ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3

by Edward R. Rosset

Editorial Stanley

Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: Beryl Aguado Lait Principal of Apsley School of English. Portsmouth - England Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Esquema © Editorial Stanley www.libross.com Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-195-4 Dep. Leg.: BI-1193-01 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1999 Reprint / Reimpresion 2001 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta RGM

INDEX
Unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Contents
Present simple and present continuous Look, sound, seem, appear Modifiers: Quite, fairly, rather, pretty Phrasal verbs Must, can't + infinitive Should, ought to, could + infinitive Such, so Gerunds after prepositions -keep, try Comparison of adjectives Comparison of adverbs Adverbs of manner Order of adjectives Adjectives ending in ing/ed The present perfect simple Present perfect with ever, just, since, for If, when, as soon as, until, clauses Infinitives after adjectives Linking words and phrases Have to - must - need to Uses of the article, the Use of the article, a/an Since, as, because, so, so that Infinitive of purpose Conditionals: type 1, 2 and 3 May, might and could + infinitive Clauses of reason, purpose and result Need Ability can, know how to + infinitive Gerunds after prepositions - worth Present perfect (ever, just, already, for, since) Present perfect (with for and since) Present perfect continuous I would rather - prefer to Had better + infinitive - it's time Past continuous The past perfect I wish - if only Quantifiers Quantifiers (cont.) Links -however, whichever, whenever, etc Too and enough + infinitive Need and want + gerund -help Causative verbs: have and get Indirect speech Indirect speech (cont.) The passive -prepositions: Before, after, as soon as, until Indirect and embedded questions Infinitives after adjectives Participles (ing -ed) in clauses The participle (ing -ed) (cont.) Bare infinitives, after make and verbs of perception Future continuous, future perfect continuous Appendix

Page
2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10- 11 12 - 13 14- 15 16 - 17 18- 19 20 - 21 22 - 23 24 - 25 26 - 27 28 - 29 30 - 31 32 - 33 34 - 35 36 - 37 38 - 39 40 - 41 42 - 43 44 - 45 46 - 47 48 - 49 50 - 51 52 - 53 54 - 55 56 - 57 58 - 59 60 - 61 62 - 63 64 - 65 66 - 67 68 - 69 70 - 71 72 - 73 74 - 75 76 - 77 78 - 79 80 - 81 82 - 83 84 - 85 86 - 87 88 - 89 90 - 91 92 - 93 94 - 95 96 - 97 98 - 99 100 -101 102 -103 104 -105 106-107

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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3

STANLEY

UNIT 1

2

Present simple and present continuous Uses of the simple present tense.
1. Usamos el presente simple en verdades permanentes. • The moon goes round the Earth. • Spring always follows the hardest winter. 2. Para situaciones o acontecimientos que pueden continuar indefinidamente. • My father goes to work by car. • My sister works in the library.

3. Usamos el presente simple para describir acciones habituales, cosas que suceden repetidamente. • Your brother smokes a lot. • We sometimes work till very late. • I start work at nine. • They come here every day.

A menudo usamos adverbios de tiempo o frases adverbiales. Usamos el presente simple con How often o Do you ever. • 'How often do you come here?' 'I come here every day.' • 'Do you ever go to America?' 'No, I never go there.' 4. Tambien usamos el presente simple como referenda futura. • The play begins at 8 and ends at 10.30. • The Art Gallery opens on July 5th and closes on August 30th. 5. Para observaciones y declaraciones tambien usamos el presente simple. • I suppose they'll be here in time for the meeting. • I certainly agree with you.

Uses of the progressive present.
1. La accion esta en progreso en el momento de hablar. • Someone is waiting to see you. • Your father is working at the moment. 2. Situaciones temporales. • What's your son doing these days? • He's reading History at London University. 3. Acciones planeadas: referencia futura.. • Next Sunday we're spending the day in the country. • Your father is arriving tonight. • Hurry up. The train's leaving. 4. Acciones repetidas: A menudo usamos adverbios en este tipo de frases. • She's always talking about the same things. • He's continually telling us what to do. • Don't take that away I'm using it.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

3

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en presente continuo o simple. Example: Stop shouting. I am listening to the radio. What do you do for a living? 1. That man says he's 90, but I 2. My father is in New York. He He always 3. We usually 4. You can take my car. I 5. 'Can Ann drive?' 'No, but she (teach) her.' 6. They always 7. The Tagus River 8. The river 9. Come on! The train miss it. 10.1 (grow) carnations but this year they (grow) geraniums. (flow) into the Atlantic. (flow) fast today after the rains. (come). I (belong) to any trade union or political party. (not/want) to (stay) at the Palace. (not/go) to see the new films but we (not/see) this one. (not/use) it tonight. (learn). Her father (believe) him. (stay) at the Palace Hotel.

11.This girl (not/live) with them. She (stay) with them for a few months. 12. 'What (Mr Brown/ do)?' 'He's an engineer, but he (not/work) at the moment.' 2. Tu amigo va a ir de vacaciones a Espana. Escribe sobre sus planes de vacaciones. Example: (go / Benidorm) He is going to Benidorm. 1. (stay / Hotel Tropical) He 2. (go / by plane) 3. (leave / tomorrow) 4. (go / with his friend Tom) . 5. (stay / three weeks) 3. Ahora tienes unas frases de presente simple con sentido de future. Example: At what time do they open the Museum? 1. We 2. Tomorrow 3. The tennis match 4. The exhibition (close) in September. 5. What time (leave) at 9 and (be) Sunday. (start) at four. (open) in June and (begin) the show ? (arrive) at 11.30.

STANLEY

UNIT 2

4

Look, sound, seem, appear.
For regla general con verbos usamos adverbios, pero con ciertos verbos (como SEEM, LOOK, SOUND, APPEAR, TASTE, ETC.) se pueden usar adjetivos. Podemos hacer esto cuando describimos el sujeto de la frase, no la accion del verbo. • It sounds nice. • It looks good. • It tastes delicious. • It seems difficult. Sin embargo, alguno de estos verbos tiene doble significado: • The agreement appeared difficult. • Mrs Cohn suddenly appeared behind us. En la primera frase, appeared, significa 'parecia', y se usa con un adjetivo; pero en la segunda frase, appeared significa 'aparecer ante la vista,'(accion) asi que se usa con un adverbio. Comparemos: • • • • The little girl looks sad. (adjective) The little girl looked at him sadly, (adverb) This wine tastes delicious, (adjective) He tasted the wine thoughtfully, (adverb)

LOOK tiene dos significados:
• She looks tired. • He looked sad. Aqui significa 'tiene el aspecto, parece' y va seguido de adjetivos. El otro significado de look se relaciona con 'ver', y a menudo Neva detras particulas adverbiales o preposiciones. • Don't look at me like that. • I'll look into the matter.

SOUND es uno de los verbos que no se usan en formas progresivas.
Es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos, no con adverbios. • That piano sounds terrible. • She sounded depressed on the phone.

SEEM es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos, no con adverbios.
• She seemed a bit angry yesterday. A menudo usamos to be despues de seem. • She seems to be very nice. • He seemed to be tired.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

5

1. Detras de estos verbos a veces se pone un adjetivo y a veces un adverbio. Example: The soup tastes wonderful. He tasted the soup suspiciously. 1. The old woman 2. The doctor felt his arm 3. My skin feels very 4. He looked at her 5. Your father looked very 6. The problem appeared 7. She appeared 8. That guitar sounds 9. The cheese smells 10. This wine tastes a bit 11.That rock looks 12. She looked at me 13.The situation seemed 14.The piano sounds (impressive). (sudden). (complicate). (cheap). appeared in the doorway (sudden). (careful). (rough). (angry). (angry) last night. (impossible). (sudden) in front of them. (terrible). (awful). (strange).

2. A continuacion tienes unas frases. Una bien y otra mal. Tienes que tachar la que esta mal. Example: He appeared to be very angry./ 1. He seemed quite normal. / He seemed quite normally. 2. He looked awful. / He looked awfully. 3. That sounded cheaply. / That sounded cheap. 4. It looked expensive. / It looked expensively. 5. It seemed decisive. / It seemed decisively. 6. You look sick. / You looked sickly. 7. It tastes wonderful. / It tastes wonderfully. 8. He felt his way around careful. / He felt his way around carefully. 9. A blue car appeared sudden. / A blue car appeared suddenly. 10.That thing smells awful. / That thing smells awfully. 11. This soup tastes strangely. / This soup tastes strange. 12.That music sounds beautifully. / That music sounds beautiful.

STANLEY

UNIT

3

6

Modifiers: quite, fairly, rather, pretty.
Estas cuatro palabras se usan para modificar la fuerza de los adjetivos o adverbios. Pero no significan exactamente lo mismo.

FAIRLY es la mas debil de las cuatro.
Tiene un sentido de 'bastante', pero no 'mucho'. Una peli'cula 'fairly good' es una peli'cula bastante buena, pero que no merece la pena ir a verla. • He speaks English fairly well, (bastante bien, pero no muy bien)

QUITE es un poco mas fuerte que FAIRLY.
Si dices que una peli'cula es 'quite good', la estas recomendando; quiza no sea la mejor pelfcula de la historia, pero merece la pena ver. • He speaks English quite well, (se las arregla muy bien)

RATHER es todavi'a mas fuerte.
A menudo significa mas de lo normal. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'rather good', es ciertamente mejor que la mayorfa. • He speaks English rather well, (es un buen linguista)

PRETTY es bastante parecido a RATHER,
pero se usa en un estilo bastante informal, generalmente en ingles coloquial. • I'm getting pretty fed up. (hasta la coronilla)

RECUERDA
Solo rather se puede usar con comparatives. • It's getting rather warmer.

O con too. • It's rather too late.
Quite tiene tambien el significado de 'completamente', segun con que palabra se use. • It's all quite finished. • She was quite alone. Tanto quite como rather se pueden usar delante de un artfculo, y con un verbo • It's quite a nice day. • I rather like that girl.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

7

1. En este ejercicio tienes que anadir fairly, quite, rather, o pretty, a las frases que se te dan. Example: He is a pretty good fellow. 1 . This exercise is not too bad. It could be better. It's good. 2. Carmen speaks English ............................... manage a difficult discussion in English. 3. Twenty is ............................. 4. The new art gallery is recommend going to see it. 6. I was bad at all. ................................. ........................... well. She can even

old to take up swimming. good. I certainly would nice.

5. I was pleasantly surprised. She's ...................................

...................................

impressed by her singing. It wasn't strange about the way she interesting, but certainly not good fellow. We all like him. hot. I feel all sticky. well. It's very pleasant to hear intelligent. Nothing out of this world good. Better than most of the films

7. There's something ................................. behaves. I don't feel comfortable with her. 8. His new book is his best. 9. He's a 10. It's 1 1 . She speaks her. 12. That girl is though. 13. This film is I've seen. ................................ ..................................... ..................................... .................................... ............................... ..............................

2. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Tacha la que te parezca que esta mal. Example: He was rather old for her / 1. She is a fairly nice girl. / She is a very nice girl. I love her. 2. It's quite an impressive show. / It's pretty an impressive show. 3. She has a rather strange way of speaking. / She has a fairly strange way to speak. 4. Aren't we driving rather fast? / Aren't we driving quite fast? 5. That boy is quite good at tennis. / That boy is very good at tennis. Of course he's still got a lot to learn. 6. She's got a rather good voice. / She's got quite a good voice. 7. His wife is rather older than he is. / His wife is quite older than he is. 8. We've invited rather too many people. / We've invited fairly too many people. 9. It's quite too difficult for us. / It's rather too difficult for us. 10. It's a very good idea. / It's a fairly good idea. I love it!

STANLEY

UNIT 4

8

Phrasal Verbs
En ingles moderno es muy corriente colocar las preposiciones o los adverbios detras de ciertos verbos, cambiando de esta manera su significado. • turn up (aparecer) - look for (buscar) - give up (abandonar) Es importante saber si la combinacion es transitiva o intransitiva. Es decir si Neva o no complemento directo. Look for es transitive: • I'm looking for my daughter. Look out es intransitive: • Look out! A car is coming!

RECUERDA
A veces un verbo compuesto puede tener un significado y ser transitive y separable.: • He took off his jacket. • He took his jacket off. Y otras veces es intransitive, con otro significado, e inseparable. • The plane took off, (despeg6)

Expresiones transitivas
El objeto se coloca generalmente al final de estas frases: • I'm looking for my passport. Sin embargo, muchas veces se puede poner opcionalmente o bien al final o inmediatamente despues del verbo: • He took off his gloves o He took his gloves off. Cuando el complemento directo es un pronombre a veces se coloca al final de la expresion: • She is looking for her. Pero mas a menudo se coloca inmediatamente detras del verbo: • She took them off. Esta posicion es muy corriente con palabras como: in, on, out, down, up, off, away. • She's giving money away. • Give it away!

• Put it down!

Si el complemento directo es una frase larga, la particula se prefiere poner inmediatamente despues del verbo: • They turned down many perfectly good suggestions. • She's likely to turn down any suggestions I make. Con verbos compuestos intransitivos, la particula viene despues del verbo: • The meeting broke up as I came into the room. Los verbos compuestos de preposicion no tienen problema, pues la preposicion siempre se pone detras del verbo: • That girl takes after her mother.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

9

1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con uno de los verbos compuestos que se te dan: look down, fill in, turn up, keep down, bring up, grow up, fall off, close down. Example: The nuns brought up the child in the convent. 1. The boy has 2. That girl is going to 3. These rich people 4. Industries have to 5. I don't know when he is going to 6. In this exercise you have to 7. This firm is going to the gaps. due to the recession. quite a lot since last year. that horse. on you. their expenses.

2. Completa estas frases tal como se muestra en el ejemplo. Example: He told me to turn off the heating, so I turned it off. 1. He asked me to try out the shampoo, so I 2. He asked me to give up drinking, so I 3. He asked me to ring Mr Jones up, so I 4. He told me to take up learning French, so I 5. He asked me to give up my job, so I 6. He told me to put on my coat, so I 7. He asked me to fold the paper up, so I 3. Completa estas frases usando el verbo compuesto apropiado, en el tiempo que corresponda: try on, turn down, cross out, take off, look up, break off, make up, go out, put on. Example: I have never heard this word before. /'// look it up in the dictionary. 1. That's a nice sweater 2. It's cold, 3. Tomorrow we'll 4. We have to 5. The meeting is going to 6. This is our plane. We'll 7. This answer is not correct , will you! your coat. to the theatre. for the time lost. any time. in half an hour. it

8. The volume is too loud

it

STANLEY

UNIT

5

10

Must, can't + infinitive.
Usamos must para afirmar o sacar una conclusion de la mas probable interpretacion de una situacion o acontecimiento: • She must be about fifty. No conocemos la verdad con exactitud, pero creemos que debe de ser asf. En este sentido !o opuesto de must es can't. • She must be about fifty. • Oh no! She can't be more than forty. En forma indirecta, este dialogo seria: • Jim said that she must be about fifty, but Tom thought that she couldn't be more than forty. Usamos must para decir que estamos seguros de que algo es verdad: • You've been working all day. You must be tired. • You're taking the driving test next week. You must be practising a lot. • She knows a lot about books. She must read a great deal. Usamos can't para decir que creemos que algo es imposible: • You've just drunk a pint of beer. You can't be thirsty already. • He's not doing that, is he? He can't be so stupid. r must be clever/stupid/tired etc. I/you/he (etc) J cgn,t be pract j s i n g/ stud yj ng etc.

RECUERDA
Si nos referimos a un tiempo pasado, usamos must y can't (o couldn't) con el infinitive perfecto. • It must have been terrible for her. • She didn't hear me coming. She must have been asleep. • He started five minutes ago. He can't (o couldn't) have finished already. • She can't (o couldn't) have done it so quickly. I/you/he (etc) J must have been drunk/tired etc. can't have been watching/waiting, etc

En este tipo de frases el can't have (done) se puede sustituir por el couldn't have (done). • He can't have been there. = He couldn't have been there.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

11

1. Completa estas frases con must o can't + un verbo apropiado. Example: She has been working all day. She must be tired. 1. He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. They 2. 'She says she won't marry for money.' 'She 3. That was the doorbell. That 4. That's the doorbell. It 5. That girls knows a lot about films. She your uncle Tom. your brother. He's got a key. to the cinema quite a lot. rich. so silly!'

2. Completa estas frases usando must (have) o can't (have). Example: 'Were they married?' 'Yes, they must have been'. 'Did they hear you?' 'No, they can't have heard me'. 1. She said she'd phone him. So she 2. I know she married the old man, but she for love. 3. The train's already gone. It 4. He has no idea what the book is about. He 5. I can't find my key. I 6. In the village they all know about the project. He everybody. 7. He was starting a few seconds ago. He already. it. him by now. him earlier than I thought. it.

3. Ahora lee esta situacion y escribe una frase con must have o can't have. Example: She didn't say 'hello', (see/us) She can't/couldn't have seen us. 1. She married that old man. (desperate/for/money) 2. 'She finished reading the book.' (she/can't/finish). 'Impossible, she 3. I don't understand how the two cars crashed, (the driver/this car/can't/see/the other car coming) 4. I don't know how you did it. (must/be/very difficult) 5. I lost my briefcase. I (must/leave/train) 6. He walked into a lamppost, (couldn't/be/look) 7. She did the exact opposite of what I told her. (couldn't/understand/tell her) '

STANLEY

UNIT

6

12

Should, ought to, could + infinitive.
RECUERDA
Should es un verbo defective, se puede usar para presente, future y pasado cuando va precedido de un verbo en pasado. Al igual que los demas verbos defectives (excepto el ought) no admite el to detras. Es decir va seguido de un bare infinitive: • You should paint the bedroom. • It was a good play. You should go and see it. A menudo usamos should cuando creemos que una cosa es buena de hacer, o es la cosa apropiada. Es decir: (deberfan). • They should do something about unemployment. • 'Should we ask him to come?' 'Yes, I think we should.' Usamos shouldn't con el sentido de no deben'as. • You shouldn't drink so much.

Should
Se usa para dar consejos y no es tan fuerte como must. Your doctor: • 'You must stop smoking!' Your friend: • 'You should stop smoking.' Para el pasado usamos should have been (deben'as haber estado). • 'I feel terrible today.' 'You shouldn't have drunk so much last night.' • 'My motorbike slipped on the ice.' 'You shouldn't have been going so fast.'

Ought to (deberfa)
Tambien es un verbo defective que se puede usar para el presente, future y pasado, y es el unico verbo defective que va seguido del infinitive con to (full infinitive). • You ought to put central heating. • She ought to have written a letter. • You ought to have passed the examination easily. La forma negativa del ought es oughtn't. • You oughtn't to have written to him. Mientras que la forma interrogativa es ought you? • Ought you to do it alone? Coloquialmente se tiende a usar should en vez de ought to debido a que es mas facil de pronunciar.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

13

1. En este ejercicio usa should para decir que algo deberia suceder. Example: 'Do you think he'll pass his driving test?' 'He should pass it. He can drive very well.' 1. 'Do you think he'll arrive in time?' 'Well, he left very early.' 2. 'Do you think he'll help you?' 'He a lot of favours.' 3. 'Do you think the film is worth seeing?' 'Yes, you it. It's a very good picture'. 4. 'Do you think I could leave without telling them?' 'No, you without saying goodbye.' 2. Rellena estas frases usando should have. Example: 'I can't see very well.' 'You should have gone to the optician before.' 1. 'I left very early.' 'You (stay) a little longer.' He me. I've done him see

2. 'I'm going to post the letter.' 'What! You haven't posted it yet? You (post) it yesterday.' 3. You insulted him, you know. I think you for what you said. 4. They arrived late.' They 5. 'He was angry because I lied.' 'You (leave) earlier.' (tell) him the truth'. (apologize)

6. 'She was annoyed because I hadn't cleaned my room.' 'You (clean) it before you left.' 3. Gambia should por ought y viceversa. Example:! think you should apologize to that lady. / think you ought to apologize to that lady. 1. He ought to have come earlier 2. You should have bought a better car. 3. We ought to have gone out for dinner. 4. You should stop smoking 5. You ought to have told her 6. They should work harder 7. I ought to have spoken to her 8. I should have gone to bed earlier. . ..

STANLEY

U NIT

7

n

Such, so
Such
Es un adjetivo y se usa delante de 'adjetivo + sustantivo'. • She is such a nice girl that everyone loves her. • They were such big dogs that everybody was afraid.

So
Es un adverbio y se usa delante de adverbios y adjetivos:

• • • •

She is so big! Those girls are so pretty! He spoke so fast that I couldn't understand him. The dog was so big that nobody dared get near .

Nunca se usa such delante de much y many: • It was such a nice day that we went out for a picnic. Mientras que so se utiliza con ambos, incluso cuando el much y el many van seguidos de sustantivos: • There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in. • He poured so much water that the glass overflowed. So y such hacen que el significado del adjetivo sea mas fuerte. • She is very pretty, but so silly. • She enjoyed the party. She had such a good time. Comparemos so y such: • I like those people. They are so nice/They are such nice people.

so ... that ... y such ... that ...
• The book was so interesting that I read it in one day. • It was such an interesting book that I couldn't put it down. Fijate que such + a + adjetivo + sustantivo, es igual a so + adjetivo + a + sustantivo: • Such a nice girl. = So nice a girl. Esta ultima expresion aunque no es muy coloquial se suele ver en literatura.

RECUERDA
Que such a se usa con sustantivos en singular: • Such a girl! • Such girls! • Such weather! Las expresiones • Such a nice girl! • Such nice girls! • Such nice weather! equivalen a " such a long time. such a long way. Mientras que such se usa con plurales e incontables:

so long so far

STANLEY

EXERCISES

15

1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner so o such. Example: Don't eat so fast! I've never seen such a boring film. 1. It's incredible that she should be 2. That man has 3. The sun was 4. I've never tasted 5. I've never had 6. She's got beautiful! 7. She buys expensive nowadays! 8. Some people have got how to spend it. expensive things! Things are lot of money that they don't know fit at eighty. lot of problems that he can't sleep. hot that I got sunburnt. horrible food. wonderful meal. beautiful eyes! Her eyes are

2. Gambia such por so y viceversa. Example: The film was so exciting that everyone was quiet. It was such an exciting film that everyone was quiet. 1. The weather was so good that we went for a picnic.

