ENGLISH G R A M M A R 2

by
Edward R. Rosset

Editorial Stanley

Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: Beryl Aguado Lait Principal of Apsley School of English. Portsmouth - England Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Esquema © Editorial Stanley www.libross.com Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-194-6 Dep. Leg.: BI-1311-01 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1999 Reprint / Reimpresion 2001 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta RGM

INDEX
Unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Contents

Page

Do 2 - 5 Had better 6 - 7 Will/'ll in offers and agreements; shall in offers 8 - 11 Past simple. Past continuous/progressive 12 - 13 The infinitive with or without TO 14 - 17 Comparison of adjectives 18 - 19 Comparative structures as ... as; more and more 20 - 21 When, while, as clauses 22-23 Ellipsis in speech 24 - 25 Can, could and be able to 26 - 27 May, must, will, used to 28 - 29 Present perfect and simple past 30 - 31 Present perfect - Past simple (cont.) 32 - 33 The present perfect simple and continuous 34 - 35 Present perfect with ever, just, since, for 36 - 37 Future reference (going to, and present progressive) ... 38 - 39 Will 40-41 Will or "going to" 42-43 Reported statements 44 - 45 Reported questions (Questions in indirect speech) 46 - 47 Infinitive after adjectives 48-49 If-clauses (open and hypothetical) 50 - 51 When-clauses, if and when 52 - 53 Punctuation 54-55 Verbs with adverb particles (phrasal verbs) 56 - 57 Time prepositions 58 - 59 End position of prepositions 60 - 61 Verb + object + infinitive 62-63 Can, could. Permission and possibility 64 - 65 Could (do) could have (done) 66 - 67 May and might (puede y podria) 68 - 69 Must (have) can't (have) 70-71 Present simple and progressive passive 72 - 73 Past simple passive 74 - 75 Present and past participles 76 - 77 Reflexive/Emphatic pronouns 78 - 79 Relative pronouns and clauses 80 - 81 Defining relative clauses: Things 82 - 83 Non-defining relative clauses 84 - 85 Compound adjectives 86-87 Quantifiers (both and neither); Word order 88 - 89 Emphatic do 90 - 91 Past perfect. Unfulfilled past conditions 92 - 93 Question-tags (coletillas) 94-95 Imperatives 96 - 97 Reported instructions 98-99 Before, after, as soon as, until 100 -101 Such, so 102-103 Still, yet, already 104 -105 Linking words and expressions 106 -107 Appendix 109-114

This page intentionally left blank

ENGLISH G R A M M A R 2

2

UNIT 1

Do
Las formas principales son: do • did • done
Present tense: Affirmative
I do you do he/she/it does we do you do they do

Negative
I do not/don't you do not/don't he does not/doesn't we do not/don't you do not/don't they do not/don't

Interrogative
do I? do you? does he/she/it? do we? do you? do they?

El verbo to do forma el "past tense" con did para todas las personas. • I did, you did, he did, we did, you did, they did.

Do como verbo auxiliar, es decir, como particula de interrogacion y negacion.
Do se usa para formar la interrogacion y negacion del presente de los verbos ordinaries, mientras que did se usa para el pasado. • Do you work? • Does she play? • Did you go? • You don't work. • She doesn't play. • You didn't go.

Emphasis
Es posible usar do/did + infinitivo en forma afirmativa tambien cuando deseamos anadir un enfasis especial. Mayormente se usa cuando nuestro interlocutor muestra duda acerca de la accion a que nos referimos: • You didn't go there. - I did go. • I know you don't believe me but I did see him.

DO se usa para evitar la repeticion de un verbo ordinario usado previamente:
1. En acuerdos y desacuerdos cortos: • Mary talks too much. - Yes, she does / No, she doesn't. • He didn't go. - No, he didn't / Oh, yes, he did. 2. En adiciones: • He likes running and so do I. • You like it but I don't.

3

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio vas a rellenar el hueco con la particula o el verbo que falta. Example: Do you go every day? No, I don't go every day. 1. Does Peter go to school on Saturdays? No, he 2. Did your grandfather speak French? No, he 3. Do you 4. Does your mother 5 6. He 7. I 8. He 10. We 12. My wife 13. Why 14.They 15. Don't 16. What 17. What are you 18. Did the children a lot of work in your office? the shopping on Mondays? your friend do his homework every day? smoke before, but now he does. like the film, do you? buy the books, did he? see him very often. He's always very busy. > the shopping in the morning?. the shopping on Saturdays in the hypermarket. you anything yet. you want me to ? Whatever it is, don't their homework? ? it what you are told? do what they were told. go on Saturdays. French.

9. Does your mother cook well? Yes, she 11. Does your mother

2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar el do enfatico. Example: I know it's difficult to believe but I did see a UFO. 1. He never knows his lessons but he 2. I know that you didn't expect me to go, but I 3. "You didn't see Mary." "I 4. "You don't speak French well." "I 5. I know it's incredible but she 6. I know I don't make any progress but I 7. I know he's dead but I 8. His homework? Yes, he 9. She 10. You 11. They do it every day. see her." speak it well." speak 10 languages. try. speak to him a few days ago! study at home. go.

sing beautifully, doesn't she? believe me, don't you? come here occasionally, don't they?

U N I T 1 (CONT.)

4

Do

3. En las coletillas: • She lives in London, doesn't she? • He didn't go, did he?

DO se usa en respuestas cortas para evitar repeticion del verbo principal:
• Do you smoke? - Yes, I do / No, I don't. • Did you see him? - Yes, I did / No, I didn't. Tambien se usa el do en comparaciones: • He runs faster than I do.

Do + imperative
Hace que una invitacion sea mas persuasiva: • Do come with me. Se puede usar como una respuesta afirmativa o para indicar permiso o animo para hacer algo: • Shall I take her to the cinema? - Yes, do.

How do you do?
Se usa para presentaciones. Las dos personas dicen la misma frase al darse la mano.

Otros usos del do
• • • • • I haven't got coffee, will tea do? I haven't got a torch, will a candle do? This business has nothing to do with you. What do you do for a living? I'm a painter. How's the new girl doing?

5

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio vamos a usar el do en adiciones. Example: She likes going to the cinema and so do we. 1. You speak good French and so 2. She lives here but we 3. Peter doesn't drive but I 4. He didn't go on holiday but we 5. He went on holiday and so 6. They did live here and so 7. They don't go there very often, but we 8. She didn't go on holiday, but I 9. I know they work very hard, but so 10. She doesn't have a good time, but he 11. They don't buy many books but we 12.They take a holiday every year and so 13. The Evans went to Florence and so 14. She didn't speak to the teacher, but I 2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar respuestas cortas para evitar la repeticion del verbo. Example: Do you smoke? No, I don't. 1. Did you see her? No, I 2. Did you speak to Jimmy? Yes, I 3. Do you live here? Yes, I 4. Does your mother do the washing every day? Yes, she 5. Does your brother go to work by bus? No, he 6. Do the Browns have many children? No, they 7. Does Mary speak German? Yes, she 8. Did the two boys speak to the vicar? No, they 9. Did the girls go to the party? Yes, they 10. Do the police arrest many thieves? Yes, they 11. Do these families live happily? No, they 12. Did you buy the dictionary? Yes, I 13. Does you teacher explain the lessons well? No, he 14. Did Mrs Green go to the supermarket? Yes, she we. we. I. we. she. I.

6

UNIT 2

Had better
Had better es una expresion que equivale a mas vale que.
Had better do something - Mas vale hacer algo. • I have to be at the station at 5. I had better/I'd better go now. • 'Shall I take some money?' 'Yes, you had/you'd better take a few pounds.' • The car is not going well. We had / We'd better stop at a garage.

La forma negativa es had better not ('d better not):
• Little Jane doesn't look very well. She'd better not go to school today. • 'Coming with us to the cinema?' 'I'd better not. I haven't finished my homework yet.' La forma que usamos es 'had better', aunque en el ingles hablado siempre se dice 'd better. Aunque decimos had el significado es presente o future, no pasado: • I had/I'd better take the train this afternoon. • You had/you'd better go tomorrow morning.

Recordemos que had better va seguido del infinitivo sin to:
• I think he's coming this afternoon. We'd better buy some more food. (no better to buy)

It's time ...
Se puede decir it's time (for someone ) to do something. • It's time to finish work. • It's time for you to finish work. Tambien hay otra estructura: It's time someone did something. • It's late. It's time we went to bed. Ffjate que usamos el pasado (went) despues de It's time someone..., sin embargo el significado es presente o future, no pasado: • What! Are you still working? It's time you went home.(no time you go) Usamos mucho esta frase sobre todo cuando nos quejamos o criticamos que alguien deberfa haber hecho algo ya. • It's time you were in bed. • That's an old shirt you're wearing. It's time you bought another one. • I think it's time the government did something about unemployment. Tambien se puede decir It's about time/It's high time. Esto hace que la cri'tica sea mas fuerte: • Who do you think you are. It's about time you realised you're not the only person in the world. • It's about time James did some work in this house.

7

EXERCISES

1. Lee la situacion y escribe una frase con had better. Example: It's Sunday and it's raining. You think you should go to the cinema. What do you tell your friend? I think we'd better go to the cinema. 1. Your friend wants to go for a swim. But it's cold and you think he'd catch a cold. What do you say to him? 2. You're running out of petrol. You think you should stop to get some. What do you say to yourself? 3. Your friend has fallen and he has a pain in his leg. You think he should go to the doctor. What do you say? 4. You're going to a restaurant on a Saturday. You think you should reserve a table. What do you say to your friend? . 5. Your friend is feeling sick. You think she should sit down. What do you say to her? 6. Your son wants to play the guitar late at night. You think he will wake up your neighbours. What do you say?

2. Ahora tienes que escribir unas frases con It's time Example: You think your wife should go to the dentist. She hasn't been to see him for a year. It's time she went to the dentist. 1. You think you should start getting lunch ready. It's nearly 12 o'clock. It's time 2. You think the children should be in bed. It's already 10 o'clock. 3. You're sitting on the train waiting for it to leave. It's already 10 minutes late. 4. You're waiting for your girlfriend. She's late. She should be here by now. . 5. The house should be repainted. It looks terrible. 6. You should have a holiday. You haven't had one for a long time.

UNIT 3

8

Will / 'II in offers and agreement / Shall in offers
Will
Es un 'verbo auxiliar modal' que se usa para formar el futuro. Se contrae en ('II), en forma negativa se contrae en (won't).
El will se puede usar de varias formas diferentes:

Predicciones
• Do you think it will rain tomorrow? •They'll arrive soon.

Ofrecimiento e intencion
• Can somebody give me a hand? - I will. • The phone is ringing. - I'll answer it.

Promesas o amenazas
• I'll punch your nose if you don't stop! • I will stop smoking.

Peticiones u ordenes
• Will you follow me, please?

Negativas
• She is in but she won't open the door. • Will you go? - I won't.

Habitos o rarezas
• She's funny. She'll stare at that picture for hours.

Shall • Ofertas y sugerencias Se usa a menudo para ofrecerse a hacer algo por alguien.
• Shall I open the window for you, madam? • Shall I carry the case for you?

Tambien se usa como sugerencia.
• Shall we go to the disco, boys? • Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow?

Would
Se usa para formar el condicional.
• I would help you if I could. • If I knew I would tell you.

9

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio hay que completar las frases con I'll + un verbo apropiado. Example: I think that's enough for today. I think /'// go home now. 1. 'What would you like beer or wine?' ' 2. 'Did you post the letter?' 'Oh, I forgot 3. 'We haven't got any coffee.' 'Oh, haven't we? 4. 'It's cold today.' 'Is it? 6. I'm too tired to do it now 7. She's too small to carry that case 8. 'We haven't got anything to drink.' 'Okay, 9. 'Did you phone Mary?' 'No, I forgot, 10.'What will you take, fish or meat?' ' 11.That's enough for one day. I think 12.'You've missed that train.' 'It's OK the heater then.' her in the morning. in the morning. her a hand. something!' her in the morning.' fish, please.' a rest now. the next one.' 5. It's too late to phone your mother now beer, please.' it tomorrow.' and get some.'

2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar shall. Example: You are with your friends and you want to go to the beach. What do you say? Shall we go to the beach, boys? 1. You see a woman with her hands full of parcels. She can't open the door. What do you say to her? 2. You are with your girlfriend. You want to go to the cinema. What do you say? 3. Your mother can't open the window. What do you say to her? 4. You want to help your father in the garden. What do you say? 5. You would like to go for a picnic with your friends what do you say to them? 6. An old woman can't cross the street alone. What do you say to her? 7. You would like to do the shopping, and your mother is very busy. What do you say to her? 8. Your little son can't solve a difficult problem. You want to do it for him. What do you say to him?

10

U N I T 3 (CONT.)

Should • Would
Would tambien se suele usar con un sentido de soli'a, parecido al used to. • When she was a child she would get up early and go to the country. • He would never tell anybody where he was going. Sin embargo, hay una pequena diferencia entre used to y would. Used to se puede usar para situaciones o estados asi como acciones. Would solo se puede usar para acciones repetidas. • We used to have a house in the country. (I would seria imposible en casos como este.) Would like. Usamos would like para ofertas e invitaciones. • Would you like a cup of tea? I'd like. Usamos I'd like cuando queremos pedir o preguntar algo con mucha cortesia. • I'd like to have some information, please. Should. Se usa para formar las primeras personas del condicional: • I should be quite happy if you came with us. No obstante, en este tipo de frases la mayorfa de las veces se prefiere usar would. • I would (I'd) be quite happy if you came with us. Se puede usar should para ofertas y sugerencias, peticion de instrucciones y consejos. • Should I help you with that? • What do you think we should do? Should como verbo defective nos da la idea de deber, obligacion, etc. Se puede sustituir por ought to. • You should drive more carefully, you know! • I think they should work more and better. Should se usa despues de if y in case para sugerir una posibilidad lejana. • If you should see Carol, give her my regards. Tambien se puede invertir el orden. • Should you see Susan ask her about this note.

With Suggest
• What does he suggest we should do? or What does he suggest we do? • He suggested (that) we should wait at the station or He suggested (that) we waited at the station. Podemos usar should detras de estos adjetivos: • surprising • strange • typical • interesting • odd • essential • important • funny • natural • surprised. • It's surprising that he should be late. He's always early. • It was strange that she should say that.

11

EXERCISES

1. En estas frases vamos a usar would con estos verbos: take, lock, walk, get up, sit, pick up, go, do, watch. Example: In the old days, he would walk for miles every morning. 1. Whenever he was angry, he 2. Every day last summer we 3. Every time he went out he 4. When she was angry she 5. After lunch he 6. When she was lonely she friends. 7. When he was thirsty he 8. Every Sunday morning he himself in his room. early and go for a swim. the umbrella with him. just out of the room. in his armchair and have a nap. the phone and ring one of her to the nearest pub for a drink. jogging with his friends.

9. They used to spend hours in front of the telly. They anything that was shown. 2. En estas frases vamos a usar should Example: You think your girlfriend smokes too much. It would be a good idea for her to stop smoking. What would you say? / think you should stop smoking. 1. Your boyfriend always drives too fast. What would you say to him?

2. Your friend eats too much. What do you say to him?

3. Your brother is very tired after running. You think he runs too much. What would you say? 4. You enjoyed a film and you would like Jim to go and see it. What do you say to him? 5. Your little boy says things which are very rude. What do you say to him?

6. You think swimming is good for everybody. What do you say to your fat friend? 7. You enjoyed your holidays in Benidorm. You want your friends to go. What do you say to them? 8. You think your father works too much. What do you say to him?

12

UNIT 4

Past simple Past continuous • Progressive
El past simple tense es el que mas a menudo usamos cuando nos referimos al pasado.
• She walked into the room and looked out of the window. • I lived in London until I was ten. • Last year we went to New York. Recordemos que los verbos regulares forman el pasado anadiendo ed: • live-lived • add-added • visit-visited • want-wanted. Mientras que los irregulares tienen terminaciones atfpicas, y hasta que se memoricen hay que referirse a la lista de verbos irregulares. Go-went, comecame, buy-bought • I went to London on Monday. • She came to work ten minutes late. • My mother bought all the books.

Recordemos tambien que el pasado de to be es was/were.
• I was very angry because you were very late. Para la forma interrogativa y negativa de la mayoria de los verbos usamos did/ didn't + infinitivo. • You worked. • • • • • Did you work? • You didn't work.

Did you phone your friend? Well, I phoned him, but I didn't speak to him. He was out. What did you do yesterday? You didn't invite me, so I didn't go.

Tambien solemos usar did/didn't con have: • Did you have time to finish it? • I didn't have enough money to buy the books. Recuerda, sin embargo, que nunca usamos did con to be. • Why were you so happy? • The man was walking. • I wasn't so sure, you know! • The girls were singing El pasado progresivo se forma con was/were + gerundio. El uso mas corriente del past progressive es hablar acerca de lo que ya sucedi'a en algun momento en particular en el pasado. • What were you doing last Sunday at six p.m.? • When I got up this morning my father was shaving. El pasado progresivo a menudo se usa en una frase junto con el pasado simple. • He was laughing when I saw him. • It was raining when we went for a walk.

13

EXERCISES

1. Ron el verbo en la forma correcta, past progressive o past simple. Example: The phone rang when I was having a bath. 1.1 the train. 2. While I 3. What 4. When I 5. She 6. It 7. She 8. He 9.1 10. My mother 11. What 12. 13. Robert 14. I (see) your sister at the station. She (work) in the garden, I (you/do) at this time on Sunday? (run) downstairs I (take) a photo of us when we (happen) while I (break) a cup while she (drive) very fast when the accident (buy) you a present while you (wait) for me when I (you/do) when I (read) in bed when I (fall) off the ladder while he (work). (arrive). (telephone). (hear) the crash. (paint). (live) in Bristol. (do) the washing up. (happen). (slip) and (fall). (not/look). (run) to catch (hurt) my foot.

I (look) out of the window when you (cross) the road.

2. Haz frases con las palabras entre parentesis. Ron los verbos en la forma correcta, past simple, o past progressive. Example: (We/have dinner/when/the Robinsons/arrive) We were having dinner when the Robinsons arrived. 1. (He/still/run/when/l/take/photo) 2. (The bell/still/ring/when/l/open/the door) 3. (When the guests/arrive/she/still/cook/dinner) 4. (My friends/call/me/when/l/have/shower)

5. (I/get/ready/go out/when/the phone/ring) 6. (She/hang up/the washing in the garden/when/it begin/rain) 7. (We/wait/for the bus/when/the car/run over/the dog)

14

UNIT 5

The infinitive: with or without TO
Los verbos mas corrientes que pueden ir seguidos del infinitive con to son:
agree aim appear arrange ask attempt bother care (neg.) choose claim consent decide decline demand determine fail forget guarantee happen hesitate hope learn long manage neglect offer plan prepare pretend proceed promise prove refuse remember resolve seem swear tend threaten trouble (neg. try volunteer

• He promised to come early tonight.

• We agreed to do it together this time.

El verbo defective ought lleva to detras. • He ought to do things more slowly. Las siguientes frases o expresiones pueden ir seguidas de un infinitive con to. be about do what you can bother can afford make an effort set out do one's best make up one's mind take the trouble • We can't afford to buy a new car every year. • He didn't bother to answer my letter. • We took the trouble to find out. Algunos verbos admiten bien el infinitive o bien el gerundio. advise agree allow begin continue forget go on hate intend like love mean need permit prefer propose regret remember require start stop try used to want

Con los verbos begin, start, continue, cease se pueden usar ambas estructuras sin que cambie el significado. • He began working. = He began to work. • She continued living/to live in the same place. Con los verbos advise, permit, recommend, allow. Si mencionamos la persona en cuestion, es decir, el complemento indirecto, usamos el infinitive: • He allowed me to get in. • She advised us to get married at once. Pero si no mencionamos la persona, se usa el gerundio: • He recommends buying the lot. • They don't allow smoking here.

