10 at the attacker’s face, while using a waslik passing, low open motion, with your checking hand forcing the attacker’s stick arm from close to open position. Your number #10 thrusting motion carries the tip of your stick through the attacker’s face and follows UNDER the attacker’s right arm. The tip of the cane is inserted UNDER the attackers right arm. Your left hand’s passing motion has opened the attacker’s arms placing the attacker’s right arm between your left arm and your right arm. Bringing your stick hand to the attacker’s stick hand in a clockwise motion traps the attacker’s hand between your cane and their cane. Reaching over or under but across in a close position, grabbing your own stick, as close to one’s stick hand as possible, one brings it down onto the top of the attackers right wrist. Rolling the stick toward one’s self and downward, one executes a cane insertion takedown, wrist-breaking arm bar. The attacker’s arm is trapped against your crossed wrists and against the force of the stick. Take-downs with cane can be from the inside of the opponent’s arm, the outside of the opponent’s arm, figure four over the arm and across the throat, levered under the arm and onto the throat…just about any conceivable way. The takedown might be a choking move as well with the cane bracing against the opponent’s neck. These takedowns sometimes come as the end of what is called in Modern Arnis as anti-cane grabbing. Conceptual motions used to disengage an opponent’s grabbing of the stick and then to force the opponent to the ground! Or how about rotation? That’s right rotation. A attacks with a right punch, lunge or grab. D steps up left body shifting and deflects the attacking arm inward. At that moment, “upon impact” D counterattacks with a right hand attack. A steps left rotating into the outside of the attacking arm, and using A’s left hand, catching D’s attacking arm by the elbow. D’s attacking force and A’s counter twist –rotate D

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around counterclockwise. A’s right hand is down due to D’s checking, and it continues downward to D’s extended right leg. A picks up the leg, catches it against his body, then drives D’s knee downward into the ground.....OUCH! This was just another example of how Modern Arnis uses grappling or Dumog. Sometimes in the past I’ve heard Professor Presas call it Filipino JuJitsu. That’s when we do finger locks, centerlocks, side by side throws...arm bars, grip releases, single-locks, triceps tendon rubs, thumb locks...hmmm sounds and looks like Small circle JuJitsu...all the stuff that made Professor Wally Jay famous. That’s what I mean about Modern Arnis evolving. What I and my peers consider Dumog might be mistaken as JuJitsu. Considering all the exposure Professor Presas has to Professor Wally Jay its a given that our grappling art resembles his. Or at least how we express it.

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Chapter:#23 Renegade Modern Arnis: Who needs tradition? Professor Presas: Modern Arnis-Philippine Stick fighting 1974 Manila, Philippines

Long ago, Arnis was a dying Filipino martial art…based on long experience in practice and teaching of the art, I have modified many antiquated techniques and introduced new ones… What came out is what I call “Modern Arnis” today. In my 27 years of research and practice of the art, I have concluded that it can compare in effectiveness with contemporary martial arts now sweeping the world in popularity…Its modernized presentation will help students understand the intricate styles and techniques. Ok… Who does need tradition? Obviously those that seem to feel that by following a set path one can get to whatever place one needs to get too… Sounds too general? Ok…There are those that study Modern Arnis as the absolute gospel of ARNIS; Whatever they have seen, studied or understood is EXACTLY how Modern Arnis really is. There can be no other interpretations of the way. This strict interpretation makes it a little hard for those of us who see Modern Arnis as a living entity. When Professor Presas was just Remy Presas, a young man searching for knowledge…the way of the truth wasn’t even in the picture yet, he studied with ANYONE who would teach him. Over the years he came to see certain truths in each interpretation of Arnis, Kali or Eskrima. What most people who look at Modern Arnis or Presas Arnis gather at first glance is that Modern Arnis contains the names of many systems and styles and says it contains the way of these systems. Then one example is given to illustrate that system or way and Modern Arnis moves on. To the average person that’s akin to saying I know football…look this is the ball, you throw it, and standing there as if one truly understands football. Well actually if that was a conceptual statement it might actually be true, but westerners don’t think conceptually. Modern Arnis does. Remy Presas was a renegade in his homeland. He learned from many. He took what he saw as the basic truth and made it into a Filipino generic art. An art that would truly represent the Philippines and do honor to the whole class of fighting arts such as Kuntao, Kali, Eskrima and Arnis…sort of the Tae Kwon Do of the Filipino martial art world. In doing this he set a way of learning that is still going on today. He’s still learning and Modern Arnis is still changing and evolving! What I am going to do and teach is probably NOT what the average Modern Arnis instructor does. Of course that’s what I think makes this a great fighting art is the fact that it translates into many aspects of fighting and like JKD no one uses it the same as another practitioner of the art. Modern Arnis is different for each of us. My truth is not your truth….My Modern Arnis is not yours….Datu Kelly is a great example of Renegade Modern Arnis…if it feels right he applies it! Datu Kelly uses real time SLAM N JAM to illustrate Renegade Modern Arnis as well as the little known SIBAT: long pole. Guro Doug Pierre is a giant of a man but his Renegade Modern Arnis is based on Domog, his version of Filipino Dumog-grappling with Tai Chi, of course Guro Doug is one of the few repeat Heavy Weight Full Contact Stick-fighting champions. Richard Roy does internal Chinese arts so his Renegade Modern Arnis looks softer…at least till one gets hit! Dr. Jerome Barber mixes Tracy Kemp with his Arnis and over the years has tasted other Filipino arts and extended his core of Modern Arnis…except he defies tradition and teaches empty hand first! Dr barber is also the only one of us to officially teach Arnis as a curriculum course at a College!