2. It was such a good motorway that we drove very fast.

3. The problem was so difficult that nobody could solve it.

4. He had such a big head that he couldn't find a hat big enough.

3. Gambia estas frases por otras con el mismo significado. Example:! didn't know that he had lived here for so long. / didn't know that he had lived here for such a long time. 1. We've got so much food that we don't know what to do with it.

2. They lived so far from the centre that they had to take a bus.

3. I've been doing this for so long that I couldn't do anything else.

STANLEY

UNITS

16

Gerunds after prepositions. Keep, try.
Los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio: Are you good at learning languages? Is he interested in working for you? I am in favour of giving everyone a day off. There's no point in taking your car. She insisted on paying for herself. He left without paying the bill. This knife is for carving meat. I'm fed up with doing always the same. Despues de before y after se pone gerundio: • Before doing anything ask your father. • What are you going to do after leaving college? Tambien se puede poner un sujeto: • Before he left he said goodbye to everybody. • What are you going to do after you leave college? Without y by van tambien seguidos de gerundio: • He left without saying goodbye. • They got into the car by breaking the back window. Las unicas excepciones a la regla del gerundio son except y but (preposicion), los cuales van seguidos del infinitivo sin to (bare infinitive). • I could do nothing except swallow my pride. • He did nothing but complain. TO es generalmente parte del infinitivo: • I want to come with you. Sin embargo, to tambien puede ser una preposicion: • My brother went to South America. • He passed the sugar to his sister. Por lo tanto en las frases en las que el to sea preposicion y vaya seguido de un verbo, este verbo ira en gerundio. • I prefer running to walking. • I look forward to hearing from you.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

17

1. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir una frase con el mismo significado que la primera. Example:! finished my letter and then I went to the cinema. After finishing my letter I went to the cinema. 1. We went to the cinema but first we had a meal. 2. Tom can solve difficult problems. He is very good at 3. First he went for a swim in the sea, and then he had a shower. 4. He is thinking. He would like to emigrate to Australia. 5. We didn't watch television. We went to the cinema instead. Instead 6. He fell in the second lap, but he managed to win the race. In spite 7. This gadget open tins. It's a gadget for

2. Ahora vuelve a escribir estas frases con without o by. Example: She left the house. She didn't say goodbye. She left the house without saying goodbye. 1. He found a parking place. He didn't look for it. 2. He went out in the rain. He didn't take his umbrella. 3. The burglar got into the house. He broke the garage window. 4. He got away with it. He accused his accomplice.

3. Escribe las mismas frases con look forward to. Example: I'm meeting you next week. I'm looking forward to it. I'm looking forward to meeting you. 1. Old Grumbler is coming to see me. I'm not looking forward to that. 2. I'm going home for Christmas. I'm looking forward to it. 3. After three months you're going to see your girlfriend. What do you say to her?

STANLEY

UNIT 9

1*

Comparison of adjectives.
La comparacion se hace entre dos, bien sea, personas, cosas o grupos: • Peter is taller than John. • Peter is taller than the other boys. A veces el segundo termino de la comparacion se da por sobreentendido. • Which is (the) bigger? (of the two classes) Mas ejemplos de comparativos + than. • • • • • Our house is better/worse/bigger than our neighbour's. Walking is less tiring than running. A leather coat is more expensive than a plastic one. It's more pleasant today than it was yesterday. She feels less tired today than she felt yesterday.

Tambien se pueden dar comparaciones con frases hechas tal como: • She is taller than average. • Today it's less expensive than usual.

RECUERDA
Que cuando juntamos dos adjetivos (o adverbios) en grado comparative, damos la idea de aumento o disminucion: • He is getting taller and taller. • Things are getting more and more difficult. • Videos and computers are getting less and less expensive.

The + comparative + the
Esta construccion se puede hacer con adjetivos y con adverbios para mostrar causa y efecto: • The more money you have, the more you want. • The more expensive things are, the less people buy.

Modification de los adjetivos.
Para dar intensidad a la comparacion usamos palabras tales como: a bit, a lot, lots, a little, rather, very much, far, even, hardly any, etc. • Things are much more expensive nowadays. • It's much colder this year than it was last year. • There have been many more crimes this month.

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1. Completa las frases usando a little, a lot, much, many etc. Usa than cuando sea necesario. 1. It's to learn things with a good teacher, (a lot/easy)

2. The car is too small for us. We need something (much/big) 3. She looked sad yesterday but this morning she looks (a bit/happy) 4. I prefer this hotel. It's (much/comfortable) than that one

5. 'Did you enjoy your stay?' 'Yes, it was (far/interesting).' 2. En este ejercicio tienes que usar la estructura more and more. Example: The weather is getting warmer and warmer. Things are getting more and more difficult. 1. Restaurants are becoming

I expected

(expensive).

2. She's only been here for two months and her English is already getting (good). 3. As days passed she became 4. That crack on the wall is getting 5. This suitcase seems to get 6. It's becoming 7. That woman is getting 8. The little girl is becoming 3. Junta las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. The more you have 2. The more expensive it is 3. The longer he waits 4. The shorter the way 5. The higher you climb 6. The better the teacher is 7. The longer the phone call A the more you learn. B the quicker you get there. C the more dangerous it becomes. D the more you want. E the more impatient he becomes. F the less it sells. G the more you have to pay. (difficult) to find a job. (grumpy) as she gets older. (beautiful) as she grows up. (nervous). (big). (heavy).

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U N I T 10

20

Comparison of adverbs.
Solamente algunos de los adverbios pueden usarse en grades comparativo y superlative:

adverb
fast easily rarely badly far late little much well

comparative
faster more easily more rarely worse farther/further later less more better

superlative
fastest most easily most rarely worst farthest/furthest latest least most best

RECUERDA
Muchos adverbios como fast y early forman sus comparativos y superlatives de la misma forma que los adjetivos cortos (faster, fastest). Como la mayoria de los adverbios de modo tienen dos d mas silabas, estos forman sus comparativos y superlatives con more/less y most/least: more quickly, less clearly, least briefly.

Algunos adverbios de frecuencia forman el grade comparativo y superlative con more/less, most/least (more seldom, most seldom). Often tiene dos formas de comparativo: more often y oftener, siendo la primera mas corriente: I go there more often than you. Last y latest pueden ser adjetivos: • This is the latest news (las mas recientes). • This is the last news bulletin for today. Pero generalmente last se usa como adverbio: • We went to the Wax Museum last. Ejemplos de comparacion de adverbios: • • • • • • • • I run as fast as my brother. I can't sing as well as my sister. She can't jump as high as her brother. The clouds disappeared more quickly than we expected. The faster he talks the more difficult it is to understand him. It was snowing more and more heavily. This man runs faster than anyone else in the world. My daughter works harder than anybody else in the office. • I last saw him two months ago.

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases usando as ... as. Example: This table is long but that one is longer. That table is not as long as this one. 1. Today's weather is good, but yesterday was better. The weather today isn't 2. She was nervous before the exam but usually she is more nervous. She wasn't 3. We've been here for a long time but they've been here longer. We haven't 4. I feel fit but yesterday I was fitter. I don't feel 5. He still drinks but he used to drink a lot more. He doesn't 2. Vuelve a escribir estas frases de forma que tengan el mismo significado. Example: This man is older than he looks. He isn't as young as he looks. 1. The exam was more difficult than I expected. The exam wasn't

2. There were fewer people at this match than at the last one. There weren't

3. The restaurant is cheaper than we expected. It isn't

4. We go to the cinema less than we used to. We don't go

5. The Post Office was farther than I thought. It wasn't

3. En este ejercicio vas a cambiar las frases usando less. Example: It was not as clear as before. In fact it was less clearly written than before. 1. It's not done very quickly, In fact it's done than before. 2. It was not explained very briefly. In fact it was explained . . . than before. 3. We used to go very seldom to that place, but now we still go than before.

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U N I T 11

22

Adverbs of manner.
La mayoria de los adverbios de modo se forman anadiendo ly a los adjetivos: sudden/suddenly, beautiful/beautifully, mad/madly. A menudo la 'y' se convierte en 'i': funny/funnily, busy/busily, dry/drily (o dryly). Cuando el adverbio termina en 'le',la 'e' desaparece: possible/possibly. Otros la retienen: extreme/extremely. Con la excepcion de true/truly, due/duly. Algunos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos: daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly. Early y fast tambien pueden ser adjetivos o adverbios. • This is a fast train. • This train is very fast.

RECUERDA
Que algunos sufijos se pueden ahadir a los adjetivos para formar adverbios de modo (a veces de direccion): sideways, clockwise, lengthwise, crossways.

Position
Los adverbios de modo se colocan detras del verbo: • She sang beautifully. O detras del objeto cuando hay uno: • She speaks English well. He gave up his job reluctantly. Cuando tenemos verbo + preposicion + objeto, el adverbio puede ir o bien delante de la preposicion o despues del objeto: • She looked at me suspiciously. / She looked suspiciously at me. Si el objeto es una frase ponemos el adverbio antes que la preposicion: • She looked suspiciously at everybody sitting in the lounge. Asfmismo, en las frases de verbo + objeto, si el objeto es largo el adverbio se coloca entre el sujeto y el verbo: • They secretly decided to meet again shortly. • He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. Badly y well se pueden usar como adverbios de modo o de grado. Como adverbios de modo se colocan detras de un verbo active: • He speaks English well. • The excursion was well organized. • She behaved badly. • He was badly paid.

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1. Completa la frase con el adverbio correspondiente. Entre parentesis tienes el adjetivo. Example: He was madly in love with the girl (mad). 1. She played the piano 2. The documents were 3. 'Come here,' he said 4. It will 5. It is 6. We caught the train very 7. I pay my bills 8. It 9. He drove very 10.The film ended 11. You have to do it very 12.These people always laugh very 13.This man always behaves very 14. She always greets me in a very 2. Una de las dos frases esta mal, tachala. Example: He pays his staff very well. I Hejjaj 1. She typed his letters very badly. / She very badly typed his letters. 2. It heavily snowed last February. / It snowed heavily last February. 3. He took the picture down slowly. / He slowly took the picture down. 4. He hurriedly left the room. / He left the room hurriedly. 5. I pay my bills quarterly. / I quarterly pay my bills. 6. Shake the bottle well. / Shake well the bottle. 7. He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. / He denied angrily that he had stolen the money. 8. He kindly spoke to the children. / He spoke to the children kindly. 9. She danced beautifully. / She beautifully danced. 10. She gave him the money reluctantly. / She reluctantly gave him the money. 11. These actors perform very badly. / These actors very badly perform. 12. They ran across the street. / They crossed the street running. 13. She pays every day. / She every day pays. 14. He softly spoke to me. / He spoke to me softly. (month). appeared in front of her (sudden). (fast). (happy). (careful). (loud). (noble). way (friendly). (beautiful). received (due). (dry). rain tonight (possible). the same thing (basic). (early).