EXERCISES

15

1. Completa las frases con un infinitive con o sin to. Example: You have to make an effort to finish in time. 1. The two men were about 2. You needn't 3. You have to try 4. I can't possibly 5. He managed 6. He remembered 7. How dare you 8. I'll do my best 9. The teacher made me 10. I'll let you 11. She made me 12.They intend 13. They weren't allowed 14. He let them 15. I prefer (leave) the restaurant. (tell) me what happened. (do) it better than this. (answer) that. (finish) it by Saturday. (post) the letters. (say) that to the teacher! (do) it in time. (do) it again. (come) with me. (wash) my face. (do) it first thing in the morning. (smoke) in class. (smoke) in his office. (study) here with you.

2. Usando los verbos de sensacion pon infinitive o gerundio segun el sentido de la frase. Example: She saw her husband get up and walk to the door. 1. I watched the boys 2. She saw him 3. She felt him 4. I heard the station master 5. I heard the rain 6. She saw the burglars the house. 7. We watched the workmen 8. I saw his eyes 9. Mrs. Brent saw the boys 10. Mr. Coghan heard the man sitting room. 11. I saw them 12. I heard the baby 13. I saw him 14. She watched them (run) in the marathon. (break) the window pane. (keep) an eye on her all morning. (blow) his whistle. (fall) on the roof all night. (break) the kitchen window and enter (open) the road all morning. (fall) on the packet on the mantelpiece. (play) in the garden. (walk) up and down in the (make) silently for the door. (cry) all night. (change) the wheel and drive off. (do) their homework all evening.

U N I T 5(CONT.) Should • would

16

Con los verbos regret, forget and remember se usa el gerundio cuando la accion expresada por el gerundio es una accion anterior: • She now regrets spending so much. • I remember reading about that. Cuando los propios verbos regret, forget, remember expresan ellos mismo una accion anterior les sigue un infinitive: • I regret to say that your son has had an accident. • I'll remember to post the letters. • I never forget to sign the papers. Con los verbos like, love, prefer se usa el gerundio cuando el sujeto expresa que disfruta haciendo algo: • I like playing football. • She loves riding early in the morning. Pero si lo que expresa el sujeto no es que le guste precisamente sino que lo considera mas apropiado, entonces se pone infinitive: • I like to wash the car on Saturdays. • She prefers to do it in the morning. Estos verbos, en condicional, siempre van seguidos de infinitive: • I would/I'd like to see you running in the marathon. Algunos verbos o expresiones van seguidas del infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). Los verbos defectives can, could, may, might, must, should van seguidos de un infinitive sin to. • You can do it this afternoon. • She must tell us today. Los verbos "semi defectives" need y dare se pueden conjugar de las dos formas: • You needn't say anything. - You don't need to say anything. • How dare you say that? - How do you dare to say that? Los verbos de sensacion feel, see, hear y watch van seguidos de un infinitvo cuando la accion es corta, repentina: • She heard him close the door. • I felt his knee hit my chin. Sin embargo cuando la accion tiene lugar durante algun tiempo o esta incompleta se usa el gerundio: • I heard the rain falling down all night. Los verbos let y make van seguidos de un infinitive sin to. • They let their son see all the films. El verbo help admite las dos formas: • He helped me to do it = He helped me do it. Con las expresiones had better y would rather. • I would rather go alone. • We can't do anything but wait. • You had better tell me. But y except tambien van seguidos del 'bare infinitive'. • She made me wash my face.

17

EXERCISES

1. Ahora pon infinitivo o gerundio segun el caso. Example: I like running. I like to do things as soon as possible. 1. She likes 2. I like 3. I would like 4. She loves 5. I'd love 6. I like 7. I'd like 8. She loves 9. I don't like 10. She doesn't like 11. I'd like 12. We love 13. We would like 14. I like 15. I'm sure she would like (paint). She'll be an artist one day. (sing) in the bathroom. (go) with you but I can't. (get) up early on a sunny morning. (come) with you, but it's impossible. (do) all the unpleasant things as soon as possible. (go) to the cinema but it's impossible. (go) to Rock concerts. (swim) in cold water. (speak) in public. (tell) you something. (ride) in the hills. (buy) her a present. (do) things in the morning. (accompany) us.

2. En las siguientes frases debes poner el infinitivo con o sin to. Example: I'd rather go early, if you don't mind. 1. She had better 2. She does nothing but 3. I'll do my best 4. They didn't take the trouble 5. Get up early? No, thanks, I'd rather 6. What can you do except 7. I can't afford 8. I didn't bother 9. You'd better 10. Those boys do nothing but 11. We'd rather 12. She didn't take the trouble 13. He was about 14. She made up her mind 15. I'd rather 16. We do nothing but (wait)? (buy) another car. (answer) the phone. (tell) me the truth. (shout) all day. (stay) here if you don't mind. (answer) my letter. (reply) when a thought struck him. (leave) her boyfriend. (have) fish, please. (fight) all day. (start) at once. (complain). (help) you. (answer) personally. (stay) in bed all morning.

18

UNIT 6

Comparison of adjectives
Para formar el grado comparative de un adjetivo corto (monosflabo o bisflabo) se ahade -er. • tall-taller • cheap-cheaper • short-shorter • These trousers are too big. I need smaller trousers. • He has an expensive car. I have a cheaper one. Si el adjetivo tiene mas de dos si'labas se pone more delante. • difficult-more difficult • interesting-more interesting • This book is boring. I want a more interesting one. En ambos casos el que despues de la comparacion se traduce por than. • John is taller than Peter. • pretty-prettier • This book is more difficult than that one. • easy-easier • This girl is prettier than those. • fat-fatter • red-redder Los adjetivos que terminan en y cambian a -ier al formar el comparativo. • funny-funnier • This place is noisier than that one. Algunos adjetivos duplican la consonante final. • thin-thinner • big-bigger • Our car is bigger than yours. Tambien usamos more ... para los adverbios que terminan en -ly: • more quietly • more slowly • more fluently

Quantifiers
Antes de la forma comparativa del adjetivo se puede usar: a bit, much, a lot, a little, far. • Let's go by train. It's much cheaper. • I don't understand. Can you speak a bit more slowly?

Adjectives
good/well better bad/badly worse far farther/further • This is much better than that. • Are you feeling better? No, worse, • We can't go on much farther/further.

(farther se usa con distancias mientras que further puede significar 'como continuacion/ademas'). • Further to our phone conversation... El comparativo de old es older. • John is older than Peter. Usamos elder cuando se trata de miembros de una familia o una persona mayor. • The elder of my sons is at university.

19

EXERCISES

1. Completa estas frases. Usa las formas comparativas de uno de los siguientes adjetivos o adverbios: expensive - interested - big - thin - easily - near - beautiful Example: This bottle of whisky is too small. I want a bigger one. 1. I live too far. I'd like to live 2. That coat is very cheap. I want a 3. This girl is beautiful but that one is 4. You can find your way around London have a good map. 5. This woman used to be fat. Now she is much 6. My son doesn't want to study. He is in girls. if you one.

2. Completa las frases usando los comparativos de las palabras entre parentesis + than. Example: The problem was more difficult than we thought, (difficult). 1. Eating in a cafe is 2. Passing your exams is much time. 3. Carmen can speak English much 4. This thing is not complicated. It's 5. That woman over there is much (cheap) going to a restaurant. (important) having a good two years ago. (easy) you think. (old) she looks.

3. Este ejercicio es parecido al anterior pero tienes que anadir a lot, a little, much, far, a bit. Example: This house is much bigger than that one. 1. It's (a lot/easy) to learn French in France, of course. (much/big) one. (much/happy). ? (a bit/slowly)

2. This house is too small. We need a 3. She looked sad yesterday, but today she looks 4. We are going too fast. Why don't you drive 5. It's cold in here. It was

(a little/warm) in the sitting-room.

4. Completa estas frases usando: better worse further farther elder older. Example: You know this area better than I do. 1. My house is 2. Mine is bad but yours is 3. We can't go on talking any 4. John is my 5. Jill is only 15, but her boyfriend is brother. down the river.

20

UNIT 7

Comparative structures: as ... as • more and more
A veces usamos dos comparatives juntos. Usamos esta estructura cuando queremos decir que algo esta cambiando contlnuamente: • Climbing the mountain was becoming harder and harder. • That boy of yours is getting bigger and bigger. • It's getting more and more difficult to find a job. • More and more people are emigrating to Australia. Ffjate en otra estructura. The + (comparative) the better. • 'When shall we do it?' 'Well, the sooner the better.' • This is too big, isn't it?' 'Yes, the smaller the better.' Tambien usamos the ... the ...(con dos comparatives) para decir que una cosa depende de la otra: • The better you get to know her, the more you like her. • The more you have, the more you want. • The more you study, the more you learn. • The longer she waited, the more impatient she grew. El comparative de igualdad es as ... as. • Peter is as tall as Jeremy. • Your father is as old as mine. • Mr Evans is as rich as Mr Johnson. • You can eat and drink as much as you like. Tambien se puede decir twice as ... as, three times as ... as. etc. • This hotel is twice as expensive as that one. • This town is three times as big as ours. Comparativo de inferioridad not as/so ... as: • This book is not as/so good as it looks. • 'Is it cold?' 'Well, it isn't as/so cold as it looks.'

Estructura the same as:
• Your needs are the same as mine. • The Browns' boy is about the same age as ours. • 'What will you have, sir?' 'The same as last time.'

Estructura despues de than y as;
correcto
• He is richer than I am. • They are taller than we are. • I can swim as fast as she can.

coloquial
• He is richer than me. • They are taller than us. • I can swim as fast as her.

21

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio hay que usar la estructura de dos comparativos. Example: Things are getting easier and easier. 1. Nowadays is getting job. 2. Pilar speaks English time in England. 3. That hole in your sock is getting 4. This suitcase is getting 5. Everybody is leaving. The town is getting 2. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con the ... the ... . Example: The more he earned, the more he wanted. 1. The (expensive) the restaurant, the the food and service. 2. The arrive. 3. The becomes. 4. The (early) you leave, the you (practise) something, the you (feed) it, the (good) (soon) you'll (easy) it (big) it becomes. (difficult) to find a (fluently) after all this (big). (heavy) (small)

3. En este ejercicio tienes que usar el comparativo de igualdad o inferioridad. Example: I don't work as hard as you do. 1. I am rich but you are richer. I am not 2. He works hard but he used to work harder. He doesn't work he used to. 3. The supermarket is crowded but this morning it was more crowded. It isn't this morning. 4. Johnson runs fast but he ran faster before. He doesn't run

5. I am 15 and you are 15. I am
4. Completa este ejercicio usando just as seguido de una de las siguientes palabras. good - expensive - fast - bad - comfortable - slow. Example: This job is just as good as any other. 1. 'My hotel was terrible.' 'Well, mine was 2. This athlete is very fast.' 'Well, that one is 3. 'Our books are very expensive.' 'Well, ours are 4. 'Sleeping on the sofa is 5. This snail is very slow'. 'Well, this one is sleeping in bed'. ' yours'. ' '

22

UNIT 8

WHEN • WHILE as clauses
When (cuando) se usa para tiempos simples:
Cuando una accion ocurre al mismo tiempo que otra, o en el mismo perfodo de tiempo: • When there is a football match the trains are crowded. • When we lived in Madrid we often went to the theatre. Cuando una accion sigue a otra: • When I pressed the button the noise stopped.

AS se usa:
Cuando la segunda accion ocurre antes de que haya terminado la primera: • As she left the house she remembered the letter in the hall. Esto significa que todavfa no habia completado la accion de dejar la casa. While she was leaving tendrfa el mismo significado aquf. Sin embargo, When she left dan'a la impresion de que el acto de salir estaba ya completo y la puerta estaba cerrada detras de ella. Tambien se usa as para acciones paralelas: • He talked as he walked. En un desarrollo paralelo: • As the soldiers approached, the crowd vanished. • As the sun rose, the fog dispersed. • As he grew older, he became more distrustful. Si usaramos when en estas frases perderiamos la idea de simultaneidad o desarrollo simultaneo. As significa lo mismo que while a veces: • As she stood there she saw a tall man enter the house. As + sustantivo puede significar when/while o because/since: • As a boy he had been quite a rascal. (When he was a boy) • As a student he gets a reduction. (Because he is a student) • As a married man he has responsibilities. (Since he is a ...) While puede significar but y se usa para dar enfasis a un contraste: • 'on the corner' means outside, while 'in the corner' means inside. • Some people have too much, while others haven't enough. While tambien puede significar although y se coloca al principio de la frase: • While I can see your point of view I can't agree with it. When puede significar seeing that/because. Es parecido a while, pero generalmente se usa para introducir una asercion que hace que la otra accion parezca irrazonable: • How can you expect people to believe you when you never tell the truth? • She can't be expected to do it when she has no experience.

23

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer una frase de dos frases. Example:! pressed the button. The lift stopped When I pressed the button the lift stopped. 1. I opened the door. The cat ran out. 2. We lived in London. We often went to the zoo. 3. I saw her in the river. I was frightened. 4. I spoke in French. She realised I wasn't French.

2. En este ejercicio vas a hacer lo mismo usando as. Example: She was leaving the house. She remembered the key. As she was leaving the house she remembered the key. 1. It grew darker. It became colder. 2. He climbed higher. Breathing became more difficult. 3. She became more efficient. She was given more interesting work. 4. He got to know her better. He admired her more.

3. Ahora tienes que cambiar estas frase como en el ejemplo. Example: When he was a student he went through hard times. As a student he went through hard times. 1. Since he is the president of the company he has to make decisions. 2. Since she is a married woman, she has to think of her family. 3. Because he is a member of the club he only has to pay half the price. 4. Since he is a medical student he is allowed free entrance. 5. When she was a young woman she fell in love with him.

24

UNIT 9

Ellipsis in speech
A menudo omitimos palabras cuando el significado se puede entender sin ellas. Have you seen Peter? podemos decir, Seen Peter? El omitir estas palabras se llama elipsis, y hay varias clases. I . Omision del sujeto y/o del verbo auxiliar al principio de la frase. • (Have you) Seen Jimmy lately? • (He) Doesn't know what all this is about. 2. Omision despues de and, or, but. • A cup and (a) saucer. • He was poor but (he was) honest. • Are you coming on Saturday or (on) Sunday? 3. Omision despues de adjetivos. • 'How do you like the potatoes?' • 'Fried (potatoes), please.'

4. Usamos el to y omitimos el resto del infinitive. • They wanted me to study medicine, but I didn't want to (study medicine). 5. Omision despues de los verbos auxiliares. • He said he'd come, but he hasn't (come). Tambien usamos la elipsis despues de los verbos auxiliares en respuestas cortas. • 'Have you finished?' • 'Yes, I have (finished). • You don't want to buy that book, do you (want to buy ...)? Las estructuras elfpticas se pueden usar despues de so, neither, nor. • 'I'm getting fed up.' • 'So am I' (getting fed up).

En ingles coloquial a menudo omitimos palabras al principio de la frase si el significado esta claro. Las palabras que se omiten son los articulos adjetivos posesivos, pronombres personales y verbos auxiliares. • Car's broken down again, is it? (The car is ....) • 'What's the matter?' - 'Tooth's aching.' (My tooth's ...) Los pronombres personales se omiten a veces si el significado esta claro. • Wonder where he is. (I wonder ...) • We're having a good time. Hope to see you soon. (We hope ...) • Looks just like her mother. (She looks ) En frases afirmativas a veces omitimos el there is. • Nobody at home. (There is nobody at home)

EXERCISES

25

1. A continuacion tienes unas frases completas. Omite lo que creas que se puede omitir. Example: Have you seen any good films lately? 1. He doesn't know what he's talking about 2. I haven't phoned yet, but I will phone 3. They were poor, but they were honest 4. 'Have you done it?' 'Yes, I have done it.' 5. My girlfriend wants us to get married, but I don't want to get married. 6. He is coming on Tuesday and on Wednesday 7. You don't want to buy a car, do you want to buy a car? 8. 'Im getting nervous.' 'So am I getting nervous. 9. Have you seen my wife? 10.The tyres are punctured again 11. I wonder what they are doing 12. I couldn't understand a word 13. He looks like his father 14. There is nobody at home at the moment 15. Goodbye, son. I hope to see you soon 2. Ahora vas a hacer lo contrario. Example: Seen my husband, Jim? Have you seen my husband, Jim? 1. I saw a man and woman 2. Those are my wife and children 3. He said he would do it, but he hasn't 4. They wanted me to study, but I didn't want to , 5. I haven't written yet, but I will 6. Doesn't know what he's doing 7. He was fat but agile 8. They always come on Saturdays and Sundays. 9. 'What's the matter?' 'Stomach's aching.' 10. Can't go in there without a ticket 11. See you soon 12. Coming tomorrow morning

26

U N I T 10

Can
Can

• could • be able to

Usamos can para decir que algo es posible o que alguien tiene la habilidad de hacer algo. La forma negativa es can't (cannot). • You can see the park from my window. • Can you speak French? • I'm afraid I can't go with you.

Be able
Se puede usar en vez de can, pero este ultimo es mas corriente. • Are you able to speak fluent French? = Can you speak ...

Can
Solo tiene dos formas: Can (presente) y could (pasado). Asi que para otros tiempos hay que recurrir al be able to. • I haven't been able to come. • It's difficult to be able to sleep in this house. (La conjugacion completa de este verbo se puede ver en la gramatica 1).

Could y Was able to
A veces could es el pasado de can. Usamos could sobre todo con estos verbos: feel smell, hear see remember understand taste • When he reached the hall he could smell something strange. • Although he spoke in a foreign language she could understand him. Tambien solemos usar could para decir que alguien tenfa la habilidad general de hacer algo: • My grandfaher could walk for hours. • When I was younger I could run very fast. Pero si lo que quieres decir es que alguien consiguio hacer algo en una situacion en particular tienes que usar was/were able to • The gansters pursued him, but he was able to escape, (manage) • She didn't want to, but in the end her mother was able to persuade her. Compara could y was able to en este ejemplo: • Johnson was a fast runner. He could beat anyone, (had the ability) • Johnson ran with Lewis and in the end he was able to beat him. (managed) La forma negativa couldn't es posible en todas las situaciones: • Johnson couldn't beat anybody. • We couldn't persuade her to come with us to the party.

27

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en el tiempo apropiado. Example: He's very clever. He can speak seven languages. 1. 'Did you go?' 'No, I haven't 2. After the accident he go yet. walk but he help you. understand him. run.

3. If you tell us what the problem is, we might 4. I understand him. In fact I have never

2. Ahora hay que completar una frase con could, was/were able to o couldn't Example: Cleopatra was very clever. She could speak seven languages. 1. He had an infection in his tongue so he 2. The little boy fell into the sea but we 3. My aunt Bertha speak very well. save him.

play the piano quite well. get some in the little Indian see a figure plodding along in the

4. We didn't have any bread, but I shop. 5. I looked over a dune and I sand.

3. Responde a las preguntas con was/were able to. Example: 'Did they escape from the fire?' 'Yes, they they were able to escape unhurt'. 1. 'Did you find the place?' 'Yes, after half an hour we 2. 'Did he escape from the bandits?' 'Yes, they pursued him but he escape.' 3. 'Did you win the marathon?' 'Yes, it wasn't easy, but at last I win . 4. "Did you rescue the mountaineer?" "Yes, after two days we rescue him alive 4. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con could. Example: I can't run now but I could run when I was younger. 1. I can't swim now, but I across the river a few years ago. a lot of only a few when I was a boy. find it'.

2. The old man can't remember things now but he things a few years ago. 3. I can't beat my son at tennis any more, but I years ago. 4. I can't play the piano now, but I

28

U N I T 11

May • must • will • used to
May
Es un verbo defective que significa lo mismo que e! can. E! pasado de may es might. • Jimmy is not here. He may be playing in the park. • Mark is not here. He may be waiting for you at the bus stop. La forma negativa de may es may not • 'Did you give him any money?' 'Yes, but he may not have enough.' • Is he coming?' 'Yes, but he may not come in time.' Se puede usar may cuando hablamos acerca de posibles acciones en el future. • I may go on holiday to Benidorm this year. • If you tell me what the trouble is I may be able to help you.

