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1

lntroductlon Battery Chargers and Zappers
Power Supplies= Fixed

V,""

illiI<II1

1

2 3

Power Supplies=- H'jgh Voltage P 4"~"O"'1:I'1ie' r Supplies -'l,·T.an'·,~"'l·ble···.·.· ·11... v.· i ..
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·23 84 101 172 119 12'S
129

Power Supply Monitors '6 Power Supp Y Protection Circuits Sources
5 Index

1
Battery Chargers and Zappers
-.
-

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section; which begins on page 125. The figure- number in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entryin the Source's section,
Lead-Acid Battery Charger 12-'V Battery Charger 200-rnA-hour 12-'V NiCad. Battery Charger NiC·ad Charger with Current and Vol'~g'e Limiting 14- V' 4-A. Battery Charger/Power Supply Fast Charger for NiC.ad Batte-ries d 6 V" C urrent- •.imited fi-V«C· harger L"
NiCad Charger Universal Battery Charger UJT Battery Charger '.. t .. ve Lr arger , . ·N::·C···-··· "a .:-·.C ~.S A U·t·'·omo tive :C' har _... ror .. 1.,,3.d: _ 'S;at te . Pa···· ks Constant- Voltage Current ..Limited Charger Vers.atile Battery Charger

,err

Gel-Cell Charger NiCad Battery Zap-per
PUT Battery Charger Thermally Controlled. NiCad Charger

Simple NiCa:d Battery Zapper
Battery Charger Automatic Shutoff Battery Charger Battery-Charging Regulator 12"-'VBattery-Charger Control (20 rrns Max.) Battery Charger
Universal Battery Charger Lead-Acid Low ... attery Detector B
.

NiC,ad Battery' Zapper II Portable N:i.C·ad Battery Charger Lithium 'Battery' 'Charger Rapid Battery Charge r for Icorn IC~2A. Battery Charger Operates on Single Solar Cell Wind-Powered Battery Charger

1

LEA.D-.ACID BATTE.RV CHARGER . -

'. 220 RI R:r .' 'EAO' -··C-li""l.~
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2k

1k

100 p.F

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BA ITE RY

,-=-(.6.

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12V 2

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+ LM

RI

334

R

3
33 R·s,

LE.D

EON

'. ',' ,. -,..... J .. rage ,:... 5 '. per ce .3 ',,·:0 :..... y . .. _. ,' a. t t'" .. ne :h·- '-': .ms .,}. ··"'t L.__:, Th'·· '(lIeUI. .lW1US_h. es an minar vo1+-""'" 0·f 2',,'.'V-"-'-'.' .' .... 0-"'. t 2"SoC to rapiidlv Ch arge .. b: artery, 'T::l .c. iarging current decreases as the battery' charges, and. when. the current drops to 180 :mA; the charging circuit ". -.,. '.-: Ita i!- . '.. :' -'~: V::' :. 5 zell 'II··' ." ... " U.l,e ,a, '.. .~ " .U .y C _.arge , .' _ .'... '.. .. .' '.. .re.d uee S ~h' Oil:tp t'. va·, ..ge.' lO 2-:'3..'",: per . ce, , lea.VIng ·l-L· b _ tt,ery In ·a f U··· .' h......... 'd s.ta··~._.." T"L..~.".,. 1ower va. It =. Il.e -U age prevents the battery from overcharging'." 'which would shorten its life,. The LM30lA compares the voltage drop across Rl 'with. an 18 mV reference set by R2..'The comparator's output controls the voltage regul ator forcing it to produce the lower float voltag.-,e 'when the battery'; charging current, passing through Rl , drops 'below 180 rnA:" The 150 .mV·difference 'between the charge and. float voltages is set by the ratio of R3 to R-4·" The LEDs show the slate of the circuit. Temperature compensation ..helps prevent overcharging, particularly 'when. a battery undergoes 'wide 'h . h .,: 1 temperature c._.. an,ges w bil bemg c.bar.ge· '" T'h.e." L'M''334, temperature sensor s· 0uld _.·.e _ ~ ." d . .. ' , ....: pa.ce.d near or on thre. 'be"'iIiot· _ ,'. " lor '.. ""h' .. "·'U rsecause.natterres red - ::.' '.','. .... t :. oanery t-,· d .... - -'., th ..··L........·· vo tage b 4 m"V,:,"'oC" t.·_ eaci ceu. B'" .. .. ,b,·.. te "" need more terno necrease tne cnargmg oltas e oy +;'" . .ower ",.','.ratun - .... .-'. ·V··· ·'IOC· per ceu i .. ' - _. ;' perature compensanon..'. a. '1,," '.' temperatures, c.'h ange 'R····,5··tc '3::0 ·111 lor a, tc 0f'" -, 5- m~' 'I."- n .... "if' app.]j'"ca · "._.,Q n ,. . '.. tion will se e temperatures below" _,20 o'C . The charger's input voltage must be filtered de "that is: at least 3 V' higher than, the maximum required output voltage: approximately' ,2i5'V per cell ..Choose a regulator for the maximum, current needed: L.M.3?1 far 2: All LM3,50 for 4 .A'·I' or LM338 for B A.,..At ,25°C and with no output load, adjust. R7 for a. VOU1~ of 7,·05
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12~V BATTERY C:HARGER

0.2
LM,350

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LED

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NATI'ONAL SEMICONDUCTOR

Fig .. 1~·2

This circuit. is a high-performance charger for gelled-electrolyte lead-acid batteries, This charger quickly recharge s the 'battery and shu ts ·off at-full charge Initially, charging current is limited to. 2, A~ As the battery voltage rises, current to 'the. battery decreases, and when the current has. decreased to 150 rnA, . the charger switches to a lower float voltage, which prevents overcharge, When the. start switch is pushed" the output of the charger goes to 14.,5 V~ As the battery approaches. full charge, the cbarging current decreases and the output voltage is reduced from 14."5 V to about 12'~5 Vr terminating the charging, Tran. h' ( . _ . al In:. tea ... . full ' sistor Q' 1. ...en li hts t.e LED as .3 VISU·> i di non 0"f -.' ,C h arge O th -:g' tr
4

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. II "~!':::::"- '"~ L.~ __ ..will batterv '._ .'".J5)... _ _". ". . •.·_. r ." -. After the W' hn _._· ·D.>. '.~: 1m. :...CI"'i .. . ••• _ ~.ery IS 'al" mas st-. current_ to.1.•...:_: : .~~j I '•.re:B._.• ~l~. ".pa.W" ~~'l " T"his cir'CW' :'t." r.. .. and adjus:t: the pot for l5..:L...'~"'" i ~.'. "_-. .~l~W brig~btly·" 'and" th L'E"~D····· be out hen .: -'._~. "1. ' ._"". lea t 1. I. .-.. 'Z·""I' "l" '-'-"-'-' '~_." 'h ':'ul" I-e a W"e: cUd!t '. IIi.._ ._ charse batterv voltase minus 1 5 'v. . _.-' I '. '." "J I I.I~ ••• :.d."IJ 1..iI. 'Ll VIiI . ..:.'.' ". aV·... _ U ..' . .'!~-'.lC at eas.e'.'divided 'by-:"-".in~t"and we: lli' 'UUJ.....'· .. "_' .. r:- 1-.:_).e. .\a.. ' . :.o.-" "'Ih1'd"""'d'd' u" ..:_:..cit'y.~. " .A.8 low and being c'h.)'" " "...i111 .. To set 'the ...:~d batterv in (our 'hours and the' batterv can be left in the DJ~ charger indefinitely.m...."t"'(":."2~V' NIC:AD BATTERY CHA.' liiiii ...tenr is 'fi1Hv' {:'b~rQ:edithe ~cmt: will. D""'...' 'I~ i ~" ' ...i:J l._ .. .r-....". II. .curreDIl.. ~"~. ' ..'1"1 ~'_' IN'ICAID C!HARGER WR"H CURRENT AJNID VOLTAGE..' ca.U . '" I. ".. . ~ ! _.' " '_" .r . connect a.· ·.c':rCH3.: ~l '.. the...'1 _\ -I ..~.._.0.'. 11:2 -1'5 V'DC ."'."'t Wnen th.._.IIo._&'. "(I' ~:L..ii" F IDA! '.DIO mA~:." '~.g the: resistor.: ...J~ "th· -__ '¥ -'.":. the b atterv 'j s charzed then it" reduces " 'the.. . iH22.-".1.I.'_.1_./ . . ".T' E A 47 O.A.'-C U.~ 'W' ..d b . full. -..e '-""'" _-" '.)0 irsa l .. '" bul b th .. __ ".'. '_ .. .. '-' '~ - .. tloat .. I~ 'b":...e..Ii!"iI!:t"!AQd'" but the......' " _' .-.. ~~.dJ.-.charge: terminals n 2....:.~" "g....".'" " ... ".• : '~...D . ...S_. .U." '100 mAH. _". ... " . ... a !WI.ry ... " ..._ .e 'U<llL'l... :.. . .. •._ "'IIIUI ~16'" I' n..I].g.' I _. .I .d--I·Di" .~5 V '2[. " 1~~Ii!~':' _~I ~. _ _j:~' .Le.3. I".J't1 b e. __ ._..J. .'.I~ .....it at about batterv ca~'a.ould 'L . you. LIIMITING .··~.... lb..UIUauy u.If: ICIMItGI:D 'N111 HAM A..' ·." _'.._. .dv ''L"' :it-...._ .b·.._". Eli ADIO l~_:· ._ _.200~mAJHOU-'A.[Ii I "_' ".Y..lor : l ted L_i!f_~' . ••• J&. ~'~lra:Q~'the batterv at 15"-" _ un....' an:..'._''.Q.. ". ~'D.' _!I! _". bat. .. ""' __ tn·C". £. ..~.. 1~1·1 • ':.' ~'..." I.:..1~.A" .. . ...R E.~ rate It' will c'·'()mn~e't~'ly' recbaree ~ d. • •. 1- J ~ •• . ~ ....."I"EUIR· I~1.-_..' ZJ • cr- " .~ W resistor across the ...•.a.shut-nff point.. " '" .... " .".n ___e b att ".. . 270 . e:.""" ... .:_." .~1L~~.-.::iii I_: .JI ""'_~Yr---"'~""""" .. &. "_ .p. .K.' ]VI:· e· "I-w".i._ ... -.} . '10"")~ . .sener diode 'with 'I volt':~.-'. ----<). ch"" .m.l8~. _ ~ L. 1~1 G.RGEFI ~ ~ ' .·.I.rTER'Y' 'T'D. - ..I.. '~~-"h.A..'. sh "."edetermined .'""lr1~ I-:-: ·····1. '[Il" .. '7~ ·if all.. _.. !..lL6"""'''' '-""'J "' "-II:II':J" ..WW. 'L"E.

.~.''.AI and the reference zener.....ooo· VN"' .. 1"400'2 50~: I c.. ' owever.. source voltage by several volts for the 'VN64GAlo pass full load current". de .re tha one se.n : " the VN64GA to exceed its temperature ratings.2 .. .' ...d will". The output 'voltage is pulsating de..·· : -6'= G'-'A···· .:.. on the order of l'oC!w~ must be use d. Cl supplies error amplifier . Peak rectifier Dl . {)U.. . The response . va··it. 00"'. X -F/g~ '·5 .. ~ ." '" .... This extra drive voltage must exceed its..' e.". r: 4:' - •••. . ter CirCUIt prevents tne output'. CR_ CA3140 OR LM3Z4 - SIL ICO:NI. icause .5 ..e. r- ~..':6 . maintaining .." .. '....' 't··. which is quite satisfactory for battery charging ~To convert the system to a regulated de supply..1 itrol 0·' pera~on:dI ampd _er A·"1 Ullec_y·.f rom excee dlU1g" 4 5 A H. . :U. -. "tI"1 . 44. ··1.ISUUI t '.. ..'_. til' -.-..ves th..~ if'!rr't·1j. p ~. :Y·:· ditionf ren t .·. : . h' time' IS very' f-ase. cur. .1~V 4-A BATTERY CHAA'GER/POWER S'UPPLV 1M24.. u.: current .....'.-...' .age. ith. t . T'h 'N' '0"0 linu.0 ". .a Sh iortedd condition Jor mO..COD:ro·· WI the .' ." I"""~ -. A generous heatsink. capacitor C2 is increased and another electrolytic capacitor is added across the load.con·. . II ... VNMGA 110 YAC-3IVCT 0. deternune dI b the op amp. e· error S.