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U NIT

12

24

Order of adjectives.
A veces usamos mas de un adjetivo para describir un sustantivo. Entonces tenemos que tener cuidado en que orden ponemos los adjetivos. Aunque no hay reglas fijas, en el cuadro que va a continuacion ponemos una gufa general.

Adjectives quality age/size
nice beautiful
new old

Noun colour country
green blue
Italian Japanese

material
wooden porcelain table vase

Fi'jate que las cualidades generales (beautiful, nice, delicious, clever, etc) van siempre delante, como primer adjetivo. El sustantivo puede estar compuesto de dos palabras: kitchen table, tennis racket. Estas palabras no se pueden separar. Si uno de los adjetivos es un participio este se pondra delante del material: a handmade wooden table. La palabra que indica nacionalidad u origen se pone inmediatamente delante: Italian shirt. En caso de que haya un gerundio, este precede al origen: • An Italian handmade tablecloth. • Fast-selling Italian handmade tablecloths. El tamaho generalmente precede a la edad y forma, etc. • A large new table; a small round table; A large new square table. Los adjetivos que expresan nuestra opinion de la calidad de algo o alguien van en primer lugar: nice, happy, clean, cheap. • There was a friendly little Chinese girl at the counter. Cuando los adjetivos se usan como predicados, es decir, detras del verbo, se separan con un and si son dos: • The tea was sweet and strong. Si son mas de dos adjetivos los separamos con una coma excepto los dos ultimos que que van separados por and. • His clothes were filthy, old, wet and worn out. Usamos comas para separar los adjetivos que sean igualmente importantes. Nunca ponemos coma detras del ultimo adjetivo: • A tall, dark, handsome young man. • A small, shiny, black leather bag. A veces tambien los atributivos van unido con and. • Black and white tiles. • A tall and elegant young woman.

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1. Ron los adjetivos que van entre parentesis en posicion correcta. Example: a table (nice, old, wooden) A nice old wooden table. 1. A cat (white, fat, big) 2. A road (long, narrow) 3. A face ( thin, white) 4. A box (metal, black, large) 5. A car (black, old, little) 6. A dress (blue, pretty) 7. A shower (hot, nice) 8. A day (beautiful, sunny) 9. Eyes (large, watery) 10. A film (Japanese, new) 11. A handbag (black leather) 12. A house (modern, red, brick) 13. A man (young, good-looking) 14. An old lady (nice, little, old) 15. A painting (old, interesting, Italian)

16. A ring (silver, rare) 17. Hair (beautiful, black, long) 18. A village (fishing, little, lovely) 19. A cupboard (old, beautiful, brown, Italian)

2. Forma frases usando los adjetivos como predicados. Example: My shoes/worn out/torn. My shoes are worn out and torn. 1. He/tall/handsome/dark 2. He/dark/short/dirty 3. He/cruel/man/vicious 4. It seem/exciting/mysterious 5. His clothes/dirty/wet/old/worn out 6. The road/long/winding 7. The man/unshaven/dirty 8. The woman/beautiful/mysterious

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U N I T 13

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Adjectives ending in ing/ed.
Hay muchos pares de adjetivos que terminan en ing y ed. Por ejemplo: surprised y surprising. • Mary is at the cinema. The end of the film is not what she expected. You can say that: • The end of the film is surprising. • She was surprised by the end of the film. Se puede decir que alguien es o esta surprised/bored etc. si algo o alguien es o esta surprising/boring etc. Tambien, si algo es surprising/boring etc., te hace surprised/bored: • Mary is surprised because the ending is surprising. • The end of the film is surprising, so Mary is surprised. He aquf algunos ejemplos mas: • We were alarmed when we heard the news. • The news was alarming. (He was alarmed because the news was alarming.) • He is interested in art. • He thinks that art is interesting. (He is interested in art because art is interesting.) • She was worried about the situation. • The situation was very worrying. (She was worried because the situation was worrying.) Algunos adjetivos que tienen estas dos terminaciones son: amused/amusing, astonished/astonishing, confused/confusing, depressed/depressing, embarrassed/ embarrassing, exhausted/exhausting, shocked/shocking, terrified/terrifying, excited/exciting.

Adjectives - Ending in full / less
Algunos sustantivos forman el adjetivo con sufijos tales como: Beauty-beautiful, care-careful, pain-painful, plenty-plentiful, shame-shameful, sorrow-sorrowful, meaning-meaningful, success-successful, trust-trustful. Care-careless, pain-painless, shame-shameless, meaning-meaningless, fearfearless, aim-aimless, bottom-bottomless, hope-hopeless. • • • • Be careful crossing the road. He is a careless person. He's a trustful man. He trusts everybody. This note is meaningless. It doesn't mean anything.

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar dos frases con cada situacion. Usa un adjetivo que termina en ing y otro en ed para completar cada frase. Example: The book wasn't as good as I had expected, (bore) The book was boring. I was bored reading the book. 1. I didn't understand the situation, (confuse) It was very It was very He was 4. It was raining all afternoon, (depress) I was He was 6. The job was very good, (excite)
She was

I was very I felt very The exam was The weather was by their situation. Their situation was ..

2. The armchair was very comfortable, (relax) 3. The teacher was terribly surprised by Jim's exam, (shock)

5. The family situation was terrible, (move)

It was an

job.

7. Maths is his favourite subject, (interest) He thinks maths is very in maths. He is

2. Elige el adjetivo apropiado y tacha el que no corresponde. Example: The room was in a mess. It was disgusting/dj|3j«stfci 1. I was very d i s a p p o i n t e d / d i s a p p o i n t i n g when I finished the book. 2. I don't tike horror films. I get f r i g h t e n i n g / f r i g h t e n e d . 3. The whole affair was very annoying/annoyed. 4. It was a m a z e d / a m a z i n g the progress he had made. 5. The situation was very e m b a r r a s s i n g / e m b a r r a s s e d . 3. Haz lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2. Example:! don't like the food. It's tasteless/taJtetujT 1. The body laid on the floor a l i v e / l i f e l e s s . 2. He ran across the road. He is very c a r e f u l / c a r e l e s s . 3. She was sorry. She was very s o r r o w f u l / s o r r o w l e s s for doing it. 4. He doesn't care about anything. He is a s h a m e f u l / s h a m e l e s s boy. 5. He is very brave. He is a f e a r l e s s / f e a r f u l man. 6. Mr. Brown trusts everybody. He's a t r u s t f u l / t r u s t l e s s man.

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UNIT

14

28

The present perfect simple and continuous.
Present continuous / going to / future simple.
Usamos el presente continue para referirnos a actividades y eventos que estan planeados para el future. Generalmente necesitamos un adverbio a no ser que el significado este muy claro. • We're spending our holiday in Benidorm. A menudo asociamos el presente continue como los verbos arrive, come, leave, go, etc. para describir arreglos de viajes, encuentros etc. • She is arriving tomorrow afternoon on the 5.30 train. • Tom is coming next week. • 'Where are you meeting her?' No usamos el will para hablar acerca de arreglos que has concertado. • When are you getting married? • What are you doing this evening?

RECUERDA
Usamos going to cuando ya nemos decidido hacer algo en el proximo future: • We are going to watch the football match on TV tonight. • 'Are you going out?' 'No, I'm going to read for a while.' • I heard your daughter is going to marry a rich American. Tambien usamos el going to cuando predecimos algo. • Get down from that ladder. You're going to fall. • Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.

WILL
Usamos el will cuando decidimos hacer algo en el memento de hablar. • 'What would you like?' 'I'll have a whisky, please.' • 'You left the window open.' 'I'll close it.' • 'Mary wants to talk to you.' 'I'll ring her up.' WON'T es la forma negativa de WILL. • 'Mr Martin is out.' 'Oh, all right. I won't wait then.' A menudo se usa el will con I think, I don't think. • I think I'll stay in tonight. I don't feel like going out. • I don't think I'll bother answering all those letters. Con ofertas y promesas: • I'll help you with that heavy case. • I'll give you the money tomorrow.

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1. Tu amiga tiene muchos proyectos para el proximo future. Tu tienes que escribir frases acerca de sus planes. Example: She is leaving lor America in a few days, (leave) 1. She 2. They 3. They 4. Mary 5. Her friend 6. Mary 7. From New York they (travel) with a friend of hers. (visit) the Niagara Falls. (go) by plane. (stay) with her aunt. (have) an interview for a job. (meet) an old friend of the family in New York. (fly) to California.

2. i,Que crees tu que va a suceder? Example: That little boy is trying to climb a tree. He is going to fall. 1. His passport is in the back pocket of his jeans.

He
2. Dark clouds are gathering.

It
3. She forgot her umbrella and it's raining.
She

4. I'm crossing the channel and the sea is very choppy.
You

5. He's taken his tennis racket.

He
3. Promete o queda de acuerdo en hacer alguna cosa. Example: I'd like you to come to see me tomorrow. All right. /'// go. 1. 'Can you repair my bike?' 'Okay, 2. 'Don't tell anybody, please!' 'All right 3. 'Be careful when you give an injection.' 'Don't worry. I you.' 4. 'You owe me a lot of money.' 'Well, 5. 'You promised you were going to take me swimming.' 'O.K next Sunday'. 6. 'Can I have my book back?' 'Of course, this afternoon. back on Saturday'. it.' '

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Present perfect with ever, just, since, for.
Used to + Infinitive.
La estructura used to + infinitive solo existe en el pasado. Se refiere a habitos pasados. • He used to drink quite a lot. (soli'a beber) Para expresar la misma idea en presente, basta con usar el presente simple: • He drinks quite a lot. O bien: • He usually drinks on Saturdays, (suele beber) Para la forma interrogativa y negativa se admiten las dos formas: • Did he use to drink? / Used he to drink? • He didn't use to drink. / He usen't to drink. RECUERDA Que para las coletillas o respuestas cortas se usa el didn't. • They used to live in Bristol, didn't they? • Did he use to smoke? - Yes, he did. o Yes, he used to. • No, he didn't, o No, he didn't use to.

USED TO y WOULD
Cuando nos referimos a habitos pasados podemos usar tanto uno como otro: • When I was a boy I used to get up at six o'clock. • When I was a boy I would get up at six o'clock. Sin embargo, para describir situaciones o estados pasados tenemos que usar el used to y no el would. • I used to be an English teacher, but now I'm a writer. • I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Used to no se usa cuando algo sucedio hace algun tiempo, o por cuanto tiempo duro: • I went to Italy several times (No: I used to go to Italy several times) • I lived in Bristol for five years. (No: I used to live in Bristol for 5 years)

IMPORTANTE
No confundir used to + infinitivo con used to + gerundio. • I used to go. (soli'a ir) - I'm used to going, (estoy acostumbrado a ir) • He used to drink, (soli'a beber) - He's used to drinking, (esta acostumbrado a beber)

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con used to ... Example: Ronald doesn't drink now, but he used to drink quite a lot. 1. My father doesn't smoke now, but he 2. I've got a car now, but I 3. There is only one cinema now, but there 4. Years ago I 5. They 6. He 20 cigarettes a day. a motorbike. 3 cinemas. cider, but I don't like it now. in Bristol, but now they live in London. take a lot of medicines, but now he is a vegetarian.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que cambiar el pasado por el presente. Example: He used to drink a lot all the time, (solia) He usually drinks only on Saturdays, (suele) 1. He used to drink cups of coffee all day long. But now a cup in the morning. 2. My brother used to play tennis every day. But now he a match on Saturdays. 3. Jim used to smoke forty cigarettes a day. But now he only one after lunch. 4. We used to go out every day. But now we only on Saturdays. 3. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: He used to live alone. Did he use to live alone? He didn't use to live alone. 1. I used to play in that old castle when I was a child.