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Guro Tom Bolden mixes Modern Arnis with Kenpo and its lightning fast striking to do what we affectionately call DTL..Destroy Trap and lock; Filipino limb destructions done in rapid patterns. We all do Modern Arnis but no two of us look the same EXCEPT in conceptual motion. We all utilize it differently! Of course for those of you tired of the mater-of-fact part of this book and saying, “OK how do I fight with this stuff”… well you got to that part! Obviously one needs all the rest of what I said to make this part work. One needs to understand HOW Modern Arnis thinks to apply the concepts as USAGE. If you’re not sure GO BACK TO THOSE CHAPTERS! First of all if you understand how Modern Arnis thinks you can already see that I can ONLY give examples for I cannot script out actual combative scenarios because its not possible…(go reread Combat must be simple and How does one teach Self Defense!) OK Let’s get to it! We’ll work with the Open-Close principle! This principle drives the Conceptual motion of Sinawali and Redonda X and Hubud. (Therefore you need to understand the Chapter on Conceptual Motions.) Stick-fighting: Percussion leaves them rocking or sticks and stones break bones! Renegade Modern Arnis Stick-fighting is about hitting the opponent. Nothing fancy, just hit the opponent. WHY? Because if you hit the opponent then more than likely the opponent is NOT hitting you! This hitting action can be a flashlight, a cane, a stick, a hammer or a collapsing baton. I think you get the idea. Something longer than your hand and percussive! I’m going to give you some examples or situations that illustrate the use of percussive hitting. With each example I’ll throw in a few variations, the “what if?” parts that everyone likes to ask about! The attacker comes at you swinging a typical, wild-right swinging motion. Obviously the intent is to take your head off! By stepping back out of range you engage your collapsing baton, stick or flashlight and bring it with a number one strike…right into the attacker’s weapon’s hand. You check his hand with your left. (within the half-beat of hitting the hand!) Using the rebound of the strike for energy you immediately bring the strike across your body into the attacker’s head. Yes, a classic #1 and #2 strike in succession! Immediately change rotation, and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s right hand and strike a sinking #12 into and through the top of the exposed right forearm. Disengage the attack by using a thrusting #7 motion and with rotation towards the attacker continue the strike back into the attacker’s head. Drop the strike past the attacker’s head and push the tool past his head. Grabbing the end of the stick, baton or flashlight, complete the choke on the attacker! Not bad…good ending! The attacker comes at you swinging a typical, wild-right swinging motion. Obviously the intent is to take your head off! By stepping back out of range you engage your collapsing baton, stick or flashlight and bring it with a number one strike…right into the attacker’s weapon’s hand. You check his hand with your left. Using the rebound of the strike for energy you immediately bring the strike across your body into the attacker’s head. Yes, a classic #1 and #2 strike in succession! Unfortunately the attacker’s left hand checks the incoming attack to his head…in a classic survival motion, grabbing onto your arm. Immediately change rotation, breaking the attacker’s grip and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s right hand and strike a sinking #12 into and through the top of the exposed right forearm. Disengage the attack by using a thrusting #7 motion and with rotation towards the attacker continue the strike back into the attacker’s head. Drop the strike past the attacker’s head and push the tool past his head. Grabbing

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the end of the stick, baton or flashlight, pull the attacker into you, and then complete the choke on the attacker! Not bad…even with the attacker trying to stop the second strike, it’s a good ending! The attacker comes at you swinging a typical, wild-right swinging motion. Obviously the intent is to take your head off! By stepping back out of range you engage your collapsing baton, stick or flashlight and bring it with a number one strike…right into the attacker’s weapon’s hand. You check his hand with your left. Using the rebound of the strike for energy you immediately bring the strike across your body into the attacker’s head. Yes, a classic #1 and #2 strike in succession! Unfortunately the attacker’s left hand checks the incoming attack to his head…in a classic survival motion, grabbing onto your arm. Reach UNDER your right arm with your left and Lop-Sao or grabbing the opponent’s arm that is checking you, pull it across your body. Immediately change rotation, breaking the attacker’s grip and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s left elbow and strike a sinking #12 into and through the top of the exposed left elbow top of the arm. ( this should juice him up a little!) Disengage the attack by using a thrusting #7 motion and with rotation towards the attacker continue the strike back into the attacker’s head. The #7 strike should twist the opponents head in a circle , smash the cheekbones or the teeth...Drop the strike past the attacker’s head and push the tool around behind the opponent’s head. Grabbing the end of the stick, baton or flashlight, pull the attacker into you, and then complete the choke on the attacker! Not bad…even with the attacker trying to stop the second strike, it’s a very good ending! The attacker comes at you swinging a typical, wild-right swinging motion. Obviously the intent is to take your head off! By stepping back out of range you engage your collapsing baton, stick or flashlight and bring it with a number one strike…right into the attacker’s weapon’s hand. You check his hand with your left. Using the rebound of the strike for energy you immediately bring the strike across your body into the attacker’s head. Yes, a classic #1 and #2 strike in succession! Unfortunately because he shifted with the strike your strike misses the head and the attacker is also into a #1-#2 striking mode! Continue the strike into the attacker’s left arm or hand. Immediately change rotation, after breaking the attacker’s arm or hand and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s left side of his head and strike a sinking #12 into and through the left side of the exposed head! Disengage with a #7 thrusting attack, which upon impact actually strikes the opponent in the right side of the head while rotating the attacker’s head from right to left! Drop the strike past the attacker’s head and push the tool past his head. Grabbing the end of the stick, baton or flashlight, pull the attacker into you, and then complete the choke on the attacker! Not bad…even with the attacker trying to stop the second strike, and counter attacking you, it’s a good ending! Ok. I know this isn’t PC self defense but you’re not reading the chapter on Renegade Modern Arnis to see “block the stick, gently hit the opponent and then try to trap them…” Renegade Modern Arnis empty hand: destroy, trap and lock...what else? Ok… it’s almost the same usage with empty hands…so let’s look at the same situation as presented originally with a percussive tool involved. The attacker comes at you with a wild swinging right handed strike. With your right hand you deflect / intercept the incoming attack and your left hand seeking the opening (at the same time) strikes UNDER your right into the attacker’s eyes! (sectoring with an inside deflection and strike!) You retract the left hand to cover the attacker’s right arm while you immediately, on the same beat, strike your forearm into the opponents neck / head area! Immediately change rotation, and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s right hand and strike a sinking forearm strike ( a #12) into and through the top of the exposed right forearm. With a Dumog rolling pull the opponents balance off stride! Disengage with a hand rotation into a palm up position (a Tan-Sao or #7 thrusting position