I·tN 'ADJ I'V- 'V 0 UT::"-~-!!!I!I ... R1 .r I INPUT LMJfl LM338. -" .At L...=: -0 5 V {R. 1-:' . ~' - D'1 to 50 mV gr. 3 '+ Ull \ \....... 6 ..OE... Adlust NAilONLAL .II _ . TH'E AM.. Fig. \. --- '1 10k -!IIIIiI ._ .. out a r'i Y 1111 pu N. 1-· .. . reco m me'rldedl ~'O f i'I t e r ~ t ran sienrs CU Hen t-..... 0'2..•. 1 + .!"er Vz than [)'2" .~ IS F IPEA K. '+Y~------~----------~------~~~--------~~~----------~-----2DD' 1ft. lM335. . "-6 CURRE.. r. .MITED 6.-ril. Z . \__.V C'HA'R..Charge terminates on SoC temperature.'-g.a.R LMJ11l ~ ..9 \I 'TO '30\1 ~-V-I"... 'U)tI'. ---- .. rise.-..e. Y' C:0 U P L E. .SEMI'CO!NDUCTOIR' 'IIIII!!!!!!II!! . .FA·ST CHARGER 15V .ATIONAL SEMICO'NDUCTQR' f.. Couple D'2: to batterv. ....LI. - o.F'OR NICAID BATTERJES.N~. Set s peak 'II' 'I' 1000 !.

-..-'m 'n a " . 1 SIIM.: . ' G'h' '.. T".' ..c·'.FI" 12V ._. . ..'.OIUF'I 1""'5· 'TO'· '!I'. 'm '.'""""-.... ... _ ~ ....." "d" "'E:01' . <I I. at tant '_' .': . t "L''ED.'N'Al 'T'bj..E.w~g~. .:n C "arge.. limit (about 14.. ... .'t' . pass a.' ·. S lO' 8J_JU. for an applied voltage range of 2 to 18 V. .-.' t .__'" '~.3 AMATEUR Mora in nickel-cadmium batteries. .. series 'up to the rated suppl y voltage._.'. ..'. W I·' ' " '.p wu~en.:JIIIV IN" 1"'Q"tI"'" _.e~ ..'. 1(JA '+" ..- 0-10'A.'..'S " .RV ZAPPE." . .... I . ~CUITen It lls.. "'1 ... curren.CAD . i....-'~ current of about 15 mA..l. I t II I I I I lED3' •I I ~ I:WVlb __ ---ii!!!!!iIIiiiii .. DOOR·BELL OR ' F1L X'FMR +.u. f.000 gF 16V 6~.R .'. PARALLEL CELLS L'EDi2 +v.. .. This circuit is used to clear internal.__ SW·1. They can be' paralleled to give any multiple ~l-...L. EL'E:"C'TFI'....' f _'."..'PLE NI.es .. '.V).::'.. To. _"" D.argmg. nt .'15" ':A' ..ey. '. ..iI A'T:IC'".ue . 3' 0'::' ~or··45: 'mA·':·· . li~"'b:iii. ·.shorts '7 .'LE':D:""" tho a. . .' .... .--..' uit -.a SIngle ceo ' ·t' 1"5'".. connect a 'NiCcad battery to the output and press 'the pushbutton for three seconds.ccQ. .. . --- -.BATT... . COnSL41I. ov .·C..".: ... ww .. curreD.' :. ClrCUl ·.. operate....-:-..'" 1I"ii'..:t. anu tho..'~'i . -'......IS'" . f_'" T-E~'nl. _ 'fl" -"..: 0_."" '..LED1 ~.'. ' .1'4V 7.h. .." to. .'"s circur uses cons'tao D:.g or cells in.-_' ....

:_-· eireuit '~r uy- se ttin the.'.. W' I. rk R····11 ...'... S. .: O.1"1 A . 'Y2W n '\ ~ 10" n '12 W ~.rt. _:. .resistor -'--: ir . suppreSSIon _..." ·~V ..''>2".' '.~ 1'1 TRANSfQ!A'MEA "i.. ". _c.. -': --~I-. V 5 " S'C. R3 D1 B1·'DI'RECTIONA." _'. "j- s' .-t"war.".-' ..~~ .all·....Jl..'050 1 DIODIE: . 0" . '1.. '~"" CRl FW BR'IOGE 'RECTIFIER.' 5-'0". .4 . S1. . A.. gate circuit to provide a threshold level for 'Dring the triac.. " 2. . . ! at)'.IL 'D'I) 'R::3" "1' .."~': . .t urn.. C3 and. 0-1-5A. ..--..... ~"... Ch~-' .CHARGE:R: M1 d AM'METE. '."Ff-..... 't 'C'.. 2.AMATEU.gn-" :e. ." ' '.on.J.:· _'. s.. n~. . . ne L..e . '11 i-l F: 200 V 0:3 13 . R' e··d .le~ -''. "_. .. "..' ...it is attached -""to a." A7'" !!iii .. OR ..1 ' 'E. . R4 provide a. ·V·.. ...R RAni 0 Fig.'...'. t-'0.'... curren.' .o!"Jn I €'u V .' < AU'TO'MATlC··SHUTOFF BATTERY CHAR'GER ~j 1. \"!tL~ " ..' 21'5~....'" .j " ". batterv. ·-.. _ . .. ·i ." _.... . Ad. I' '.. R..rcnt t..i--o-iiiiiiiii 10' .L.... [oau.1 'R2"~.' .10 ..1"lS seiec t..~.'". maxImum. C".-..< .' ial bei .' .-.~or -".' 8. (l' "_ while _'. .·a$e-s [WL.. . .I!.. " ~.g applied t·0 t· h e ga!.. a. fullv' charged. a ""h'·. -' th ". .A'. th·· .: ~ "./l-r ""00·· . _ "Q- ~A..IR 'r fll ss..'. F ..A diac is used in the...F......~!'k t-ra'nsie nt.. limit" it ne .... . ' i. 25A 1OUt p'V POLY PAK8 92GU'123'4 TRI T'A'IA·C·· 1." zid e p .'.ll1. "ww ·J:·u·· ...Z. 8A 200 PRV R" 276-'1 01 s.. '.WOr:'k-: f.0 vee 60 Hz ~' 'if.b _. d .arglng Ii ~ ." ." Cil 0'..BATT'ERY . . .'.'. .. .t'· tbj.' ..-0 '.+:-.K R2 'POT 220. .. ·t.'-..e...'"". .: t .'...::.' .'.'~·_. --~ '~~-'~'. • - .proVl _.

EN'T THROUGH SGR.. as determined 'by the value of R4. l~MrT' CUR"~..."...4'Of 4.8 k.20F' " .)': ' .MS . 2N:816. n UTe.5 TURN'·S '~~2 CORlE = F E..R' 5~'1 :K T1i ~ PRIMARY =: 30 TURNS '~:2.MPS FclMS MOTOROLA . the charging SCR shuts off. C2.'iA... and a trickle charge. CO:"'..AY = 4.'AX.. R6 . C2.· . Ii7/iE. VOLTS: "'C.. battery voltage reaches its fully charged level.2 SECONDA.1'0I-lMS t2W:] R2' • '..6J CR~· R4.' II( GE~ 'The circuit is capable o:fcharging a 12-V battery at up.. 50.. .'. . ''II.. Other voltages and currents.. ~~2 + IW II V ..11 F I.R RO XCUB'E 2o:i F . to "a six ampere rate._ .w'~ .N-'""TR':O'L (2":0:A rms M··· ..~8 " ·3C:3 R" ' SERIES - ReS~STANCE TO. from 6 to 600'V and up to aoo A..: . When the.' OR G E C12'2F 'C.. MR t 121 (4) A~ 6. continues to flow . 2N61'61' .Ai ~E Ai4A tit 7' (>H.BATTERV-CH..ARGING REGULATOR RI Ill." . ~'s'efU .GE.1 . can be accommodated 'by suitable COPlPQn~'nt selection. 12-V BATT'ERY~CHAR(JER ~ . GIE 'A. V A MS' ~AX !3ATTERY' 1"2' V --=- (60 HI') Z1 1 N4":35 CE 0..7:' IS' .rrno . II .RATED Al 2{).

..'. rate ""'f~'12""'O"'Hz:'· 'T"'"'h'-' deesign provie es ._.·t' . th.s.'.'."argtng C..to0.a .'1 A' ... twiy a •.' per ce a...!. (8 A average) ~ 10.-.4 'V per cell ~in accordance with most manufacturers ~ ~.cu rentt limiting . "" bon r:2L .. .' '0' Old .. '("6'"'.. ."". ... . ' Oromen _:c.11:' 9....e:S·" the b "e'*'i' JL"t:"i"~ V·'-' ce. .l..5 kfl: '0 .STIRUME.t ·lm"l~'.~".. 1:. .". tt nl' 'un:"''..ampere-"._L .current hrmt\ -':Ltne ctremtit 'Will""...." "'re"" W. ·.A R2 2.'..x.reqwres a cu:argm~lcurre'n" t gre.... .~'.ng 0...lli1i_10ns _.'··f:. Va (I..BATTER._n.UUU limiting the.'e· b ._ "5 V· TL431 - TEXAS I'N. "-.22'7 RCl -sOW S'I ."v..PA'mm"'' ' ' ' ein'' ..:'t: O'"-=_~":~:"C~ orote ." : ...n:·..."'e rne : . charging current of 11 .'.t' .~ '~.. maximum rec:-"nended C:.~ I" 'h'nn 1oa dreoui •.. the maximum charging current.· -.. .~ .t.0."' itterv rOo ~ ... for an aeerage 44 ampere-hour battery is 11 Ai If the impedance of the '1. . T·'h··· C~IrCW...._s. charging tate to prevent damaging' severely discharged lead:."er th:an th 1.to . "..tj.J..voltage of 2..S. te chareer's mtema .ea. ients rhil .' t .'TL4J.. "h".£i.·.."e circuit p.1.~.. Forexam ple.j....·. .01"' der ehareewith 1JiJ A ..." ehana acurrent ." 1.. "ery..' __ -e- r: 0: '" to.~"..~" ~... The charger is based on a charging. .. .'.~.....f: .:.a....a curre. protect the cnarger s . .'.. . go..~.V CHARGER: D1 1N:1'183 + D2 1Nl1BJ ' : FIB 200 n 01' 'T1P6142 Z2 " ' " .'m't'...u.... ""..W...""-'.our .. 't""·'l"· ._e The amplitude of the charging pulses' is controlled to maintaina maximum peak...":¥ .. -.isnormall -aboutone-fourth ." ..JL...' ·····11)": '".add batteries ~The."..A ".......~' V.-. ..-ON/OF'F: ..I6"i •.ft..1. "S"A'T'T :-"'-.'..a~~.ITCH Ft1 O-B."aI'" components wn.NT8 Fig. 1~"4 ~..