2. They used to go to the cinema every Saturday.

3. They used to travel a lot.

4. My friend used to live in Bristol.

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U NIT

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32

If, when, as soon as, until clauses.
If sugiere que no estas seguro de que algo va a suceder. When se usa para hablar acerca de acontecimientos que es seguro o muy probable que sucedan. • • • • I'll see you next week, when I come back, (cuando vuelva) I'll see you next week, if I come back, (si vuelvo) We'll go to the beach if it doesn't rain. We'll be in Madrid when we wake up.

Cuando generalizamos es posible usar ambas palabras sin que cambie el significado. • When/If you heat water it boils.

RECUERDA
Que en las frases de when usamos el presente simple (en espanol es presente de subjuntivo), aunque la idea de la frase es future. • I'll tell you when I come back tonight, (cuando vuelva) • We'll go out when the rain stops. Lo mismo sucede con: as soon as until while • We'll go out as soon as I finish this.

Se puede usar el preterite perfecto para mostrar que la primera accion estara acabada antes que la segunda: • When I am finished with this I'll give it to you. Despues de if tambien usamos el presente simple: • We'll go out if it doesn't rain. • If it rains we'll stay at home. No confundir if con when. Usar when para cosas que es seguro que sucedan: • I'm going to Madrid. When I come back I'll bring you a present. Usar if cuando es posible que algo suceda, pero no es seguro. • I may go out this afternoon. If I go out I'll buy it for you. • If she doesn't come soon, I'll go to the cinema alone.

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1. Todas las frases de este ejercicio tienen idea de future. Ron los verbos en forma correcta. Example: Come on! Your father will (be) angry if we are (be) late. 1. If we 2 3. We 4. When you 5. We (need) any help, we you (do) that while I (start) off until my brother (see) my sister you (be) surprised if he (ask) you. (be) away? (arrive). (recognise) her. (pass) his driving test. (come).

6. Please, let me know when he 7. We (arrive) in London. 8. We 9. When you 10. If I 11.1 12.1 (phone) her as soon as we

(start) the exam until the teacher (see) little Albert you (need) money, I (drop) you a line as soon as I (let) you know when I

(arrive). (be) surprised.. (ask) you. (get) there. (be) ready.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que poner when o if. Example: If it rains this afternoon we'll stay in. 1. I'd like you to come, but you don't want to, don't come. I get back.

2. I'll be away a couple of weeks. I'll give you a ring 3. I'll have something to eat 4. I'm going out 5. I'll be there by 7. But I get home.

you want something, I'll get it for you. I'm not, don't wait for me. he doesn't

6. I think he'll pass the exam. I'll be very surprised pass it. 7. Your brother may phone today 8. I'm going to New York 9. I'll look for his address. I'll give it to you 10. I'll send it to you 11. Will you send the letter 12. We'll probably go out 13. We won't wait for you 14.They'll come to see us tomorrow 15.1 only watch TV 16. I'll return the book I am finished with it. you finish writing it?. it doesn't rain. you aren't here by 5.

he does, tell him I want to talk to him. I am there I'll visit Aunt Maggie. I find it.

it doesn't rain. there is something interesting. I'm finished with it

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17

34

Infinitives after adjectives.
Muchos adjetivos pueden ir seguidos de infinitives:

GRUPO 1:
Silly, clever, foolish, generous, good, kind, poliite right, wrong, rude, careless, brave, etc. • He is very clever to answer all these questions. • She was very kind to help them. • It's wrong to do that. It + be + adjective + of noun/pronoun + to-infinitive • It was very kind of him to help you. • It was silly of you to do that.

GRUPO 2:
Curious, anxious, eager, glad, ready, sorry, willing, keen, quick, ashamed, afraid, reluctant, etc. • He is always reluctant to make any trouble. • He is determined to succeed in life. Algunos de estos adjetivos admiten la combinacion for + noun/pronoun: • He is anxious for his son to win the competition. A la lista anterior se pueden anadir algunos adjetivos que se refieren a probabilidades: certain, sure, bound, likely. • They are very likely to accept your proposal.

GRUPO 3:
Impossible, easy, hard, difficult, agreeable, boring, nice, etc. • This type of shirt is difficult to wash. • It's impossible to be angry with this man.

GRUPO 4:
The first, the second, etc.; the next, the last, the best, the worst: • Jim is always the first to arrive and the last to leave. • That was the worst thing to do.

Too + adjective + infinitive
• He is too stupid to understand. • She is too clever to fall into the trap.

Adjective + enough + infinitive
• This man is not strong enough to lift it. • That box is too big to carry. Esta estructura tambien admite el for + noun/pronoun. • There isn't enough work for us to do.

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1. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a las preguntas. Example: 'Did he help you?' 'Yes, he was very kind to help us. It was very kind of him to help us'. 1. 'Did she give you money?' 'Yes, she some money. It was very 2. 'I heard he insulted the teacher.' 'Yes, he teacher. It was very 3. 'Did he show you the way?' 'Yes, he the way. It was very ' ' (good/show) us ' (foolish/insult) the (generous/give) us

4. He was nearly run over by a car.' 'Yes, he was (careless/cross) the road like that. It was 2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos del grupo 2. Example: He was anxious to win the competition. He was anxious for his son to win the competition. 1. 'Did he want to come back?' 'Yes, he He was (his son/come back). (get/job). He is (determine/succeed). (eager/come/back) home. '

2. 'Does he want the job?' 'Yes he (his daughter/get/job). 3. Does he want to succeed?' Yes, He's He's (his son/succeed).

3. Completa las frases con las palabras entre parentesis. Example: He is very difficult to please. It's very difficult to please him. 1. He is 2. It's (boring/live) with. It is with him.

(impossible/win) this competition. This competition

3. It is

(nice/be/you). You are a nice person

4. Gambia la frase de forma que signifique lo mismo. Example: He always arrives the first. He is always the first to arrive. 1. The best thing is to ask him. He is 2. She arrived the last one. She was 3. He will come next. He 4. He is very weak. He isn't lift the box.

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Linking words and phrases.
Although and even though se pueden usar al principio de una frase: • Although/Though/Even though we tried our best, we lost the game. However puede ser usado con un significado parecido, pero debe colocarse al comienzo de la frase. • We all did our best. However we lost the game. Though suele ir al final de la frase: • We tried our best, we lost the game though.
* But como conjuncion puede significar 'sino':

• It's not the red one I wanted but the blue one. Tambien puede significar 'sin embargo': • He cut his knee, but he didn't cry. A veces muestra sorpresa o asombro: • 'I'll give you £5.' 'But that is not what we agreed on.'

Both ... and ... (no solo ... sino ...).
• He was both tired and hungry. • She speaks both English and French. • Both his brother and his sister are married.

As well as (asi como).
• He grows flowers as well as vegetables. • He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. • He opened the door as well as the window.

On the other hand (por otra parte).
• I don't know if can do that. On the other hand, I'll be on holiday. Also, too, as well indican que la palabra o frase ha sido anadida a algo que ya se ha mencionado anteriormente. Also es mas formal y se coloca en el medio de la frase, mientras que too y as well van al final. • I know Tom and I also know his mother. • He is good at maths and he is also good at sports. • I've read the book and I've seen the film too/as well.

Either... or... (o ... o ...)
Se usa cuando tienes dos alternativas. • You can take either French or English. • I left it either on the table or in the drawer.

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1. Completa la frase con alguna de las uniones que van a continuacion: although, though, however, as well as, but, on the other hand, also, either... or. Example: Even though we lost the game, we played our best. 1. You can walk up take the cable car.

2. He says he will pay; I don't think he will, 3. We won't go to this restaurant 4. The books are not very good, and 5. You can take 6. He plays the guitar and 7. I have no time to go and 8. You must 9. Little Jimmy cut his finger 10. He was tired 11. You can take 12. You can learn 13 happy. meat French fish, but not both. German at the same time. do it properly he didn't cry. this one to that one. people don't read nowadays. that one. he is studying the piano. I don't feel well. don't do it at all.

they are expensive, people buy them. he got the job.

14. He had no qualifications

2. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo, usando las palabras del ejercicio 1. Example: 'Does he speak French?' 'Yes, and he speaks German too.' Yes, and he also speaks German. 1. You can play football. You can play rugby this afternoon. 2. He is not very clever. Nevertheless, he works hard.

3. The little boy fell off the tree. He didn't hurt himself.

4. We have not the means to do it. Besides, we have no money.

5. You can't do the two things at the same time; read and write.

6. He is very clever. Unfortunately he is very lazy.

7. Although he could speak five languages. He didn't speak English.

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UNIT

19

38

Have to, must, need to.
Los verbos must y have to tienen un significado muy parecido aunque su uso no es exactamente el mismo. Must indica un obligacion moral, un sentimiento que es necesario hacer algo: • You must stop doing that.* I must finish this job for tomorrow. • I must make an appointment to see the dentist. Con el have to no das tus propios sentimientos. Puedes dar solo hechos: • I have to wear glasses. • I can't go to the party. I have to work. O indicar una obligacion exterior: • We all have to pay taxes. • You have to wear uniforms on duty, don't you? Para indicar costumbres se usa have to: • I have to take six of these pills every day.

RECUERDA
Que • • • a veces se pueden usar las dos formas indistintamente: It's very late. I must/have to go now. I must/will have to buy a good dicctionary. I must/have to cut down on smoking.

Pero cuando comentamos las obligaciones de los demas usamos el have to: • I suppose you'll have to be at work by 9. • They'll have to send somebody down to examine the damage. Cuando las obligaciones le parecen importantes al que habla, usa must: • I must tell you about a friend of mine. • This sort of thing must stop at once. En pasado solo hay una forma: had to • Yesterday I had to borrow some money from Jim. Need to indica necesidad. • I need to consult a good dictionary. • He needs to have access to our files. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: • Need you go so early? • You needn't come with us. Para el pasado solo hay una. • You didn't need to wait for us. • Do you need to go so early? • You don't need to come with us.

