120

DIODE

APPLICATIONS

listing. For the circuit of interest one of the resistors is 3.3 kil, a standard commercial value. Now it is possible to scroll down all the possible values of resistor elements, but this can be a long, tedious process. It is better by far to simply type in 3.3k (no need for the units) in the area just below the Component listing, and 3.3kOlun immediately appears at the top of the listing. After selecting this value choose OK and the resistor appears on the screen, which can be placed using the same procedure as applied to the source above. It has a 3.3 kD value and a label of Rl. Since this circuit has two resistors, the process has to be repeated for the 5.6 kD value, which is also placed in a region of the characteristics that supports the formation of the circuit. It has a value of 5.6 kH, but since it is the second resistor placed, it has the label R2. Next, the diodes have to be placed in the correct general area. Returoing to the first vertical toolbar, select the diode symbol (third down) to again obtain a Select a Component dialog box. Under Family, DIODE is selected, and under Component, the 1N4009 diode is chosen. An OK, and it can also be placed using the same procedure as described above. Since two diodes appear in the configuration, the process has to be repeated until all the elements are in place. Finally, the ground counection must be established. This is accomplished by returning to the Source option; when the Select a Component dialog appears, choose GROUND under the Component heading. An OK, and the ground symbol appears on the screen, which can be placed as discussed above. As demonstrated in Fig. 2.146, a multimeter is used to measure the current through the resistor Rl. The multimeter option appears at the top of the toolbar to the far right of the screen. When selected it will appear with the heading XMMI. Double-clicking the meter will result in the Multimeter-XMMI dialog box, in which A can be selected to set it as an ammeter. Exit the dialog box and it performs as an ammeter. The current through the diode DI is measured with an ammeter obtained from the Indicator option appearing as the 10th keypad down in the first vertical toolbar, It looks like number 8 on an IC package. When selected, a Select a Component dialog box appears, in which AMMETER can be selected under the Family heading. Under Component there are four options provided to define the orientation of the meter. If AMMETER H is selected, the ammeter will appear horizontal with the plus sigu on the left. AMMETER HR will also result in a horizontal ammeter, but with the plus sigu on the right. If AMMETER V is selected, the ammeter will be vertical with the plus sigu at the top, and if AMMETER VR is selected, the ammeter

will continue to be vertical, but with the plus sign at the bottom. For our case AMMETER H is selected. You will notice a label and other data appearing with the meter when it is placed in the circuit. This can all be removed by double-clicking on the indicator to obtain the Ammeter dialog box. Choose Display and remove the checks from all the listed possibilities. An OK, and the ammeter appears as shown in Fig. 2.146. A voltmeterfor the voltage across the resistor R2 can be obtained from the same Indicator option. Before all the elements are connected they should be moved to the final position. This is accomplished by simply clicking on the element or meter and holding the clicker down; move the element or meter to the desired position. The presence of four small, dark squares around the element and the associated labels will indicate that they are all ready to be operated on. To move a label or value, simply click on it to create four small squares around the quantity and move it to the desired position, holding the clicker down through the entire operation. Changing the label VI to E requires that the label VI be double-clicked to obtain the POWER_SOURCES dialog box. Select Label and type in the new Reference ID as E. An OK and the E will appear on the screen. This same procedure can be used to change any of the labels for any of the elements of the circuit. To change the voltage from 12 V to 20 V requires that the value be double-clicked to obtain the POWER_SOURCES dialog box again. Under Value, the Voltage(V) is set at 20 V. An OK, and the 20 V will appear next to the voltage source on the screen. Rotation of any of the elements in the clockwise direction is enacted by the sequence Ctrl-R, Each rotation will tum the element 90°. Connecting the elements is accomplished by simply placing the cursor at the end of an element until a small circle and a set of crosshairs appear to designate the starting point. Once in place, click that location and an x will appear at that terminaL Then move to the end of the other element and left-click the mouse again-a red connecting wire will automatically appear with the most direct route between the two elements; the process is called Automatic Wiring. Now that all the components are in place it is time to initiate the analysis of the circuit, an operation that can be performed in one of three ways. One option is to select Simulate at the head of the screen followed by Run. The next is to select the lightrting bolt keypad in the horizontal tool bar at the top of the screen having the label Run/stop simulation. The last is to simply toggle the switch at the bead of the screen to the I position. In each case a solution appears in the indicators after a few seconds that seems to flicker over time. This flickering simply indicates the software package is repeating the analysis over time. To accept the solution and stop the continuing simulation, either toggle the switch to the 0 position or select the lightning bolt keypad again. The current through the diode is 3.365 rnA, which compares well with the 3.32 rnA in Example 2.13. The voltage across the resistor R, is 18.722 V, which is close to the 18.6 V of the same example. After the simulation, the multimeter can be displayed as shown in Fig. 2.146 by double-clicking on the meter symboL By clicking anywhere on the meter, the top portion is dark blue, and the meter can be moved to any location by simply clicking on the blue region and dragging it to the desired location. The current of 193.379 p,A is very close to the 212 p,A of Example 2.13. The differences are primarily due to the fact that each diode voltage is assumed to be 0.7 V, whereas in fact it is different for each diode of Fig. 2.146 since the current through each is different. In all, however, the Multisim solution is a very close match with the approximate solution of Example 2.13.