..··-"...ARG'ER II 18'1 l'.UNIVERSAL BATTE'RV ICH.'7 .' U C~.'. As the. . d the .. or a number of series-connected cells up to a maximum of 18..'" . : . Gan c.ara t " ..In ' .: RS! 5K I . " .. diIn. . arge a smg :'1e cell ~ i " ·" . L ..P. qrcm. 2' fI'5 .9 sets the output-voltage level" A.. ': . charging voltage across the.-'. ""... 03 .:': . and has. ..urmng .. .b: ._ .'. . U::'" 'U4 lMJll UiK + .~. current-sampling resistor. .." ith m. L~i h tne VQ.. C" rar.. .. ' ~C'"' . of U'3'_ de .set by adjusting . ..3 .1 n C4 "..~ --""cor ou t'. ZN3D!ii!i ': •.2·:6. '. '. ": oin.RIO for the desired current.l-n'.' 'h'.• t .. The voltage' developed across R~ is fed to.. The circuit's output voltage R""9 1S set: .g pm 5-. .'. an.PI V III 2H315!1 PLI " H7VAC-- I I C ....c: "-'ff" . An LM317 adjustable 'voltage regulator supplies the drive signal to the bases of power transistors Q1 and Q2 . I I I '02..2. ". one input of comparator va. T·h· e. .47 ADJ.e .' 'b' ck 0 -. 4... The charging current can be.use . (I 100 mV output ts developed across it. The other input of the comparator is.~ 5-W unit). Q·'3··· a. 1 o. L~~ ..1:. .".: I "":' .' ~.. . WI ._ 'I """" I . ..' ."..:: t .. necrease ~~ an·" _e cornp." ~ '.. the current through R8 decreases. '. ls connected between the negative output lead and circuit ground. ... .ldlgLng '..•..ger '..':.•.r.. adjustable and regulated.7K ..':>:' .lee . The charger's output voltage •.battery begins ·to 'drop.~.~ 11CI n LMl' J AIJJ R£G. RS (3 O. ·~.. .· ·0 . ~".' 1111 .A ... . .. Potentiometer R. control the battery charger's out . .'i. ea§iY t'. Flii!G ...c"'.G.. :. Theil ...·ULAT'UI A-VOLT 1101 1J2 R6 1 'IJ n I C3 '.:.'... adjustable constant-current s ".OPULAR ELECTRON'ICS.ta· "/ .connected to variable resistor RIO..pu t 'f'"0 'n° OWS +. 13 ... III 0 1____ <" :: . t ak .RB. 213804 I . put voltage and charge-current rate.....' . it th am". by" 11' .. For each amp of' charging current that flows through .es 1. ·V~ Power transistors Ql and 02 are connected as series regulators to. Il.. ...~A "---"""1 H l-6A r--' ~ ~ _. r-=-----I!'C:.lLC.." W1lI. completes the signal's circular path to regulate the battery's charging current. boo t t· enes. ':"..os t ·N"··" d . . ge.

.~ .."._.•.. . t. 't . _.ft.-AID :WJJ-16' '-1-.AL BArrERY C:HAAGEFI IN_.." from_" the 'vol't.A'Y...uu....S.. th··.b .'::~~< m the voltage:.~.I~~' '" OD. CIlCW'~t.. ..U~8E20. 1(il' 1!'U~...(iff.eD.. ase mode Wh··· 4.~ .. hyuy m-"' tlIU'~!II ..20 AMiPS rm~.'ow ~~.1" L . 60.. .. m TUfV~:s. _"_. .: .• ....~ "' .S: . .I.' . ~_"__ -"'_' .\.ll~ '..1CIll·~·t. ' ..l.E-"D-...P POINT.' l~" ..' ~ ... n·o ~ ~ Tb"'1 ··.. . ..I: .- .~~. C:'E.. mto the co.... ...···:h·. 'd a P'ltb 'to ground through RS ~' wh'·" I R5 _.._. T ~ ..:_ . .I~· battery voltage controls the charger and when the battery is :fWly charged._I .I '_ .~~.:.'"'_ .r l61: ·:lCl ~ RS .~ '_'" "~b~'~-'iIi sinca..iii'-! . -~ -~}' .._ .' . d :' : . . '.r" . -some" nnmil.r~" ~ ~iH ![U.IUS Inwcat~s... .. U. F£RROXC.._ . LJd.. aloe" .. 'I' ii i -~ - ··...': mode: llu'L. I J' of: " 'Q .. ~I! 12 .: 1.SE'R I.--.IS .. ..~ . arcw. tery has attained j.·".....1 I ..'b-· e .3 .."'1 t .·:estee. m MeAlS'S . er I'"~1II5\D. LE·D1....-"..L.!"--.':". I" the ':" . t ':t.-. V'I:Lm1-.:L. 't A ~SETS TFU.. e· . [J .re .Ddue'tinl~ state by' the UJT .' 'th' ' "'R 'Wh"..en.'n -L'E'~"'."" . 'UJT" '~S. . . the charge':r' 'VrOJ not' supply current to 'the batters The batterv ·c-:b. 'so there.4 k '1'004. through the LED' and the S-·_·· w_.'r~ ....'_·.-'I':u. . .. The oscillator is DIlly' activated when the: L .. _ ~'_ '01!.~' ·"_. . . UNI'VERS. to e·· d'~ ..'":....I ._..~h'~·'l.". .~. . " mg' .· ~C'":'R~---' ."l~' ·lb·.~. unless the battery to be charzed. ...CON:OArty ~.. 'I!_~'.9 :." I . '.' _. - "if.1lS .. 'f_' .!Jae of' the ba.. ..·.ifi..'ery VOI.". Th~ LM317 is connected to the battery through steer. UM1I!T CUAAE NT' n~RCUGHI SCR MC~ 2818·3 I'S RA:TEIj. ·45 'ru~ "'. _.· .:IItJP. .~n~i. .i!:!i..l .. .. I - '1")' ."u:cct". .. '" )i"FI: '"".. S·'··"C'·-·turns on" I' ._ "...~:~s."' .&\. 1 Then....: ~ .•.'.' . " ~'..[]. at .·~"t":ary~' to be charzed . 1 "av j CELl. ~ •... .L"" -':e b -."..tifill~:in tb n1t".regulatmg r .t . :'~ '.. -".LM317 acts as a current regulator.. ."~ .....~ -~' ..1AS.ier~ 'lIn.'~ _.. . ..c<_. '·b--··'t· d th··"" "-...I. higb~ --. .~ o~'n:~':".. .'e " _ · ~ ~-. SC"R' '""ill no_ c·on. .:w_ -··t-' ._'Ii pmvl:id'es "t cusa '. f..p.ts desired charze '~'C set ~I'. ..Ln-ftIj'li.' ""... . ts . " .. !!!! 'Ud . '__ " -l-~6'¥ J ~~~er ~e~Zl..!!!I--' .'.. is no bias-current .'".t potentiome I ter rises ~ and :. VOLT~.-_ tto· the elrCuit .UJe:.Ult th .... _ ...D-"'_:_ IS On.t ...'.'II\O'·'j-'t'.". R·· .. . ·'re· . . . As the battery t .'_ V'SpOt. when It' IS triggered .1.U -" "-'i "U".'..LQ6 .~ :~' ".:.the m~ ~a.G'E' .-(:·.~CE 'TO.~'.LJ.derived .IJUl ~'"c- . DC INPUT .~ I I '.C' 'R" ·h-·-~.."T R ~': 1~ >:. ..:nroug._.-C-' ~.appue. voJtarae across t?in~nn'm""-.:Bt '0".0: ... .% 1 k j . :.~~:F lR1P~ POINT o::iz . i t Y _'W. rent ..-" ..':en power IS . .S·eRl."~s '0..ll.'" 1 'T}.' IS -. is connected with proper 'nn~"'-!hJ' The .- II o.'_l. Whe'n 'V~exceeds . 22 ... . ' ... .e 0:"1 WIUIiDg resistor RI and...'WI . .&:---.PAIMlAAV =. . n .'t2 PEJR CELL f~.' Ii. bias resistor ' .." :. . ~.ne o··-f":t._"""' .relaxation oscillator.'..2 ( N'S CORE. I.erS removed from tb~ circuit.: :' P_OW.n.E.....uf! .AO·-fii. the.. - h" _. ..~... '.~ln'1ri""rI!C·" urrent .:'.'.di d .'.DQ u... 'hig.nng diode prevents the battery' from di~~h!'!.. thus.. " " ". co.- "'R5.•. current from the regulator can flow to ground ~ so 'the re~:·l:~tor ow ftmc.~.".."' 'IS . .1 . ..'Ii.'. 5WD _.::_". 'P'" .e iCUl'm .. .... .i' ..~~' the ~and !. t . eo' .·Lllf . ...ES REStS" A."t''-:~'''t' t~um""-...~:::" 'This circuit will not work. nath arnlt~"·n· ".. .~L..cbal<wes the._. "~ lli.c.-...'_ '_:~ _.

R (FOR._ II AU._.:..NT-LIMI'TED CHAR:GE.:/_.UG 4?'CHM 1WATl' Ell 'D 1_.23C· . LM1.S'-' DA-rrERty' . D--._.I! CONSTANT~'VO'LTAG_E C'UR:RE.. -N"!" 'I'e:'A'D'-' gf1.E: UGH TEA RAPID '1·2COHM "I - CHARGE. ~ .. EiI! IEl!. -. I IC..A. _:I .'. r:OAUfO CI'G.' FO--"R--' : '. j._ . _.·.V' sealed lead acid batteries.O~ C:l A1 lRI .AS C2 Fig·. ' . _._.'i..'. -. REGULAR '12 Cti:M' .O wAn .. PAC---'it(. .-: . VR " .23C' V'OLTA'GE REGU'LATQ. .-'.. e= 'T't I01..' .. '. " ._) A1 D2 . "-20 '13 . ... L E.R ic LM7.A3 ~c :Pi4.11 II :.-i - j' ! Fer '12.AV' . VR 'VUASA BATTE._~'.n...2.Ct·tAR.ARe.'.O'K"~ ..TO""MO'-'TIIV'-'E' c'HA·"RG··'ER-· '.'MAX. l~l. 12V de OUT:PUT O~4'2A._ "' __ __:J. '10 11--"'-"--'" _.OE 1WAl'T " ..

rill.... -._". '.gI:.I.tJD& DIJ' rzw IS .. ":II"io-i'.' 'b a CD4'.u... II "'.:0":'"...en...~ c·D~SIl'l 1/f41:._.'~ '.. ' Ii 1.I its '..-. r '. cu IT're 0 +0" S..'.... .11' _ IC I ..S'06' '. .. Jl..reSlS'tcor.en-"~' with ~"'... "-iIi"'4~U ba ttery hold .SCm3torJpr-O.1".".&J 0. ~I~ RtJJ I'N'I'I J J D1' (J8 INII .'d·" '.~J_Ullli l' [ I.~06: -~'" e:' " '-.... ~."1'.. ..'h"e-.omp et eli Wh'.$L .t. 'I.~'". b".. . ! .ng..soc.. ..\... P ~JL~'iIi th' ~.. ls ." e'' d .' n'~dc'ers~ l~ nnp.~1 PL.':_:~i't]~":li't'-..Ol'"er "'..:D. I I': I £!. 'pa:t. ch . .lo'-'f" e" batt".../ l/2W R5 /oo a: r oo a: ~~W R~6 o: V:zw " R"1"'" " D8" ro.tlmma:"lw. - ...e. '.!~... ~.n e... ~ .' 'h ' the a.W /oo ~'tf a: If? ~ 7"~~ ._u. . #I . ZC2. tran _. to Q' '1. I'C. It is used to supply the 50~mA lii'a"'~ .RADIO-ELECTRONICS An :LM317 voltage regulator is configured as a.'.Hh tne Th 1. =-4~______.''''''g': power h:i applie d to the circuit. ......J' "'1.3 .~L c.t" -::. /oo v~~ I 0'0 Il I/~..- .~.l!1 I' "". " [ 1I.nlgc.e' by:. oe .-. " ..1FiI1 ltIlIill ~. t"" ~ ..-"e· 'LE"'D'" : '~'.06 ~.. K!""" ~.:.I. . : e output 0 f:':.tu.-=--~--~~-~-~-_.iI..R I r ~ '14 .b 1'._' lanu I."oS . ::£!! ~ ..' fi.J. t"h".:(~~-v~ ~ -" . " •• ~".1-V zener diode.. _:. '.._"'). _.~. .....e ti l. C-h ~'~.J.A'." as.. __ I~t~ ~ll..'"" "en"._~~ i.I(" R..'0.. I: 1 1 01 'D" -..I'.u..hi. '.IS Q..' glows during charging" Each 'battery holder/LED combination is 'paralleled bY'a 5.._ 1' ... .1' .unt'"..iiiI!IftA.' '10°'" hl !LJ '.:iI ..u" an'"d' " 't"'h.S.constant-current SOUf:Ce .~-'.conl.'.~' IN4.r l~ OUt an"-. Crrc.'m'> Wh en that outPlt t 15..' " ". .'..e anSI.' .. ' . .~" 't·-· sist'."S3 .VERSATILE BATTE. IN l/!L W: .."_i.' .." . att :'e'rt.. the. LM3." ..'h". '.!·'.-"..~ _"" l~ . . ".. .~"2. ' .".·0..'.'W"..unS g. II. vN61"/= D .t .:" iiJ! ft" U'PW ..': O"l-..'. -.-U\rU.' ~ J .IJ1.. argmg ~'.LE" ~'." I'Nf.. '" SO.l. c.'...." iiit"e' 'd. th e OU_PU.CHARGER .C'AI O... - - .D:d.: ..7. ery .. s.~ ~ IIU 'I _' ~~ ." ·'S·' at' ble tuner." IUd. ch .'I1 IN'f 001.S.an < D' " .:'. 'b-' tte ."'.'r" AA:-.. -th. '. . .. cT'i ''C If- -11:11.+.R'y ..." ·~-l'.. ' .._.d' A imin circuit prevents ove rchargin~-:-a 'W':." i.-'-1' ' 'S sh ' ".I'~ '. . II.".J o« ...or .>IC"2'I~SlieU. -II! U_LI . H the battery' 'bolder is empty. tho... zener conducts the current around the holder.'./.' nnl -d'! .? y~ It' /?'/O /OOfi. IIIt. to gJO'UD d '~S':mte rrupte d.'.010 IN¥'143 r""'J1 .. '".'~ LU~A ".rans].