Must
Es parecido a have to, es decir debo, tengo que. • You've been working hard all day. You must be tired. • She knows a lot about history. She must read a lot. La forma negativa de must es mustn't. • You mustn't speak with your mouth full. • We mustn't have negative thoughts.

Will
Cuando hablamos del future y no hablamos acerca de arreglos o intenciones usamos el will. • 'I'm taking my driving test' - 'Don't worry, you'll pass.' • When you see her you'll notice something different. La negacion es won't • You won't pass your exams if you don't study more.

Used to
Equivale a solia. Es decir se refiere a algo que sucedia en el pasado pero que ya no ocurre: • I used to run a lot but now I don't. • We used to go to the theatre a lot when we lived in Madrid. Tambien lo usamos para situaciones pasadas que ya no existen: • We used to live in London, but now we live in the country. • He used to wear funny clothes, but now he's very smart. Used to + infinitive, siempre es pasado. Para formar el presente suelo hay que recurrir al usually: • I usually go on Sundays. • He usually smokes a packet a day. • They usually come on time.

29

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que responder con may. Example: 'Where's Pete?' 'I don't know. He may be in the garden. 1. 'Do you know if he has a relative?' 'I don't know. He 2. 'Do you think he's lying?' 'Well, he 3. 'Do you think she's ready?' 'Well, she 4. 'Do you think he wants to come?' 'Well, he 5. 'Do you know if she is pretty?' 'I don't know. She 2. Completa estas frases usando must Example:'Is he a foreigner?' 'Yes, he must be a foreigner by his looks.' 1. 'Are they in a hurry?' 'Yes, they 2. 'Was he driving fast?' 'Yes, he 3. 'Is she waiting for somebody?' 'Yes, she 4. 'Has he got a lot of money?' 'Yes, he ' ' been.' ' telling the truth.' ready.' to come.' be.' one.

3. Ahora responde estas preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: 'When will he finish?' (expect/tomorrow) / expect he'll finish tomorrow. 1. When do you think he'll be back? (expect/soon) 2. When do you think he'll arrive? (suppose/next week) 3. What do you think he'll say? (suppose/nothing know) 4. Do you think you'll miss me? ( I'm sure/ very much)

4. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases usando used to Example: David doesn't come any more but he used to come every day. 1. She lives in Liverpool now but she 2. When I was a child I there now. 3. That man 4. Our baby so much now. in Leeds. to that old castle but I never go my best friend when we were boys. all night long every night but he doesn't cry two packets a

5. My father doesn't smoke now but he day.

30

U N I T 12

Present perfect and simple past
El preterite perfecto (present perfect) siempre tiene como referencia el presente. I have lost my passport significa que ya no lo tengo ahora. El preterite indefinido (past simple) indica algo que ocurrio en el pasado. Si digo 'I lost my passport', no digo si lo tengo ahora o no. Solo digo que lo perdi en algun momento en el pasado. • He left town but he has returned, (esta aquf ahora) • The economy fell but it has recovered again, (ahora esta bien). No usamos el preterite perfecto con acciones que no tienen relacion con el presente (hechos historicos, por ejemplo): • World War II ended in 1945. • Charles Dickens wrote "Oliver Twist". Usamos el preterito perfecto para dar informacion o anunciar algo que ha ocurrido recientemente. Sin embargo, si continuamos hablando sobre ello usamos el pasado. • • • • • • Tom: Sandra has broken her arm. Jim: Really? When did it happen? Tom: She fell down playing football. Jill: Somebody has broken the vase. Jane: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't break it Jill: I wonder who broke it, then.

Usamos el preterito perfecto para acciones recientes cuando no se menciona el tiempo: • I have written the letter but I haven't posted it yet. • 'Have you had lunch?' 'No, I haven't had it yet.' Compara con : • I wrote the letter last night but I didn't post it. • Did you have lunch at the hotel? Usamos el preterito perfecto con acciones recientes que tienen resultados en el presente: • Mr Brown has gone to New York, (esta todavi'a allf) • James has had a car accident, (probablemente esta todavi'a en el hospital) Sin embargo, si usamos el past simple indicamos que los efectos de la accion ya pasaron: • Mr Brown went to New York, (probablemente ya no esta alii) • James had a car accident, (seguramente ya no esta en el hospital).

31

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que leer la situacion y luego escribir una frase. Example: This morning I lost my wallet. Now I have it in my pocket, (lose/find) This morning I lost my wallet but I have found it. 1. They went on holiday but now they are back home again, (go/come back) They but
but now I but now it

2. I put on a lot of weight but now I am too thin again, (put on/lose weight)

I
Tom

3. Tom cut the grass. Now it is long again, (cut/grow) 4. Prices fell. Now they are high again, (fall/rise) Prices but now they
but now we

5. We bought a house. Now we haven't got it. (buy/sell)

We

2. Pon el verbo en el tiempo correcto. Example: Somebody has broken the vase. Well, I didn't break it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Your garden looks nice (cut) the grass? Well, I it yesterday. 'Really? it yourself?' 'Yes, I did'. 'Do you remember Mike?' 'Well, I (write) a letter to him' When it? Well, I it last night.

3. Algunas de estas frases estan mal. Otras estan bien. Tu pon todas bien. Example: Mozart has been a great musician. Mozart was a great musician. 1. The second world war has ended in 1945. 2. Mum and Dad have got married in Bristol. 3. Who has broken that vase? 4. Who has written "Don Quixote?" 5. Ow! I bumped my head on the wall! 6. Are you going out? Had you breakfast? 7. Good afternoon. Have you read the paper this morning? 8. Good morning. Have you read the paper yet?

32

U N I T 13

Present perfect • Past simple (cont.)
No se puede usar el preterite perfecto cuando se habla de un tiempo acabado en el pasado (yesterday, last Monday, two months ago, in 1989, when I was a boy). Se debe usar el past tense. • Your brother came very late last night. • Did you see your friend yesterday? • We used to go to the cinema every Sunday when I was a boy. Usamos el pasado para preguntas cuando sucedio algo: • What time did the accident happen? • When were they here last? Compara con el preterito perfecto: • She has failed her driving test.(present perfect) Aqui no estarnos pensando en una accion pasada; estamos pensando en el resultado presente de la accion, es decir, que no tiene el permiso de conducir en este momento. • Last year she failed her driving test, (past simple) Aqui estamos pensando en la accion en el pasado. No sabemos si despues volvio a presentarse a otro examen y aprobo.

Comparemos Past simple
I cooked dinner yesterday. He was in America last year. He lived in Bristol for a year, (he doesn't live there any more) Did you see her this morning? (It is now afternoon) We didn't play tennis when I was at school. El preterito (past simple) nos dice solamente acerca del pasado.

Present perfect
I have cooked dinner today. He has been in Italy recently. We have lived in Bristol for years. Have you seen her this morning? (It is still morning). I have never played tennis (in my life). El preterito perfecto siempre tiene una conexion con el presente.

33

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio hay que poner el verbo en la forma correcta, bien en preterito (past simple tense) o bien en preterito perfecto (present perfect). Example: Did you go to Spain on holiday last year? / have finished my homework. I'm off to bed. 1.1 (lose) my wallet. I can't find it anywhere. (you/clean) them yesterday? (take) it. 2. The window panes look clean 3. My car is not here any more. Someone 4. James 5 6 7. Why 8. Why 9. Is your Dad in? No, he 10. When (he/go) out? (buy) a new bicycle last week. (stop) drinking for good? (see) the Expo when you were in Lisbon? (you/finish) your job yet? (you/finish) your homework last night? (go) out.

2. Ahora haz frases usando las palabras que te dan. Example: (I/buy/new car/yesterday) / bought a new car yesterday. (I/buy/new car/today) / have bought a new car today. 1. (how many/months/be/in London/last year/you?) 2. (I/not/smoke/a cigarette so far today) 3. (how many short stories/write/last year?) 4. (how many short stories/write/so far this year?) 5. (I/not/drink/any tea so far today)

3. Pon el verbo en la forma correcta, "past simple" o "present perfect". Example:! saw the Queen when I went to Edinburgh 1. I don't know Mr Evans. I 2. That man died years ago. I 3. During our stay in Scotland the weather 4. My Mum and Dad 5. We live here. We 6. My father his own business. 7. The weather in this country 8. I (never/meet) him. (never/meet) him. (be) awful. (be) married for 18 years. (live) here all our lives. (work) in that firm for 20 years. Then he set up (be) very nice recently.

(wait) for an hour but he didn't come.

34

U N I T 14

The present perfect simple and continuous
El preterite perfecto continue se forma con el preterite perfecto del verbo to be + gerundio: • I have been studying English for ten years. • I haven't been working this morning. El preterito perfecto simple indica una accion acabada. • I have washed the car. • She has cleaned the windows. El preterito perfecto progresivo expresa una accion que aparentemente no esta interrumpida; no la usamos cuando mencionamos el numero de veces que se ha hecho una cosa, o el numero de cosas que se han hecho. • I have written four letters since dinner, (simple) • I've been writing letters since dinner, (progressive) Hay una diferencia entre una accion aislada en el preterito perfecto simple y una accion en el preterito perfecto continue: • I've washed the car significa que el trabajo ha sido ya completado • I've been washing the car significa que he estado algun tiempo lavando el coche, pero que no necesariamente he terminado ya. Algunos verbos como (have, be, know) no se usan en la forma continua: • How long have you two been married? • They have known each other for years. Usamos la forma continua para decir cuanto tiempo algo ha estado sucediendo: • I've been painting windows all day. • How long have you been painting windows? • He's been playing golf since 8 o'clock. Usamos la forma simple para decir cuanto hemos hecho, o cuantas veces hemos hecho algo: • I've painted four windows this morning. • How many letters have you written? • I have seen Mary three times this week.

35

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que leer la situacion y escribir dos frases, una con el preterite perfecto simple y la otra con el continue. Example:! am writing a book. I started six months ago and I am on chapter ten. - / have been writing a book for six months -1 have written 10 chapters. 1. The two brothers paint pictures. They started when they lost their jobs, (they/ paint/pictures/since they lost their jobs) (they/paint/dozens of pictures/since they lost their job) 2. He is a football player. He began playing when he was 14. Now he is international for the sixth time. (he/play/ football since he was 14) (he/be/international/six times) 3. My brother likes cycling. Now he is cycling round Europe. He began his tour four weeks ago. {he/cycle/around Europe for four weeks) (he/visit/four countries so far)

2. Ron los verbos en la forma correcta, simple o continua. Example: / have lost my way. Can you tell me where I am? Your eyes are red. Have you been reading? 1. My father is a writer. He 2. I can't breathe in here 3. Hello Mum! I 5. I 4. I've been delayed. Sorry! 6. Oh dear! someone (write) several books. (you/smoke)? (write) letters. So far I (wait) long? (finish) it yet. (break) the vase. (read) that article in the paper but I (write) five letters.

3. A continuacion tienes unas aseveraciones. Tienes que hacer la pregunta apropiada. Example: Maria is studying English. How long have you been learning English? 1. Your friend has run many marathons. How many 2. Your girlfriend is waiting for you. How long 3. This man paints pictures. How many ? ? ?

36

U N I T 15

Present perfect with EVER, JUST, SINCE, FOR
Ever
Ever se usa con el preterite perfecto para significar alguna vez. • Have you ever been in a submarine? • Have you ever been to New York? • Have you ever eaten lobster?

Just
Just con el preterite perfecto tiene el significado de acabar de. • • • • I have just seen your wife. They have just told me. She has just finished washing the dishes. I've just taken my driving test.

Since
Since se usa para indicar el principio del periodo de tiempo en que empezo algo. • • • • I've been doing that since 9 o'clock. We've been living here since 1989. She has been writing letters since lunchtime. I haven't seen her since April.

For
For se usa cuando se menciona el perfodo de tiempo en el que transcurre la accion. • • • • The new girl has been working here for two months. I haven't seen him for two weeks. I haven't spoken to him for ages. She's been reading for hours.

Fi'jate en la estructura How long is it since...? • How long is it since you had a decent holiday? • It's ten years since I had a holiday. (I haven't had a holiday for ten years.) • It's ages since I last saw them. (I haven't seen them for ages.)

37

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner since o for. Example:That's my old bicycle. I've had it forages. 1. Tom and Jill have been going out together 2. My daughter has been on holiday 3 4. Have you been typing 5. This man has been a sergeant 6. It's been raining 7. We've known each other a week. a long time? 15 years. early this morning. we left school. Easter, the weather has been awful. six months.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer preguntas con how long. Example: It is snowing, (how long/it/snow) How long has it been snowing? 1. My two friends are married, (how long/they/be/married?) 2. I know your girlfriend, (how long/you/know/her?) 3. Peter is learning French, (how long/he/lean/French?)

3. En este ejercicio tienes que cambiar una frase por otra con el mismo significado. Example: It's ten years since I went on holiday. I haven't been on holiday for ten years. 1. It's a long time since I last played cards.

I
2. It's ten years since it last snowed here.

It
3. It's ages since I last went to a restaurant.

I
4. It's months since we last met.

We
4. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer la pregunta con ever y la respuesta con just. Example: I have never been to London. Have you ever been to London? Have you finished? Yes, I've just finished. 1. Have you spoken to him? 2. I've never eaten caviar 3. Have you seen Pete? Yes, 4. I've never been to New York ? Yes ?

38

U N I T 16

Future reference (going to, and present progressive)
El presente continue puede expresar la idea de un arreglo o acuerdo en el proximo future: • I'm taking an exam in June. significa que ya estoy inscrito. • Tom and Jim are meeting tonight. significa que ya han quedado de acuerdo para verse. Con verbos de movimiento: arrive, come, go, leave, drive, travel; con verbos que indican posicion stay, remain; y con have y do el presente continue se puede usar mas ampliamente: • I'm leaving tonight. Aunque no lo haya decidido anteriormente. • What are you doing next Sunday? - I'm not doing anything. The GOING TO form se forma con el presente continuo del verbo to go + infinitive: • I'm going to buy a new car. • She is not going to write the letter. • Are you going to speak in English? Esta forma se usa para intencion y para prediccion. Expresa la intencion del sujeto de llevar a cabo una accion en el futuro. Esta intencion siempre es premeditada y tambien da la idea de que se ha llevado a cabo alguna preparacion. • I'm meeting Janet at the station at seven. • I'm going to meet Jane at the station at seven. I'm meeting significa que ya has quedado de acuerdo con Janet. Mientras que I'm going to meet no necesariamente significa que Janet lo sabe. jQuiza reciba una sorpresa! Going to se puede usar con oraciones de tiempo cuando deseamos dar enfasis a la intencion. • John is going to be a doctor when he grows up. • What are you going to do when you finish your studies?

Nota:
Con !os verbos go y come en vez de decir I'm going to go/come se dice normalmente I'm going o I'm coming. A veces usamos going to cuando pensamos que algo va a suceder. • That old woman is going to fall in the snow. • Look at the sky. It's going to rain any minute. • He drives very fast. He's going to have an accident.

39

EXERCISES

1. Pon el verbo en presente continue. Example: We are coming to see you this evening. 1. We 2. What time 3. Today is a special day. We 4. Marian, is it true that you 5. The play this evening 6. We 7. We (play) poker tonight (have) a party tonight (you/come) with us? (the next train/leave) for London? (open) at three. (get) married next month? (start) at 8. (go) on holiday next month. (you/come)?

2. Ahora tienes que decir lo que piensas que va a suceder en estas situaciones. Example: That man is driving too fast. He is going to have an accident. 1. The sky is getting dark. I think 2. Those little boys are playing on the rocks near the sea. I think 3. Little Johnny is late leaving the house for school. He 4. Your son hasn't studied for his exams. He 5. That little boy is crossing the road alone. He (rain).

3. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer las preguntas con going to. Example:! finally got my degree. - What are you going to do now? 1. We are going to have a party. - Who 2. She's bought a big painting. - Where 3. Carnivals are getting near. - What 4. I won some money on the football pools. - What 5. My girlfriend wants me to give her a ring. - When 6. This flat needs painting. - When 7. I've just bought a best seller. - When start? 9. I've just made a sandwich. - When 10. We're going to travel around the world. - When eat it? paint it? read it? invite? hang it? wear?

8. I would like to learn to swim. I registered for a swimming course. - When

40

U N I T 17 Will
Will + infinitivo
Indica intencion y esta intencion es generalmente, aunque no necesariamente, no premeditada. Por lo tanto, si se han hecho preparatives para la accion, entonces usaremos going to. • I've bought some bricks. I'm going to build a wall. Pero si la intencion no es premeditada entonces usaremos will. • The phone is ringing'. 'I'll answer it'. • This box is very heavy.' 'I'll carry it.' • 'I've left my keys upstairs.' 'I'll go and fetch them for you.' La forma negativa de will es won't (will not). • 'You'll have to do this.' 'Sorry, but I won't do it. Es muy corriente usar el will con el verbo think: • I think I'll take the day off tomorrow. • I don't think I'll go to the concert tonight.

Tambien usamos will en las siguientes situaciones: Promesa
• Don't worry. I'll pay you back soon. • I'll phone you as soon as I get there. I promise. • I won't tell your mother, don't worry.

Rehusar o aceptar algo
• I won't do it. I refuse. • O.K. I'll accept that salary. • The engine won't start. • Will you close the window, please?

Pidiendo algo
• Will you do that for me, please?

Oferta
• This is too heavy for you. I'll give you a hand. A menudo usamos will cuando predecimos el future. • 'I'm taking my driving test tomorrow.' 'Don't worry. You'll pass.' You'll pass no indica ni arreglo ni intencion, es sencillamente una opinion o prediccion de futuro. • This time tomorrow we'll be in Benidorm. • Next time you see her, you'll notice a lot of changes. • You won't pass your exam if you don't work harder. Expresiones y palabras con las que a menudo se usa will. I'm sure, probably, expect, think, certainly • I'm sure you'll win. • I expect she'll be here in time. • I'll certainly help you

41

EXERCISES

1. Completa las frases con will + un verbo apropiado. Example: She must be home by now. / think I'll phone her now. 1. 'What would you like to have?' ' 2. 'You've forgotten to phone your mother.' 'Oh, I now'. 3. 'We haven't got any change.' 'O.K. I a beer, thanks.' her (go) and get (switch) on the

some'.
4. 'It's cold in this room.' 'Well, I heater'. 5. 'Who will post these letters for me?' Don't worry, I 6. It's too late to phone her now. I 2. Usa think para formar frases en future. Example: It's raining. I think I'll take my umbrella. 1. It's cold and wet. I stay in. in the morning.

2. You don't think it's worth going out so you say: 'I don't 3. Your friend wants to play tennis but you don't feel well so you say: 'I don't play today.' 4. My watch is not working. I take it to the shop.

5. Your friends are going swimming. You don't want to go. So you say: 'I . . . . swimming today.' 6. My plants need watering. I water them tonight.

3. Responde a estas preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: When do you think she'll get there? (expect/tomorrow) / expect she'll get there tomorrow. 1. Will you post this letter for me? I post it for you. 2. Do you think she'll win? I'm (sure) 3. How do you think they'll come? I expect train. 4. When do you think you'll have to leave? I suppose (tonight) (certainly) win. by

5. Will you be coming late tonight? Yes, 6. Do you think it'll rain? Yes,

U N I T 18

42

Will or 'going to'
1. Los dos expresan una idea de futuro, pero hay una clara diferencia. Fijate La lavadora de la Sra Brown se ha estropeado. Se lo dice a su marido. • 'Mrs. Brown: Darling, the washing machine doesn't work. • 'Mr Brown: Okay, I'll have a look tomorrow. Usamos will cuando decidimos hacer algo a la hora de hablar. No lo hemos decidido de antemano. Mas tarde, Janet habla con su padre. • 'Janet: Dad, the washing machine doesn't work. • 'Mr Brown: Yes, I know. Your mother told me. I'm going to have a look tomorrow. Usamos going to cuando ya hemos decidido hacer algo. Mr Brown ya habia decidido mirar la lavadora cuando hablo con Janet.