PROBLEMS
'Note: Asterisks indicate more difficult problems. 1.1 Load-LineAnalysis
b. Repeat part (a) using the approximate model for the diode, and compare results. c. Repeat pan (a) using the ideal model for the diode, and compare results. 2.

1. a. Using the characteristics of Fig. 2.147b, determine I D, VD, and VR for the circuit of Fig. 2. 147a.

a. Using the characteristics of Fig. 2.147b, determine In and Vo for the circuit of Fig. 2.148. b. Repeat part (a) with R ~ 0.47 kfl. 0.18 kfl. c. Repeat part (a) with R
d. Is the level of V D relatively close to 0.7 V in each case? Comment accordingly. levels of ID compare?

FIG. 1.146
Verifying the results of Example

2.13 using Multisim.

How do the resulting

*8. 6.151. (a) (b) b.+ Va Si + R 0.147 Problems 1 and 2. I I I II I I I I .153. the value of R for the circuit of Fig. I I I II I I I I I I (b) (e) I . Determine o V if E 4.. and VR for the circuit of Fig. 2. II II 200 (a) Si . FIG.148 that will result in a diode current of 10 rnA 7 V.2kH VR +20 V ~-5V 6. FIG. Si Ge z en O'_-JI~t--~III-'VVIv~l'--O V +lO~V 1.149.152 Problem 7. I . 12kH 3. I I I . . Determine the currentlforeach alent model for the diode. a. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2.150 using the approximate equiv- 5. . + R 2. 2. 2. Do the results obtained in parts (a) and (b) suggest that the ideal model can provide a good approximation for the actual response under some conditions? FIG.8kO (a) (b) Vo ID --ii- Si FIG. 2. *7.2kO 4.152. Using the approximate characteristics for the Si diode. 2. .33 k!1 VR 2.7kO V. I I I 2~ I I I .".147h for the diode. . 2. I In(mA) I II II I II I I --h I .153 Problem 8.148 Problems 2 and 3. E=-8V -1 (a) I I I I I I II Si -=IOV I I I I I I I . II II I I .151 Problems 6 and 49. 1'1 FIG. -I I I I I II I II I +8V 1. Use the characteristics of Fig. ID.150 Problem-S. 2. Determine (b) +20 V the level of Vo for each network of Fig.3 Series Diode Configurations of the configurations of Fig.5 . FIG. Determine Vo and ID for the networks of Fig. . II I I IS I I I I . determine V D. . Determine Vo andID for the networks of Fig.2kO st V. II I I Si (a) (b) FIG. 2.. 2.149 Problem 4. c. Perform the Same analysis as part (a) using the ideal model for the diode.