GEL C·E.: . __ "" '_"'._l:__.. to 12"'mA'~:" • ~...) ._ fror 2' 4. .::"'. + ~: .R Charge 2'20 11(20 W) -OS'S C 1.5'111. _:' __ 1_... ".Ah 2'70.e .·.t.E.i. I ~ 2~--~~~--1-~~ I Fig l' -..' ..._ Be·twe.' [~~" ill I . / '. '. I' ".. . ' . '._ ' .·2.'d auto~. 6\1' 1. s I ··· .. " ..': ".' ... m damagin g" switch c. ">.ZAP'. _ ..P. _l.-.en . _.:. '..'.. CU'irrent fr'0. i ......".23 The short in a NiCad battery .'.....: ~VTI' !..I..a... + 20..: c : _ J... NE5i~5v UI .. ----01·4 .'~~ ~ .~ .&1 R2' S~ :' '115:n ill!'!.. . J~'.. '.W~!~·I. .._ .~----.' -' . '. .-... ~ _' :. .'. ' te afl rom rna·tic any switc he s:·· a·" oat condmon "._ ... .. -. R'S : ~'% .' . -'. .. V 1'0 60 V de '.' detects a ._. JI!!I " 15 . ...Fig".. R'S .U. full' ch . .. N':'C' ·.:' .. can be ~'burned off" with this zapper Use o.... .'-.. .··d·· to be zapped eo '12._~ .'.. s This circuit d ."'''a...---. . .. .. to di· ..'.. . . .. ~···argetate an. .000' "F V (mln..:.:' ". .. .' .' ..D BATTERY .• . ntac ·t·s·· ... ~'.22 if NI'CA.. .+ .fthe SCR keeps heavy dis.0. [ _ ~.o:· •.-"'Il :'I40k I~ fii"'_".. ..'J" :._'.

+-----~. I .·C... _\..' I ·'SINGLE........... ... 'The circuit uses a thermocouple for this function..'" 1000 .1 '-.. 3 I' . A...'.IN·EAR TECHNOLO(..... The values given in... use a 1: I isolation transformer...I"'""l....----.2.. . -------~3k I·2N6387 .:NUl 'U'ift.rt-."5V !'~~~""'''tN t"f ...V' CORP: ARE.. .......~ O~_L~~_L~~-L~~ " _......._.\...~~ + 180 o 30 60 90 150 ""'UTES Fig. 1500 .. C106V' -+ .. to about 5·0.+-----+--~'----+----+-___.j. The amplifier. CAO battery _. ....I""'I!....--1VV'l.--+--+---4 - 5. Idl :2 1N4006 -0.... .. =-IF--+--+--II . For safe operation.......... -w----t ~~ ' "". negaa live voltage (1°C difference between the thermocouples equals 40 pV) becomes larger. -.' -+--+-+--~I-----+""='4-----+.. I i.....____. ~~f----. :~ ZOO' ~r-=+---+-'i' ---+---+-----+---t'...f_ . ----.......... Q.. t the amplifier's positive input... gain of 43-00.._.il' I 100 too ~ 1-' -+--+-+--~.....r'---...ER ~~ ~~~'....... ~--t---J. gradually reduces the current through the battery to maintain its inputs at balance...'.V I ~C·.. The battery charges at a high rate until heating occurs and the circuit then tapers the charge...I '100 .. L_ .. 1.g.' .... As battery temperature rises.... ""__' ... 1-25 This zapper clears internal shorts in nickel-cadmium batteries by 'burning them away.....520k ... .IF 200 V 1 kD WILLIAM SHEETS' FI.-+--t----r-"""'t--flllr-+---II--+--+--+---1 •.. operating at . thermocouple nulls out the effects of ambient temperature.!-' -+-""__+---. CAUTION': The negative battery terminal is conne cted tc on e side of the acline.CH RDME~ -ALUM E L (TYPE ... ... ~ .. 120 .24' One 'way..--.===+=.... NI'CAD BATTERY' ZAPPER.. 400 t--t~--+-+--+---Io[\""" ...--+--+--rr.......----+1 --+--+-... ·800 'I ..' NE·2 100 "....... +-~~~ ::ru\I.....1 -----+-~=+-----+--= 1... POI'NT GROUN D' THERMOCO\j'PlES t 40...--+-+---+-'-~~+------4 ~~---+---+---+=-""'_""""'_+-"""""--+---+---I ~I'==-+~---+---+--+l. 'ifj....."""'.....i~.' '. this small.--1o----.. II 8._.....\ -+--t-----~Io--+---I---+-__1 . .. which appears ..t 't. 't-=--i..............9' k ..... if---- 1HMJ <\.t-___.... 1001~-+~~~~~~~-..to charge Nl'C'ad batteries rapidly 'without abuse is to measure cell temperature and taper the charge 'accordingly...- Ni·... ......f.. the circuit limit the battery-surface temperature rise over ambient.I!""""""""P----r___"..tq L.'. 1200 ... The temperature difference between the two thermocouples determines the voltage.00 t--II--+--+-+--+.. THE:RMALLY CONT:AOLLED NICAD CHARG.. second.....

·t ~y .:".IllS means .-""'" - I .' ~.V 1N5240 10 V· C1 0.. .... 'With 115: 'V' .. I I • . amid S ..d~lIe.... ~n. ~ .1 . "..C· ' LU.~_·e'. ' '. tc cnargeeb a. . dvantaze: :' ww not . - - _.. I I .. . ~'" . ....hort-cireui .'..:. . W. se s the pe... lta 1.• ~e:.·· VO aae ..n"'O"f"'WUJ..:.. "t' -proof ·'a···tt·1. '_".. ".0. h ets . '.:I'L. '~..' .• .. . ''''''''..~.. be .LSge. '.p' ··U·T'': reiaxanon.. OSCWd:Or.·'i"'fl'i· ".L~'...' . . .:"1 cr arges to th..0 ·. reached.". a.. .'1 :-'>.e VOl .1 provides "-m..·U . J:_' curnmg .' 14".:' e . '. _. . ". .vaJl..- . -...'~'..... th :18 1.~.' ""~'" I-C' ..' -. . ..11' ·..:~ a""h':::l-'rmna !...slizhtl Y·..bL""t"u:..: 'V'".LLi&..._.:.'... -... ....' is properly attached 'The batterv ]'..Jj..at the input. ..' JI.... tms S(IR A IR4 " K: 50K .elY..~'p' .· .:: ~·o&. oscillator from oscillating and cht. T2 o 'b' . _i 1I...t. _~.c '-.. _..app"li~ ···'hjj.···d.. I .. 0 ... ·..' set'".. . ImJ. '. ~:~ '...rl. I '. .... ...' ... . on." c. "...h -". . ·.·al to lYll.'26" .PUT BATTERY CHARGE'R T111 115 V ...'. J . .. - ." rhi -h' ._ ~'.. '. ".:." ··T····xu es 't" __.'..." '.~ Q' ... . avernoe·. " "'. . _ •.' 0"1' an·... curren t. be ~6 ..ter oltaget ure e ..3-: .:~ge 0-·f · .u.11 ' le·8 Cl~Ku.lUJ.'. pOID vO.. zener voltagte of Dt is. d :": .cto the b.h eo'·· ··. A Ul.h . .. '..P:··'UT.L6 curren t ·f' aU . .h·. ·...:...·t·:h·····P'..l:iPng .3:.. '-'. 't'.:..·· "...".. C..-0 s~ ..PUT~ 'L. _. ..I" useu mtne. The maximum batterv voltase . '. ....'.e . _" '_~~ . set '..·~. ". t_ '.!l...." .r:n 'lit".. .CU\ pomt n ng. T..·t·· "....C" :-'J' 1 17 . '.l~~·····.1" "or..·t·t'.T. I. _ }1. '...' .~....". ..:.'. .' 8''"A"~'*" a ·12''··'. prevents the PUT b _ . ~ ..'.h. '" . '"_ .' . 'u:rL.' '.'..._...r.Dl + ~ '12'.'·· .. : . J" ".. '1 '1Z'.. ·..< ...o.•J2 3( : battery' charges. -'._ " J.'" ·eJDg se.. '10'"'.~.*.g. ..' ..' . ooint firina '''It:!1ilT ofth '1'.. "will' ~.0 tne ..: .. fro..... an'. .'.."'· stc '..1 ~F .')J.' ""... .I..Increases . .'.. a '·d\..: '.. ~'_' _ .\t .. ~ 5 6 TrME' (HRl 4' <"'~' 7 a --- ~2: r'· .circuit has an . vo.. ". -. '. LUV ..~... " '.~ . ... V'.s . ~O .l..' c . until the. 'which clamp-s the voltaze_ on ci and thus ¥. . m .~n capacr".' ..Ii .'[." ..' . me . the' current to chame the ""y":'" _._ ....t:= .....'.·'1 '..' . . . .' '. ..'.. ... the upper.. !'iir-."""..". . th. u '.'" .I' l·. - - )f~ . .et w:hiu:..' . m. .2 .UOl:U1'.. I J..'. .. ". ~-' damaged by improperly connecting the hatte:ry to the circuit....0 • "_' _..~' :tuy.U':T:'c':Thevoltag."".. ~.'~ R2 -----~ .. ' the circtrr s ho '...."t "1'10:":11 OQ: function ::.:" _ "-. ' th" P'U' .f.~e .._.. "~.e 'pr" U·''.... peas . I' .. • - l' .:~ '..'. the batteryvoltage Increases slightly' which increase'S the peak point voltage of: the ..... A-· 5.1...U.. '.lower limit b " ..(J eeases .·.Y " • ··:·... ."\. tI' :.. on..th t 'Clh ""as.e-n...or.'" " __ " ..... the circuit commences tofunction when the battery' '.+--..': V"·' 0 l'4' ...Q. I'__ ' . :T"'l' · '::" · ..' .·LJ ".II..' 'th -C'~' argmg vonage cane set '.. 'I ...'!iII o'·_· __ •.""'". 'PUT ..t:h ' .I I.".t ". 'C"'I' .:.V·' .J~...·.0. .~'-. :~.. .iotentiometer 1(2' 'is' _ 1.u.··R·i..' . _ea . e ircuit own.:lrmn..i "....""." .orage' 'Ib:' ·It't'·"eryll "T'he charzer '..' '!~ '.'. " 'n charzer provide e.. :C'C . .81-" "..:..: ....... C o~'.:--. ..1 . b~Y·_...