Mas ejemplos:
Jill y Jane trabajan como cajeras en un supermercado. Jill no tiene cambios. • 'Jill: I haven't got change. • 'Jane : I'll give you some, (toma la decision en ese momento) Antes de dar los cambios a Jill, Jane habla con la supervisora. • 'Jane: Mrs Millbank, Jill hasn't got change. I'm going to give her some, (ya habia tornado la decision). 2. Para predecir acciones en el future podemos usar tanto will como going to. • • • • We'll be late if you don't hurry. Do you think Sheila will get the job? Of course she will. Look at the time, we are going to be late again. Oh, no! She is going to tell us the old story again.

Usamos el going to (no el will) cuando hay algo en la situacion actual que indica lo que sucedera en el futuro. • Look at the sky. It's going to rain any time. • I feel awful. I think I'm going to be sick.

43

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que elegir entre will y going to Example: Why are you switching on the radio? Because I'm going to listen to the news. 1. There's somebody at the door. I 2. You haven't paid the bill 3. 'What plant some flowers'. 4. 'I need help.' 'Okay, I 5. She has bought some wool; she 6. This box is very heavy'. 'I 7. There isn't any salt.' 'Yes, I know. I 8. There isn't any salt.' 'Isn't there?' 'Okay, I get some'. 9. The sky is clear. I expect it 10.'Where are you going?' 'Well, I dinner.' 11. 'Where's the phone book?' The phone book? I for you.' 12.That man is very stubborn. He 13.'Is he going to do it?' 'No, he just 14.'Will you lend me some money?' 'No, I 15. 'Can you take me to the station, Jim?' 'Of course I take you, Jane. It will be a pleasure.' 16.'Shall I take you to the station, Jane?' Thanks, Pete. Jim take me.' 17. 'I left my watch in the kitchen.' 'Okay, I 18.That little boy of yours doesn't want to speak. He just 19.'How does this thing work?' 'It's easy. I 20. The kitchen's on fire!' 'Oh, no. I 21. I'm going to go for a ride. Your brother 22. 'We've decided to buy a new car.' 'Really! When 23.The weather is nice. I think I 24.They are going to emigrate to Australia. When 25.1 haven't got paid yet. When 26. Oh dear! I haven't got any money on me. I the bank. 27. We are running out of petrol. I think I nearest petrol station. ? some from some at the for a walk. ? show you.' call the fire brigade.' lend me his bicycle. buy it?' go and get it.' resign. do it.' ' do with that spade?' 'I help you.' knit a pullover. help you to carry it.' get some today.' go and cold tomorrow. something for get it go and open it. leave withoug paying?

44

U N I T 19

Reported Statements
La forma indirecta puede ser introducida por un verbo en presente: He says that.... • My little brother says that he'll never get married. Cuando el verbo esta en presente, preterite perfecto o future, podemos poner la frase en forma indirecta sin ningun cambio de tiempo: Direct: • I'm trying to get a taxi. Indirect: • He says that he is trying to get a taxi. Sin embargo, cambiamos el tiempo del verbo. (vease tab/a en unit 73 de Grammarl) si hay una diferencia entre lo que se dijo y lo que era verdad. • Jane: John is in America. Pero si por casualidad ves a John esa tarde podrfas decir: • Hello, John. Jane said that you were in America.

Con los verbos say y tell.
Si la frase tiene complemento indirecto usamos tell: • Jim told me (that) he is not going to come. Si no lo tiene, usamos el say. • Jim said (that) he is not going to come. Con las palabras stories, lies, the truth usamos el verbo tell, aunque no haya complemento indirecto. • That boy tells many lies. • My grandmother liked telling stories.

Cuando el estilo directo es imperativo: Come here.
El estilo indirecto va seguido de la estructura verbo + objeto + infinitive (en espahol subjuntivo me dijo que viniera). (vease unit 28) Para este tipo de frases se suelen usar el verbo tell y ask. Direct: 'Sit on that chair,' he said to him. Indirect: He told him to sit on that chair. Direct: 'Write it on the blackboard', said the teacher. Indirect: The teacher told him to write it on the blackboard. Direct: 'Don't tell anybody what happened', said the boy. Indirect: The boy asked me not to tell anybody what happened.

45

EXERCISES

1. Escribe lo que dirfas en estas situaciones. Example: Your brother says, 'I'm not hungry'. Five minutes later he is eating a sandwich. What would say? You said that you were not hungry. 1. Your friend says, 'I'm not feeling well.' Five minutes later he wants to go to a party. What would you say to him? You said 2. Peter said, 'I've stopped smoking'. Five minutes later he's smoking a cigarette. What would you say to him? You said 3. Your son says, 'I'm tired'. Five minutes later he's playing with the dog. What would you say to him? You said 4. Your friend wants to buy something but she says, 'it's too expensive'. Five minutes later she buys it. What would you say to her? You said 2. Ahora completa las frases con said o told. Example: My sister said that she didn't like the film. 1. My grandfather 2. Mary 3. Mr Brown 4. James 5. Kate 6. He 7. He 8. He us many times about his battles in World War II. her boyfriend that she was leaving him. that the hotel was new but he didn't like it. me that he liked his new job. that she had just heard the news. the jury that he hadn't taken the money. his father that he would study harder the following year. his girlfriend that he had missed her.

3. A continuacion tienes unas frases en imperativo. Tienes que ponerlas en estilo indirecto. Example: 'Listen to me,' she said to him. She told him to listen to her. 1. 'Write this letter for me,' she said to him. 'My arm is broken.' She asked because

2. 'Sit on that chair and be quiet,' said the teacher to the boy. The teacher 3. 'Don't come late,' I said to Grace. I told

46

U N I T 20

Reported Questions (questions in indirect speech)
Direct question: • He said, 'Peter, where are you going?' Indirect question: • He asked Peter where he was going. Cuando convertimos las preguntas directas en preguntas indirectas, son necesarios algunos cambios: Los tiempos, los pronombres y adjetivos posesivos.y los adverbios de tiempo y lugar cambian con respecto a las oraciones directas. La forma interrogativa cambia a forma afirmativa. El signo de interrogacion (?) se omite en las preguntas indirectas: • She said, 'Where does he live?' = She asked where he lived. Cuando pedimos informacion, a veces decimos Do you know ....? Could you tell me ...?. Con este tipo de preguntas el orden de las palabras es diferente:

Compara:
• What has Jim done? • Do you know what Jim has done? Si el verbo de introduction es say se debe cambiar a uno de estos verbos: ask, inquire, wonder, want to know. • She said, 'Where is the station?'= She asked where the station was. Ask puede ir seguido de un complemento indirecto. • He asked, 'What have you got in your mouth?' • He asked (me) what I had in my mouth.

Recuerda
Los cambios del orden de las palabras en las preguntas indirectas: direct: • The teacher said to us, 'What are you doing?' reported: • The teacher asked us what we were doing, direct: • Jim said, 'What do you want?' reported: « Jim wanted to know what I wanted. En las preguntas indirectas el verbo generalmente se cambia al pasado (were, went) Jim fue a pasar su examen de conducir, y he aqui algunas de las preguntas que le hicieron: How old are you? Can you drive? How long have you been learning? Have you got a car? Do you smoke in the car? Luego comento con un amigo lo que He asked me if I could drive. He wanted to know how long I He enquired if I had a car. le preguntaron: He asked me how old I was. had been learning. He wanted to know if I smoked in the car.

47

EXERCISES
1. En este ejercicio tienes que formar una pregunta indirecta. Example: What has Jim done? Can you tell me what Jim has done? I wonder what Jim has done. 1. How much does it cost to get inside? Do you know 2. Why didn't she tell you? I don't know why ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? S.Where can I get some change? Do you know 4. Where does Lucy live? Could you tell me 5. Where is the Central Bank? I wonder 6. What's the time/What time is it? Do you know 7. Is Kitty coming to the party? I wonder 8. What does that word mean? Do you know 9. What time did the train leave? Could you tell me 10. Has she got a driving licence? Do you know 11. How much did he pay for the book? I'd like to know 12. How far is it? Could you tell me 13. Where can I buy some cigarettes? Could you tell me 14. Where can we find a good restaurant? Do you know ?

2. En este ejercicio alguien te va a dar unas explicaciones de lo que le sucedio. Tu tienes que imaginar las preguntas que le hicieron. Example: He asked me how tall I was. How tall are you? 1. He wanted to know where I lived. Where 2. He asked me what I was doing there. What 3. He enquired if I had any family? Have 4. He wanted to know if I had a job? Have 5. He asked me if I had a driving licence. Have 6. He wanted to know if I had been there long. Have 7. He asked me if I was alone. Are 8. He enquired if I had any money. Have 9. He asked me if I had eaten that day. Have 10. He wanted to know how old I was. How 11. He asked me if I smoked. Do 12. He wanted to know how I had got there. How 13. He enquired if I had been drinking Have 14. He asked me if I was married 15. He wanted to know if I had lost my passport ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

48

U N I T 21

Infinitive After Adjectives
• It is dangerous to lean out of the window. Este tipo de construccion (be + adjetivo + infinitivo) es posible con una serie de adjetivos tales como: easy, difficult, safe, unsafe, hard, convenient, possible, impossible, dangerous. • It is very hard to live in this situation. • The water from a desert pool is not safe to drink. • It wouldn't be convenient to see Mr Smith now. Con todos estos adjetivos, excepto con possible se puede usar la estructura (noun + be + adjective + infinitive). • This problem is easy to solve. • The instructions are hard to understand. • That bike isn't safe to ride. Tambien • • • se puede usar la estructura (be + adjective + noun + infinitive). It was a dangerous path to follow. It was a difficult problem to solve. Tennis is an exciting game to watch.

Tambien usamos la estructura (to + infinitive) despues de the first, the second, the third, etc. y tambien despues de the next y the last. • Armstrong was the first man to step on the moon. • Recruit Williams was the last man to fall into line. • The next bus to arrive will be the number 24. De la misma forma se pueden usar algunos adjetivos que expresan sentimiento, tales como glad, happy, angry, delighted, sorry, sad, relieved, pleased, dismayed, astonished, disappointed, surprised. • I'm sorry to hear that you've lost your job. • I was amazed to see him there. • We were so pleased to get the letter. Los adjetivos que van a continuacion se usan en la estructura be + adjective (+ of + object) + infinitive.

nice, mean, stupid, mean, silly, cruel, generous, polite, careless, clever, selfish, good.
• • • • It was good of you to lend me £5. It was very stupid of me to lose the money. It's very kind of him to lend us his car. It's very generous of you to let us stay.

49

EXERCISES

1. Escribe estas frases de otra manera, empezando como sigue. Example: This cake is easy to make. It's easy to make this cake. 1. The instructions were hard to follow 2. This bike is not safe to ride 3. A good hotel is hard to find in this town 4. A good grammar book is difficult to find 5. This road is dangerous to drive on 6. Some sentences are impossible to translate 7. These windows are hard to open 8. Petrol was impossible to find 9. Chairs are difficult to make 2. Usa las siguientes palabras para completar cada frase. first/arrive last/hand in last athlete /arrive next bus/arrive Example: The next bus to arrive will be the number 4. 1. Little Jimmy is always 2. Johnson was 3. Jeremy is a good pupil. He's always the exam papers. at the winning post. at school.

3. Haz frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: He lent me £5. (kind) It was very kind of him to lend me £5. 1. He answered 20 questions in 10 minutes, (clever) 2. She went out in this awful weather, (stupid) 3. He went round the world without any money, (silly) 4. Mr Brown paid us £100 for the picture, (generous) 5. Mr Clinton invited us to stay a few days with them, (nice) 6. He took me to the station in his car. (kind) 7. He didn't let us use his old green house, (mean) 8. Jimmy thanked the old man. (polite)

50

U N I T 22

If-Clauses (open and hypothetical)
• If you run you'll catch the train. • The dog will bite you if you pull its tail. En esta estructura el verbo de la oracion subordinada if esta en presente. El verbo de la oracion principal esta en future. No importa el orden en el que se escriban las dos oraciones. Este tipo de frase implica que la accion de la oracion subordinada de if, es muy probable. Variaciones: podemos sustituir el future por may/might (posibilidad).

a) If + present + may/might.
• If the rain gets heavier the race may be postponed. • If the fog gets thicker the plane might be diverted.

b) if + present + can/may (permiso o habilidad).
• If your papers are in order you may leave at once. • If it stops raining we can go out.

Hypothetical
• What would you do if you had a lot of money? • If I had a map I would lend it to you. Cuando nos imaginamos una situacion hipotetica asi, la oracion subordinada de if la ponemos en past tense, y la oracion principal en condicional. • If she lived nearer she would be in time for work. • If I were you I would buy some more food for the weekend. La oracion subordinada de if no suele ir en condicional, por regla general. • If you tried again you would succeed. • I would buy a new car if I had money. Sin embargo, algunas veces, si queremos expresarnos de una manera muy formal usamos if you would: • I would be grateful if you would send me more information. La oracion principal puede formarse con could y might: • If you tried again you might succeed. • If it stopped raining we could go out for a walk. Recordemos que el would se puede contraer a ('d). Y la forma negative a (wouldn't.) • I'd go if I could. • She wouldn't come if you asked her.

51

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en la forma correcta. Example: If I knew it / would tell you. 1. If you explained the situation he 2. What 3. If I had money I 5. Do you think he'd be angry if I asking? 6. If we didn't come they 7. They'd get a lot of money if 8. If the factory closed down many people 9. I would tell the police if somebody 10. If I knew he had no money I 11. What would you do if you 12. If I lived in London I 13. You wouldn't feel so bad if 14. If she stopped drinking she 15. They'd be angry if I (understand) it. (lend) it to you. (lose) the necklace. (take) his camera without (be) disappointed. (sell) the house. (have) to look for new jobs. (try) to rob me. (lend) him some. (win) the lottery? (visit) the museums. (stop) smoking. (feel) much healthier. (not/go) to the meeting.

(do) if you lost your job?

4. Your mother would be upset if you

2. Responde a las preguntas de la forma indicada. Example: Is Mark going to come to the party? If he came Peter would not go.

(he/come/Peter/not/go)

1. Is she going to take the driving test? (she/take/not/pass)
No, if

2. Are you going to tell John? (tell/John/be/angry)
No, if

3. Are you going to see the horror film? (I/not sleep)
No, if

4. Are you going to the doctor? (I/ have to take/lot/medicines)
No, if

5. Are you going to eat eggs? (I/eat/feel/ill)
No, if

6. Is he going to tell his mother? (he/tell/his father too)
No, if

7. Are they going to apply for the job? (they/not/get it)
No, if

U N I T 23

52

When-Clauses IF and WHEN
Usamos • • • el if cuando no estamos seguros de que algo vaya a suceder. I'll come to see you if I have time. We'll have the party outside if it doesn't rain. I'll leave the window open if it is hot.

Cuando se usa para hablar acerca de acontecimientos que tienen muchas probabilidades de suceder, o que estamos seguros de que van a suceder. • I'll see you next week when I come back. • When you wake up you'll be in Madrid. • 'What time will you phone?' 'I'll phone when I get home.' Estos dos tipos de frases, con when y con if, son frases de future. La oracion principal se pone en futuro con will: I will phone ... mientras que la subordinada con if o when, en ingles se pone en presente de indicative: when I get home. • When I finish with this you can have it. Lo mismo sucede con:

as soon as

• before

• after

• while • until

• Look after your grandmother while I'm away. • I'll wait for you until seven o'clock. • We'll go away as soon as I finish this business. A veces se puede usar tanto el presente como el preterito perfecto: • I'll let you know as soon as I finish / as soon as I have finished. • You'll see things differently after you have a drink /after you've had a drink. Hay que tener cuidado de no confundir when con if. Usa when para cosas que estas seguro de que sucederan. • I'll let you know when I see you again. Usa if cuando tienes dudas de que vaya a suceder algo: • I don't know, I may buy the car. If I make up my mind I'll let you know.

53

EXERCISES

1. Ron los verbos en la forma correcta: will/won't o presente. Example: If it rains (rain) tomorrow, we won't go out. 1. When you 2. She 3. I 4. If I 5. I 6. I hope she 7. Please 8. John, (get) up. (see) Peter you (feel) better after she (start) until you all (hurry) I (let) you know when I (be) late. (have) reached a decision. (get) to Bristol. (be) late. (not recognise) him. (have) a rest. (arrive)

(phone) me when she (not worry) about me if I (make) some breakfast as soon as you (be) out.

9. Look after the baby while I 10. If you 11. You 12.1 13. When I (study) hard you

(pass) your exams. (run) fast. (go) shopping.

(win) the race if you (buy) something for the cat when I

(finish) with the book you can have it.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que poner when o if. Example: I'd like to take you to the cinema but //you don't want to come I'll ask Mary. 1. I'm going on holiday. I'll phone you 2. We're buying a house. I'll let you know 3. I hope we'll finish in time 4. I'll go to see you 5. He's very good. I'd be surprised 6. I'll try to be there in time, but 7. My girlfriend will phone me today will you? 8. I think I'll buy something for the dog 9. I'll lock all the windows 10. I'll give you my new address 11. He's very clever. I'll be very surprised good job. 12. It's not raining very hard now. We'll go for a walk 13. I'm going to Rome next month friend. I get back. we have the keys.

we don't finish it I'll let you know. it's not too late. he doesn't get into the first team. I am not there by 7 don't wait for me. she does, take the message, I go to the shops.

I leave the office. I find somewhere to live. he doesn't get a the rain stops.

I get there I'll go to see my Italian

54

U N I T 24

Punctuation Apostrophe (')
1. Se usa con la s para indicar el genitive sajon o caso posesivo. • The dog's legs. • Peter's apple. • The students' books. 2. Se usa en abreviaciones para indicar las letras o cifras que se omiten. • I'm • He's • They'd • The spring of '68. 3. Se usa para formar el plural de una letra, cifra, o abreviacion. • He rolls his r's. • During the 60's. • All the VIP's.

Colon (:)
Se usa para introducir una lista de objetos: • His library consists of two books: The Bible' and 'A Desert Island'. A menudo introducen una frase entre comillas. • Oscar Wilde: 'I can resist anything except temptation.' Para presentar una serie de puntos. • The main points are as follows: first ... , second ..., and third ...

Comma (,)
Se usa para separar palabras, frases u oraciones: • Keep calm, concentrate, and take your time. Con palabras o frases que introducen oraciones: (however, therefore, by the way, for instance, on the contrary). • As it happened, however, I never saw him again. En frases de relative en las que se da una informacion adicional. • My grandfather, who is 80, goes running every day. Con las coletillas. • It's near, isn't it? - It was expensive, wasn't it?

Semi-colon (;)
Se usa en vez del punto, cuando las oraciones son independientes pero el significado esta relacionado. • It's a good idea; let's hope it works.

Conversation
• That's all I know,' said Tom. • Tom said, 'that's all I know.' • That,' said Pete, 'is all I know.' • 'Why?' asked John. A veces ocurre que tenemos unas comillas dentro de otras. • 'When the judge said: "not guilty," I could have kissed him.' Las exclamaciones e interrogaciones solo se ponen al final. • What a girl! • What's that? ''Never!' she cried.

55

EXERCISES

1. Escribe las siguientes frases con la puntuacion apropiada. Example: He picked up the book, examined it, then looked for the name of the author. 1. What wonderful news she cried 2. Hello she said 3. Good heavens thought Jane 4. This however is not the most difficult he thought 5. What shall I do if he says hello to me 6. Its quite expensive isnt it 7. Oh so thats what it was 8. When the man said stop I felt afraid 9. You havent spoken to the owners have you 10.This is all he said said Nick 11 .These are the mens jackets she said 12. She lives in Bristol doesnt she 13. Why asked her mother 14.Thats wonderful she cried 15. We need three kinds of support economic political and moral 16. Some people work better in the mornings others do better in the evenings 17. My father however is determined to continue 18. Im going to visit France Spain Italy and Switzerland he said 19. Mrs Grant who was sitting behind the desk gave me a big smile 20. Is that blouse yours or Janes 21. You havent seen her yet have you 22. Ours is the most difficult isnt it 23. Hello how are you she said 24. Oh dear that springboard looks very dangerous to me. 25. Peter do you think she will be all right 26. What can he be looking for Mary 27. It is quite good is not it 28. Thats what she wanted to know isnt it

56

U N I T 25

Verbs With Adverb Particles (Phrasal verbs)
En el ingles moderno es muy corriente colocar preposiciones o adverbios detras de ciertos verbos, con lo que se obtiene un significado diferente: give away, give up, look after, look for, look out. Las partfculas adverbiales y preposiciones mas frecuentes son: in-on-off-out-up-away-down-over-about-back-forward-along-through-round Generalmente usamos estas partfculas con verbos de movimiento. • • • • The The The The two boys ran away from home. huge man turned round with a start. red car drove off at great speed. door was locked. We couldn't get out.