(a) (b) FIG. 2. Sketch VL Vo and ID for the network of Fig. 1 kO Val O. = 0. Determine 16. sketch Vi' Vd. Determine Vo and I for the networks of Fig. in Fig.3kO FIG. ··5V Si -5V Si 14. 2. 1.156. Determine 17.154 Problem 9.161. Determine Val and V02 for the networks of Fig. Vo for the network of Fig.158 13 and 51. 2. The input 22. Vo for the network of Fig. 23.47kO Si +12V~V02 _lOV'__Ge~ Si VOl 1.39 with 10 Von both inputs. Vo for the negative logic AND gate of Fig. and id for the half-wave is a sinusoidal waveform with a frequency of 60 Hz.157.2 kO v. -5V FIG. FiG. and I for the network of Fig.160 Problem 19.7kO +12V FIG. 2.8-k!1 12. 2. 2. 2.6 Sinusoidallnpuls.157 12. 2.2kO +IOV IOV v. Problem FIG.155. 2.161 Problem 20.155 Problems 10 and 50. 1. Repeat Problem 24.42 with lOY on both inputs. 2. 2.159 Problem 18. FIG.5 2. Determine 15.*9. 2. Problems FIG. 1.39 with 0 V on both inputs. 20.154. 2. Determine 21. Vo I kO 4.. Determine VOt' V~. (a) (b) FIG. 2. Determine 10. 2.162 Problem 21. 2. Determine *13.42 with 0 V on both inputs..7 V).163.159.2kO IGe (a) (b) F .__---oV. V" Si Ge 3. Repeat Problem 22 with a silicon diode (VK 22 with a 6. Determine 19. Assuming an ideal diode. Determine Si Si Si 4. Determine 18. Half-Wave Redification rectifier of Fig. 2. 5V Si IOV Si IkQ IOV Si 5V Ge 2. Vo for the configuration of Fig. 2. Vo for the network of Fig.162.4 Parallel and Series-Parallel Configurations Vo and ID for the networks of Fig.164. 2. Vo for the negative logic OR gate of Fig. *11. 1. Determine +16V the level of Vo for the gate of Fig. 2.160. load applied as shown and iL• .156 Problem 11.158. 2. 2. 15V AND/ORGates Vo for the network of Fig.7kO .2 kO -5V OV Si IkO vo OV Si 2. 2.

FIC.168. of each diode (using the approximate b. .2.2.+ Vd vio---lI. of Fig.164 Problem and determine Vdc24.172 Problem 33.7kQ 56kO each network of Fig.172 for the input shown. c.169 Problem 30.M-er __""I-0-:=r ":" *30. 33.171 32.2kQ 2. If only one diode were present.2kQ FIC.~m 'r'~ ~ iL Vdc=2V + Ideal diodes Vi "=' 2.:: 14 m W for each diode at Fig.8 Clippers Va for 32.2. Determine Vo and the required for each network of Fig. the maximum current rating a. 2.170 and determine the de voltage available.2. determine equivalent model). Determine Va power rating of each diode? PIV rating of each diode for the configuration of Fig.165. 2.163 Problems 25. determine the diode current and compare it to the maximum rating. Si 5V Ideal FIC. ~ ~ kn..167 Problem 27.2kll 2.2.2kQ (a) . If silicon diodes are employed.167. 26. Si 4.2. FIC. + *31. Determine the required PlY rating of each diode. Find the maximum current through each diode during conduction. d. FIC.:: 160 V. (b) FIC. 2.166.169 and determine the de voltage available. 2. Problem 2. 2. For the network of Fig. Determine v. What is the required 29. d.7 Full-Wave Rectification 28.170 31.2kn 2.171 for the input shown. Problem ~'I'-o:~. + Vi~"" Vi Ideal diodes 11. Sketch Vo for the network of Fig.. A full-wave bridge rectifier with a 120-V nns sinusoidal input has a load resistor of 1 a.2. 2.166 Problem *27. 2. sketch Vo and iR- FIC. Given P max ::. For the network *26. -". 22 through 24. c. Sketch Vo for the network of Fig. 2. what is the de voltage available at the load? b.168 Problem 29. Determine the current through each diode at Vim>X using the results of part (b). + FIC.2.2. 2. Determine fmax for Vi . sketch Vo FIC.