.' . rise...~j . .1 ._ .36awg~ 1 .~-.. ..":.4.40T L •• " Wi W._... ....: _ .-.. .Cllles thie Juneition ' ...'. -.. "e.' " '.transfo rm e r Tl This reesults in a sud den JJ.biasing diode Dl to provide I .'. . hard . IS not conducting .' ..wg·. 'f'th" "-.... .'.I .. . . the co.order W2'f W4~ W'3 then .c..: .·'" ~~:n .. I TI I).w' . :08.. ZETEX (mrme'rly FERRANTI) This circuit was designed to charge NiCad battery packs.. oltaz '. ano c 3:' Ii'. " . d an"d-.9..'~_" ".. \. _'. _ . 1oop gam 0' e circurt ....'J" .transistor on" a magnetizing current b ild up '.o. i _'. fee db ack given UJ the coupling of W'.WOr.. :rbf' la. .. I' •• ' '.!I -' -:~ '. until. - - -... __'_.. .. ." ~.: ... apptymg 'th sun SUPpiYacross 'W"2" T'hne. . 'T' "Rl' -.j~I~ '. .-.". ]'..:_.i! "-'I.: " ..~.-" . .a_ C. RoO'3"1 .Ii I._1 . transistor TRI This force' S'·' a"volt. '... bui ~'S ln"...' an.". ... 2 S'li 1 l~OjIJf .'..2T' 36awg. - ". ....R [Fn U""I.' - •.. ._. --..BATT'E'RY CHARGE.. •• ....-1.·... - U:! . '. _ ....4."' .d uced acrosawr 'm. . -..C'' '21 main ts ". .. _... .. '-.._ ':.~r of O.. on..'.It: d --"I' d..•• . :.' t causing its..ase. : :.PORTAB. th e.2 Winding. Vlhen power is first applied to the circuit. . . i i. r.':.:. . ..' ~~ . _ .."..1'.h .'b-" d"'nve vonage ttl. 'to mg. :. in the range of . U'QJ1'h1 .:." . ase on' ._-" . __.1.1:.' -... ransient.restricted bJy' transformer output 1 d . ' ........ the..:.' ·'If- -_ - I .." l . and thus reducing the' 'voltage.:~. . .l. ~"f"'. . forward . . . '. across W2" The current flowing · W'" torces tne COlU' "lL. such 3:$. current' supplied:' bv Rlvia winding 'WII :r'~ starts ".. .'W····'·2··' ..3 Wl 20T "3T .2 W4 W'.. ' ._ . W b en wo:'·:e ''D.." '.LE..I • 1 1 - ~.:..... to tum on... _ Ci.OBmm Former OT'2.. .'·'·':l". R'xc ne.30a.lllS COlre C] ~100'Pf F X·.." age across W·'2' an·'"'"the P":OS' ..IL. . -.:." -'.ETA. automobile: battery. •• _. '!':ti"'v".. N:ICAD .. d am..". e ternte WIith thetrans core 0'·"f.. _.343 7" 'W~l'~h Oap/Spla. a small ) bias'._. .1..3I ._.WI..'." ." . d C': ' _' the turn till 'u't·" z ' ." cau ses the transisto r to tum" ....:' 'hi'~c. twork R' 4" .. ... '_. ~ m'> 2 ~ ector voltage 0' the T'RI.30awg~ . .. '" W"':'l. '.' r th ne cessarv bas e current to hold TRI on · n . collector -emitter 'voltage to.' . .:an. ":_. _~~['--: .'6 V from a convewent remote power source. 18 ._. ..to swmg PO'SlDve.•.": J.y __ '. oft I:. .~) ..i"'U !lr~lr V\.8'to 15.~ Ui· .' ~'._: Ii " '.' - .~ U4([ j te :: '.' ' . .'.Qj. ~ ': r . 'W"'2'I' 'W~: b eventually saturates th~ ferri · .:."'. : .~rm t stne t --.._ ~ " _.___:_. Hector:' current flo'wm'g" through T''R"'Iincre _ -__:___ .' between Rl and R2 become negative with respect to the 0-V supply.. '~'!!' 1.. to" '.

-..' _'..'.... c I of.t .. .: ..rn .....r'I'!Io (AC ADAPlE R) . ..1' s.. I!.'.' tb'·e: p'-a C ' ar'e" at an ..'h.. ' own "'" . ".:.~ ..•. -:. .: _.•. 1M :::! iilO X !Ii} iiO .va·l IAge·.-'._~ ' ' . ••• .-..:. .'.1...loW) D.:::J_ '_ .dJ! j _ !!II" •• .... _.I ENlERGY LIMITED .(: .cnargmg .C... ".'. AA' '·~D.. + • :I~E'L •• --- s IBA'ITERV PACK(S) A8 Rl'l' MC'L...... iI." _'..~ ~2 .. mu n-ee ' cen.. '.-w... __ ..' "h .•.. _. .." .bled ..em. __ ..:' -:k " ~" '. . IR1: .harzi ...' ass.' . -I' .. R7' 3 ).. > [n.·-:Ll _ .. :i ._.. c.l -en t.:'. ! ......." . .J' r: .. IK ) ~K5 -e: OUlPtJ·T (OPT I ONA..h. '. .b· .I.. -6':0': It_. ~]I.ore c.. ".e.'h... ...'.~ .' .... battery packs of 2 to 6 series-connected ceo Ie or series/parallel arranzements It is essential that all cells .: t '. .. . at W h·ucr pomtt the CJlUU~..e ust b e.·r··' .' . "" .. :. ine. . . ..' . ~. _'---.. . ...- ::(j...101' " lti-c -'Il mt .e in .'". be·· J.ne -.l .'!! . termma te d T"h·'.-·-IIIi.. lJ~ "ll u.b. FHO Q . system S.'... '-. '.Ct:lARG:lNG VOL.l_ _' ... .." ___:~ '. .'. ".".'. "h" .... ' ...L) ..1'.".. _:'. '0' ['.".. l. .. ~ "'). \ .. leal state 3rglDgil '. . cut -off-:vo 'iifra'g:" is 15. ..."l'l"Vll'··' " : _'':_ .-.( ~ .....e. e V.." '. .I!..A~ 'T'I. 6 V' (6)C' 2 6·'< ').'cut off vo ltage of2-4 V per -"'~. !L:. ".g. c· '. .:I: a. _ •..TAGIE' (_ ~'Ibll b.. ..1. ADJ 1 .. . . r.>' RI ? Ff9 I Fuse a 12 s Iii . \ "...··· cells to a.'.' ".·.. -_ I •• :' Lll ·."d"" . Charzina j~ accomplished with a"constan nt current 'l... ' ..II. .. :1- '_'" ". 1:'1 2"S' ..I! ..of..' .J 6.. . . e". .Il -..~ ...1. ea. IS oesignetd' ./ T'h" ·maxmUlm upper . ".(U·.

I '~ .' "..::!: '.U E.x:~p:t" ~ w'~ef').' I • ..~ '....!iUJ:1I\.. 2'1'6'~ 2011' 1C."i:. ~. ~!l. -"1 .'~.: _. -:-_-.' . .PK.L N.1. .t~~D ~ ..:§: I-Pin ~- a~~--------------~ 'I'~' J " " ~"~". D < "". LED " .'IDiC'" ...." ..: .Wi t ~ >OiN:·. -)i!.'Lie 'l~5fl . !i'l~'rk~d.JIr 2 I!"!i. . R. D- 'D' ~~'T__r~. ~ 2 ..' A'~.~ i:~s"lto~s w.-=~ ~:~.ulhblolin~'rI t:i" '.'.. .&2 SP. ''!rR'...~' i'~ a'an ~ sae ..I~:'E~ .-~'506'".~ T1~ !.../I·". b." .' ' 47:0 . la-F ~ c R' 1".. tr_ .'h' lE-:. I.S~lp.M o [i!7\."'"O BOUUM 'V.. Ut .~~.".i:J .. " .Fi_:G-E.'.. l. Ie\~' ~I :~!ll \11.. I.!iIij ~ iI.. " MJE·205· Ra€httShi'ck.:1~''iiI r.?N "S~2'"' SlB ." ':'t""I~ n8uH) ~~~.

.35N'O§. ilJ ...PPlV FAIL~.ad. 30 rnA'" per Inpu.•'.t_ampere a.' ... S'. fail-safe exdtation supply to.' ' :-_"'~...--.'V battervJ via D.Ipower for Ql and. "V. .~.4:.. being charged ~The small NiC·.shipping.. .':. Tl .'9". Q2~ Power for Ul is derived from the ·g..I D R':2' 820 k D2.. __ :'. J ~. .. -- '". . '.._ .CdS PHOTOCEll Uld.e-comes . it . 1N9t4 R1 100 k '. and prolonged darkness...' _. "" "'_...' < '.. attery is a. Ul .. " ger. " ".. _.: phol · ':dS' iotocell shuts 0. Q2 is supplied bv the solar cell. multivibrator .ng~ T"'· ' CIrCW:·char ".f·<t'".. . k ..auou... -' . ".._. 2. - . ' .03 04. tne OSI "'.. .. .' .'. --.d " "r -h' .'.- ... k ~. "Ql·:and.. [~ " ..' ~ _. d"'·' ~ A C"...He . .n 'n If.'-." ': '_ I _ ~ - _.'.~ 'M il"'W'nR'OLA ::1 .e.. _ 0'2 " MTH3... . _' .:.. ..e. . .M'OS deviees..EJaC:CITAT ION SAFE' SU..=" c. operates aSI an astable multivibrator to drive push-pull T. '.. ~~ .. d scnmrt . 'L cill' .. D 1~ which is connected to· the batteries... ___..' . F' ...1.01 rr -u ff .'i-.. '. .ator in darsness to preserve the fail-safe battery during .'r .: . J·... frequency determined 'by R2lCl is set to 180 Hz for maximum efficiency from a ()"3... . . a. 'tt·. .."'Cd. (: 6V :~ C1 . "~ '.ttru .~. 4' V"" U--I aqua. I '_-' ~~.. . '9' V ua'tte . -.."." .' t... . " fu:" 1']-'' di lSC1J.t 0t.' · V' former. storage. 'The. .-'...sN05 9 'V N~.. filament trans.-.'" .. ~~. arges -: 'u:TY ..'!II'". . 'The secondary of the transformer is applied to a.1 ..<:' p t. l·. _.'.. -..allow the b system to r''I3 ov..:_.a. :-: _____.= MC1'409JB- t.~.. .. ~. 'sJ'i~Cd " --=..y '" .."'.. full-wave bridge rectifier. ' '.:' b-d-ery b . 01 MTH.:_'.l. . h '~'t.e:-.41...t-. .

~ d d ed hen tne . Iiem :.'....-·:at · 3~ If· generator VOltage'exceeds 15~1.. 0. -wm' ..e....'WIN. ":" .'" cCO!D.'fixed load is connected 'W'· limits the' zenerator rp'".• . . being". ._ '•• ' •••• I. " . I Q =". '. 4. m t.:>...'"._.' charsed ....:cupawere" pa':--:-' 'II's.. .. .' '.l'~'1I be .iL:J ~ . "V''. O"':--'..1 Y' 'the 12.V :·~W·· .::11 ...._' .-. . ' : _'. _'."... :: ..:.••••• _."'.n . '_'.of 'P.. .I .~sa-:-.. '.'-~ :' .. . sed . . ..• - .Lli5.II! ..... 1~1 The de motor is used as a generator.'.".".'bi~~ ._" '_ "..car c"'an''-. .8 'V...-" .IJr...it'·. [ hich -~_...:.:_ ..." SOUIc.e. '.:_'_.' "...5W RAITERv.<.~ :c.. by the power F'ET)~ 'II d -.:.-tl"""..'-.:.d -~'~'k' alar ... ."O" i.a. _ ...L·: .~U]·'_.'~·~v·t '~-"' .D~P"OWEREiD BATTE!RV' CHA.where -..-.a(' condition caused tly excessive wmu speec or wnen th 12' V-' b ' .'.. If generator voltage output is below 13. 13 8 and 15 .:c-:." " _'...' '_ ..' J .'..' ..'. The LTC 1042." ered ::l."..~ tervr IS"fuUY' chOl'l'~d) then:' [" ." 1:N4Q01 .••• ..' I' ..._...... the voltage output and provides the following control functions.:'" un...e. 1tI..." .~~ • UV LEAOACIO ....us. _" _:_:' _ _ '._ •••••••••. monitors.' ' I~._ ~ 'll' 22 ..5\1.n1luh... .RGER WlND ..~ . . >..~wer" ". ~l _'..." . Th'ia "'"". T 2 lithe generator 'v'o~'·~:"'e output is between ..... '--'".. :. lead-acid battervis... ..••...' -~:_'d-' en'e't'UV' 'I'S'.t·~. _~~l. 'J .. the 'Voltage output is proportional.h"arg-'" . plentiful such 'BC!' O'D' OJ satlboa..or 8'" remob ra. ~.. 1.. thecontrol circuit is active 'and the NiCad battery' is chargin.t re'mD)e radir re. .... • J" '.. ..peaJLer Slies.g through the LM334 current S01U~ce~he lead-acid battery' is not be~ing charged. a . to its rpm... •• '. 10 " a 'IW.:n.' to prevent damaze ~:_.'1 •• _. j"... ~ U" weather and ' "ll't... .... ~. " '.ft~··__:l ..~.. at about l~·amp/hour rate Oimited...~f •.. . -··_"t·' '..'" HM:AO :: 'I Fig. a -. -.'J6.. UQ.' :ote . •. ._' ': _.:....f! s:O.. ~~..LUl~' sys·· emvvw fun...._.'. ~" LRl S~J ..