A menudo estas partfculas le dan al verbo un significado diferente. • • • • The washing machine has broken down. How are you getting on with your French? This morning I got up very late. The plane took off twenty minutes late.

A estos verbos (break down, get on, take off, etc.) se les llama phrasal verbs*. A veces los phrasal verbs tienen complemento directo. Hay entonces dos posiciones posibles para el complemento directo. • He opened the door and let out the dog / let the dog out. Mas ejemplos. • • • • Could you clear away these papers / clear these papers away? Why don't you take off your shoes? / take your shoes off? You have to fill in this form / fill this form in. They're going to cut off our water supply / cut our water supply off.

A veces el complemento directo de la frase es un pronombre (me/you/him/her/it/ us/them). Estos pronombres se ponen delante de la particula adverbial on/off/in/ out/up/down/away etc. • • • • • Take a bottle and fill it up. 'Is the bank going to close this branch?' 'Yes, they're closing it down.' Look at this mess. Clear it up. I started last in the race but I soon caught them up. 'Shall I call the men?' 'Yes, call them up.'

*Consultar el libro "Guide to Phrasal Verbs" de esta misma editorial.

57

EXERCISES

1. Completa las frases usando uno de los 'phrasal verbs' que se dan a continuacion. bring up, break down, break up, call up, find out, get away, fill in, give up, look out, make up, put off, run over, see off. Example: The orphan was brought up by the nuns. 1. My car I'm afraid. I came by taxi.

2. Did you see the two men who ran to catch the train? Well, they only came to me 3. The poor dog was 4. The match will have to be 5. Why don't you take a decision? 6 7. At last they 8. I had to 9. The meeting 10.1 should like to 11. The dog 12. In Spain men are military service. ! A car is coming! all hope of finding him alive. three forms to get my passport. in confusion. from all this for a few days. the way to open the door. at the age of18. They are summoned for by a lorry. due to the snow. your mind.

2. Ahora vas a completar las frases tal como pone en el ejemplo. Example: I was told to catch up with the others, so / caught them up. 1. I was told to bring up the children well, so I 2. I was told to burn down the building, so I 3. We were told to blow up the bridges, so we 4. I was told to break the door down, so I 5. I was told to let in the children, so I 6. I was told to pick up the toys, so I 7. She was told to put her papers away, so she 8. He was told to turn on the TV, so he 9. I was told to ring the boys up, so I 10.The doctor told him to give up drinking, so he 11. I was told to write down the instructions, so I 12. My mother told me to take off my coat, so I 13. She told me not to wake up the baby, sol 14. He told me to drink up the glass of water, so I 15. She asked me to put the bucket down, so I 16. He ordered me to lift up the stool, so I

58

U N I T 26

Time Prepositions
1. At: at dawn - at midnight - at seven - at 10.15.
• I always come home at six o'clock. Expresiones de tiempo con at. at at at at at at the age of ... Christmas / at Easter the same time the weekend the moment night • • • • • • He joined the forces at the age of 19. He always comes to see us at Christmas. Both horses arrived at the same time. I'll be here at the weekend. Things are difficult at the moment. We never go out at night in this town.

2. On: on Monday - on 15 May - on Saturday evenings - on arrival.
• they got married on the 17th of April. • I always go out on Friday evenings. • We all meet on Christmas day.

3. In se usa para perfodos de tiempo mas largos (meses, ahos etc.).
in May - in1990 - in summer - in the 20's • in the Middle Ages. • We first met in 1980. • in the 20th century. • He became president in 1992.

4. Usamos in con partes del dia.
In the morning (s) - In the afternoon (s) - In the evening (s) • I'll see you in the morning. • We'll come in the afternoon. Sin embargo, decimos on Saturday mornings. • I'll be back on Friday morning. Con last y next no usamos at/on/in. • I'll see you again next Sunday. • We met last December. • I'll come again next Christmas. Cuando hablamos de un perfodo de tiempo en el futuro usamos in. In a few minutes. • We'll be leaving in a few minutes. In two weeks. • I'll finish writing my story in two weeks. In four months. • Your father will be back in four months. Con estas expresiones de tiempo a menudo usamos 's. • We will be leaving in a few minutes' time. • I'll finish writing my story in two weeks' time. • Your father will be back in four months' time.

59

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases. Usa at, on, o in con una de las frases que van a continuacion. the 1960s • the age of six • night • 13th • April 1912 • the moment the evening Sundays • 19th century • 1945 weekends • Saturday evenings • the same time Example: Sometimes I don't sleep well at night. 1. World War II ended 2. My father never works 3. Both runners arrived 4. The industrial revolution took place 5. The Beatles became famous 6. I started school 7. The Titanic sank 8. I always sleep late 9. We often watch TV 10. She's very busy 11. People like going out 2. Pon las preposiciones correctas: at, on, o in. Example: They open at 9.15. 1. The phone and the doorbell rang 2 3. He is to be shot 4. She will return 5 6. I like to sleep late 7. I'll take a few days' holiday 8. We got married 9. In fact we got married 10. He left school 11. It'll be ready 12. You can retire 13. We met 15. She learnt to drive 16 17. It's the first time I have smoked 18.1 haven't seen him years. 14. I didn't know he was dead a week. the age of 60 if you like. a sunny day three weeks. ten days. August. the time of speaking. May the first. the evening of May the first. the age of sixteen. dawn. a few minutes. night you can see the stars. Sundays. Easter. the same time.

the beginning of a book there is a table of contents.

the moment you called I was in the garden shed.

60

U N I T 27 End Position Of Prepositions
Las preposiciones normalmente preceden a los nombres o pronombres. Sin embargo, en dos construcciones se puede poner la preposicion al final de la frase en ingles coloquial. 1. En las preguntas que empiezan con una preposicion + whom/which/what/ whose/where: • • • • To whom were you talking? (formal) Whom/who were you talking to? (informal) In which drawer do you keep it? (formal) Which drawer do you keep it in? (informal)

Antfguamente se consideraba una falta gramatical el terminar la frase con una preposicion, pero hoy en dia se acepta como cosa normal, sobre todo coloquialmente. 2. De la misma manera, en las oraciones de relative una preposicion que se coloca delante de whom/which se puede poner al final de la oracion. En ese caso se omite el pronombre relative: • • • • The people with whom I was travelling, (formal) The people I was travelling with, (informal) The company from which I hired the car. (formal) The company I hired my car from, (informal)

Sin embargo, en los 'phrasal verbs' la preposicion o adverbio se mantiene detras del verbo, asf que no se puede hacer una construccion formal de este tipo de frase. • The children she was looking after. No se podrfa escribir (after whom) • Which bridge did you blow up? no se podrfa escribir (up which)

Mas ejemplos:
Informal
• • • • Who/whom are you going with? What are you looking at? Who/whom should I apply to? Which town will you live in? • • • •

Formal
With whom are you going? At what are you looking? To whom should I apply? In which town will you live?

A veces hacemos preguntas cortas con preposiciones: • I'm off on holiday tomorrow. • Where to? • Can you mix these two? • What with? • I'm going out this evening. • Who with?

61

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio vas a convertir frases 'formales' en 'informales'. Example: From where are you? Where are you from? 1. From where is that vase? 2. From which country do you come? 3. For whom did you buy it? 4. With whom are you going to travel? 5. For whom are you working? 6. To whom are you listening? 7. On what does your father insist? 8. About what were you talking? 9. From where did you buy that? 10. About whom are you speaking? 11. In which pocket did you put it? 12. From which company did you hire the TV set? 13. In which school did you study? 14. This is the man to whom I gave the map 2. Ahora vas a hacer lo contrario. Example: This is the job I applied for. This is the job for which I applied. 1. That's the man I talked to 2. Who where you speaking about? 3. What should we talk about? 4. What shall I beat these eggs with? 5. Who is this parcel for? 6. Is that the company you hired the car from? 7. Who are you looking at? 8. Who did you go out with? 9. Where is she from? 10. Those are the people I was travelling with. 11. This is the company I want to work with. 12.That's the house I'd like to live in. 13. Where is she speaking from? 14. I'm going away. - Who with?

62

U N I T 28

Verb + Object + Infinitive
Cuando en espanol tenemos una frase subordinada de subjuntivo con verbos que expresan orden, ruego, mandato, suplica, ie: quiero que vengas, tenemos que recurrir a lo que en ingles se llama: El infinitive no concertado (verbo + complemento + infinitivo). • I want him to come. - quiero que el venga. Primero: traducimos la frase principal: I want. Segundo: omitimos la conjuncion que. Tercero: ponemos el sujeto de la frase subordinada en acusativo: him. Cuarto: ponemos el subjuntivo espanol en infinitivo: to come. • She wanted me to come. - Ella querfa que yo viniera. • He told me to go. - El me dijo que me fuera. • I asked Peter to sit down. - Pedi a Pedro que se sentara. Los verbos mas corrientes para este tipo de frases son: Tell, order, invite, warn, force, like, ask, want, expect, teach. • He expects me to visit him. El espera que yo Ie visite. • I didn't tell him to go. Yo no Ie dije que se fuera. • I told her not to come. l_e dije a ella que no viniera. • Do you want me to go? ^Quieres que me vaya? Con los verbos: allow, permit, recommend, encourage, hay dos estructuras posibles:

Verbo + gerundio
• I don't allow smoking in this office. • I would advise going to that restaurant.

Verbo + objeto + to + infinitivo
• I don't allow anyone to smoke in this office. • I would advise you to go to that restaurant.

Make y let
Estos dos verbos tienen la estructura de verbo + objeto + infinitivo (sin to): • You made her feel terrible. Le hiciste sentirse muy mat. • She made me do it again. Me oblige a hacerlo otra vez. • He'll make you come on Sunday. Te hara venir el domingo. Con los verbos de percepcion: see, watch, feel, hear, se puede usar la estructura verbo + objeto + infinitivo (sin to). Cuando la accion del verbo es rapida: • I heard him walk to the door. • She saw him run across the street. Pero si la accion tiene lugar durante un periodo de tiempo se usa el gerundio: • I heard the rain falling down all night. • She watched the children playing in the park.

63

EXERCISES

1. Escribe una frase con las palabras que te dan. Example: I want/he/sit down / want him to sit down. 1. She/want/l/go away 2. I would/ like/she/do it at once 3. They/ask/we/go to their party 4. He order/the soldiers/open/fire 5. I would like/the children/come with us 6. I don't want/they/smoke/in the house 7. She didn't ask/l/stay 8. I wouldn't like/they/go 9. She invited/they/have dinner 10. He told/they/not open/ the door 2. Pon estas frases bien en gerundio, bien en infinitive. Example:! don't allow smoking in my office. I don't allow anybody to smoke in my office. 1. Doctors don't encourage 2. The teachers encouraged him 3. She advised the children not 4. Permit me 5. I don't recommend 6. She recommended us 7. They don't allow 8. She advised me (eat) too much. (study) more. (open) the door to anybody. (help) you, madam. (go) to that restaurant. (stay) at this hotel. (smoke) in public places. (tell) the police.

3. Usa infinitive o gerundio con los verbos de 'sensacion' y let y make. Example:! heard him lock the door. 1. I saw her 2. I heard the children 3. She made the child 4. We watched the boys 5. I felt his knee 6. She watched him 7. I heard the rain 8. She let him 9. Hot weather makes me (enter) the house. (shout) in the street. (wash) his face. (play) football. (hit) my chin. (go) into the pub. (fall) down all night. (sit) next to her. (feel) uncomfortable.

64

U N I T 29

Can Could permission and possibility
A. Posibilidad en general.
El sujeto + can puede significar 'it is possible' (es diferente de may): • We can ski on this slope today. (Hay bastante nieve.) • You can't swim in this river because of the piranhas. (No es seguro. • You can get to the top in one day. (Es posible hacerlo.)

B. Posibilidad ocasional.
Can puede expresar tambien una posibilidad ocasional: • Cycling can be dangerous. (A veces lo es, a veces no.) • The English Channel can be very rough. (A veces lo es.) Could se usa con el mismo sentido en el pasado: • He could be very stubborn. (A veces era testarudo.)

Could como alternativa de may/might.
A. Could be se puede usar en vez de may/might be:
• I wonder where Jim is. - He may/might/could be in the library. (Perhaps he is in the library.- Puede que este en la biblioteca) De la misma manera cuando be es parte de un infinitive continue: • I wonder why Jim isn't here! - He may/might/could still be waiting for a bus. (Perhaps he is still waiting for a bus.- Puede que este todavfa esperando ) Sin embargo, en la forma negativa el significado es diferente entre could y may/might. • She may/might not be driving the car herself, (probablemente no) • She couldn't be driving the car herself, (es imposible) • He may/might not be the thief, (probablemente no) • He couldn't be the thief, (es imposible)

B. Las formas interrogativa/negativas can't I? couldn't I? se usan para mostrar que el que habla espera una respuesta afirmativa:
• Can't I stay up till the end of the programme? • Couldn't I pay by cheque? • Can't you speak a bit louder. May y might no se pueden usar de esta manera.

65

EXERCISES

1. Haz frases con el mismo significado usando can y could. Example: There is enough snow to ski on the hills. You can ski on the hills. 1. There is enough water to swim in that pool.

2. It is not safe to bathe here on account of the sharks. 3. It is possible to get to the top of the mountain in one day.

4. Sometimes measles are very dangerous.

5. It is possible for the straits of Dover to be very rough.

6. Sometimes he is very unreasonable.

2. Ahora vamos a escribir una frase indicando la imposibilidad de lo que se pregunta. Example: Jack might be driving the car. Impossible, it couldn't be Jack. 1. 'Do you think the bank might make a mistake?' 'Impossible, 2. 'I think I saw the plane in the fog.' 'Impossible, would have heard the engines'. 3. 'I think I saw John on his bike'. 'Impossible, He's dead'. 4. 'He might be waiting for us at the station'. 'Impossible, He didn't know we were coming'. 3. Ahora termina la frase con una peticion de permiso, esperando que te digan que si. Example: This is a nice programme. Can't I stay up till the end of the programme? 1. I haven't got any money 2. It's very late and we're in a hurry 3. I haven't finished reading this book (read/something else)? 4. I'm using my car tonight 5. It's not advisable to go by car to the City (go/underground)? (use/Tom's car)? (pay/cheque)? (go/taxi)? '.

66

U N I T 30

Could (do)

Could Have (done)

Usamos could de muchas maneras. A veces es el pasado de can, pero a veces tiene un significado presente o future. A menudo usamos could para hablar acerca de acciones futuras, sobre todo cuando hacemos sugerencias: • 'What shall we do next Sunday?' 'We could go to the beach.' • When you go to London you could stay with your aunt. Tambien se puede usar can en este tipo de frases. Aunque could indica una sugerencia mas remota, "podrfamos".... Tambien usamos could para hablar acerca de posibles sucesos futures: • You could get another rise in your wages soon. A veces could significa would be able to. • Why don't you apply for the post? You could get it, you know. • I don't know how he trains 10 hours a day. I couldn't do it. El pasado de could es could have. Usamos could have para decir que tuvimos la habilidad o la oportunidad de hacer algo pero que no lo hicimos: • • • • 'Why didn't you run the marathon?' 'I could have run but I decided not to.' Why did you climb that tree? You could have fallen. It was not very wise to go to Scotland without a coat. It could have rained. You were lucky when you fell off the tree. You could have hurt yourself.

Ahora veremos algunos ejemplos de couldn't have. I couldn't have done it. = No podri'a haberlo hecho. • She asked me to stay with them in London. I told them I was going to Scotland. I couldn't have stayed with them anyway. • The tennis match was postponed because of the weather. He couldn't have played anyway. He wasn't feeling well. • He didn't take the driving test. It's just the same because he couldn't have passed it. He's not prepared for it yet.

67

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer sugerencias. Example: What shall we do next Saturday? We could have a party. 1. What shall I give my wife for Christmas? (a necklace) 2. When shall we go and visit him in hospital? (Saturday)

We
3. What shall we have for dinner on Sunday? (lamb) 4. What shall we do tomorrow if it rains? (cinema)

2. Ahora usa could have. Responde las preguntas como en el ejemplo. Example: Did you go to the Costa Brava? No, we could have gone but we decided not to go. 1. Did you buy a new house? No, we 2. Did he take the driving test? No, he 3. Did you go to the theatre last Saturday? No, we 3. En este ejercicio tienes que responder a las preguntas con could o could have. Example: She doesn't want to take a holiday. Although she could take one now. 1. She didn't want to come with us. Although 2. My father doesn't want to lend us any money. Although 3. She didn't want to tell us anything. Although 4. They don't want to tell us where it is. Although 4. En este ejercicio vas a responder de forma negativa usando couldn't have (done). Example: She wanted him to wait for her at the station. But he couldn't have waited for her at the station because he had an accident. 1. She wanted him to repair her bicycle. But even if he had wanted to, he because he was working late. 2. Jim wanted his friend to lend him some money. But even if he had wanted to, he because he was broke 3. He wanted Susan to do a job for him. But even if Susan had wanted to she because she was very busy.

68

U N I T 31

May and Might

(puede y podria)

Estudiemos este ejemplo:
Estas buscando el chaqueton. Nadie sabe donde esta. He aqui algunas sugerencias: • It may be in the wardrobe, (puede que este) • It might be at the cleaner's, (podrfa estar) • Ask your mother. She might know, (podria saberlo) Usamos may y might para decir que algo es posible. No hay una diferencia muy importante entre may y might. Puedes decir tanto: • He may be at home como • He might be at home. La forma negativa es may not y might not (mightn't). • He might not be at home, (podria no estar/quiza no este) • I don't know if he'll repair the bike for you. He may not have time. (quiza no tenga/puede que no tenga)

Observa esta estructura:
• She may be in the kitchen. • I/you/he/they might (not) be having/doing etc. • I/you/he/they may know/have/do, etc. Para decir lo que era posible en el pasado, usamos may have done y might have done • 'I don't understand why she didn't come with us.' • 'Well, she may have been busy.' • 'It's hard to understand why she didn't take a holiday.' • She might have had a lot of work. • 'She couldn't find her coat anywhere.' • She might have left it in the park. Con todo este tipo de frases se podrfa usar tambien could en vez de may o might. Pero con could la posibilidad es mas pequena. • 'Where's your father?' 'I don't know. He could be in his office I suppose. But don't really know.'

69

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que hacer frases con may y might. Unas estan en presente. Otras en pasado. Example: Do you know if your mother is at home? Well, she may be in the kitchen. 1. 'Do you know if she likes travelling?' 'I'm not sure. She 2. 'Do you know if Jimmy has a bicycle?' 'I don't know. He 3. 'Do you think he's telling the truth?' 'I'm not sure. He 4. 'Do you think it was serious?' 'No, but it 5. 'Do you know if he was watching the programme?' 'No, but he 6. 'Is he in his office?' 'Well, he He's probably at home by now.' 7. 'Is Jim telling the truth?' 'Well, he I think he is lying. 8. 'Did he tell anyone?' 'No, but he many people.' 2. Forma frases completas usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: Your mother is not here. She (might/go/supermarket) She might have gone to the supermarket. 1. It's five o'clock and Peter hasn't turned up yet. (he/might/go/somewhere else) 2. How did the fire start? (someone/may/drop/a cigarette) 3. I wonder where Jack has gone with that girl, (he/may/go/theatre) 4. I wonder where I left my bag. (you/may/leave/it/in the shop) 5. She didn't come to the meeting. I wonder why? (she/might/not/know/about it) 6. He didn't turn up to the tennis match. I wonder why. (he/might/feel ill) 7. She didn't say 'hello' to us. I wonder why. (she/might/be angry with us)

70

U N I T 32

MUST (have)

CANT (have)

Must es un verbo defective que se traduce por debe. • This cyclist won the Tour, so he must be good. • This boy is playing basketball, so he must be very tall. Usamos must cuando queremos decir que algo es verdad. • She's been working all day. She must be tired. • He's running a marathon next month. He must be training hard. • This man's pictures sell for a lot of money. He must be a good artist. Decimos can't para decir que creemos que algo es imposible: • You've just drank a pint of beer. You can't be thirsty already. • You've just started writing the story. You can't have finished already.