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which locks the arm in a figure 4 arm lock!) Using this motion to strike again into the opponent’s eyes… (Ok fiine! hit him in the head as well!) Drop your hand onto the opponent’s throat and with a jerking motion pull the opponent into you by the throat! Gads, that’s so cool. So let’s look at the same situation with a variable! The attacker comes at you with a wild swinging right handed strike. With your right hand you deflect / intercept the incoming attack and your left hand seeking the opening (at the same time) strikes UNDER your right into the attacker’s eyes! (sectoring with an inside deflection and strike!) You retract the left hand to cover the attacker’s right arm while you immediately, on the same beat, strike your forearm into the opponents neck / head area! The attacker instinctively blocks the attack with his left hand. Immediately change rotation, and with your left hand slap block ( Pak-Sao) the opponents left hand off your right arm. On the same beat of the slap block, using your hips to drive the strike, turn into the attacker, toward the attacker’s left hand and strike a forearm strike ( a #2) into the opponent’s neck!. Swing both arms, rotating them as you turn back towards the opponent’s right arm. Trapping the arm between your arms, pass the opponent’s right arm past your body with your left. Disengage with a hand rotation into a palm up position (a Tan-Sao or #7 thrusting position which locks the arm in a figure 4 arm lock!) Using this motion to strike again into the opponent’s eyes… (Ok fiine! hit him in the head as well!) Drop your hand onto the opponent’s throat and with a jerking motion pull the opponent into you by the throat! OK, even with the opponent blocking the strike one can still follow the flow of Conceptual motion. So let’s look at the same situation with another variable! The attacker comes at you with a wild swinging right handed strike. With your right hand you deflect / intercept the incoming attack and your left hand seeking the opening (at the same time) strikes UNDER your right into the attacker’s eyes! (sectoring with an inside deflection and strike!) You retract the left hand to cover the attacker’s right arm while you immediately, on the same beat, strike your forearm into the opponents neck / head area! The attacker instinctively blocks the attack with his left hand. Immediately change rotation, and with your left hand reach under the blocking hand with a (LapSao)-grabbing motion, pull the opponent’s left hand off your right arm. This motion pulls the attacker around left to right! On the same beat of the grabbing block, using your hips to drive the strike, turn into the attacker, toward the attacker’s left hand and strike a forearm strike (a #2) into the opponent’s neck! Swing both arms, rotating them as you turn back towards the opponent’s right arm. Trapping the arm between your arms, pass the opponent’s right arm past your body with your left and destroy the opponent’s left elbow with your right forearm! That should jerk him into a touch of pain! Disengage with a hand rotation into a palm up position (a Tan-Sao or #7 thrusting position which locks the arm in a figure 4 arm lock!) Using this motion to strike again into the opponent’s eyes… and then grab the opponent’s biceps and pull them off the arm! (Ok fiine! hit him in the head as well!) Drop your hand onto the opponent’s throat and with a jerking motion pull the opponent into you by the throat! This also locks the opponent’s wrist into a gooseneck lock. Squeeze the throat and you can watch his eyes pop out like one of those squeeze toys! See? We are on the opposite side of the opponent using the same conceptual motion… Renegade Modern Arnis knife usage: steel seeks flesh and then cuts flesh! Using a blade would entail the same Conceptual motions. Ok… it’s almost the same usage as with empty hands…so let’s look at the same situation as presented originally with a percussive tool involved or with empty hand. The attacker comes at you with a wild swinging right handed strike. With your right hand you deflect / intercept the incoming attack by cutting into the arm with your knife’s edge. Yes, a closing motion that cuts a #1 cut into your opponent’s incoming attack. Your left hand seeking the opening (at the same time) strikes UNDER your right into the attacker’s eyes!