Ripple PO'WerSupply 5.0.V/3. General-Purpose Power Supply 12-Vdc Battery-Operated 120-Vac Power Source Simple Power Supply Charge-Pool Power Supply Bilateral Current Source 3.0-V/IO-A Regulator 5.0-A Regulator Bench-Top Power Supply Variable Current Source (100 rnA to 2 A) 23 . The figure number in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section.to 30-V Universal Power-Supply Module Regulator/Current Source Low-Power Switching Regulator Variable Voltage Regulator Switching Power Supply IOO-kHz Multiple-Output Switching Power Supply Isolated Feedback Power Supply Dual-Tracking Regulator + 15-V I-A Regulated Power Supply -IS-V I-A Regulated Power Supply Hand-Held Transceiver de Adapter Low-Dropout 5-V Regulator Triac-Controlled Voltage Doubler High-Stability IO-V Regulator Voltage-Controlled Current Source Low-Power Inverter Three.Rail Power Supply Programmable Power Supply Efficient Negative Voltage Regulator 5 V-to-Isolated 5 V (at 20 rnA) Converter Positive Regulator with npn and pnp Boost l'racking Preregulator Adjustable 10-A Regulator Low-Cost Low-Dropout Linear Regulator Voltage Doubler Safe Constant -Current Source Low-Cost 3-A Switching Regulator 50-W Off-Line Switching Power Supply Positive Regulator with pnp Boost Low Forward-Drop Rectifier Circuit Low. which begins on page 125.2 Power Supplies-Fixed The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section.

.V/I-A Regulator with Remote Sense Increasing the Power Rating of Zener Diodes Voltage Regulator Zener Diode Regulator 12.Basic Single-Supply Voltage Regulator B-A Regulated Power Supply for Operating Mobile Equipment Low.O-V/6.s.Voltage Regulators with Short-Circuit Protection High-Stability I-A Regulator High-Current Inductorless Switching Regulator 200-kHz Switching Regulator 5-V O.to l4-V Regulated 3-A Power Supply de-to-de SMPS Variable (18 to 30 V Out at 0.5-A Power Supply 3-W Switching-Regulator Circuit Regulated Split Power Supplies from a Single Supply Switching Step-Down Regulator Single-Ended Regulator ± 50-V Push-Pull Switched-Mode Converter 5-V/O..D-A/2S-kHz Switching Regulator With Separate Ultra-Stable Reference Mobile \Ultage Regulator Negative Switching Regulator Positive Switching Regulator Positive Floating Regulator Negative Floating Regulator Negative Voltage Regulator .25-A Switch-Mode Converter Voltage Regulator Dual-Polarity Power Supply S.15-V Negative Regulator Slow Turn-On l5-V Regulator High-Stability lO-V Regulator 5-V/l-A Switching Regulator ls.W Arc Lamp Power-Switching Circuit lOO-V/O.25-A Switch Mode Converter Radiation-Hardened l25-A Linear Regulator Supply Voltage Splitter 3.2 A) SCR Preregulator Fits Any Power Supply Off-Line Flyback Regulator SOD-kHz Switching Inverter for 12-V Systems lO-A Regulator with Current and Thermal Protection Bipolar Power Supply For Battery Instruments Power Supply for 25.to 5-V Regulated Output Converter Memory-Save On Power-Down lOO-Vrms Voltage Regulator 24 .A Buck Converter Slow Tum-On l5-V Regulator ac Voltage Regulator Uninterruptible + 5-V Supply Stand-By Power For Nonvolatile CMOS RAMs 5-V Supply With Stabilized Momentary Backup Uninterruptible Power Supply for Personal Computers 90-Vrms Voltage Regulator Using a PUT Switch-Mode Power Supply Micropower Bandgap Reference Supply ± 50-V Feed-Forward Switch-Mode Converter Traveller's Shaver Adapter lOO-V/O.

P4· 2 k 0.65 V For example. The I-kn resistor.0 =0. Its value is calculated as: "r=t: 0. Rsc is the current limit set resistor. 1 RS + 100I'F 1 NOTE 1: FOR 14 V TO 3Ii V OUTPUT . Rsc= 0. is a light-loaded resistor designed to improve the no-load stability of the supply. 25 .65 n.R3 .R3· 2 k. The line transformer should be selected to give about 1. 4 100 pF R3 Note 1 10000 R4 Not.86 V CURRENT LIMIT RSC·-IUimid TEXAS INSTRUMENTS Fig.65/1.2 k. s. Potentiometer R2 sets the output voltage to the desired value by adjusting the reference input. if the maximum current output is to be I A. 2·' The supply can be used for supply output voltages from 1 to 35 V.GENERAl·PURPOSE POWER SUPPLY DIODES 6A-60PIV A E uA123 2 RSC 3 R2 1500 TRANSFORMER FROM 10 TO 40 VOL TS AT A AND B DEPENDING ON OUTPUT REQUIRED. R4· 500 0 FOR 1 V TO 14 V OUTPUT .4 times the desired output voltage from the positive side of filter capacitor C1 to ground.

This type of A simple 120 V: 24 V. For higher power. Load current and transformer magnetizing current then flows in the upper half of the primary winding. with high inrush currents.12-Vdc BATTERY-OPERATED 120-vac POWER SOURCE If Ql is faster and has a higher gain than Q2. turning Q2 on and repeating the cycle. Each diode from every pair rectifies 6. the transformer voltages reverse. Each diode should have a PIV. As it turns off. ing pans. GROUND C2 t----. but not on the load.----Q +9V 04 + Cl 16V 100". shavers. 26 . and heaters. 6.3 Vac.__ + 10_0.414 = 8. half the secondary voltage. and the other is composed of D3 and D4. which develop + 9 V. fryThe circuit is self-starting and free-running. transformer and four additional components can do hand tools.. rating that is at least twice the peak voltage from the transformer. The output voltage depends on turns EON Fig. and charges the associated filter capacitor to the peak value of the ac waveform. The output frequency depends on the transformer iron and input voltage. .9 = 18 V. One full-wave rectifier is composed of diodes D1 and D2. This circuit outputs a clean 200-V pk-pk will not work with reactive loads (motors) or loads square wave at 60 Hz and can supply up to 20 W. 2-2 ratio and the difference between input voltage and transistor saturation voltage. 10 quency will generally range between 50 to 60 Hz ORSTANCOR with a 60-Hz transformer and car battery or equivaTYPE P6377 lent source. The lN4001 has a PIV of 50 V. 2-3 This power supply delivers plus and minus 9 V to replace two 9-V batteries. use larger transformers and transistors. phonographs. 2 x 8..9 V. and auto transformer action LOAD 20W supplies the base drive until the transformer satuMAX rates.9V HANDS-ON ELECTRONICS Fig.3 x 1. When that action occurs. SIMPLE POWER SUPPLY 117 VAC 01-04 IN4001 (4) 03 . and small fluorescent lamps. center-tapped control inverter normally is used in radios.:. It the job. '" 2N5877 UTC TYPE FT. which develop -9 V. Peak Inverse Voltage. Q1 loses its base drive."_16_V_---o F_:_. it will turn on first when you apply the input power and will hold Q2 off.._. The freTRANSFORMER 0" a. The rectifier circuit is actually two separate full-wave rectifiers fed from the secondary of the transformer. such as coffee pots.

If the remote transmitter can be operated in a pulsed mode where it is active only long enough to perform its function. The voltage V 1 continues to rise until the output of the HA-5141 approaches + Vs or the optional voltage limiting provided by Z2. by the HA-5141 (where 11 =3 mA). the output current. 500-pA load current is constant for load values from 0 to 3 Q. the available power supply current is approximately: ·V. 2-4 It is usually desirable to have the remote transmitter of a 4. In this circuit. and required repetition rate. IMO _ OPTIONAL HARRIS +5V OUTPUT TO LOOP TRUIMITTER Fig. then a charge pool power supply can still allow the transmitter to be powered directly by the current loop. allowable voltage drop on Cp. In some cases. is: VIN (R4)/(R3) (R5). In these cases. The LM2931 voltage regulator supplies the transmitter with a stable + 5-V supply from the charge collected by CPo Available power supply current is determined by the duration. this is not possible because of the highpower requirements set by the remote sensor/ transmitter system.to 20-mA current loop system powered directly from the transmission line. 6 R1 2M r ALL RESISlORS ARE 1% ALL RESISTANCE VALUES ARE IN OHMS IF R1 "" R3 AND R2 = R4 + AS THEN IL IS INDEPENDENT OF VARIATIONS IN Rl FOR Rl VALUES OF 00 to 3KO WITH V "" 1V I V R4 V 1M V = A3 RS '" (2M)(1 K) "" 2K "" SOOj4A_ L GEfRCA l Fig.CHARGE-POOL UV ZEin POWER SUPPLY to the separate power supply is still possible.4 V and the duration of operation is 1 ms. and R2 approximately equal to R4+R5. For example. an alternative BILATERAL R2 1M + 1SV CURRENT SOURCE This circuit uses a CA3193 precision op amp to deliver a current independent of variations in RL• With Rl set equal to R3. CP. h. if VI is allowed to drop 4. 2-5 27 . constant current I I is supplied to the charge pool capacitor.

... in parallel with U1 is a quick and clean way to increase the currentlimitingthreshold to 3 A without sacrificing short-circuit protection. 0..to 3O-V UNIVERSAL POWER-SUPPLY MODULE IA +I-- . a 4-A 100 PIV full-wave bridge rectifier. Bypass capacitors on the input and output of Ul prevent high-frequency oscillation. 2-6B). For light or intermittent loads. --------~ REGULATOR BOARD IN4002 150 2. ~ ~-e--~--------__---------o+ 150 2.. 28 .. a smaller 2.......3. ..... The input voltage to the regulator is supplied by DBl. 7-A transformer... Capacitor Cl provides initial filtering. VI provides additional electronic filtering as part of the regulating function..8 times the rated continuous-duty output of the supply.. This means that a 1. _ VU" . the regulator module can be used to drive the base of one or more pass-transistors (see Fig. When more than 3 A is required... The output level of the regulator is set by trim-pot Rl....1 IN4002 VIN.. WIring a second LM317.5 A.. U2...... 2-6 VI.0-A transformer should suffice..2K ~~ LM-317 (A) 47~i1 UNREG. The current rating of the transformer must be at least 1. an LM3l7 adjustable regulator provides short-circuit protection and automatic current limiting at 1..5-A supply should use a 2..2K JA (B) 73 AMATEUR RADIO Fig.

.. 2-7 The circuit powers the load via the regulator's input instead of its output.....-_ m... Because the regulator's output sees constant dummy load Rl.. IN4148 LI . it tries to consume a constant amount of current. the regulator's input serves as a constant-current source for the actual load. Fig. Hence....ro'o.. The current equals 1..25 A/flxR j• LOW-POWER SWITCHING REGULATOR +sv .. Power the circuit with anyone of the commonly available ± 15. H'............ 50.REGULATOR/CURRENT SOURCE 0.. OUTPUT ADJUST 1M 12. 01 . -+5VOlJT T47 + 390.. Youset the load's current with Rl.. VN'OKM -'5V lOOk lNIl<)S6 15V EON ·-!5V Fig.2N29())~A._ _ .. 11 : DALE TE·l103iTA LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORP..or ± 12-V supplies. The voltage dropped across the regulator and dummy load decreased the total compliance voltage of the circuit. 2-8 29 ... no matter what the voltage across the actual load really is.