Observa esta estructura:
• You/he etc. must be hungry/thirsty/tired etc. • You/he can't be waiting/doing etc. • You/he/must go/do/stay etc. Para formar el pasado usamos must have (done) y can't have (done). Fijate: • He phoned his girlfriend, but nobody answered the phone. 'She must have gone shopping', he thought. • That man walked into a tree. He can't have been looking where he was going. • She ran downstairs. She must have heard the noise downstairs. • I didn't hear you coming in last night. I must have been asleep. • He didn't pass the exam. It must have been very hard.

Fijate en la estructura:
• You/he etc. must have been tired/asleep/mad etc. • Can't have been watching/looking etc. Se puede usar couldn't have (done) en vez de can't have (done). El significado es: "No pudo/podfa haber ..." • He couldn't have done it so fast. • He couldn't have been watching the match.

71

EXERCISES

1. Complete estas frases usando must (have) o can't (have) Example: 'Is she happy?' 'Yes, she must be very happy. 1. 'Is she waiting for somebody?' 'Yes, she 2. 'Was he driving slowly?' 'No, he 3. 'Have they published many books?' 'No, they 4. 'Did Jerry know about us?' 'Yes, he 5. 'Did she know many people?' 'Yes, she 6. 'Does she know many people?' 'Yes, she 7. 'Are they in a hurry?' 'Yes, they 8. 'Were they in a hurry?' 'Yes, they 9. 'Was he serious about her?' 'No, he 10. 'Were they in love?' 'Yes, they 2. Completa estas frases usando must o can't + un verbo apropiado. Example: He's been running for two hours. He must be tired. 1. Mr. Brown is taking his umbrella. He 2. She seems to know a lot about films. She a lot of films. 3. I wonder why Rhon didn't come to school today. He 4. I wonder who is making all this noise outside. It be the children. It's only four o'clock. 5. They live in a big mansion. They a lot of money. out. seen

3. Ahora vas a usar las palabras entre parentesis para formar frases. Example:The doorbell rang but he didn't hear it. (he/must/be/asleep) He must have been asleep. 1. I just don't understand how the driver went up a one-way street, (he/can't/see/sign) 2. When she woke up the television set was on. (she/must/forget/turn it off) 3. He went by without saying 'hello', (he/can't/see/me) 4. I wonder where my bag is. (you/must/leave/in the supermarket) 5. I haven't seen that boy for ages, (he/must/go/away) 6. He knew all about us. (he/must/be/spying us) 7. That gold watch looks expensive, (it/must/be/good/quality)

72

U N I T 33

Present Simple and Progressive Passive
Present simple passive: am/is/are + told/done etc.
Active: Passive: Active: Passive: Active: Passive: • • • • • • My mother washes the dishes every day. • The dishes are washed by my mother every day. • Mr Grant cuts the lawn every Saturday. • The lawn is cut by Mr Grant every Saturday. • Lorries often run over dogs and cats. • Dogs and cats are often run over by lorries.

Many promises are made by politicians. Incidents are often caused by hooligans. I'm never invited to parties. Many people are killed on the roads every day. Fights are often started by people like him.

Present progressive passive: am/is/are being told/done etc.
Active: Passive: Active: Passive: Active: Passive: • • • • • • My mother is washing the dishes at the moment. • The dishes are being washed by my mother at the moment. • Mr. Grant is cutting the lawn at the moment. • The lawn is being cut by Mr Grant at the moment. • Lucy is closing the windows. • The windows are being closed by Lucy.

The road is being pulled up by the workmen. The old building is being knocked down. The food is being cooked at the moment. The piece of news is being spread at the moment. That customer is being served by the shop assistant.

73

EXERCISES

1. Ron estas frases en voz pasiva. ExampleiThis woman cleans my room every day. My room is cleaned by this woman every day. 1. Many people read this notice 2. People often buy presents 3. The police arrest many criminals 4. My mother cooks the food every day 5. Jane does the shopping every morning 2. Ahora pon estas frases en voz activa. Example: Matches are often cancelled because of the snow. They often cancel matches because of the snow. 1. Plans are often made by the Town Council 2. Food is never served cold in this restaurant 3. This old track is not used very often 4. Presents are always given at Christmas 3. Ahora pon estas frases en pasiva. Example: My mother is cleaning the kitchen at the moment. The kitchen is being cleaned by my mother at the moment. 1. They are pulling that house down. 2. The shop assistant is serving Mrs Grey. 3. They are holding up the traffic due to an accident. 4. They are bandaging his wound in the hospital. 5. They are painting the outside at the moment.

4. Pon estas frases en voz activa. Example: That old tree is being cut down. They are cutting that old tree down. 1. A new motorway is being built around the town. 2. A new president is being elected at the moment. 3. We are being followed by somebody. 4. All the toys are being broken by that child.

74

U N I T 34

Past Simple Passive
Past simple was/were + made/done/cleaned etc.
Active: Passive: Active: Passive: Active: Passive: • Somebody stole my wallet. • My wallet was stolen by somebody. • The cat drank the milk. • The milk was drunk by the cat. • The maid cleaned the room. • The room was cleaned by the maid.

Recuerda ...
... que en teorfa una frase que contenga un complemento directo e indirecto, tal como somebody gave him a present, podrfa tener dos formas pasivas: • He was given a present. • A present was given to him.

La primera de las dos formas es mucho mas corriente. El complemento indirecto generalmente se convierte en el sujeto del verbo en pasiva. A menudo se emplea la voz pasiva para evitar frases que no suenan muy bien en activa. Esto se hace generalmente evitando un cambio de sujeto: • When she arrived home the police arrested her. Se podrfa expresar mejor: • When she arrived home she was arrested by the police. • When Mrs Brent was ill her neighbour looked after the children. Se podrfa expresar mejor: • When Mrs Brent was ill the children were looked after by her neighbour. La voz pasiva a veces se prefiere por razones psicologicas. For ejemplo, para anuncios desagradables: • Wages are being reduced. • Wages were reduced.

La activa, por supuesto, se usa para dar noticias agradables. • We are going to increase wages.

75

EXERCISES

1. Pon estas frases en voz pasiva. Example: That man stole my bicycle. My bicycle was stolen by that man. 1. They changed all the dates 2. The Council bought a new building 3. They opened a new library to the public 4. The terrorists murdered the Minister 5. They swept the streets every day 6. He washed the car every Saturday 7. The detectives arrested him 8. We looked after their child during their holiday. 9. They shot the president 10.They met the girl at the station 11 .They took the injured to hospital 12.The maid made the beds 13. Velazquez painted "Las Meninas" 14. My grandfather wrote this book 2. Ahora pon estas frases en voz activa. Example: These men were arrested by the police. The police arrested these men. 1. All flights are cancelled 2. All these people were invited 3. Some of these things were done by them. 4. My brother was bitten by that dog 5. This man was accused of stealing money. 6. Peter was robbed by some hooligans 7. My house was broken into last night 8. These holes were made by these men. . . . 9. My office was repapered last week 10. The accident was seen by many people. . 11. My bicycle was stolen last week 12. That car was sold yesterday 13. She was given a dog as a present

U N I T 35

76

Present and Past Participles
El participio presente tiene la misma forma que el gerundio: sitting, working, loving.

Uso:
1. Para formar tiempos continues: • She is working. • You've been reading. 2. Como adjetivos: • watering eyes. • dripping taps. • sweating hands.

3. Puede reemplazar a un pronombre relative + verbo: • A car that came up the hill. = A car coming up the hill. • A child who needs care. = A child needing care. • The road that joins the two towns. = The road joining the two towns. • The men that investigate the robbery. = The men investigating the robbery. 4. Detras de algunos verbos como los de sensacion (siempre que la accion sea incompleta): • I saw her changing the wheel. • I heard him singing in the bathroom. • She watched the children playing all afternoon. El participio pasado de los verbos regulares se forma anadiendo ed o d al infinitive: worked, loved, lived. Para el participio de los verbos irregulares vease la lista de verbos irregulares en el apendice.

Uso:
1. Como adjetivo: • broken glass. • written instructions. 2. Para formar la voz pasiva: • The bicycle was stolen • tired woman. • spoken words. • fallen branches.

• The vase was broken by the maid.

3. El participio pasado puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo pasivo lo mismo que un participio presente puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo active: • She came. She was accompanied by her father. = She came, accompanied by her father. • As he was convinced that they were going to kill him, he refused to move. = Convinced that they were going to kill him, he refused to move.

EXERCISES

77

1. En este ejercicio tienes que volver a escribir las frases usando el participio presente. Example: The car that comes this way is my father's. The car coming this way is my father's. 1. The man that stood outside was my uncle. 2. The men who investigate the crime are detectives. 3. A plane that carried 150 people crashed into the jungle. 4. Some paintings that belonged to the Duke were stolen yesterday. 5. Can you hear those people that are singing downstairs? 6. I live in a noisy room that overlooks the main street. 7. This is the bridge that joins the two countries. 8. Do you know the girl who is talking to your father?

2. En este ejercicio tienes que unir estas dos frases usando el participio pasado. Example: The girl was injured in the crash. She was taken to hospital. The girl injured in the crash was taken to hospital. 1. The shoes are made in this factory. Most of them are exported. 2. The money was stolen in the bank. The money was never found. 3. The bridge was weakened by the storm. The bridge collapsed. 4. He was convinced they were trying to poison him. He refused to eat. 5. She was aroused by the crash. She leapt to her feet. 6. The pictures were stolen last year. The pictures haven't been found yet. 7. There was a big yellow lorry. The lorry was parked in front of the house.

78

U N I T 36

Reflexive / Emphatic Pronouns
Los pronombres reflexives son: Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. • I wash myself every morning. • She often cuts herself. En ingles existen muchos menos verbos reflexives que en castellano, asi no son reflexives verbos como levantarse, volverse, sentarse, equivocarse, tumbarse, sentirse, concentrarse, relajarse, encontrarse. • I get up early. • I feel terrible this morning. • She sits down. • Don't lie down yet.

Usamos un verbo reflexive cuando el sujeto y el objeto son el mismo. • The old woman was talking to herself. • We enjoyed ourselves very much at the party. Los verbos reflexives mas comunes en ingles son: wash, enjoy, kill, cut, hurt, dress, amuse. • She killed herself in a car accident. • The children enjoy themselves playing with that. Muchos verbos que son reflexives en castellano, en ingles se traducen por get tired, get away, get near, etc. • • • • He gets tired easily. He gets away very often. She is getting old fast. Why don't you get ready?

Importante:
No confundir themselves con each other. • The two girls stood in front of the mirror and looked at themselves, (se miraron a si mismas) • The two girls looked at each other, (se miraron una a la otra) • The two boys don't like each other, (no se aprecian) Los pronombres enfaticos son los mismos que los pronombres personales: • The Queen herself gave him the medal. • Mr Smith himself opened the door. Mas ejemplos de pronombres enfaticos: • 'Who repaired the radio for you?' 'Nobody. I fixed it myself. • I'm not going to do it for you. You can do it yourself.

79

EXERCISES

1. Completa estas frases usando los pronombres reflexives con estos verbos. cut, hurt, shave, burn, look after, blame, amuse, dress, kill. Example: Jim cut himself with the knife this morning. 1. The poor man 2. The little girl can't jumping from the top floor. yet.

3. 'Did they have a good time?' 'Yes, they 4. You can't 5. Please 6. I for everything that goes wrong. Don't let anything happen to you. with the fire this morning. in the bathroom. if you fall from the top of the ladder. playing with that knife.

7. He likes to sing when he 8. You can 9. You'll

2. Usa los pronombre enfaticos en las siguientes frases. Example: 'Who did that for you?' 'Nobody, I did it myself.' 1. 'Can you post these letters for me?' 'Why don't you 2. 'Shall I carry that case for you?' 'No, I'll 3. 'Shall we ask the decorator to paint the house?' 'No, let's it will be cheaper'. 4. She wants to see the letter 5. The film , not a photocopy. was very bad. I liked the music though. ' ' ?'

6. Tell your secretary to type the letter.' 'No, I'll 7. The old Queen 8. Boys, help 9. 'Who opened the door?' 'Anne 10.1 liked the diamond 11. I spoke to the President 12. 'Who told you she is getting married?' 'Marian 13. I went to see the headmaster 14. The boss went to see what happened. gave me the trophy. to the cake. opened it.' but not the setting.

told me.

80

U N I T 37

Relative Pronouns and Clauses
Defining relative clauses: personas.
Las oraciones de relative describen el sustantivo precedente. • The man who told me this lives next door.(la oracion de relative nos dice que clase de hombre) • The people who live in this village ... (la oracion de relative nos dice que clase de gente)

A. Sujeto. Generalmente se usa who para personas.
• The boy who stole the bicycle has been caught. • The girls who work in the supermarket are very efficient. Aunque that es una alternativa posible para all, everybody, everyone, no one, nobody y those: • Everyone who/that talked to her liked her. • Nobody who/that came that day will forget it.

B. Objeto de un verbo: whom o who o that.
Whom es la forma correcta, pero hoy en di'a se considera muy formal, y coloquialmente usamos who o that, y todavia es mas corriente omitir el pronombre relative: • This is the man whom I saw yesterday, (formal) • This is the man who I saw ... o the man that I saw ... o the man I saw ...

C. Con una preposicion: whom o that.
En ingles gramatical la preposicion se coloca delante del relative el cual se debe entonces poner bajo la forma de whom: • This is the man to whom I spoke. En ingles coloquial, sin embargo, se pone la preposicion al final de la frase. Whom entonces se reemplaza por that, pero es mas corriente omitirlo: • The man who/whom I spoke to ... o the man that I spoke to ... o the man I spoke to. • The girl who/that I was travelling with ... o The girl I was travelling with ...

D. Posesivo: Whose es la unica forma posible:
• This is the man whose son is so clever. • Those are the people whose properties have been confiscated. • That is the girl whose parents are so rich.

81

EXERCISES

1. Junta las dos frases en una de relativo. Example: The man robbed the bank. The man has been arrested. The man who robbed the bank has been arrested. 1. Everyone liked him. Everyone knew him. 2. The people live in London. The people are called Londoners. 3. I saw the man. The man told me to come back today. 4. I spoke to that girl. That is the girl. 5. I know a lot of people. They live in this village.

2. Las frases "formales" que tienes a continuacion pasalas a "informales." Ron entre parentesis lo que se puede omitir. Example: That's the woman to whom I spoke. That's the woman (who/whom/that) I spoke to. 1. The boy with whom I was travelling spoke Italian. 2. The man from whom I bought the radio-cassette was very suspicious. 3. The people for whom he works are always complaining. 4. That's the man to whom she gave the parcel. 5. Mr. Grant is the man to whom the house belonged.

3. Rellena los huecos con who whom o whose. Example: Those are the people whose houses were destroyed. 1. The man 2. That's the man 3. That's the girl to 4. The girls 5. Will anyone 6. The people
*•

stole your wallet has been arrested. wife has run away with a friend. I spoke on the phone. serve in that shop are very pretty. saw what happened please ring this phone number. houses were flooded are in the church. speaks four languages. father is so tall. I belong,' said the slave.

7. That's the girl 8. Those are the children 9. That's the man to

82

U N I T 38

Defining Relative Clauses: Things
A. Sujeto: Se usa, o bien which o that. Which es mas formal. • This is the book which/that caused such a sensation. • The corridor which/that leads to the library is carpeted. B. Objeto de un verbo: Which o that, u omision del relativo: • That is the car which/that ran over the cat. Which casi nunca se usa despues de all, everything, little, much, none, no,o despues de superlatives. Usamos, o bien that o lo omitimos si es complemento del verbo: • All the fruit (that) falls is eaten by the animals. • This is the best restaurant (that) I know. C. Objeto de una preposicion La construccion formal es preposicion + which, pero es mas corriente poner la preposicion al final de la oracion, usando which o that u omitiendo el relativo: • The stool on which I was sitting was unsafe. • The stool which/that I was sitting on was unsafe. • The stool I was sitting on was unsafe. D. Possessive:

Cuando nos referimos a objetos se puede usar whose + oracion. Sin embargo, es mas corriente usar with + phrase. • That's the house whose roof is green, (posible) • That's the house with the green roof, (mas corriente) E. Los adverbios relatives: where, when, why En frases que se refieren a tiempo when puede reemplazar a in/on which. • That was the year when (in which) the Titanic sank. • That was the day when (on which) she graduated. Where puede reemplazar in/at which (lugar) • That was the hotel (in/at which) we were staying. Why puede reemplazar for which. • That is the reason why (for which) she refused. Cuando usamos when, where, y why de esta forma les llamamos relative adverbs.

83

EXERCISES

1. Une estas dos frases en una con un pronombre relative. Example: This is the rumour which/that caused such a commotion. 1. This is the new museum. The museum opened yesterday.

2. The car I hired. The car broke down this morning.

3. All the apples fall. All the apples are eaten by the pigs.

4. This is the hotel. This hotel was fully booked.

5. These are the keys. You lost these keys.

2. Las construcciones que van a continuacion son "formales". Haz tu unas "informales" Example: This is the ladder on which I was standing. This is the ladder I was standing on. 1. This is the examination for which he is preparing.

2. That is the house in which I was born.

3. The bed on which he was lying began to shake.

4. The hill on which the house stood was not very steep.

3. Gambia los pronombres relatives por adverbios relativos. Example: That is the year in which Shakespeare was born. That's the year when Shakespeare was born. 1. This is the hotel in which the Browns stayed last summer.

2. I remember because that was the day on which I had an accident.

3. And that's the reason for which she refused to come with us.

4. That's the month in which this book was published.

84

U N I T 39

Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Estas oraciones dan una informacion extra, no definen al sustantivo sino que anaden algo. No son esenciales en la frase y se pueden omitir sin causar confusion. Van separadas por comas. El pronombre relative no se puede omitir nunca en este tipo de frases. La construccion de estas frases es muy formal y se usa mas en ingles escrito que en ingles coloquial. A. Sujeto: who para personas y which para cosas. • My wife, who is very optimistic, says that we'll win the lottery. • Mark, who had been drinking heavily, suggested meeting again another day. • That building, which cost millions, has been empty for years. En ingles coloquial muy probablemente diriamos: • My wife is very optimistic and says .... • Mark had been drinking heavily and suggested ... Son muy corrientes en conversacion las oraciones de relative que se refieren al complemento del verbo principal: • She invited John, who lived on the ground floor flat. • Mrs Kent passed the sugar to Kate, who was sitting next to her. B. Objeto: whom, who para personas, y which para cosas. No se puede omitir el pronombre. Whom es la forma correcta, aunque who a veces se admite en conversacion. • The old man, whom the police arrested, turned out to be innocent. En ingles coloquial por supuesto que diriamos algo asf como: • The police arrested the old man, but he turned out to be innocent. • He gave me the book, which he had written himself. Este tipo de oraciones, por ejemplo, despues del complemento del verbo principal, es bastante corriente en conversaciones: • He asked for Jim, whom he liked as a partner; but he got Kent, whom he didn't like. C. Objeto de una preposicion: whom. No se puede omitir el pronombre. La preposicion se coloca antes de whom: • Mr Evans, to whom I was talking on the phone, is very generous. Se puede, sin embargo, poner la preposicion al final de la oracion. Esto se hace a menudo en conversacion, y el who reemplaza al whom. • Mr Evans, who she was working for, was .... D. Posesivo: whose • Mrs Bronson, whose children have grown up, is looking for a job.