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(sectoring with an inside deflection and strike!) You retract the left hand to cover the attacker’s right arm while you immediately, on the same beat, strike your knife into the opponent’s shoulder area (deltoid or base of the trapezium) area! Of course cut it! Now you can control the rotation and pickup of the arm! Immediately change rotation, and using your hips to drive the strike, turn away from the attacker, toward the attacker’s right hand and strike a sinking forearm strike or butt of the knife (a #12) into and through the top of the exposed right forearm. With a Dumog rolling pull the opponent’s balance off stride! Disengage with a hand rotation into a palm up position (a Tan-Sao or #7 thrusting position which locks the arm in a figure 4 arm lock!) Using this motion to strike the tip of the knife into the direction of the opponent’s eyes. Drive the butt of the knife into the opponent’s head… Counterclockwise circle the back of the blade onto the opponent’s throat and with a jerking motion, pull the opponent into you by the throat! Rotate the butt into the base of the opponent’s jaw and lock him or her up tight. The opponent is truly in a bargaining position right now! You set up the rules, he or she listens! Gads, that’s so cool. How does all this work? What’s the secret to Renegade Modern Arnis? The great secret is as I state up front, that one needs to be able to use translation of existing concepts to meet the given situation. The actual concept that one needs to work with is SINAWALLI. If you can understand Sinawali, the idea of weaving one’s two hands in various open-close positions, one can deal with the everchanging situation of combat. Professor Presas told me that by using Sinawali and Redonda X movements he found the FLOW. I found that by trying to see the translations of these conceptual motions, that I too have found my own FLOW. The ability to FLOW cannot be taught, so you need to practice, with a partner and by yourself. Once you feel it, then you’ve got it and the ability to make your own “Renegade Modern Arnis”. That’s right! Take all those great techniques that you know, insert them into the conceptual motions as part of usage and go to it. The more you use it the more it becomes you. Renegade Modern Arnis is more than what I’ve written. It encompasses the IDEA of teaching and learning MODERN ARNIS as a “WHOLE’ not as separate techniques or ways. Renegade Modern Arnis is about a method of learning, teaching and doing. All of us see Renegade in a different light and way! Here are some very basic examples? Datu Kelly for example is known for the SIBAT pole. The SIBAT pole is a very long stick that needs two hands. Is this really Renegade? Sure it is for it is a tool that is not used by the general Modern Arnis groups, it is NEVER taught by Professor Presas, but Datu Kelly uses it to show HOW the concepts of Modern Arnis are translatable! Is it a Filipino weapon and tool? Yes, it is and Datu uses it to teach single stick and double stick concept. By the way Datu Kelly can “slam n jam” using Renegade JKD-Arnis or slice his way out of just about any situation! W.Hock Hochhiem mixes JuJitsu, Arnis, military training, police training, and JKD to give his Modern Arnis flavor. He calls it Combat Arnis. Then of course Hock takes what happened to him on the street over 20 years of being an LEO and he decides that steel is the way. He does “kill shot”’ competitions with blades..( of course training blades!) He does knife-fighting to the hilt...and of course heavy doses of Dumog...sure he still does stick. Tai Chi and Pa Kua are very internal Chinese martial arts. They have no external connection to Modern Arnis until Richard Roy integrates them into the “FLOW”. Richard FEELS the flow and he teaches Modern Arnis from that stand-point. Renegade? Yes. Richard’s students seem to float

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from point to point and yet they have intense energy and redirection. They certainly don’t look like “karate guys!” Yet Richard is very serious student of American Karate. Guro Doug Pierre? Doug is one of the real time warriors. He actually applies Modern Arnis in full contact matches. GOOD? He was the senior single stick World Champion. Doug can hit. But what I know Doug for is his forms. Guro Doug does Tai Chi, Chinese Hawaiian Kenpo, Judo, Ju Jitsu, TaeKwon Do and other arts that when combined into Modern Arnis gives him a sticking, an adhesion that is felt in his forms or his fighting. Renegade? Yes, because Guro Doug has found the concepts that bind the arts and teaches them as Modern Arnis following the idea that “translation is everything”. Guro Tom Bolden is certainly renegade! He took his Modern Arnis, added his Chinese Kenpo and Pancipanci Eskrima to produce a distinctive Renegade style all of its own...which he calls American Modern Arnis, and Guro Tom applies this in real time... “BAM”...He believes in mobility, evasion, and the economy of motion tied to rapid fire striking and limb destructions.... Guro Andrew Filardo is a renegade in every sense. He takes his training in small doses, like 12 hour days and feels the essence of Arnis is fighting. Well, it is, only “Tattoo” as Guro Andy is known, likes to stick fight WITHOUT any pads and he and his students go at it in the spirit of the Dog Brothers...hot n heavy. He has successfully combined Full Contact Kickboxing and Modern Arnis into one way of combat. “Tattoo” has found that the essential elements and concepts of Modern Arnis combine quite easily with the Essential elements of Kickboxing. Dr Jerome Barber is a very quiet guy. I mean the guys a college professor. At least until he’s got a weapon in his hands. Dr Barber decided to teach the system backwards...That’s an inside joke. He teaches rock n sock’em empty hands first then moves his students to weapons usage. Then Dr Barber goes right into the use of steel. Mix that with Kenpo rapid fire striking and you’ve got lightning fast Modern Arnis that has all the trademark slaps hits and overkill of Kenpo that made its founder Ed Parker famous! There are others as well...I mean them no disrespect nor insult if I did not mention them. The list is long and varied and as time goes on these Renegades, the Black Sheep will continue to come forward to show the world where they have taken their personal journey in Arnis. A journey we all started with Professor Remy Presas...