Diode CRt prevents C2 from discharging through the during an output short. 2-9 The variable voltage regulator lets you adjust the output voltage of a fixed dc power supply between 1. Q1 cuts off and the output decays through the load. When Q1 is on. and C2 reduces excessive ringing. Thermal overload protection and short-circuit current-limiting constant with temperature are included in the package.) A simple battery-powered switching regulator provides 5 V out from a 9.LOW-POWER SWITCHING REGULATOR (cont.V source with 80% efficiency and 50-rnA output capability. Capacitor C1 reduces sensitivity to input line impedance.002 CRI ICI LMI17K ADJ Your Rl VOLTAGE IN rCl 231!l VOLTAGE OUT HAM RADIO Fig. The circuit incorporates an LMl17K three-terminal adjustable output positive voltage regulator in a ID-3 can. its collector voltage rises. The cycle repeats when the output drops low enough for Al to tum on Q1.F capacitor ensures low battery impedance at high frequencies. preventing sag during switching. The I-p. The output voltage rises.5 A. VARIABLE VOLTAGE REGULATOR IN.2 and 37 Vdc. and will supply the output current in excess of 1. Ie 30 . causing At's output to rise. forcing current through the inductor. The 100-pF capacitor ensures clean switching.

4 mm Fig.{2 nl n4 T' F{ 6900 10 R" To Load PCI 22OVAC 50 160Hz .--Feedback Gain Adjust Selected for V ~800 Volts C2. and SCR 1. = 0. an ST2 mac relaxation oscillator. is dependent on the duty cycle. Of further interest in this circuit is the use of several low-current. which are also used as pnp remote-base transistors._____.4nF lKv Q~ Q ~sus2N4988 Q 1-D64VP5 R o-On Time Adjust R L-Load Voltage Adjust R .!:::: 10FT GE L-2Sp. Short-circuit protection is assured by coupling Q1 collector-current feedback into the turn-off circuitry via Rss. To compensate for unwanted variations of output voltage because of input voltage or load resistance fluctuations.-o+VOLIT 2_5K ~ 0------ k'~fr'. The loop determines the duty cycle and hence the output voltage.. consequently. and the diac...Q5-2N6001 Vour-2 Volts-VDC IL-0-10 Amperes Output Transformer Bifilar Core-850GER 42 x 21 x 15 (LCG) Wound I nl-95 Turns q.1 '+~~ . the on-time of which is maintained constant by a separate timing/commutation network consisting of Q2._SA 159(2) T O3jll "I" ::£. an Hl IC wired as a linear-model unilateral pnp transistor in a stable differential amplifier configuration is connected into the galvanically isolated negative-feedback loop.SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY All Resistors 112Wall Except As Noted Otherwise 10K A15M (4P laces) ~~1OV +310V I~ 470 47k 3W VES7C~ 47K BA159.6 mm Nearest I n2-96 Turns q. In this circuit. + 2.::. Q3.r:: 3.::~ + (Cl0S0) DIAC ST~G 12 100 jlF 02 ~100 18 Val BA159 350V . 2-10 This low-voltage high-current output. initiates conduction of the output switching transistor Ql. C1. SUS. high-voltage.-15K 5W 47K 3W • :.::. The output voltage.__ Rss 039 3W .Cl c::: !OoF . 400-V VDR. Q3). switching de power supply is running off the 220-Vac input..H SCRI BRY55S All Unmarked Diodes-A 1148 Q4. f) ~RL 10k 1OOK Ao .r: 100 lit ~CR~ i1t. = 0. .. = 0.2j1F .oo Al4U 2_21'F ~ 180 .. C2.\1 thyristors (Q2.6 mm Core n3-3 Turns of 4 Strands Jl = 1 mm Parallel n4-3 Turns p.

(...' L- . r'" .J N 100-kHz MULTIPLE-OUTPUT SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY .l3. A TU94 switching regulator provides pulse-width modulation control and drive signals for the power supply. 2-11 SJLJCONIX l00'K R" ""'''' The power supply uses two VN4000A 400-V MOSPOWER FETs in a half-bridge power switch configuration. PARTS f!:E:SIS'rOAS IN OHMS '1. '" " I "'0 sec ev . MINIMUM LOAD> lPo too "" "' 3JI) I.l4-SHTE)tTFORn~AILS et.n~E.I~'" HOlES CAPACllOR$ .. The upper MOSPOWER FET. 5~ IJNL ES5 tfOTE"D MOUNTED ON HEAT SINKS. Tl400 J ca c. Ie .' ". c. The lower MOS. D. "'".SE "Ttl.noll IN IYIICFt(lF-ARAOS UNLeSS NOTED W.. JIJST D "" . either ± 12 V or ± 15 V can be made available with a simple change in the transformer secondary windings. Q6. is directly driven from the control Ie. "" " .. 12._-+~---------~ "" " . ". Since linear three-terminal regulators are used for the low-current outputs._------~ Fig. Outputs available are + 5 V at 20 A and ± 15 V (or ± 12 V) at 1 A. U. Q7. in the power switch stage is driven by a simple transformer drive circuit. since it is ground referenced.

I C VOLTS .J TEXAS INSTRUMENTS Fig. The 20kHz switching frequency is set by the 6-kQ resistor and the 0. The 5-V reference is also tied to pin 2 which is the reference for the output voltage error amplifier.ISOLATED FEEDBACK POWER SUPPLY +36 V + _ T 1000. The 24-V transformer produces about 35 V at the 1000-JLF filter capacitor.. The output voltage and current limit are set by adjustment of the 10-kn pots in the TL3103 error-sensing circuits.5 A. which is the reference or the current error amplifier. This supply is powered from the ac power line and has an output of 5 V at 1.1 IOV I I I I r--------.01 I I I I I ~-==~nq I I __ ~ L I I I I I . Both output voltage and current are sensed and the error voltages are applied to the error amplifiers of the TL594 PWM control Ie.. The 5-V reference on pin 14 is tied to pin 15..01-JLF capacitor on pins 6 and 5. 2-12 Figure 2-12 is a power supply circuit using the isolated feedback capabilities of the TL3103 for both current and voltage sensing. A pair of TIP31E npn transistors are used as switching transistors in a push-pull circuit. 33 . The TL594 is set for push-pull operation by tying pin 13 high.. respectively.

The reference terminal at pin 6 is tied directly to pin 5.l(&t r---~r---+-~~''''~~-1~~--~--~~~:'~ Ian I. the noninverting input of the error amplifier.5 V. 2-14 The supply receives + 20 Vdc from the rectifier/filter section.DUAL-TRACKING nRn 83 REGULATOR "all lGD. 34 .sa n ASC lOO~FI C3 15 V A3 OUTPUT 1. as well as to the collector of the 2N3055 series-pass transistor.oM 'I'" 14 1I~111'lUITU' In DUl -.av. MAXIM Fig. A l00-pF capacitor from pin 13 to pin 4 furnishes gain compensation for the amplifier. Both regulators are set to maximize output power at low battery voltages by reducing the oscillator frequency. This is applied to pins 11 and 12 of the uA723. via LBR. The reference for the -l5-V output is derived from the positive output via R3 and R4.000n AEF uA72l 2 5 • 3 AI 12kn • C2 100 "F ":" A2 10kn TEXAS INSTRUMENTS Fig. a potentiometer can be installed between Rl and R2. + 15-V l-A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY '20v~111 6 e. when VBATT falls to 8. providing about 7 V with respect to ground at pin 4. 2-13 A MAX634 inverting regulator is combined with a MAX630 to provide a dual tracking ± lS-V output from a 12-V battery. The output voltage is sampled through Rl and R2. For fine trimming the output voltage.

which is the anode of a 6. 2-15 The supply receives .2-V zener diode that connects to the emitter of the uA 723 output control transistor. a TIP105. This forward biases the base-emitter junction of the 2N2907 sensing transistor.) Base drive to the 2N3055 pass transistor is furnished by pin 10 of the uA723. A l-kn output resistor provides stability for the power supply under no-load conditions.lOPE .8krJ --. TO RESE TI ] INV R4 3krJ TEXA$IN$TRUMENTS Fig. The base drive to the TIP105 is supplied through resistor R5.20 V from the rectifier/filter which is fed to the collector of the Darlington pnp pass transistor.433 n.. which reduces base drive to the TIP105. maximum current limit is set to 1. Since the desired output of the supply is 1 A.+ 15~V1~AREGULATED POWER SUPPLY (cont. -15·V 1·A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY ·:zvv . The base of the TIPI05 is driven from Vz terminal at pin 9. The method of providing the positive feedback required for foJdback action is shown. 35 .5 A by resistor Rsc whose value is 0. The 2N3055 pass transistor must be mounted on an adequate heatsink. A lOO-JLFelectrolytic capacitor is used for ripple voltage reduction at the output. C R5 S1 1.. This technique introduces positive feedback by increased current flow through resistors R1 and R2 under short-circuit conditions.

...9& mA TEXAS INSTRUMENTS Fig..... 2-16 This de adapter provides a regulated 9-V source for operating a Kenwood TR-2500 hand-held transceiver in the car.0111 V. t .91 CElLS -=-e v l-----PflDlECTIDt.. ~Vo .i SHOIll CIRCUIT FEEDBACK 8 AMP LOAD 6 4 tTl 004 1. 35V TAi'lTALUM 0.111mV VdrollOUt" 100 mA .. The LM317T regulator dissipates 2 or 3 W in this application.1 "F + liZ CI C2 Rl + I".HAND-HELD TRANSCEIVER lM3\7 T de ADAPTER * RI Z~O +o---- . --t n. mV Vdropout a 10 mill. .F 3~V 9 V OC OUT ~ TAi'lTAlUM II2W * QST USE HEAT SIIiK Fig..IV 100 II 100 k!l 120 1<11 I Mil ~ EVEAEADY E. W \Z V OC I. The LM317T's mounting tab is electrically connected to its output pin. so take this into account as you construct your version of the adapter.x -2-inch piece of l/s-mch-thick aluminum heatsink. LOW-DROPOUT 5-V REGULATOR 2..1 1 mA ..1'12219 k-.. 2-17 36 ...2 kll 30 kll 0.... so mount it on a 1...2 V 11'1914 1.

Bipolar supplies will permit bipolar output. SuPl'tY LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORP. -e- O~RAlES FRGM A S'NGl. This is a simple.6S. CI lilf Al IOV Ri UK LM329B + DC LOAD R3 urv { AC . 2-18 POPULAR ELECTRONICS Fig.". Fig. r-t}---. 2-19 VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED +IV CURRENT SOURCE G.u. 7-20 37 ._----------~----~ 26m GNO HANDS-ON ELECTRONICS Fig. In this circuit. \. precise voltage-controlled current source. Configurations featuring a grounded voltage-control source and a grounded load are usually more complex and depend upon several components for stability.F 1k 1.TRIAC-CONTROLLED VOLTAGE DOUBLER VjN HIGH-STABILITY 10-V REGULATOR 0 15V vour 2K OlIGEJ 01 IN4GUl CI 250jtf 250·WVOC Tftl o . accuracy and stability almost entirely depend upon the 100-0 shunt.