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1. Completa las frases con el verbo must o have to. Example: I have to go to work every day except Sunday. 1. Jane, you 2. Your spelling is awful. You 3. You 4. You 5. You'll 6. You 7. You both 8. I ran out of money and I 9. The doctor told me that I 10. There were no buses so she 11. Before I give you a cheque I 12.The poor girl can't see a thing. She 13.1 can't meet you tomorrow. I 14. It's very late. I 15. Daddy is not feeling well. We'll 16. In Britain children 17.1 couldn't repair the TV. I go now. call the doctor. wear uniform when they go to school. take it to the shop. work. wear a dress tonight. You're going to the theatre. use a dictionary. wear a uniform when you are on duty, don't you? train very hard for the Olympic Games, I suppose. start earlier when you start work, won't you? tell me about your quarrel with Jim. come and see us. borrow some from my friend. take these pills. walk. find my cheque book. wear glasses.

2. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: I need to consult a doctor. Do I need to consult a doctor?/Need I consult a doctor? I don't need to consult a doctor/I needn't consult a doctor. 1. I need to talk to you

2. He needs to have access to our files.

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U N I T 20

40

Uses of the article "the
The se usa para unas referencias definidas: • The lion is dangerous. Pero no se usa en sentido general: • Lions are dangerous. Con nacionalidades se usa the: the British, the Americans, the Spanish, the Italians. Y tambien con algunos adjetivos: the injured, the wounded, the dying, the old, the young, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the sick. El uso de the con estaciones del ano es opcional: • We'll go in (the) autumn. Con fechas el artfculo se lee pero no se escribe: • 16 (th) April (se dice the sixteenth of April).

Cinema, theatre, radio, television,
Decimos: We go to the cinema/theatre. • We listen to the radio. Pero generalmente omitimos el artfculo con television. • We watched television last night. • We watch the news on television. Sin embargo decimos: • Switch off the television, please.

RECUERDA
Que no ponemos el artfculo cuando hablamos de algo en general bien sea contable o incontable: • Sugar is bad for the health. • Girls are always beautiful. Ni con organizaciones: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). O titulos de personas: Mr Jones, Mrs Brown, Miss Jackson, Dr Smith, Captain Mallory, Lord Mountbatten, Pope John, Father Brian. Con dfas y meses: • Saturday is the best day of the week. • May is a beautiful month. Con comidas: • Dinner is at seven. • Lunch was very light.

Los periodistas omiten los artfculos para ganar espacio y dar mas impacto a la noticia: • BINGO FIRE ALARM • COACH CRASH DISASTER Suprimimos los artfculos cuando empleamos estas palabras refiriendonos al uso para el que estan concebidas: church, hospital, school, bed, prison, sea, class, university, college, court, town. • The wounded were taken to hospital. • Mr and Mrs Brown go to church every Sunday. Sin embargo decimos: • I went to the church to see the new altar.

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1. En algunas de estas frases hay que poner articulo. En otras no. Example: Can you turn up the volume of the television, please? 1. It was a nice cruise. We were at sea for two weeks. sea. TV.

2. Swimming in a swimming pool is better than swimming in 3. I don't like listening to 4. My parents don't go to cinema. 5. Which is 6 radio. I usually watch

theatre very much. They prefer going to

longest river in the world? Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Alps with his elephants. next Sunday. wounded were taken to hospital.

7. Hannibal crossed over 8. I've invited my girlfriend to dinner 9 10. She is dead were buried and

only person who understands me. prison for two years.

11. That man was sent to 12 13

money makes the world go round. green is my favourite colour smoking is bad for your health.

14. Doctors say that 15 16

beans contain a lot of fibre. Colonel Rogers to see you, sir. Father Brown.

17.The man in charge of this church is 18. We went to 19.This is

most expensive restaurant in town. biggest hotel in the city. space.

20.There are millions of stars in 21 22. What time is 23 24. We had

space this cupboard occupies is incredible. lunch?. meal we had at the restaurant was delicious. dinner in a restaurant. Pyrenees. cheapest in this town. television, please? theatre very often? sky?

25. He lives in a little village in 26. This hotel is 27. Switch off 28. Do you go to 29. Are there many stars in 30 31. We were at 32

people always say these things. sea for two months. earth goes around sun.

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U N I T 21

42

Use of the article a/an.
El plural de a house puede ser El " " an egg " " houses eggs o some houses. o some eggs.

La pronunciacion de a y an
A se usa delante de sonidos de consonantes (no solamente letras consonantes); an se usa delante de sonidos de vocal (no solo con palabras que empiecen con vocal): • Please, write a U and an H on the blackboard. • This is a B,C,D,G,J,K,P,Q,T,U,V,W,Y,Z. • This is an A,E,F,H,I,L,M,N,O,R,S,X.

Fijate:
• a horse with an H. • a radio with an R. • a lion with an L. • a fair with an F. • a man with an M. • a noise with an N.

RECUERDA
Que se dice • an umbrella, • • • • • an unusual event an eye an ear a home a hot day sin embargo, " " " " " • a uniform • a union • a year, a university • a European • a n hour • an honour

Algunas palabras que empiezan por h pueden ir precedidas de a o an a discrecion del que las pronuncia: a hotel o an hotel, historian o an historian. Cuando usamos an no pronunciamos la h: an honest man, an honour, an hour, an heir. Usamos el artfculo indeterminado con profesiones, nacionalidades, religiones, y polftica. • John is a mechanic and Peter is an architect. • He is an American and she is a Frenchwoman. • He is a Catholic and she is an Anglican. • He is a socialist and she is a conservative. A menudo usamos a/an con enfermedades: • I've got a cold. • She's got a toothache.

La diferencia entre one y a/an
A menudo son intercambiables: a hundred = one hundred. Cuando relatamos un suceso usamos tambien one: • One day I met your mother and ...

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1. Completa las frases con a/an o one Example: There is a hospital not far from here. 1 . She was 2. My sister is 3. Have you got 4. She is 6. It was 7. We'll have 8. There was 5. I'll be here before ................... .................. .................. ................. ................. .................. ................. honour. hot meal. hall with a staircase leading to the rooms. ................... L. ...................... umbrella and ................... English woman. architect. hat? hour. honest woman.

9. You have to spell it with 10. He was carrying unusual case. 1 1 .There is ..................... 1 3. That man is 14. There is only 1 5. 1 met him 17. 1 only want 18. She's got 19. This is 16. Many years ago

...................

.................

university in that country where you have to wear uniform. ................... lawyer. piece of good news today. day, many years ago. certain merchant arrived in Peking. quarter of a pound. headache. unique book X.

12. Xylophone you spell it with ................. ................... ................... ................. ................... ..................

...................

2. Tacha la opcion que no corresponda. Example: The car was doing 80 kms. an/jto[& hour. 1. If you go to Scotland take a/one raincoat and a/an umbrella. 2. You need a/an screwdriver and a/an knife. 3. I ordered one/a coffee, not two. 4. This is a/an/one sort of can opener. 5. He is a/- Muslim and she is a/- Catholic. 6. This is a/an unique occasion. 7. It was a/an universal happening. 8. It was a/an united nation. 9. That man is a/an European, and that woman is a/an Asian. 10. This is a/an Eurovision song contest.

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U N I T 22

44

Since, as, because, so, so that.
As, puede muchas veces significar lo mismo que since o because, (ya que, como, puesto que). • • • • As/Because/Since he had no money he couldn't buy a car. As/Because/Since he knew her well, he didn't trust her. As/Because/Since it contains alcohol you can't give it to the children. As/Because/Since he lives near here we'll pay her a visit.

As con la mayorfa de los verbos puede significar 'mientras.' • • • • As/While he climbed the stairs his eyes fell upon the picture. As/While she made up her face she thought about the date. As/While he walked along the path he thought of past events. As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he cut himself badly.

As + noun puede significar when or while. • As a doctor he was very well known. Tambien puede significar because. • As a student he gets a great reduction. • As a married man he has to think of his wife. So that se usa en oraciones de proposito (clauses of purpose), es decir cuando la persona a la cual se refiere el proposito es diferente del sujeto de la oracion principal, o cuando el sujeto original se vuelve a mencionar: • • • • I say these things so that you can criticise me. He had to die so that others could live. She worked hard so that everything would be ready by six. The knife had a cork handle so that it would float if it fell into the water.

So (asi).
• Stand with your arms out, so. • So it was that he had the first sight of snow. • And so on.

So (de forma de que).
• I left a message so as to be sure of contacting her.

So (indicando resultado).
• The shops were closed so I didn't get any bread. • The manager was ill so I went in his place.

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1. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. Example: Since he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. As he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. 1. As she walked along the corridor she thought of her sister.

2. He always sings as he shaves in the bathroom.

3. You can tell me something about these people since you live in the district.

4. Since you seem to know everything tell me where I can find this.

5. He stopped for a rest as he was tired.

6. As a student he had been disastrous.

2. Tacha la palabfa qtre-este mal. Example: As/Because he shaved he thought of her. 1. As/While a married man he has to think of his family. 2. As/Because you are so clever tell me the answer. 3. Since/When I'm going to be there in the morning I'll do it myself. 4. Because/While he drove he thought of the last events. 5. Since/While you are going to stay with us you may as well know it. 3. Ron so o so that en las frases siguientes. Example: Ships have lifeboats so that the crew can save their lives. 1. The supermarket wasn't opened yet 2. We worked all night long 3. The road was blocked 4. They put a lot of water 5. She didn't like him 6. He wrote it on the blackboard 7. There was no answer 8. He hadn't done his homework 9. I left the note in the hall I didn't buy anything. everything would be ready. I came back. the animals wouldn't be thirsty. she stopped going out with him. the students would see it. we walked away. he didn't go to school. my wife would see it.

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U N I T 23

46

Infinitive of purpose.
El proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitivo: • She went to England to learn English. • He went to the Post Office to buy stamps. In order/So as + Infinitive (para, a fin de). • He left early in order/so as to arrive in time. • She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time with her children. Con frases negativas no se puede usar solo el infinitivo. Estarfa mal decir: (He went early not to miss the beginning). • They took their seats early in order/so as not to miss the beginning. • He tiptoed in order/so as not to wake up the children. Algunos verbos, e.g. buy, bring, take, need, want, a menudo introducen un objeto + infinitivo: • Bring me a chair to sit on. • I need a spoon to eat my soup.

RECUERDA
Que cuando hablamos acerca de un prop6sito en general usamos for + gerundio. • This is a knife for carving meat. • That is a tool for opening tins. « That is a trunk for keeping old clothes.

Infinitives of purpose after GO and COME.
No es muy normal usar un infinitivo de proposito despues del imperativo o infinitivo de los verbos go y come. En vez de decir: 'Go to find your brother' generalmente decimos 'Go and find your brother.' Es decir usamos dos imperativos unidos con and • Come and talk to my sister. • Go and tell him to stop that noise. Lo mismo ocurre si usamos el must: • I must go and finish that as soon as possible. Oraciones de proposito con so that + will/would o can/could + infinitivo. • She is learning Spanish so that she can travel in South America. • I'll switch on the heater so that the room will be warm by bed time. • He bought a new car so that his wife might learn to drive. • I gave her my address so that she could write to me. • She disguised herself so that nobody would recognise her.