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Chapter: #24 Modern Arnis: a closed family? Modern Arnis: a closed family? Professor Presas has taught many people over the years. Probably, he has actually taught tens of thousands. It would be impossible to write them all down. There are those in Modern Arnis who are my friends and who have helped me understand the art. This is to thank them and let them know I do appreciate what they shared! There are those that have no idea who I am nor do they want people like me in Modern Arnis. To those people, thank you as well, for you drive me on to understand and promote Modern Arnis. Datu Kelly Worden: Datu is very special. To me, Datu Kelly Worden is the epitome of what Professor wants us practitioners of Modern Arnis to be like! I personally consider Datu Kelly to be my “senior” in the art and the one I always look up to. When I felt lost or wandering in the world of Modern Arnis, Datu was there to tell me, “F**K the bad guys Bram, just be you!” I have seen other Modern Arnis guys cringe at Datu’s name. Of course none will challenge him on the floor! I beam at his name. I have profited from his knowledge and his ability to teach and demonstrate the concepts of Modern Arnis. Actually I think he can translate just about any martial art! Datu has always said and done as he feels is right and encouraged me to do the same. My students always commented that I seem to be like Datu Kelly, that we teach the same, that maybe Datu and I are related. Well we're not, but I cannot think of a higher compliment than that I teach or instruct like Datu himself. Datu has gone through the rigors of life like myself. Of all the Modern Arnis guys, only a few like Datu, are my brothers in Steel. To my brother and member of the Black Sheep Flock known as Renegade Modern Arnis, Datu Kelly: thank you! Sifu Richard Roy: Richard and I sat many times at his house or mine discussing life, children, Travis his son, and Rachael my daughter, and martial arts. Richard and I lived in the middle of no where. Ok… I lived in the middle of no-where, off a dirt road on top of a mountain in Vermont. Richard lived closer to civilization! Richard is my first brother in Modern Arnis. We traveled together to some of the Professors first camps. I consider Richard my FRIEND. We have trained, discussed and lived as friends. Guro Doug Pierre: Guro Doug is an imposing sight and one of the friendliest people I know. Doug has always shared his expertise and friendship with me. My daughter Rachael, much to Guro Doug’s student’s dismay, still screams out DOUGIE! when she sees Guro Doug! She obviously has known Guro Doug since she was little. Guro Doug travels his own path of Modern Arnis- Dumog. He is a member of the Black Sheep Flock. Guro Doug is one of the few to always ask Professor.. “ So when do I get to see form #9??” I always look forward to seeing Doug. His smile is contagious! Doug is an example of being a gentleman, using dignity and honor to demonstrate Modern Arnis. Plus he’s one mean hard hitting person when the sticks start to fly! Hock Hochhiem: Hock is one of the few Arnis practitioners that earned certification from Grandmaster Ernesto Presas ( Remy’s brother) as well as the Professor. Hock has been my friend and supporter since we met many years ago. Hock is definitely a member of the Black Sheep. He runs the Congress of American Knife Fighters. Yes, Modern Arnis taken directly to steel. Hock and

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I stay in touch over the Internet as he is constantly traveling the world teaching. He and I both call Modern Arnis that we teach: Combat Arnis...Hock is down to earth, reality based and speaks very directly! Hmm Very good Modern Arnis! And Hock is always there to encourage me...with almost the same admonition as Datu...”F**k the others,...just do it!” Dan Anderson: Dan is the highest ranked Modern Arnis instructor in the USA. Dan tried to get me to see Modern Arnis in the old tournament days in the seventies. He was the very first one to say this stuff is neat. He and Fred King would bang away with these little sticks. Dan was into the “Super Dan” sport karate sparring thing back then and I lived in Minnesota and trained at Mid America Karate. Mid America Karate, ala the Worleys, Franks & Carnahan put on the Diamond Nationals. Dan would come there to compete. Years after exposure to being with Dan, I finally got the Modern Arnis bug. I drove the guys there at Sport Karate central crazy with my stick this, knife that, Arnis type of stuff. Of course I corrupted others, showing them Modern Arnis but mainly Tim Olson, who has been with me for over 20 years now. Dan has many years later come to stay and train with me in Miami Beach. Guro Bruce Chiu: Bruce and I are the Florida contingent of Modern Arnis. Yes, there are others in Florida, but Bruce and I are friends from the old days, the first days of the Professor being in Florida. We both have studied, trained, been hit, abused, thrown and stomped while training with the Professor. Bruce is one of the best I’ve seen at the Tapi-Tapi drills of the Professor. We’ve trained and discussed the differences of what we think we’ve learned in restaurants, parking lots, and in classes...yes to people staring at us. Sometimes Bruce and I disagree but we agree to do so. Bruce is one of the ONLY ones on the road like me teaching Modern Arnis in seminars.. Bruce runs the Florida Winter Camp for Professor Presas each year. Bruce openly says I’m crazy for my love of steel...( of course he says it with a smile!) Guro Tom Bolden: Tom tried to kill me when we first met. Ok, he tried to put me in my place. I’m joking. Tom was always ready to help me out at the training camps and to spend extra time working with me. I wasn’t ready for Guro Tom’s intensity at first but he takes Modern Arnis very seriously. He has gone off to do American Modern Arnis. He was and is always up front and willing to teach those that care to learn. Datu Shishir Inocalla: Shishir has only actually taught me at a couple of the Professors training camps but he unselfishly shared his expertise and understanding with me. He’s very small in stature and he knows that the principle of motion must be understood to make something work whereas strength may not always work. His knife work, especially using the Balisong used to mesmerize me. He is a great friend of my dear friend George Denson. I got to know Shisir through his early tapes and books. Shir, as he lets me call him these days has been very supportive of my tapes, books, and knife designs and my interpretation of Modern Arnis. Dr Jerome Barber: Jerome is truly a good man. He put himself out night after night reading and rereading my book to insure that it was correct. He is one of the original Black Sheep and I’m glad he’s part of the flock! He is direct and to the point and considers loyalty to be honorable…a trait that seems to be missing from too many peoples lives! He teaches fierce Kenpo style empty hands to grace the work of his version of Arnis. Ron Van Browing: Ron is a multi faceted martial artist who spent personal time with me. We only spent time at several training camps and seminars but Ron has never once been too busy to share or give me insights into translations of Modern Arnis. Plus Ron loves whip and knife. That makes him one of the good guys! Gads…what a grappler! Ron is fantastic!