7. IC.14 R3 IK!l 5.--------+------~----~~-----~-------_o 7. l1S-V square-wave power to operate ac equipment up to 25 W. the other is cut-off. ~~--~-~~--~ • EON L- t--------------o IC. When one transistor is biased-on.B. The output is available at pin 5. The two transistors drive the transformer push-pull fashion. 0.6 UI 556 9 TI' 120V ISVCT RADIO SHACK 273-15158 73 AMATEUR RADIO Fig.SV AC 2. Oscillator circuit U'l. 1-----+------0 Yo. COMMON 0.0. and C1 operates from about 4 to 16 V with a very stable output. The first section of the 556 timer chip is wired as an astable oscillator with R2 and C1 setting the frequency. so that it steps the voltage up rather than down. The second section is wired as a phase inverter. 2-21 This low-power inverter uses only 9 parts and turns 10 to 16 Vdc into 60-Hz. 0. 2-22 38 . Fig.I2 1/4W R4 IKn 1/4W TI II[OUTPUT R2 12Kn 114W 2. That output is availableat pin 9. The transformer is a 120 V/l8 VCT unit that is connected backwards. R2.LOW-POWER INVERTER INPUT +12V RI IKn 1/4W 4. Resistors R3 and R4 keep output transistors Q1 and Q2 from loading down the oscillator. . Yo.5Y AC 2. Rl. THREE-RAIL POWER SUPPLY D.0.

alternately charging capacitor C2 on both halves of the ac cycle. diode Dl with capacitor Cl. and avoid the less attractive alternatives of buying a custom-wound transformer. Q2. Q1 is the series regulator transistor. Diodes D2 and D3 perform full-wave rectification. but could be modified for negative or bipolar outputs. for example. You can use this circuit as an auxiliary supply in an up-based instrument. On the other hand. 39 . C.5 and + 12-V regulators IC3 and IC2. The full.7 V at the maximum output current. Rl. building a more complex supply. say 18 Vac.THREE-RAil POWER SUPPLY (cont. and Q3 form an optional short circuit protection circuit. or using a secondary winding.) This circuit generates three supply voltages using a minimum of components. with Rl chosen to drop about 0. selected for the required current and power capability.and half-wave rectification arrangement is satisfactory for modest supply currents drawn from . to an acceptable level. should be chosen to keep the overshoot. and wasting power in the 5-V regulators. when switching. and diode D4 with capacitor C3 each perform half-wave rectification. 2-23 Many systems require one or more relatively low-current voltage sources which can be programmed to a few predetermined levels. The compensation capacitor. The circuit shown above produces positive output levels. PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY 1------0 DIGITAL CONTROL 10K lK HA2400 LOAD HARRIS Fig.

. set the output voltage to 12 V.EFFICIENT NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR Feedback path MUR410 tVi" I~ ~ ~ . although highest efficiency occurs with low-dropout types. 5 lN50811 1 1 YAfF MAX635 -VOUT II -z- r-aot'_- ISOLATED . the output falls out of reguJation. Therefore.50 PRIMARY 14 ' 8 mm POT CORE SCHOTT 0ti71147S0 (615) 889·8800 Fig. ..: . the positive-voltage terminal of the regulator connects to ground. The technique works with any positive-voltage regulator...5 A D1 Fig.5Y TO >6V INPUT ti 'Ys +~ ~ L. TIO 27O!. ELECTRONIC 0 ESIGN . . Va•1 +12V R.F v.. the LTI086's low-dropout voltage. OUTPUT 47UF pFI MAXIM 0. 5 V-TO-ISOLATED 5 V (AT 20 rnA) CONVERTER +4.4 "IN 4002 1. The VIN terminal floats at 1.. If this requirement isn't met..5 V or more above ground. ADJ 1 .b. LT1D86 '- Switching legulalor I ~ MUR410 r: 470. 12. SFORMER: 1:1 TURtlS R . + ADJ ..1 LBI OtlO 4 0 T -=- -=- TR .F 1 V.. R2 1.07k ::. in the case of a negative-voltage output.: + ~Ol'f ++C Tl0. 2-25 40 . and the -12 V output comes off the anode of Dl.~F lT10S6 V..n " t5. IN4 002 -12V 1. Rl and R2..VoulpUI (IVPical) MUR410 ::..5 A J.. Since a secondary winding is galvanically isolated.SVI2Om .F . 124 R2 1. 2-24 One way to provide good negative-voltage regulation is with a low-dropout positive-voltage regulator operating from a well-isolated secondary winding of a switch-mode circuit transformer..g... <0.5 V..1. and protection diode Dl eliminates common-load problems. Io. the minimum voltage difference between the regulator V1N and VOUT pins must be at least 1. a regulator's 12 V output can be referenced to ground.. D 1 .25 V..u..H.J :::r: 470I'F t ":. Two programming resistors.. and the LTI086's servo the voltage between the output and its adjusting (AD]) terminals to 1.. Capacitor Cl improves ripple rejection. Under all loading conditions. -:: t ::.c R. 470..07k 1 + 10I'F '=' 4 ·1 '4lilm le5islors T1O\.

l . the circuit for thyristor boost can be used. POSITIVE REGULATOR WITH npn AND pnp BOOST + R1 --tCt8 INPUT I 02 A I . a negative output voltage de-de converter generates a . In order to generate .) In this circuit. The isolated output is not fully regulated since only the .5 V at point A is sensed by the MAX63S. 2-26 In the circuit.5 V at point A.R5 : I DIP 4 R3 ICl 8211 01 J C2 OUTPUT 1 TH v5 R4 INTERSIL Fig.5 V-TO-ISOLATED 5 V (AT 20 rnA) CONVERTER (cont. This is known as the remote base configuration. the primary of the transformer must fly back to a diode drop more negative than .. 41 .. The thyristor is running in a linear mode with its cathode as the control terminal and its gate as the output terminal..5-V output at pin A. Ql and Q2 are connected in the classic SCR or thyristor configuration..5 V. v+ r . The IN5817 rectifies this secondary voltage to generate an isolated 5-V output.. If the transformer has a tightly coupled 1: 1 turns ratio. there will be a 5 V plus a diode drop across the secondary. Where higher input voltages or minimum component count are required.

2-28 42 .iF 114 IK OUTPUT ADJUST GND ':' POPULAR ELECTRONICS Fig.TRACKING PREREGULATOR POPULAR ELECTRONICS Fig. 2·27 ADJUSTABLE 10-A REGULATOR AOJ IN Al 240n 0 112 non \lOUT 113 120n C2 IJ.

FI 25 Vdc. TIP125.2 k _j This linear post regulator provides 12 Vat 3 A.12V JOOI J' +22V oc @ 'SOmA +16V @ 300mA oc IN4001 This circuit drives relays of 24 and 18 Vde from a 12-V power supply. Ql: TIP29. Use this circuit with almost any pup or npn power transistor..2 . or 2N4921. TIP115.01 I l00V 1= L --. 2N4919. C1 and C2: 50 p.. Bias voltage is applied through Rl to Ql's gate. I ] T! ~ 330 35 V 1 I I 1 I I CAl IN!l6:l11 r~ r. 02 ~N4401 I I I RJ 10 k I + JaO 35 V A2 1k 22 pF c: I 1 REGU LATEO OUTP UT DC I I u. or 2N4918. ~i Ul TLY31ClP 1 I R4 tk I I I I IL MOTOROLA I Fig. 73 AMATEUR RADIO Fig. Key performance features are: Dropout voltage: 0. 2N4922.6 V Line regulation: :!: 5 mV Load regulation: Output ripple: 10 mV 10 mV pk-pk VOLTAGE DOUBLER . Parts: Ul: NE 555 timer. which is protected against overvoltage by diode CRl.LOW-COST LOW-DROPOUT LINEAR REGULATOR r.fJ! II MTP3055A I Ll: !A I . without additional amplification. 2-29 AS 2. Frequency compensation for closed-loop stability is provided by C1. Q2: TIP30.. A7 2.n i I I lN4148 . drives TMOS MTP3055A gate Ql series pass regulator. TlP120. TIP62 . It employs TU31 reference VI which. TIP61.. 2-30 43 ..02511 'hW RS I I I MUR I \~ Al 10 . TIPllO.

ICL8D69 ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Fig. the load current is limited by Rl. and (b) the overhead voltage needed by the op amp and the HEXFET is extremely low.01 C2 240n R3 01 lNlBBD GND tSDlID TANTALUM • COA E-A AND LOA ·254166·2 60 T UA NS POPULAR ELECTRONICS Fig.25V. The current is given by: 1= VREFJR1.8V SOO"H· LI TO 32V 0. LOW-COST 3-A SWITCHING REGULATOR l. a CMOS op amp controls the current through a p-channel HEXFET power transistor to maintain a constant voltage across Rl.-----------+ IRF 952q 1.SAFE CONSTANT-CURRENT SOURCE ----------~~----------------~---------------. The advantages of this configuration are: (a) in the event of a component failure. 2-31 In the circuit shown. 2-32 44 .

45 ..2 C3 C4 0_022 ..80 (220VAC) GE IRF823 {llOVACI INTERSIL Fig.. 1000 at ~ 5'C [O/[W 1.F140(}V 470 ...3V 10 /LFI 16V 0_047 ." I A/SB Diode BI'ldge 15 BUZ80A/[Xrp4J\. 3. the power supply will enter the soft-start cycle before recommencing normal operation.50~W OFF~LlNE SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY ilIl 2 [ 11 6 [CL7675 I • Component Cl (.8 R9 RIO RII R1..n=I:3 Fu<.5W SOIlO\'.· 0.F/6..000 ".. The circuit features a primary side and secondary side controller with full-protection from fault conditions such as overcurrent.. It is a flyback converter operating in the continuous mode.~ ell C9 Cl0 CII C6 C7 470 I'FI rsv 220 pF/IOO\' 470 pF/SOOV 2200 pF/500V 270 pF 1500V ':19pF!500V 11...[ D[ 100/0'25W 100 kll/O'2S .H..25W 3'JOJlnW 22 kfl/lOW 68n/02"W 100/0_" \..330/1 W 10 k0/0...30/0.FI I OV Rl R'2 R~ K4 RS R6 R7 11..... 2·33 The schematic shows a 50-W power supply with a 5-V lO-A output."=1 SO.Fn_~OV Values Table c. After the fault condition has been removed.' 02 TI '1'2 Fl MI QI QI 251'H lN4937 MBRI035 Lp~9"'H.

In general. POSITIVE REGULATOR WITH pnp BOOST V· I.'IV·::rJ_. '. since this gives to suppress feedthrough of input transients to the fail-safe operation. when VB exceeds VA. The MTH40NOS has an ON resistance of 0.~. !~C' t". Typically. for 1= 10 A.. OUT . output voltage would rise.. while Ql is the series pass tran.)1)11 1 INf!UT ICL 1J11 In addition. the values of R2 and R3 are chosen to provide a small amount of standing current in Ql. R1 defines the output current of the IC8211 . A' AJ r I/" !i~... Where accurate setting of the output voltage is required. The forward drop is determined by Ql's on resistance and current I.. T 1. + 15 V \7 . 2-35 46 . _.1\1.. O. I I I I I DC . 2-34 If R2 is made adjustable.0280.•• A. R2 and R3 determine the output voltage as follows: L .potentiometer wiper was to open the circuit. therefore.. and an LM393 comparator provide a high-efficiency rectifier circuit.the best Schottky diodes do not even begin conducting below a few hundred mY.~ OUT~ '" MOTOROLA I I . however. I A TMOS power FET. Fig. O/P TH_ •. Conversely. 01 's output becomes high and Ql conducts. either R2 or R3 can be made adjustable. INTERSIL Fig..II which gives additional stability margin to the circuit.. the sistor. it while Cl and C2 provide loop stability and also act is better to make R3 adjustable....F • J output supply.. if the regulator amplifier..=. the comparator output becomes low and Ql does not conduct. the output voltage will The lC8211 provides the voltage reference and vary linearly with the shaft angle. Ql.3 V. When VA exceeds Va.'V LOW FORWARD-DROP RECTIFIER CIRCUIT Q1 MTH40N05 "CATHODE" I C$)~~ I I I I G Rl 10 k I --. the forward drop is less than 0.

2-37 MOTOROLA Fig. ZD1 and R1 provide a reference voltage at the base of Q1.O-Vi3.2.000 p. C= 100x 15(Q1) x25(Q2) = 37. 2-36 This circuit can be used where a high current is required with a low-ripple voltage (such as in a highpowered class AB amplifier when high-quality reproduction is necessary).LOW-RIPPLE POWER SUPPLY +Ve R3 10k GND ELECTRONICS TODAY INTERNATIONAL Fig. assuming minimum hfe for Q1 and Q2.F. and R2 can be regarded as a power-Darlington transistor. 2-38 47 . ZD1 should be chosen thus: ZD1 = VOUl -1. Q2.. Q1.0-A In. C2 can be chosen for the degree of smoothness as its value is effectively multiplied by the combined gains of Q1IQ2..0 v 10 A 8W MOTOROLA Fig. if 100 I'F is chosen for C2. 'W REGULATOR MJEJ10 OR EOUIV o lH .0-V/10-A MJ295S O~ REGULATOR EUUIV S. 5.

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