85

EXERCISES

1. Vuelve a escribir estas frases usando una oracion de relative. A veces el relative esta en el medio de la frase, a veces al final. Example: Jim's mother goes running every day (Jim's mother is 60). Jim's mother, who is sixty, goes running every day. He told me his telephone number. (I wrote his telephone number on a piece of paper). He told me his phone number, which I wrote on a piece of paper. 1. Peter is one of my best friends. (I have known him for years) 2. She introduced me to her husband. (I had never met her husband before.) 3. I played tennis with my grandfather last Sunday. (He is very fit.) 4. Tom's mother often comes to see us. (Her house is at the end of the street.) 5. She went to see the doctor. (He told her to take a holiday.) 6. She looked up at the stars. (They were very bright in the dark.) 7. That woman over there is a great artist. (I don't remember her name.) 8. Mr Martin has worked for this firm all his life. (He is retiring in a few months.) 9. The Bristol train was late this morning. (It is always on time.) 10. He paid £1000 for that horse. (It is not worth £500.) 11. We often visit our cousins in Reading. (It is only 50 miles from London.) 12. The heavy rains caused a lot of damage. (Nobody was expecting them.) 13. The Music Hall will be open tomorrow. (It will hold 3000 people.) 14. The standard of living of this country is falling. (It was one of the highest in the world.) 15. She didn't let the children get into the water. (It looked rather dirty.) 16. Jim's grandmother doesn't wear glasses. (She is 92)

86

U N I T 40

Compound Adjetives
Formacion de los adjetivos compuestos
Los adjetivos compuestos a menudo se escriben con guiones. A. Los adjetivos compuestos formados con participios Algunos se forman con participio pasado (past participle): • Mr Smith is a self-employed salesman. • In front of her there was a tree-lined avenue. • It was a horse-drawn cart. Otros se forman con participio present (present participle): • She was listening to a long-playing record. • He was talking to a group of long-suffering parents. • A good-looking man stood in front of her. A veces anadimos ed a algunas palabras que parecen participios aunque se forman de sustantivos: • He was a cross-eyed young man. • She was a thin, flat-chested woman. • They are open-minded people.

Adjetivos compuestos de medidas.
Los numeros cardinales se combinan con sustantivos (generalmente en singular) para formar adjetivos compuestos que se refieren a tiempo, medidas etc. • • • • • • • • • This is a twenty-year-old building, (age) It was a four-acre plot of land, (area) I've bought a two-litre car. (volume) We had a four-hour meeting, (duration) This is a twelve-inch ruler, (length) She fell into a six-foot hole, (depth) Give me six two-pound tickets, (price) It's only a ten-minute walk, (distance) He is an eleven-stone man (weight)

Los adjetivos compuestos se pueden formar con una variedad de prefijos y sufijos: tax-free, waterproof, airtight, tight-lipped, home-sick, class-conscious. Muchos adjetivos compuestos se forman con well, y badly: • These are badly-paid workers. • She is a well-behaved young woman. De la misma forma ill y poorly combinan con algunos participios pasados: • He is ill-advised. • She is poorly-educated. • She is poorly-paid. • They are ill-informed.

87

EXERCISES

1. Gambia las frases usando un adjetivo compuesto. Example: These parents have been suffering for a long time. They are long-suffering parents. 1. These women are very good-looking. They are 2. They sat at a table lit by a candle. It was a 3. This job consumes a lot of time. It is a 4. This record plays for a long time. It is a 5. This boy is very quick and very witted. He is a 6. He was a man looking very dirty. He was a 7. This is a family that grow fruit. It's a 8. She was a little girl with green eyes 9. Several tourists burnt by the sun were sitting in the lounge. 10.This man has a bad temper. He is a 11. The watch looked expensive. It was an . . 12. The young man was well built. He was a 13. The gadget looked dangerous. It was a . 14. The woman had a good heart. She was a 2. Ahora vamos a hacer lo mismo con medidas. Example: We had ten lessons of two hours. We had ten two-hour lessons. 1. He was a tall man of six feet. He was a 2. There were several bags of six kilos on the floor. There were several on the floor. 3. He was a heavy man of about 14 stone. He was a 4. They attended a conference of two days. They attended a 5. He was a young man of twenty. He was a 6. They lived in a building which was eighty years old. It was 7. The baby was three months old. He was a 8. Give me four stamps of ten pennies. Give me 9. She had two notes of twenty pounds. She had 10.They went for a walk of five miles. It was a 11. Give me four tickets of five pounds, please. Give me

88

U N I T 41

Quantifiers (both and neither); Word Order
Both significa ambos y Neva el verbo en plural. • Both were very clever. Both puede ir seguido de un sustantivo. • Both windows were open. Tambien puede ir seguido por of + the/these/those o posesivos. • Both (of) the doors were locked. • Both of your cars are very powerful. Tambien se admite un pronombre personal + both. • We both knew her. Both ... and ... se usan para dar entasis a una combinacion de dos adjetivos, sustantivos, verbos etc. • He was both clever and fast. • It was both cold and wet. • She both acts and directs. Both of us equivale a We both Both of you " You both Both of them " They both o them both Neither significa ninguno de los dos y lleva un verbo afirmativo en singular. Se puede usar solo: • Neither could speak French. Puede ir seguido de un sustantivo: • Neither boy knew the lesson. Puede ir seguido de of+the/these/those o pronombres posesivos o personales: • I tried both keys but neither of them worked. • I've seen neither of these two films. Either significa cualquiera de los dos. Lleva un verbo en singular, y lo mismo que neither puede ir solo o seguido de un sustantivo/pronombre o por of+the/ these/those etc. Either + un verbo negative puede reemplazar a neither + afirmativo, excepto cuando neither es el sujeto del verbo. • I haven't seen either of these two films. Aunque either no puede ser sujeto de un verbo negative, puede ser sujeto u objeto de un verbo interrogative o negative: • Either (of these) will do. • Would you like either of these?

89

EXERCISES

1. Completar estas frases con both o neither. A veces puede que se necesite el of. Example:! have two drawers in my desk and I found them both open. 1. In the duel were wounded. 2. The two cars crashed were injured. 3. The couple hadn't eaten for a few days, so 4. 'Did you see the two films?' 'Yes, but I liked 5. There two ways to go. This is the shortest, but 6. 'Is it the 10th or the 11th today?' 7. Mary and I were very frightened because 8. The boy is rich clever. them will get you there. It's the 12th.' us could swim. were very hungry. men fired their guns remained standing.

drivers got out angrily, but

9. I couldn't make up my mind which of the two cars to choose. I liked They were beautiful them. them played very well. captains. us had maps.

10. It wasn't a very good tennis match 11.The referee stopped the match and called 12. We knew the way well, but

13.They say that there are two good restaurants in this town, but I like 2. Elige entre neither y either. A veces hay que anadir of. Example: I haven't read either of these books. 1 them knew the way. was open. ' Both of them go to I went to France.'

2. I tried both doors, but

3. 'Do you mind which beer I take?' 'No, take 4. Which road shall I take to go to Bristol? Take Bristol. 5. 'Did you go to Italy or to Spain for your holidays?' ' 6

my parents is English. My father is Scottish and my mother is Irish. ' '

7. 'I've got money and I've got free time.' 'Well, you're lucky, I have 8. 'My hotel was clean and comfortable.' 'Well, my hotel was 9. 'Which play do you prefer, Hamlet or Otello?' 'Sorry, but I haven't seen' 10.'Whom do you think he'll marry, Susan or Carol?' 'I don't think he'll marry them!'

90

U N I T 42

Emphatic DO
Cuando queremos dar entasis a una oracion atirmativa usamos las partfculas do, does, y did siempre que no usemos verbos defectives o auxiliares en la frase. • • • • You do look nice today! He does talk a lot, doesn't he? Do shut up! I did see him last night! • I do like her! • Do sit down! • She does speak good English, doesn't she?

En presente de indicativo se usa do para todas las personas excepto para las tercera del singular que se usa does. • I do speak French! • She does sing well! • I did see him! • She did come last night! • They do act well! • He does behave politely! • They did tell you! • He did say that!

En el past tense se usa did para todas las personas.

Very: Se usa very cuando va precedido de algun adjetivo demostrativo o posesivo para dar un mayor entasis a la oracion. Se suele traducir por mismo, precisamente. • • • • This is the very thing I was looking for. They'll come this very afternoon. You are the very person I wanted to see. Come here at this very moment.

Own: Poniendo own despues de un adjetivo posesivo se da mayor entasis a la oracion. • Yes, it was my own tault. • She's got her own car. • I always cut my own hair. • He burnt his own house.

On my own o By myself significan la misma cosa a solas. • I like doing things on my own/by myself. • The little girl was sitting on her own/by herself. • Sometimes I like to be on my own/by my self.

of her own = her own
• She's got her own car/a car of her own. • she has her own children/children of her own. • Nota: I am living on my own significa que vivo independiente. No vivo con mis padres.

91

EXERCISES

1. Las siguientes frases tienes que convertirlas en enfaticas. Example: I come every Sunday morning. / do come every Sunday morning. 1. The cat broke the vase 2. That boy behaves very politely 3. She speaks Italian 4. Tell me the truth, please 5. Yes, I saw her last night 6. She bought the books yesterday ! ! ! ! ! !

7. I don't have much contact with my family. I see my mother occasionally, though 8. Have some coffee 9. Finally a little girl came along 10. 'Did you tell him the time?' 'Yes, I told him.' 'Yes, I 11.'Did you play football when you were young?' 'Yes, I played quite a lot.'
Yes, I

! !

12.Come in, please 13. You look nice today, Mary. You 2. Usa very y own para formar estas frases enfaticas. Example: This is the thing I was looking for. This is the very thing I was looking for. 1. He went to the cinema alone 2. They'll probably come this morning 3. Jimmy, come here at this moment 4. You are the person I wanted to talk to 5. Mr Smith always types his letters 6. My daughter has got a car 7. We've got children 8. The little girl was sitting alone 9. Jesus said: This day you'll be with me in paradise.' 10. They saw the play that night 11. He took his life 12. He was walking by himself 13.Old Mrs Grumble always slept by herself

92

U N I T 43

Past Perfect. Unfulfilled Past Conditions
Este tiempo se forma con had y el participio pasado: I had worked, you had worked, etc. Muchas veces nos referimos a algo que sucedio en el pasado: • I arrived at the station. El pluscuamperfecto (past perfect) se usa para decir que algo ya habia sucedido antes de este tiempo: • When I arrived at the station the train had already gone. He aqui algunos ejemplos mas: • When she opened the door she saw that someone had been inside. • When he went back to his home town he noticed many changes: The grocer had sold his shop, his old neighbours had moved, and some of his friends had died. • He didn't want to go because he had already seen the film. • He was nervous because he had never spoken in public before. Fi'jate en la diferencia de significado en los ejemplos siguientes: • He heard voices and realized that there were people in the lounge. • He saw empty glasses and realized that some people had been in the room, (ya no estaban allf)

Pluscuamperfecto con when.
Cuando usamos dos simple past tenses la primera accion conduce a la segunda: • When I opened the door the cat came in. Se usa el pluscuamperfecto despues de when cuando queremos indicar que la primera accion estaba completa antes de que tuviera lugar la segunda: • When he had shut the window he let the cat free. • When he had seen all the pictures he said he was ready to go. De la misma manera se puede usar con as soon as, the moment, immediately. El pluscuamperfecto se puede usar con until/till, after y before. • He refused to go till he had seen all the pictures. • After he had seen all the pictures he left the room quietly.

93

EXERCISES

1. Completa estas frases usando los verbos entre parentesis. El viejo volvio a su pueblo y encontro cosas diferentes. Example: His friend, the grocer had so/dthe shop. 1. Mr Smith was dead. He 2. The local Bingo was no longer open. They 3. Little Bob was no longer a boy. He 4. Many of his friends were no longer there. They 5. He didn't recognise the High street. It years ago. (close) down. (grow) up. (move) away. (change) quite a lot.

2. Completa estas frases como en el ejemplo. Example: He was very nervous because he had never spoken in public before, (speak/public) 1. He was nervous because he (drive/never/before). (play/never/ (be/never/late/before). (see/before/never).

2. She was not very good at tennis because she before). 3. His secretary was very efficient. She 4. The woman was a stranger to me. I

3. Ahora haz frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: She wasn't in the office when I arrived. She had just left. 1. It was nice to see him again. I 2. I wasn't thirsty. I for two years (see/he). (just/have/beer). (have/already/leave). (go out/with/a boyfriend).

3. We arrived at the station late. The train 4. When I rang her up Bertha

4. Ahora tienes que poner los verbos o bien en past simple o past perfect. Example: Was your mother there? No, she had gone shopping. Yes, but she went shopping soon afterwards. 1. The office was empty. Everybody 2. Anne was late because her car 3. Anne said: 'Sorry I'm late. My car 4. I (meet) her in Paris last year. I (go) home. (break down). (break down)' (see) her for years.

94

U N I T 44

Question-Tags (coletillas)
Las 'question-tags' se forman con un verbo auxiliar + pronombre personal. Se colocan al final de la frase para pedir confirmacion. Equivale al ^verdad? espanol. Con los verbos have, be, can, may, must, should, ought to, etc. se usa el mismo verbo para formar question-tags. • You are new here, aren't you? • She has a nice dog, hasn't she? • You can speak French, can't you? Con los demas verbos se usa la partfcula correspondiente (do, does, did) • You come every day, don't you? • She plays well, doesn't she? • You met him yesterday, didn't you? En future se usa will. • You will be here tomorrow, won't you? • They'll let me know, won't they? En condicional se usa would. • They would do it, wouldn't they? • You'd let me know, wouldn't you? Cuando la frase es negativa. Con los verbos auxiliares y defectives: • • • • You are not a man, are you? He is not very tall, is he? They haven't got a dog, have they? You couldn't come with me, could you?

Con los demas verbos: • • En pasado: • En future: • • En condicional: • You wouldn't do that, would you? Con el haber impersonal • There are many things, aren't there? • There is nothing, is there? • There isn't much, is there? You don't speak French, do you? She doesn't come every day, does she? You didn't tell him, did you? You won't tell him, will you? She won't come, will she?

95

EXERCISES

1. Ron question-tags a las siguientes frases positivas. Example: You go every day, don't you? 1. They speak good English 2. She speaks French, 3. You could go tomorrow 4. Mary can do it, 5. You have a nice family, 6. The boys should come tonight 7. David and Jim played football yesterday, 8. Your mother went shopping early 9. You will go tomorrow 10. They would buy that, 11.The children have eaten the fish 12.The maid broke the vase, 13.Christine will tell me, 14. They have told you 2. Ahora vas a hacer lo mismo con frases negativas. Example: You are not very tall, are you? 1. She is not very big, 2. You haven't got a dog, 3. She can't speak Italian, 4. They couldn't come in time 5. The children didn't buy the books, 6. That girl doesn't speak English 7. You don't like fish, 8. She didn't close the windows, 9. John and Katty won't come to the party, 10. You wouldn't do that, 11 .There aren't many things to do, 12.There isn't much time left, 13. You didn't lose your wallet 14.They haven't told you 15.The girls haven't arrived yet 16. Mr. and Mrs Brown had never flown, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

96

U N I T 45

Imperatives
Affirmative
Let me play Play Let him/her/it play Let us (let's) play Play Let them play

Negative
Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't Don't let me play play let him/her/it play let us (let's not) play play let them play - Come here -

La segunda persona del imperative no lleva sujeto generalmente. Stop doing that!

Aunque si es necesario aclarar la situacion o poner entasis se puede poner you. • You do that. • You speak to him.

Para poner entasis se puede poner do delante. • Do sit down. • Do forgive me. • Do speak to me, my love. • Do come with us.

Los imperatives negatives se construyen con do not (don't). • Don't smoke so much. • Don't worry.

Always y never se ponen antes de los imperatives. • Always speak loud and clear. • Never say that about your teachers. Aunque do no se usa con el verbo ser, en frases interrogativas y negativas, si se usa para el imperative. • Don't be late. • Don't be so stupid!

Para formar el imperative de las demas personas se usa let. • Let me go with you. • Let her come with us.

Para el imperativo negative se pone don't delante. • Don't let him say that. • Don't let the children make so much noise. La primera persona del plural a menudo se contrae. • Let us go to the cinema. = Let's go to the cinema. La negacion se puede poner de dos formas en esta persona. • Don't let's go yet. = Let's not go yet.

97

EXERCISES
1. Ron estos imperatives en forma negativa: Example: Go to school. Don't go to school. 1. Mary, do the ironing this afternoon 2. Mum, make a cake tomorrow 3. Let's go to the beach, boys 4. Tell Maggy to come here 5. Let Maggy come here 6. Let's be quiet 7. Let the children come to me 8. Let me go with you 9. Let them look for it 10. Speak to me, darling 11. Let Mrs Evans come to have tea 12. Run to post the letter 13. Stop talking 14. Let's play cards 2. Ahora las frases que van a continuacion vas a ponerlas en forma afirmativa. Example: Don't speak to me. Speak to me. 1. Don't speak with your mouth full. .. . 2. Let's not forget that today is Sunday. 3. Don't let them go 4. Don't let Jimmy say that 5. Don't go fast 6. Let's not see each other again 7. Don't tell me your problems 8. Don't let him open the window 9. Let's not go there again 10. Don't let me see you do that 11. Don't increase the speed 12. Let's not buy another one 13. Don't come with me 14. Don't let the children come 15. Don't open your mouth

98

U N I T 46

Reported Instructions
Orden directa: • 'Sit down, Jimmy.' Orden indirecta: • He told Jimmy to sit down. Las ordenes, peticiones o instrucciones indirectas se suelen expresar con el objeto + infinitivo. A menudo se usan los verbos siguientes para ello: ask, advise, beg, command, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn, invite. • He said, 'get away, Jim.' = He told Jim to get away. • She said, 'stop making a noise.' = She asked him to stop making a noise. Las ordenes y peticiones negativas se forman con not + infinitivo. • 'Don't get near the fire,' he said. • He warned them not to get near the fire. A veces en las ordenes directas no se menciona la persona. • 'Go away,' she said. Para poner esta frase en forma indirecta hay que poner un complemento. • She told him/her/them to go away. Ejemplos de ordenes o instrucciones indirectas. • 'Come on, apply for the job,' he said to me. • He encouraged me to apply for the job. • The hostess looked at the guests and said, 'please, sit down.' • The hostess invited the guests to sit down. • If I were you I'd stop smoking,' I said. • I advised him to stop smoking. • 'Would you show me your passport?' he said. • He asked me to show him my passport. • 'Don't forget to post the letter,' said Mr Gibson • Mr Gibson reminded his secretary to post the letter.

99

EXERCISES

1. Pon estas frases en forma indirecta. Example:'Children, sit down properly,' she said. She told the children to sit down properly. 1. She said, 'come with me, Peter.' 2. 'Get your coat, Fred,' he said. 3. 'Don't get too near the water, boys' he said. 4. 'Please, sit down,' said Mrs Robin looking at her guests. 5. 'Post the letters for me, please,' said Mr Green to me. 6. 'If I were you I'd stop taking those pills.' I said. 7. 'You had better hurry, Jim,' she said. 8. 'Don't swim too far, boys,' she said. 9. 'Be quiet, will you, children!' he said. 10. Margaret said to me, 'don't worry.'

2. Ahora vas a hacer lo contrario. Example: She reminded her husband to order the wine. 'Order the wine,' she reminded her husband. 1. She advised the children to take an early bus. 2. He warned her not to leave her car unlocked. 3. She encouraged him to have another go. 4. He requested her not to speak so fast. 5. The teacher asked him to say that again. 6. The sergeant ordered the soldiers to fire. 7. She warned the boys not to get too far. 8. He invited them to go to the party that night.

100

U N I T 47

Before, After, As Soon As, Until
Before puede ser preposicion, conjuncion o adverbio: • Before saying that ... (preposicion) • Before you say that ... ( conjuncion) • I've seen you somewhere before ... (adverbio)

After y Afterwards
After (preposicion) puede ir seguida de un sustantivo, pronombre o gerundio: • We can do it after lunch / after eating. After (conjuncion). • After he had played the tune he looked around. Afterwards equivale a after that o then. • You can't have a meal and bathe immediately afterwards. • You can't have a meal and bathe immediately after that. • You can't have a meal and then bathe immediately.