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Mark Kline is a unique individual. He is serious but able to joke about life. He’s one of the few that I know that has rank, real rank, (serious black belt ranks!) from Professor Wally Jay, Professor Remy Presas and his main instructor, Grandmaster George Dillman. Mark can grab you, ( he spends a lot of time with Leon Jay) knock you out with a touch ( he’s a very senior student of Kyushu Jitsu Pressure point grappling ) and he translates all this into his version of Modern Arnis. Good guy to know if the chips are down! Guro Andrew Filardo: Andy known also as “Tattoo” thinks that understanding the realities of combative Arnis means stick fighting without pads! Now that’s hard core in the spirit of the Dog Brothers. “Tattoo’ is also very good with his hands as he combines Kickboxing and Arnis into one fluid element. “Tattoo’ writes regularly for the FILIPINO MARTIAL ARTS Magazine where we’ve editorially crossed paths each month... To some of my Modern Arnis seminar friends: Bob Sullen, Bobby Quinn, Jim Laddis, Dr Willie Matias, Terry Wareham, Roland Rivera, David Ng, Terry Rich, Ray Dionaldo, Dave Converse, Rocky, Dan Strickland….thank you There are many others who have shared with me at seminars and training camps. I mean them no disrespect for not naming them all! To my personal students who by letting me teach them I learned a great deal: Tim Olson, David Shor, Jody Mehlman, Peter Roman, Thomas Lehmann, Andrea Martin, Alene Kimm, Paddy Baker, John Ralston, Tony Torre, George Denson, Ben Brooks, Dr David McGee, Dr George Schwenck, Andy Wires, David Driscoll, Jerry & Jules Pinada, Michael ‘MyQal’ Rowe, Will Powell, Felipe Jose, Bill McArdle, Mike Weissberg, Mike Alfano, Frank Olesen To all my Arnis classes: THANK YOU!

Remy Presas Instructor Certification Modern Arnis Camps: Ron Van Browning Al Garza Richard Roy Terry Wareham Bruce Chiu Bobby Quinn Dan Anderson Irwin Carmichael Texas Texas Massachusetts Michigan Florida Georgia Oregon North Carolina

Arnis Camps of the Flock Hock Hochhiem -Combat Arnis All over the USA and worldwide - home Georgia Tom Bolden -American Modern Arnis New York-home New York Dr Jerome Barber- American Arnis New York-home New York Kelly Worden- Natural Spirit Modern Arnis-Water and Steel All over the USA- home Washington

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James Keating- COMTECH –Riddle of Steel-ABC Washington-Hells Canyon Bram Frank- CSSD/SC All over USA and worldwide- Commandments of Steel: Israel-home Florida I would like to thank Professor Presas for sharing with me his knowledge and encouraging me to “just do it. I originally had approached Professor Presas about him doing a book on Arnis, an Arnis Encyclopedia, but he insisted “Bram, you do it” ...“Just Do it” Well that included designing protective armor for Arnis, which lead to making training knives and swords out of wood then making them out of resin: DRAGON’S TOOTH. Then writing articles, and designing tactical folding knives: first for REKAT: Escalator, then for SPYDERCO Knives: GUNTING, DRONE, CRMIPT, doing instructional videos on Arnis and now, finally this book. I am proud to be a first generation personal student of his. To Guro Dan: I was never a personal student, only a multi –time seminar student but an avid reader of everything he wrote. ( that includes Video tapes!) Thank you for your knowledge and your encouragement. To Professor Wally Jay and Grandmaster George Dillman: thank you for being with the Professor and supplementing Modern Arnis and my understanding of Modern Arnis as taught by Professor Presas. Datu, Mike, Jim, Jerry, “Dr. Jerome”, Dougie and Hock…thanks guys for sticking by me and telling me to keep going. George, and Peter: thanks for being sounding boards and listening to my tirades about the book. To Rachael, my daughter and Myrna, my mother …I hope I make you proud of me…RAF is this better than Dr I? To Mary, my dearest…my very own Toon. Thank you for encouraging me, loving me and making it so I could write this book! You put up with a lot! To my students and extended family....thanks for the use of your spirits and bodies.. I have learned alot!

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With this book, Bram Frank eulogizes one of our heroes in life, the utterly unique, charming and deadly Remy Presas. He is one of a kind, a veteran homeland street and contest, stick and knife fighter. Eventually his fame and revulsion of oppressive Filipino politics would lead to that government’s targeting Remy for kidnap and death! This forced Remy to flee his country for his life. While on a training trip to the Philippines, I was taken to the grounds behind the Presidential Palace and our guide (a Secret Service level officer) told me while pointing to the ground, “This is where they were going to slit the throat of Remy Presas!” In the oppressive Manila heat, I got a chill as I finally understood in an emotional gut-level, the words that Remy had told me. Remy began touring the United States and was one of the first few that opened the seminar circuit in our country. He is pioneer and really a living legend. Bram has written a great, step-by-step, in-depth work on the way of Filipino Modern Arnis, with his own rapier understanding, flair, expression and intelligence. We are all proud of his important endeavor to document these concepts and techniques for all time. W. Hock Hochheim Scientific Fighting Congress And author of Paladin’s Military Knife Combat