2. Sketch Vo -17..3 V for each network of Fig. and Vo FIG. (b) Problem FIG. 2.176 for the input shown. for each network of Fig. r T =-5V ":" - R Silicon diodes v. 1...176 Problem 37.2k.179 2.178: a. lOk. Calculate5'1'. 1. Sketch iR '-~IIF' 4V ' 2.. 2.*34. FIG.9 .3V=- Si Va Ideal diodes -1 +T -20 V Problem FIG. Sketch VO' + Vi o----J c + Si Si R 56kQ Vo 0 . 2. Design a damper to perform the function indicated in Fig.Q *40.173 for the input shown.174 Problem 35. 2. for the network of Fig. Design a damper to perform the function indicated in Fig. 38. For the network of Fig.. Compare 5'1' to half the period of the applied signal..180.l75 for the input shown. Would it be a good approximathe diode to be ideal for both configurations? Why? FIG.(Iampers 37. 2. 2. 2. FIG. Determine v. *39. 2.Q + Si -I <a) 36. 2. Vi Determine Vo for each network of Fig. r~tf'.Q+ _ a c.180 Problem 41. Vio---JTIVO c . 2.175 36.3V-= Si _ 7.178 39. 2.179. 2. 2. + ~ Vi iR + 5. *35. tion to consider .177 Pmblem38..2kQ <a) (b) +5V (a) FIG.7 V (b) FIG. c Ca) Problem 40.2 k. 2. 2. Ideal *41. b. + + = : + Vj 2~I~I+Ideal Jill: + Vi--r: Ideal (b) Vi o----jl--__.177 for the input shown.174 for the input shown.-~__o + R c vo 2. Sketch Vo for each network of Fig.173 Problem 34.

Design the network of Fig. 2.10 Zener Diodes *42.118 in terms of the peak secondary the required 2. 50. 49 using Multisim. RL 0. 2. will maintain an output voltage of 20 V across a f-kf] load with 30 V and 50 V. *44. Repeat Problem . determine the proper value of Rs and the of Fig.181 if RL 180 n. "=" Rs 91Q PZm~ 1 '=" R L vZ=SV =400 mW 1 .183 using PSpice Windows.. Determine the voltage available from the voltage doubler of Fig. determine the range of Vi that will maintain VL at 8 V and not ex- ceed the maximum power rating of the Zener diode. = Rs + ___. 2. That is. 50 using Mulrisim. 2. iZ RL VL Problem FIG.140 IZMo if the input is a 50. Perform a general analysis of the Zener network of Fig. d. For the network of Fig. 2.14 Computer Analysis 49.182 to maintain Vl. 53.. that will establish maximum power conditions for the Zener diode. 51. a. Design a voltage regulator that an input that will vary between maximum 46. 2. Repeat Problem Repeat Problem 56. h. 2. Determine the minimum value of RL to ensure that the Zener diode is in the "on" state.155 using PSpice Windows. 52 using Multisim.182 Problem 43. 51 using Multisirn.158 using PSpice Windows.V square wave.V square wave. 45.22 ill FIG. 55. 2.. =400mW t n-. Repeat for a Sketch the output of the network 5.11 Voltage-Multiplier Circuits 47. and lR for the network Fig.151 using PSpice Windows. Repeat Problem 54. Perform an analysis of the network of Fig. Determine voltage Vm• is 120 V (nus).118 if the secondary voltage of the transformer 48. 2. 2.. current FIG. PlV ratings of the diodes of Fig.183 Problems 44 and 52. orm an analysis of the network of Fig.181 42. 2.. Repeat part (a) if RL 470 c. = n. That is. Determine PZmax for the Zener diode of part (a). *43. a. b. fz. 2. 16V~RS Vz llh 1i:. 52. IR 20V 220Q Vz = IOV PzmaY.. Determine the value of R[. at 12 V for a load variation (IJ from 0 rnA to 200 rnA.ON5 2. determine Rs and Vzb. Perform Perf an analysis of the network of Fig.183. 2. Determine vr. 2.

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