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1. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a estas preguntas. Example: Why did you go to the Post Office? (buy stamps) / went to the Post Office to buy stamps. 1. Why do children go to school? (learn)

2. Why did you telephone her? (tell her the news)

3. Why did you go to the dentist? (pull a tooth out) 4. Why are you saving money? (buy a house)

5. Why is she wearing a coat? (keep warm) 6. Why do you walk to your office every day? (save money)

2. Completa estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. Example: They are going to the airport to catch/take the plane. 1. I am not fit enough 2. We haven't got enough money 3. I need some shelves 4. These poor people haven't got a bed 5. We'll get together this afternoon 6. I need a new dress 7. We have a trunk a marathon. a new house. my books on. in. the problem. at the wedding. all these old clothes in.

3. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con so that. Example: He wrote a note. He wanted his wife to know. He wrote a note so that his wife would know. 1. He is lighting a fire. He wants the house to be warm when the children get up.

2. He wrote it in code. He didn't want anybody to understand it. 3. Give him a key. He can get into the house. 4. She hid his trousers. She didn't want him to leave the house.

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48

Conditionals: type 1, 2 and 3. TYPE 1
La forma mas comun es if + simple present + future. • If the weather is good we'll go out. • I'll buy the house if we have money.

If + present + modal.
• If I finish early I can/could/may/might/should/ought/must phone him. • If she comes tomorrow we can/could/may/might/should/ought to/must go for a picnic.

If + Should + imperative.
• If you (should) see her give her my regards. • Should you see her give her my regards.

Imperative + conjunction + clause.
• Stop shouting and/or/otherwise you'll wake up everybody.

TYPE 2
La forma mas comun es: if + simple past + "d" conditional • If you spoke languages you would earn more. • If you went by plane you would get there earlier. • If you didn't watch so much TV you wouldn't feel so sleepy in the morning.

If I were/was + would/should.
• If I were/was a man I would be a policeman. Were se puede usar en lugar de was. No hay diferencia en el significado, pero were es mas formal, y se usa para posibilidades remotas: • If I were the King you'd be the Queen. Otras expresiones con were. • If I were you/in your position, I wouldn't do it. • If I were John/in John's position, I'd say yes. • If it weren't for your help, I would still be on the road.

TYPE 3
La forma mas comun es: if + past perfect + would have • • • • If If If If I had had money, I would have bought it. he hadn't finished the job, I wouldn't have paid the bill. I had lived in the Middle Ages, I would have been a knight. it hadn't been for the rain, we would have gone out.

If + past perfect + modal
• If I had known that, I could/might have told you.

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1. Completa las frases con condicional type 1. Example: If you eat too much you'll get fat. 1. If it rains we 2. If you help me, I 3. If he calls, 4. If I am not better tomorrow, I 5. I will buy the car 6. We may go for a picnic 7. Remember! You must phone me 8. If you drink too much you 9. If you break that you (go out). (help you). (tell/him/l/ring back). (take aspirin). (have/money). (weather/good). (weather/clear up). (get/drunk). (be/punish).

2. Completa las frases con el type 2. Example: It would be very cold if I opened the window. 1. If it rained tomorrow, we 2. If you went to England, 3. I wouldn't be surprised 4. You would get there earlier 5. I would still be there if 6. I wouldn't do it if 7. He might tell us if 8. If you drank too much you 9. If you broke that you (stay/home). (learn/more English). (not/get/job). (go/train). (to be/for/your help). (be/you). (know/facts). (get drunk). (be/punish).

3. Completa las frases con el type 3. Example: If I had asked him he would have answered. 1. I would have stayed at home 2. If you had wanted, I 3. We would have been happy 4. If you had insisted, he 5. If you had worked harder at school, you (get/better/job). 6. He might have told us if 7. If I had been in your position, I 8. If you had drunk too much you 9. If you had broken that you (be/here/yesterday). (accept/offer). (get drunk). (be/punish). (rain). (go/with you). (she/marry me). (give it to you).

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U N I T 25

50

May, might and could + infinitive.
May para pedir permiso.
• 'May I go now, Mr Brown?' 'Yes, you may leave.' • 'May I smoke in this room?' 'No, you may not smoke here.'

Third person.
• He may take my car this evening. • They may come with us if they want to. Generalmente se usa para afirmaciones impersonates concernientes a la autoridad y permiso: • In certain circumstances the police may enter a private home. • An accused person may appeal. En ingles coloquial se suele sustituir el may por el can. Could = was/were allowed para permiso en pasado. • On Sundays we could stay in bed until 10. • We couldn't take radios into the library. Para los tiempos compuestos y voz pasiva se debe usar allowed. • Since the incident she hasn't been allowed to go out alone. May/might for possibility. Seguidos del presente de infinitive pueden expresar posibilidad en el presente o en el future: • He may/might tell us tonight. • They may/might emigrate to Australia. Con el infinitive continue: • She may/might be waiting at the bus stop, (at this moment) • They may/might be waiting when we arrive, (future) May y might come posibilidad de presente y future. Might aumenta la duda. • Dad may lend you the car. (puede que te preste) • Dad might lend you the car. (podrfa ser que te prestase) Might se puede usar en el condicional cuando la expresion esta introducida por un verbo en el pasado: • If we asked him he might come. • She said she might hire a van. Could come alternativa de may/might. • 'I wonder where Jane is.' 'She may/might/could be in the shed.' • 'I wonder why Katty isn't here.' 'She may/might/could still be waiting for you. En las frases negatives hay diferencia: • He may/might not be driving the bus himself, (quiza no fuese el el que conducfa) • He couldn't be driving the bus. (es imposible que fuera el)

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner las frases con may y might. Example: 'Do you know if Mum is in the kitchen?' 'I'm not sure, she may/might be in the kitchen.' 1. 'Do you know if they are coming?' 'I'm not sure. They 2. 'Do you know if she wants to do it?' 'I'm not sure. She 3. 'Do you know if she is telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. She

2. Lo mismo que en el ejercicio 1, pero en pasado. Example: 'Do you know if he bought the book?' 'I'm not sure. But he may/might have bought it.' 1. 'Do you know if she was pregnant?' 'I'm not sure. She 2. 'Do you know if he was looking?' 'I'm not sure. He 3. 'Do you know if they were working?' 'I'm not sure. They

3. Responde ahora en forma negativa. Example:'Is your father in the office?' 'I'm not sure. He may/might not be in his office.' 1. 'Does he want to do it?' 'I'm not sure. He 2. 'Is she telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. She 3. 'Are the children ready?' 'I'm not sure. They .

4. Ahora escribe frases explicando la situacion. Example: / can't find the little puppy. I wonder where it is. It may/might be in the shed.

(might/be/shed)

1. 'Your brother is not in the house. I wonder where he is.' (may/go/cinema). 2. The house was burgled. I wonder how they got in.' (may/get in/through/window) 3. 'She was at home, but she didn't answer the phone. I wonder why.' (might/be/toilet)

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U N I T 26

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Clauses of reason, purpose and result.
Clauses of reason
Estas oraciones se pueden introducir con as/because/since: • I gave up smoking as/because/since it was dangerous for my health. • As/Because/Since it was dangerous for my health I stopped smoking. In view of the fact that puede ser expresado por as/since/seeing that, pero no because: • As/Since/Seeing that you're going that way, let's go together. Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una afirmacion ya mencionada, se puede reemplazar por if: • As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Keith, why did you go out with him?

If so (si es asf). • 'I hope Janet doesn't come.' 'If so, why did you invite her?'

Clauses of result (Oraciones de resultado)
• As it had snowed during the night, the roads were slippery. • I was angry because she made me wait. Estas combinaciones podrfan expresarse tambien por dos oraciones unidas con so. • It had snowed during the night, so the roads were slippery. • It was too dark to find the tracks, so we went back to the hut. Clauses of result with such/so ... that. • He had such a lot of money that he didn't know how to spend it. So es un adverbio y se usa con adverbios y adjetivos: • The rain fell so heavily that we pulled up the car by the kerb.

Clauses of purpose (para que, a fin de que)
• They wear reflective jackets so that they can be seen in the dark. • She hid his trousers so that he couldn't leave the room. • He died in order that we might live. En frases negativas so that puede ser reemplazado por to avoid/prevent. • She dyed her hair to avoid/to prevent being recognized (so that she wouldn't be recognized).

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que unir las frases de la columna A con la columna B. A. B. It was a nice day yesterday I had no money. The door was closed. She didn't have a car. The window was open. The exercise was wrong. Tomorrow is a holiday. The teacher told him to repeat it. We don't have to go to work. The room was very cold. She had to walk to the office. We went for a walk. I paid with my credit card. We couldn't get in.

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
2. Une las frase siguientes con so. A. It was too dark to go on. It froze hard that night. You are here. The train arrived on time. The wind was blowing hard. We finished work early. Example: The train arrived on time

B.
We walked home from the office. They closed all the windows. They camped there. There was ice everywhere the next day. You may as well give me a hand. We were able to catch the plane. so we were able to catch the plane.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
3. Completa las frases con such a o so that. Example: Ships carry lifeboats so that passengers can save their lives. 1. This gadget is made of wood 2. She has 3. He spoke for 4. They carry torches in the fog it will float if it falls into the water. long time that people began to leave the place. people can see them.

fierce dog that nobody dares to get near her.

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Need.
Need puede tener la forma de un verbo defective (modal auxiliary) o la de un verbo ordinario. Cuando se usa como verbo defective no anade s la tercera persona del singular y no admite ni el to ni el do: • 'Need I go?' -'No, you needn't go.' Como verbo normal: • He needs a lot of money to buy that house. • 'Do I need to come early?' 'No, you don't need to come early.'

RECUERDA
Que el verbo need admite las dos formas, aunque la forma ordinaria es mucho mas comun: • You don't need to do it today = You needn't do it today. • Do I need to send it by air? = Need I send it by air? • He needs to get a haircut = He need get a haircut. Se pueden usar formas afirmativas modales con frases que expresan duda, o ideas negativas, aunque no sea muy corriente el usarlas. • I wonder if you need take an early train. • All you need do is sign this form. • I don't think she need go yet. Estas mismas frases se diri'an coloquialmente usando el need como verbo ordinario. • I wonder if you need to take an early train. • All you need to do is sign this form. • I don't think she needs to go yet. FIJATE en la diferencia entre needn't y mustn't. Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacion. • You needn't tell your father. He already knows. Mientras que mustn't indica que no debes. • You mustn't tell your father. He'd go mad.

NEEDN'T + PAST INFINITIVE
Esta estructura se usa para expresar una accion innecesaria que de todas formas fue llevada a cabo. • You needn't have made the beds. I have to change the sheets. (no tenfas por que haber hecho) • You needn't have brought your coat. We are in Marbella, you know! (no tenfas necesidad de haber trafdo)

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1. Responde a estas preguntas usando el verbo need como defective. Example: 'Need he come so early?' 'Yes, he need come.' 'No, he needn't come.' 1. Need I type this report today? 2. Need you wear uniform at school? 3. Need I pay cash? 4. Need she send it by air? 2. Gambia la forma defectiva del verbo need por la ordinaria. Example: You needn't come with us. You don't need to come with us. 1. He needn't read the whole book. 2. Need you type those letters today? 3. I don't think he need come just yet. 4. You needn't tell your mother yet. 5. Need I come in early tomorrow? 6. You needn't pay until the end of the month. 7. All you need do is fill in the form. 8. I wonder if I need take all these pills. 9. Need we hurry tonight? 10. We needn't make two copies. 3. Ahora vas a pasar estas frases de forma ordinaria a defectiva Example: You don't need to wear a dress tonight. You needn't wear a dress tonight. 1. I don't need to tell you the difficulties. 2. Do I need to run to catch the bus? 3. I don't think he needs to come just yet. 4. Do you need to spend so much money on shoes? 5. She doesn't need to hurry.