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Black Sheep/ Renegades and Modern Arnis: A Viable Alternative to Blind Conformity The book that you are about to read is absolutely awesome! I am thrilled that I had the opportunity to read the entire manuscript. Bram Frank, has written a master-work on what the Modern Arnis System really is, has been, should be and what it can become when one moves beyond the self imposed limitations of cloning one’s self in the image of Professor Remy Presas. Please allow me to cut right to the chase… there is only one Remy Amador Presas! This is the man who founded the Modern Arnis System, brought it to the United States and began promulgating this fantastic art through seminars and summer training camps, without a central HQ location. This is the man with ‘The Flow’, the magician-wizard of sticks, the irrepressible ambassador of Filipino Sports Culture, sans the official portfolio. This is a man of great charm, charisma and talent. He seems to embody all of the traits that most martial arts students would love see in a system Grand Master. There are a number of martial artists who could be his equal, but very few if any, who could be his superior! (Remember, I said that, not Professor Presas!) He is a man who I hold in great esteem as a martial artist. I have met him. I know him well. I have trained under his instructive leadership in seminars and summer camps; I have learned multiple aspects of his art directly from him in private sessions; I have dined with him, hosted events for him, and acted as organizational secretary, when asked. I have also argued with him on several occasions. I also dropped out of the International Modern Arnis Federation, when it became apparent to me that Professor Presas and I were going in different directions. I know, for a fact, that none of his closest, cloned followers are as intuitive, explosive, creative or skilled as Professor, in the art of Modern Arnis. They are following the leader, staying in his shadow and waiting for him to reveal that next great secret! Therefore, I am totally confident that what you are about to read is going to cause some distress in the Filipino Martial Arts world in general and the Modern Arnis world in particular, because Guro Bram Frank, is “about to let the cat out of the bag.” Guro Frank, has written an excellent book on what a number of people have done to make Modern Arnis, their own personal art. They have discovered for themselves, “the art within their own art.” These men, whom Guro Frank refers to as the “Black Sheep/ Renegades” are talented, skillful martial artists who were not content to merely follow a leader, they wanted, they needed, to explore all of the other options that came their way. They wanted to stand in the sun, feel it’s heat and see it’s light for themselves. These men went forward, taking what they had learned from Professor Presas, and built their own versions of Modern Arnis. They used their prior training and then built upon the foundation laid down by the Grand Master. In their individual interpretations, Modern Arnis has taken on many new faces and appearances. Modern Arnis has been developed into a multi-faceted, highly diversified martial art which encompasses the stick(s), empty hands, low-line kicks, grappling, trapping/locking, and the primary topic of this book, the blade. The Black Sheep/ Renegades are not an organized group. They are people who share some common characteristics, including independence of thought. Guro Frank, is one of them! He is

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about to tell you, the reader, about some of the innovations that have come out of the Modern Arnis System as first developed by Professor Presas and taken to new vistas by these other martial artists. He is showing you, one path that has been taken within the art, the science and the philosophy that we call Modern Arnis. As I stated earlier, I am well aware that some Modern Arnis people will be angry, upset, distressed and by what Guro Frank, has written --- so be it! The common characteristic of the Black Sheep/ Renegades is that they are strong willed and thoughtful people who embody that quintessential American quality of rugged individualism. Even they will not agree with everything that Guro Frank, has written, but they all will very likely agree that the only way to approach this work is with an open, curious mind! In order to be a Black Sheep/ Renegade, you must not view “cloning as an option ” I want to sincerely thank Guro Bram Frank, for writing this awesome book! I also want to thank him for the opportunity that he afforded me, to read the unpublished manuscript as well as asking me to write an introduction. I want to encourage each of you, the readers, to take your time, read this book carefully and form your own opinions about what has been written. If you can do that, you will be a better martial artist and a stronger, more knowledgeable person!! Jerome Barber, Ed. D. Director & Principal Instructor, Independent Escrima/ Arnis Associates Founder: Paradigm Escrima-Kenpo Method of Self-defense Hamburg, New York June 21, 2000.

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Modern Arnis: Making the Art your own. I remember meeting Bram Frank as though it were yesterday; It was in Florida at a Professor Remy Presas seminar, the father of MODERN ARNIS. He was as serious and passionate about Philippine stick/knife fighting as myself, and with a much deeper understanding of the principals and concepts underlying our MODERN ARNIS SYSTEM than most of the students I’ve met over the years. This left a lasting impression on me and over time we have kept in touch with each other. I remember receiving a call from Bram stating that he was writing a book about knife fighting/dueling that may offend some people. I told him to write the book because it deals with reality. Most classical training has no realistic usage in today’s society. With knife training the fear is addressed in many ways one would never realize. How can anyone ever attempt to deal with something they know nothing about (i.e. knife attacks.) The natural progression of any art form is manifested in those special individuals who dare to question or even challenge what the masses accept as the only way. People who are visionaries of insight and have the courage to go forward and blaze new trails will always come under scrutiny and ridicule. If this is the diet of the day so be it. In MODERN ARNIS Bram Frank is just one of a handful of individuals who has courageously forged ahead in new and bolder directions. Professor Remy Presas, whom I love very dearly, and who is more to me than just the Professor/teacher and friend, has always said, “Dougie, you must make the art yours”, meaning to adapt the art to your specific need and/ or style, and become “THE ART WITHIN YOUR ART”. Every two years or so an international full contact stickfighting tournament is sponsored by W.E.K.A.F. (World Escrima/Kali/Arnis Federation) in countries around the world. In 1992 after many local and regional competitions I made the U.S. team. I was blessed by winning my first world championship in the Philippines. I had the honor of training with the late great Grand Master Antonio “Tatang” Ilustrisimo of KALI ILLUSTRISIMO. Twice I accompanied him to separate funerals which were the result of knife duels. On a subsequent trip some years later, competing for another title, I was privileged to train with Grand Mater Vincente “Iting” Carin of the DOCE PARES SYSTEM, himself a seasoned knife veteran and a living legend, who survived a very serious knife fight with six men while helping a friend. This encounter resulted in the death of two men, disfigurement and vital organs destroyed. As a kid growing up in Harlem and the south Bronx, I’ve personally witnessed and had serious street fights. I’ve seen people wounded by and die from knife attacks. Knives are a very serious matter. I spent every waking hour training with these men and their senior students for more than a month each time, and the knife was always at the center of their conversation, even though the sticks were used as training tools most of the time. I remember Tatang on several occasions drifting off to past war experiences ending with the death of his enemy. Following the story we would all get up and train. I have studied several martial arts, some simultaneously. I have totally embraced MODERN ARNIS and our founder Professor Remy Amador Presas for his love of his students, sincerity, genius and of his special blend of what I think are cutting edge weapon and empty hand drills. In our modern society there are really only three available weapons, not counting one’s mind (this is for all the nitpickers). They are: 1) a GUN, which is illegal in most states and difficult to conceal, 2) a STICK, which one can make of any object at one’s disposal and 3) a KNIFE, which at a certain length is not illegal to carry. Our culture is based around this tool. We eat, cook and work with knives all of our live, so why not explore its defensive/offensive aspects?