As soon as (en cuanto)
Es una conjuncion de tiempo y va generalmente seguida de un verbo en presente o pasado de indicative, aunque en espanol vaya seguida de subjuntivo. • As soon as I go. (en cuanto vaya) • As soon as she arrived she went to see him. (en cuanto llego) • He wanted to see her as soon as she arrived, (en cuanto llegara).

Till/until
Till/until Se usan con un verbo negative para poner entasis en la tardanza. • He didn't get home until four o'clock in the morning. • We didn't get paid until the fourth of June. Till/until se usa como una conjuncion de tiempo. • We'll stay here till it stops raining. • go on till you come to the next traffic lights.

101

EXERCISES

1. Ron e! verbo de la frase en el tiempo que corresponda. Example: Before going to London he went to Leeds. 1. Before she (come) she'll probably telephone. (sign) a document. (answer) the phone. (run). (go) to England. (board) a plane.

2. Read the small print before 3. She dried her hands before she 4. Athletes warm up before 5. Carmen studied English before 6. I say my prayers before

2. Usa after o afterwards en las frases que van a continuacion. Example: Don't go to swim immediately after eating. 1 he had tuned the piano it sounded different.

2. They bathed and played football 3. They arrived home in July and soon 4. Soon they got a letter.

arriving in London they went to see her. lunch. eating.

5. We'll come and see you 6. You can't go for a run

3. Ahora vamos a usar as soon as. Ron el verbo en el tiempo que corresponda. Example: We'll start off as soon as he comes. 1. We will come as soon as we 2. He stopped talking as soon as she 3. We'll talk about it as soon as he 4. I'll tell you as soon as I 5. She'll let me know as soon as she 6. I'll give it to you as soon as I (know). (hear) something. (finish) with it. (can). (see) him. (come).

4. Ahora termina las frases usando to o till. Example: She works from 9 to 5. She works till 5 o'clock. 1. Go on 2. Go on 3. We didn't get home 4. Let's start now and we'll work 5. I am always here from 6 6. We work from morning you come to the traffic lights. the traffic lights. 9 o'clock. dark. 7. evening.

102

U N I T 48

Such So
Such es un adjetivo y va seguido de adjetivo + sustantivo. Cuando el sustantivo es singular se usa such a: • She was such a nice girl that everybody loved her. • They had such a fierce dog that everybody was afraid. • She is such a fool. Si el sustantivo es plural se pone solo such: • They were such pretty girls that everybody liked them. • They lived in such beautiful houses that we all envied them. Si el sustantivo es incontable tambien se usa solo el such. • How can you have such patience? • Are you going out in such awful weather? So es un adverbio y se usa delante de adverbios y de adjetivos que no vayan seguidos de sus sustantivos. • • • • • She's so stupid. You're so patient. The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. Their dog was so fierce that nobody dared to approach the house. Don't walk so slowly. Hurry up!

So much (tanto)
• There was so much water in the garden that we ... • We have so much time on our hands!

So many (tantos)
• So many people complained that we changed the programme. • We have so many things to do! • There are so many children in this school! Tambien decimos so long = such a long time. • I haven't seen Jane for so long/such a long time! • We haven't done it for such a long time/so long! So far equivale a such a long way. • I didn't know she lived so far/ such a long way from the station. So much y so many son parecidos a such a lot. • Why did you buy so much/such a lot of wine? • Why do you buy so many/such a lot of books?

103

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner such, such a, o so. Example: He's such a nice boy! 1. I've never seen 2. I've never eaten 3. The sun was 4. Everything is 5. Kathy's got 6. I've never read 7. They had never had 8. Why do you ask 9. It was 10. She worked 11. Ienjoyed my holiday. I had 12. I like this couple. They are 13. It was 14. She was stupid boy. awful food. hot that we didn't go out. expensive nowadays, isn't it? beautiful eyes!. silly story. wonderful meal. stupid questions? lovely weather that we spent the day on the beach. hard that she fell ill. good time! nice people.

good book that I couldn't put it down. tired that she went to bed early.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que usar such en vez de so. Example: The meal was so good that I finished everything. It was such a good meal that I finished everything. 1. His head is so big that he can't find a hat big enough.
He's got

2. The weather was so hot that we were sweating all day.

It was
3. The road was so narrow that there was no room for two cars.

It was
4. The book was so boring that I couldn't finish it.

It was
5. I didn't know you lived so far from the centre. I didn't know you lived long way from the centre. 6. Why do you have so much food at home? Why have you got

?
7. I didn't know you hadn't seen her for so long. I didn't know you hadn't seen
her for

104

U N I T 49

Still Yet Already
Still es un adverbio de tiempo. Significa todavia y se usa generalmente en frases afirmativas e interrogativas. • It is still raining. • Are you still smoking that cigarette? • They are still living in the same house. Yet tambien significa todavfa pero se usa por regla general en frases negatives, o con un sentido negative. Se suele poner al final de la frase. • Hello, Mum. Isn't dinner ready yet? • Is Robert back yet? • The apples aren't ripe yet. Muy a • • • menudo se usa yet con preterites perfectos. They haven't arrived yet. Haven't you finished yet? It hasn't stopped raining yet.

Comparemos still y yet en estas frases. •Jane had an accident. She is still in hospital. She hasn't come out of hospital yet. • Mike is still at college. He hasn't finished his studies yet. Es posible poner still en frases negativas: • She said she was coming, but she still hasn't come. Este tipo de frases se usa para dar mas enfasis. Se podia haber usado aqui: she hasn't come yet, pero no tiene tanta fuerza. Still .... hasn't demuestra impaciencia. • Peter hasn't telephoned yet. (todavia no ha telefoneado) • Peter still hasn't telephoned, (jya podfa haber telefoneado!) Already significa ya. Se suele poner en la mitad de la frase pero podemos ponerlo al final para dar mas enfasis. • He has already finished. • He has finished already! (sorpresa enfatica) • I already knew what I wanted. • This time tomorrow I shall already be in Miami.

Recuerda ...
... que yet al principio de frase significa 'sin embargo'. • Yet, he was still unhappy.

105

EXERCISES

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner still o yet segun el sentido de la frase. Example: Jimmy hasn't finished his dinner yet. 1. Is your friend living in Harrow Drive? ? single? want to be a policeman? ?

2. Haven't you given up smoking 3. Is old Bronson 4. Does you little brother

5. Haven't you finished writing that letter 6. Is your brother Bob 7. What! Ten o'clock and you're unemployed? in bed!

8. We don't know where we are going next summer 2. Ahora cambia la frase y escrfbela con yet. Example: It's still snowing, (stopped) It hasn't stopped snowing yet. 1. Your brother is still in bed. (got up)

He
2. The Prime Minister is still talking, (finished)

He
3. Your mother is still here, (gone)
She

4. The Johnsons are still on holiday, (come back) They 5. She is still typing the letter, (finish)

3. Ahora usa already con las frases que te dan. A veces se puede poner en dos posiciones. Ron las dos. Example: I knew what I wanted. / already knew what I wanted. 1. Have you finished? 2. Is my shirt dry? 3. I've told you 4. You're not leaving us, are you? 5. She had left when I phoned. ..

106

U N I T 50

Linking Words and Expressions
Both ... and ...
Se se suele llamar a esta estructura 'balanceada', pues la misma clase de palabras sigue a both y a and. • • • • He both plays the guitar and sings. He plays both the guitar and the piano. Both Peter and Mike can speak French. We can do both, go to the theatre and have dinner out.

Either
Puede ser usado con or para hablar acerca de dos posibilidades ( y a veces mas de dos). • You can either take the bus or walk. • Either you leave this place or I'll call the police. • You can either have soup or salad. • We can either live in a flat or in a house in the country.

Neither ... nor ...
Esta estructura se usa para juntar dos ideas negativas (es lo contrario de both ... and ...) • He neither drinks nor smokes. • I trusted neither the manager nor the accountant. • Neither Margaret nor Robert were at home. Hay que observar que el verbo va en plural al llevar dos sujetos. (ref. The Oxford Universal Dictionary).

Not only ... but also ...
Esta estructura tambien es de las que se llaman 'balanceadas,' pues la misma clase de palabras sigue a only y a also. • She plays not only the piano, but also the guitar. • She not only sings well, but also dances like an angel. • They not only act well, but also sing and dance.

107

EXERCISES

1. Haz frases con both ... and ..., neither ... nor ..., y either ... or ... Example: Jim was late. Mike was late. Both Jim and Mike were late. 1. The food in the restaurant was no good. It was not cheap. 2. That boy is very tall. He is also very handsome. 3. My house needs painting. My car needs painting too. 4. We can go to the cinema or we can go to the theatre - whichever you prefer.

We
5. She didn't write. She didn't telephone. 6. That man's name is Mr Gibbs... or is it Mr Gibbson? It's one of the two. 7. We are thinking of going on holiday to Scotland. Or we could go to Wales. 8. She gave up her job because the pay was low. Also the working conditions were bad 9. My boyfriend doesn't drink. He doesn't smoke either. 10. I didn't like the first film. And I didn't like the second film. 11. My girlfriend likes tea. And she likes coffee too. 12. We can eat in a restaurant. Or we can eat some sandwiches. 13. My hotel wasn't comfortable. It wasn't clean either. 14. John is not married. Jeremy is not married either. 15. We can leave this afternoon. We can leave tomorrow. 16. I've read the book. I've seen the film. 17. I have no pen. I have no pencil.

This page intentionally left blank

APPENDIX

110

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES
PRESENT
abide arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech bespeak bestride bet bid bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy can cast catch chide choose cleave cling clothe come cost creep crow cut dare deal dig dive

PAST
abode arose awoke was/were bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereaved besought bespoke bestrode bet/betted bade/bid bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burnt/burned burst bought could cast caught chid chose clove/cleft clung clothed/clad came cost crept crowed/crew cut dared/durst dealt dug dived/dove

PAST PARTICIPLE
abode arisen awaked/awakened been borne/born beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent bereaved/bereft besought bespoken bestridden bet/betted bid/bidden bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burnt/burned burst bought been able cast caught chid/chidden chosen cloven/cleft clung clothed/clad come cost crept crowed/crown cut dare/durst dealt dug dived soportar, aguantar alzarse, levantarse despertarse ser, estar sostener, aguantar, llevar golpear, pegar hacerse, llegar a ser acontecer engendrar comenzar, empezar contemplar doblar, forcer afligirse supHear encargar, apalabrar montar a horcajadas jugar, apostar mandar, ordenar ofrecer afar, liar, vendar morder, pi car sangrar, desangrar soplar romper criar, engendrar traer emitir, radiar construir, edificar quemar, incendiar reventar, pinchar (rueda) comprar poder, saber

lanzar, echar
coger, atrapar reprender elegir, escoger partir, hender adherirse a vestir venir costar, valer arrastrarse cantar, cacarear cortar arriesgar, osar dar (cartas) cavar, excavar zambullirse

111

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES
PRESENT
do

PAST
did

PAST PARTICIPLE done drawn dreamt/dreamed drunk driven dwelled/dwelt eaten fallen
fed

draw dream drink drive dwell
eat

drew dreamt/dreamed drank drove dwelled/dwelt
ate

fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly forbear forbid forecast foresee foretell forget forgive forsake forswear freeze get gild gird give

fell
fed

go
grind grow hang have hear heave
hew

felt fought found fled flung flew forbore forbade forecast foresaw foretold forgot forgave forsook forswore froze got gilded/gilt girded/girt gave went ground grew hung/hanged had heard heaved/hove hewed
hid hit

hide
hit

felt fought found fled flung flown forborne forbidden forecast foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forsaken forsworn frozen got/gotten gilded/gilt girded/girt given gone ground grown hung/hanged had heard heaved/hove hewed/hewn hidden
hit

hold hurt inlay keep kneel knit know lade
lay

held hurt inlaid kept knelt knit/knitted knew laded laid

held hurt inlaid kept knelt knit/knitted known laden laid

hacer arrastrar, dibujar sonar beber, tomar conducir, guiar morar, explayarse en comer, tomar caerse alimentar, nutrir sentir, palpar pelear, luchar encontrar, hallar huir, fugarse arrojar, tirar volar, ir en avion contenerse prohibir pronosticar, prever prever predecir olvidarse perdonar abandonar, dejar renunciar a helar, congelar conseguir, lograr dorar cenir dar ir moler crecer, cultivar colgar, ahorcar haber, tener, tomar oir tirar de cortar, tajar, tallar esconder golpear, pegar agarrar, coger doler incrustar mantener, continuar arrodillarse unir, hacer punto saber cargar porter, colocar

112

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES
PRESENT
lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make may mean meet mislead mistake misunderstand mow must ought to outdo outgrow overbid overcome overdo overfeed override overrun overtake pay put quit read rend rewind rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew

PAST
led leant/leaned leapt/leaped learned/learnt left lent let lay lit/lighted lost made might meant met misled mistook misundestood mowed (had to)

PAST PARTICIPLE
led leant/leaned leapt/leaped learnt/learned left lent let lain lit/lighted lost made

meant met misled mistaken misunderstood mown/mowed

outdid outgrew overbid overcame overdid overfed overrode overran overtook paid put quit/quitted read rent rewound rid/ridded rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed

outdone outgrown overbid overcome overdone overfed overridden overrun overtaken paid put quit/quitted read rent rewound rid/ridded ridden rung risen run sawed/sawn said seen sought sold sent set sewed/sewn

guiar, conducir ladear, inclinar salta r aprender dejar, abandonar prestar permitir echarse, acostarse iluminar, alumbrar perder hacer poder pretender, querer decir encontrarse con despistar equivocarse entender mat segar, cortar deber deberia exceder crecer mas que licitar mas que veneer, triunfar recocer, exagerar sobrealimentar/se no hacer caso de invadir, rebasar adelantar, alcanzar pagar poner, colocar dejar, abandonar leer rasgar, desgarrar dar cuerda a librarse de, eliminar montar sonar, llamar (timbre) levantarse correr serrar decir ver buscar vender enviar poner, colocar coser

113

LISTA DE VERBOS
PRESENT
shake shall shape shave shear shed shine shoe shoot show shrink shut sing sink
sit

IRREGULARES
PAST PARTICIPLE
shaken

PAST
shook should shaped shaved sheared/shore shed shone shoed/shod shot showed shrank/shrunk shut sang sank
sat

shaped/shapen shaved/shaven sheared/shorn shed shone shoed/shod shot showed/shown shrunk shut sung sunk
sat

sacudir, men ear (futuro, condicional) dar forma a afeitar, rasurar esquilar despojarse de brillar calzar, herrar disparar, tirar mostrar, ensenar encogerse cerrar

cantar
hundir, sumergir sentarse

slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite
sow

speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand stave steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweep

slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelled/smelt smote sowed spoke speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt span/spun spat/spit split spoiled/spoilt spread sprang/sprung stood stove/staved stole stuck stung stank/stunk strewed strode struck strung strove/strived swore swept

slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelled/smelt smitten sowed/sown spoken speeded/sped spelled/spelt spent spilled/spilt spun spat/spit split spoiled/spoilt spread sprung stood stove/staved stolen stuck stung stunk strewed/strewn stridden struck strung striven/strived sworn swept

malar, asesinar
dormir resbalar, deslizar lanzar, tirar I a rg arse hender, rajar oler golpear, castigar sembrar hablar apresurarse deletrear, escribir gastar, pasar derramar, verier hilar, devanar escupir

parti'r, rajar
echara perder extender sal tar estar (de pie) romper a golpes robar pegar, encolar picar, punzar oler mat, apestar esparcir montar a horcajadas golpear, dar con ensartar, encordar esforzarse jurar barrer

114

LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES
PRESENT swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind underbid undergo understand undertake undo unwind uphold upset wake wear weave wed weep wet will win wind withdraw withhold withstand wring write PAST swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve/thrived threw thrust trod unbent unbound underbid underwent understood undertook undid unwound upheld upset woke wore wove wed/wedded wept wet/wetted would won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrung wrote

PAST PARTICIPLE swelled/swollen
swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven/thrived thrown thrust trodden/trod unbent unbound underbid undergone understood undertaken undone unwound upheld upset woken worn woven wed/wedded wept wet/wetted — won wound withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written

hinchar nadar balancear to mar, coger, llevar ensenar rasgar decir, contar pensar, creer prosperar, medrar echar, tirar empujar, impulsar pisar, pisotear enderezar desatar ofrecer un precio mas bajo experimentar, sufrir comprender emprender, acometer anular desenvolver sostener, apoyar trastornar despertar llevar puesto tejer, trenzar casarse con llorar humedecer (futuro, condicional)

ganar
enrollar, girar retirarse retener, ocultar resistir a retorcer escribir

FONDO E D I T O R I A L ENGLISH
3000TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL KEYS 3000 TESTS 2000TESTS ADVANCED LEVEL KEYS 2000 TESTS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS I

STANLEY ESPANOL
TESTS ESPANOL I TESTS ESPANOL II TESTS ESPANOL III TESTS ESPANOL IV TESTS ESPANOL V CLAVESTESTS ESPANOL DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-A DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-B DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-C CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS I CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS II CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS III GRAMATICAESPANOLA CLAVES GRAMATICA ESPANOLA Lecturas graduadas en espanol: • LA FAMILIA PEREZ

FRANQAIS
1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS I 1000 TESTS EN FRANCAIS II 1000 TESTS EN FRANCAIS III 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS IV 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS V

1500 STRUCTURED TESTS II 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS III KEYS STRUCTURED TESTS DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS I BILINGUAL BUSINESS LETTERS NEW GUIDE TO BUSINESS LETTERS ENGLISH GRAMMAR I (N/E) ENGLISH GRAMMAR II (N/E) ENGLISH GRAMMAR III (N/E) KEYS ENGLISH GRAMMAR LE COMPTE DE MONTE CRISTO -Lecture 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES I 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES II 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES III GUIDE OF PREPOSITIONS USING PREPOSITIONS - EXERCISES 159TRANSLATIONSI 159TRANSLATIONSII 159TRANSLATIONS III 159TRANSLATIONSIV FILL IN THE GAPS I FILL IN THE GAPS II FILL IN THE GAPS III KEYS FILL IN THE GAPS DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH I DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH II GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS USING PHRASAL VERBS ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE MY ENGLISH TELLTALE CONVERSATION IN ACTION - Let's talk! THE IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS 1000 EVERYDAY IDIOMS IN BUSINESS A TO ZED, A TO ZEE • A GUIDE TO THE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

5000 CLES DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-A DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-B DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-C MOTS CROISES DIDACTIQUES L'lLE MYSTERIEUSE -Lecture 20.000 LIEUES SOUS LES MERS -Lecture LES TROIS MOUSQUETAIRES - Lecture

UN CAPITAINE DE QUINZE ANS -Lecture MICHEL STROGOFF -Lecture QUI SAIT? -Lecture LA FAMILLE LENOIR -Lecture TRADUIRE AUJOURD'HUI 1 TRADUIRE AUJOURD'HUI MON BILAN GRAMMATICAL NOUVEAU GUIDE DE CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALE 2

• i,QUIEN SABE? • LA ISLA MISTERIOSA • 20.000 LEGUAS DE VIAJE SUBMARINO • EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO • LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS •UNCAPITANDE15ANOS •MIGUEL STROGOFF

GUI AS PAR A VI AJAR
GUI'A DEL VIAJERO - INGLES CONVERSATION GUIDE - SPANISH GUfA DEL VIAJERO - ALEMAN SPRACHFURER KONVERSATION -SPANISCH GUI'A DEL VIAJERO - FRANCES GUIDE CONVERSATION - ESPAGNOL GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ITALIANO GUIDA Dl CONVERSAZIONE - ESPAGNOLO GUIA DEL VIAJERO - PORTUGUES

EL INGLES PROHIBIDO FALSE FRIENDS • FALSOS AMIGOS

EDITORIAL STANLEY - W W W . l i b r O S S . C O m Apdo. 207 • 20300 IRUN • Tel. 943 64 04 12 • Fax. 943 64 38 63 • e - m a i l : rrossetg.stanley@nexo.es

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.