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Prof. Tom Sotis “AMOK”, Tuhon Chris Sayoc “SAYOC KALI” both of whom I’ve studied with and recommend, James Keating “COMTECH”, Datu Kelly Worden “NATURAL SPIRIT”, Hock Hochhiem “CONGRESS OF AMERICAN KNIFE FIGHTERS” and now Guro Bram Frank, “CSSD/SC” has joined these ranks as modern day street survival realists. They have understood the art handed down to them by our Grand Master and others on another level. I have read Bram’s book with joy and a smile; his presentation and technical insights into the stick/knife fighting/dueling can stand amongst any. I have viewed his tapes with pride that our system has been made greater from all the hard work of my brother in MODERN ARNIS. I recommend that every serious martial artist add this book, which is destined to be a classic, an important addition to your martial library. This aspect of the art has always been shrouded in mystery and secrecy. To Guro Bram, “KEEP DOING WHAT YOU’RE DOING AND EVERYTHING WILL TAKE CARE OF ITSELF’. All men of vision have suffered scorn, so if people are talking about you that’s a good thing. You will occupy space in their minds, it will get them to think and that’s a good thing too. Continue to be steadfast in your path, successful in all that you do and most of all be happy, my brother and dear friend in OUR MODERN ARNIS WORLD WIDE FAMILY.

Respectfully, MODERN ARNIS DOMOG Guru Doug Pierre “World Champion” Stickfighter NOTE: Bram, the DOMOG spelling represents the first two letters in my name to signify my interpretations with backgrounds in karate, judo, jujitsu, tai chi chuan and boxing.

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“Cuilibet in arte sua perito est credendum.” Credence should be given to a person skilled in his art. Legal maxims sometimes express surprising insights. The foregoing maxim is one that is particularly applicable to Bram Frank and his new book. The responsibilities and functions of a lawyer include acting as an evaluator in examining facts and reporting about them to others and acting as an advocate to zealously assert the position of a client. Practicing as an attorney for many years, I am skeptical both by nature and training, careful to reserve my opinions and conclusions until all the evidence is in. Well folks, I have carefully evaluated the evidence (both the book and the man) and I can assure you that Conceptual Modern Arnis by Bram Frank is an authoritative compendium of the principles and concepts that comprise the basis of modern Filipino martial arts from the perspective of one who truly understands and loves them. Conceptual Modern Arnis would be a great addition to anyone’s martial arts library. When Bram first approached me about writing a forward for his book on Conceptual Modern Arnis, I jumped at the opportunity. Not only had Bram and I discussed the book and much of its contents on numerous occasions, I have actually experienced and had the good fortune to put many of the principles and concepts of Modern Arnis as taught by Bram Frank into play during numerous training sessions with Bram himself. I first had the honor and pleasure of meeting both Bram and Professor Remy Presas about seven years ago when I attended a four-day Modern Arnis training camp given by the Professor in Florida. Bram quickly stood out as the next best thing to the Professor’s bottomless well of knowledge whenever I needed help or had questions. In the years since my first Modern Arnis training camp, my respect for both Professor Presas and Bram has increased exponentially. I attended several more of the Professor’s training camps and seminars and a few years ago, began training with Bram on a regular basis. My own martial arts background spans more than thirty years in various disciplines, but I never had much been training when it came to a knife or stick. This was an area of my martial arts training where I was lacking. Although I studied Jiu-Jitsu and Karate in the seventies, Tae Kwon Do in the eighties, and Hapkido and Aikido in the nineties, my training with a knife and stick was, sadly, minimal and perhaps even dangerous in some respects. Some of my prior instructors even gave me what I now realize was a false sense of self confidence in the viability of knife disarms and my general ability to defend myself against a knife. Bram pulls no punches in describing in concise and colorful terms, the deadly reality of self defense against the knife. He is brutally frank (no pun intended) in expressing the dangers inherent in facing an edged weapon. His explanation of the bio-mechanics of matter separation and cutting the human body is unparalleled. Bram has a keen grasp and understanding of universal principles and concepts common to many martial arts that enable him to put his thoughts into words in ways that are easily understandable. Conceptual Modern Arnis provides an available wealth of knowledge that is conveyed by Bram with clarity, understanding, wit, and should be easily grasped by both

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experienced as well as neophyte martial artists. It has taken me many years, exposure to numerous martial arts and instructors, and a great deal of aches, pains, and sweat to truly appreciate the nature of real, practical self-defense. It is, therefore, with some degree of experience that I make the following statement. Some martial artists are good instructors on the training room floor, some are good practitioners in a real or practical self defense sense, and some are good writers. Few, however, excel in all three categories. Bram Frank is one of those few. Respectfully submitted by Peter T. Roman, J.D., 1 January 2001 Bram Frank’s Conceptual Modern Arnis Principles and Concepts of the Filipino Martial Art of Professor Remy Presas Covering Filipino: Stick, Knife and Empty hand fighting Forewords by: Guro Doug Pierre Dr. Jerome Barber W. Hock Hochhiem Peter T. Roman Esq.

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