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Ability can, know how to + infinitive.
Can se usa para hablar en presente de una habilidad general: • I can run 1000 metres in three minutes. • Can you cook, Susan? Be able tambien se usa aunque es menos corriente. • She is certainly able to cook. Para el future se usa be able. • Tomorrow morning I'll be able to stay in bed until 10. • After I have some sleep I'll be able to give you a hand. Can puede ser usado con idea de future. • We can discuss that this afternoon. • Can you come to my house on Saturday?

RECUERDA
Que • • • KNOW HOW TO se puede usar tambien para expresar habilidad. I know how to cook. I know how to get there faster than the rest. She knows how to make you feel at ease.

Past
Could se usa como habilidad general, para decir que podrfas hacer algo cuando quisieras. • I could play the piano at the age of 5. (Tambien: I was able to play) • My grandfather could speak several languages. Could no se usa para indicar una habilidad en el pasado (en una ocasion). Se prefiere was able to, managed to, o succeeded in. • How many pints were you able to drink? • I managed to get a rise. • After two hours we succeeded in reaching the top. Couldn't se usa tanto para habilidad general como particular. • Last year he couldn't decide what he wanted to do. • He was so drunk that he couldn't find the key. Could con el infinitive compuesto. • I could have made a fortune if I had wanted to. • You could have killed him. Can, could con verbos de percepcion. Aquf can tiene una funcion gramatical que equivale al presente simple en afirmaciones, y al do/does en preguntas y negaciones. • I can smell something burning. • You can see that that is true. • I couldn't hear anything.

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1. En este ejercicio tienes que usar can o be able a veces puedes usar los dos. Example: My brother could/was able to do that very easily. I haven't been able to come earlier. 1. My brother 2. Ask my father. He should 3. He used to it now. 4. I can't understand that woman. I've never her. speak several languages. help you. do that, but I don't think he can do understand

2. En este ejercicio hay que completar las frases con could. Example: She can't play the piano now, but she could when she was a child. 1. I can't solve those problems now, but I when I was at school. 2. I can't speak basque now, but I Basque Country. 3. I can't light a fire now with two pieces of wood, but I when I was a boy scout. 4. She can speak four languages now, but she when she was younger. 3. Completa las frases con could, was/were able to o couldn't. Example: Everybody was able to escape from the building on fire. We looked everywhere for the child but we couldn't find him. He was able to/could play the piano when he was a child. 1. The plane caught fire, but we 2. Queen Cleopatra was very clever. She seven languages. 3. I didn't find any bread at the baker's, but I a loaf at the supermarket. 4. I focused my binoculars and I 5. 'Did you find the house?' 'Yes, it wasn't easy but we find it.' 6. 'Did you win your tennis match?' 'Well, it was quite hard, but I to beat Bronson.' 7. He hurt his knee, so he train for sometime. to parachute. speak find the plane approaching. solve all of them when I lived in the

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Gerunds after prepositions Worth.
Todos los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio. • • • • • You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs. He was walking without looking in front. She is very fond of playing the piano. He is very keen on gambling. He went for a drink before coming home.

Hay algunas combinaciones de noun + preposition + gerund. • There's no point in talking about it if you don't listen. • What the point of talking to you if you don't listen? • Are you in favour of giving the workers extra pay?

RECUERDA
Que hay dos excepciones a la regla del gerundio: except y but, que llevan un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). • That woman does nothing but complain. • There's nothing we can do except wait. Algunos phrasal verbs llevan el gerundio detras, tales como: be for/against, care for, give up, keep on, leave off, look forward to, put off, see about, take to: • He took to writing. • She put off making a final decision till the morning.

TO puede ser parte de un infinitive, o una preposicion. Si va detras de los verbos auxiliares be, have, ought, used, y despues del going, es parte del infinitive. Con algunos verbos tales como, hate, intend, hope, would like/love, mean, plan, try, want, etc. usamos el to para evitar la repeticion. • 'Did you buy bread?' 'Well, I wanted to, but the baker's was closed. En otras ocasiones el to colocado detras de un verbo sera probablemente una preposicion e ira seguida por un nombre/pronombre o gerundio. • I am looking forward to seeing you. • I am used to waiting for her. WORTH se puede usar en dos estructuras seguidas de gerundio. • • • • It isn't worth coming so early (It como sujeto). Is it worth visiting the art gallery? This car isn't worth repairing (nombre o pronombre como sujeto). He is not worth getting angry about.

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1. Lee la frase y escribe otra con el mismo significado. Example: I left school. Then I looked for a job. After leaving school I looked for a job. 1. I want to hear from you. I am looking forward to it. I am looking 2. She was mad because I was late. She was mad with me for 3. I don't want to give him more money. I have no intention of 4. My brother makes a lot of things. He's very good at 5. We didn't go to the Chinese restaurant. We went to the Italian restaurant. We went to the Italian restaurant instead of 6. We left and soon we had an accident. We had an accident soon after

2. Escribe otra frase con looking forward to o I am used to. Example: She is happy. She's going on holiday. She is looking forward to going on holiday. 1. He is queueing up. He doesn't like it. He is not used to 2. I'm going to the dentist. I don't like it. I'm not looking 3. She has to translate this text. She doesn't translate very often. She is not used 4. I want to meet you soon. I am looking

3. Usa la palabra worth con las siguientes frases. Example: He is not going to repair the car. He thinks it is not worth repairing it. 1. They are not going to visit the cathedral. They think it is 2. I don't want to get angry. I don't think it is 3. I'm going to make an effort. I think it is

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Present perfect (ever, just, already, for, since)
El preterite perfecto con just se usa con acciones recientemente ocurridas. • • • • • She has just gone out. (acaba de) Hello, have you just arrived? I've just seen your brother. I have just remembered. I've just had breakfast.

El preterito perfecto con ever se usa generalmente en preguntas. • • • • • Have you ever been to Rome? (alguna vez) Has she ever told you what happened that day? Have you ever been to the Prado Museum? Have you ever been in a submarine? Have you ever spoken to him?

Para responder negativamente se usa el never. • No, I have never been to Rome. • No, I have never spoken to him. Cuando usamos ever en frases afirmativas le damos el significado de jamas. Lo usamos con superlatives. • This is the most interesting book I have ever read. • This is the best beer I have ever drunk. • That was the easiest job I have ever done.

RECUERDA
Que tambien podemos usar esta construccion (con o sin ever), con the first, the second, etc. the only. • This is the only time he has (ever) come to see me. • This is the first time I have (ever) ridden a mule.

El preterito perfecto con already (ya), se usa para sugerir que algo se ha hecho antes de lo esperado. Normalmente el already se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio. • • • • We have already finished. They have already given it to me. She has already given up smoking. I have already sent it back.

A veces para darle mas enfasis lo ponemos al final de la frase. • Have you done that already? • He's finished already! • The children have gone to school already!

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1. Forma frases usando just. Como en el ejemplo. Example:'I've heard Eddie is back.' 'Yes, I've just seen him. 1. 'Have you finished writing your book?' 'Yes, I 2. 'Have you seen my brother?' 'Yes, I 3. 'I see you're back from the Costa Brava.' 'Yes, we 4. 'You don't smoke any more.' No, I (give up) 5. 'Did you post the letters?' 'Well, I

2. Haz preguntas para las siguientes respuestas. Example: 'No, I've never been to Italy.' 'Have you ever been to Italy?' 1. 'No, I've never smoked a cigar.'
1

?'
?'
?'

2. 'No, I've never eaten lobster.'
1

3. 'No, we have never studied Greek.'
1

4. 'No, I have never read Shakespeare.'
1

?'

3. Usa ahora ever con frases afirmativas. Example: This is the best wine I have ever tasted. 1. This is the (interesting/book/read) 2. That is the (beautiful/woman/see) 3. This is the second time I (be/this country) 4. This the cheapest hotel I (stay) 5. That was the fastest mile I (run) 4. Responde a las preguntas con already. Sin dar enfasis. Como en el ejemplo. Example: 'When are you going to post the letter?' 'I've already posted it. 1. 'When are you going to do it?' 'I 2. 'When are you going to speak to your boss?' 'I 3. 'When are you going to run a marathon?' Well, I . a couple.'

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Present perfect (with for and since)
FOR se usa con un perfodo de tiempo: for two days, for a long time. Si usamos for con el pasado simple denota un determinado perfodo de tiempo: • We lived in London for two years, (ya no vivimos alii) • I worked in that company for a year. For usado con el preterito perfecto denota un perfodo de tiempo que se extiende hasta el presente: • • • • • • • • We have lived in this town for twenty years, (todavia vivimos aqui) My parents have been married for twenty five years. I haven't smoked a cigarette for two months. He hasn't invited me to his house for years. I haven't seen my girlfriend for a week. We have known each other for many years. 'How long have you known your boyfriend?' 'I've known him for a week.' My grandmother has been ill for quite a long time.

SINCE
Se usa con un momento determinado de tiempo, y significa 'desde ese momento'. Casi siempre se usa con preterito perfecto. • • • • • They've been here since 9 o'clock. We've been going out together since we met in Paris. I've been driving lorries since I was eighteen. He has worked in this factory since he left school. We haven't met since Christmas.

Ever since
• He had an accident last year and he has been bedridden ever since.

RECUERDA
Que con la estructura: It is + period + since + past o perfect tense. Podemos decir: • • • • I haven't seen Tom for six months, (o bien) It is six months since I have seen Tom. I last saw Tom six months ago. (o bien) It is six months since I last saw Tom.

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1. Responde a estas frases usando for o since. Example: 'How long have you worked in that factory?' (six years) 'I've worked in that factory for six years.' 1. 'How long have you been a smoker?' (14 years old) 'I've been 2. 'How long have you been married?' (twenty years) 'I've been 3. 'How long have you known this man?' (Christmas)

'I've known
4. 'How long has your father been unemployed?' (six months)
'He has

5. 'How long have you been in love with that girl?' (summer holiday) 'I've 6. 'How long has she been ill?' (four weeks)
'She

7. 'How long has he been in the army?' (January)
'He

8. 'How long has your brother been in hospital?' (a few days) 'He .,.,.,

2. Elije entre for y since. Example: (we/know/eachother/six weeks) We've known each other for six weeks. 1. (has/not/snow/years/this country) 2. (My father/has/not/work/Christmas) 3. (I/not/see/Margaret/weeks) 4. (I/have/not/smoke/cigarette/I980) 5. (We have/not/be/cinema/years) 6. (It/has/not/rain/in this country/June last year) 7. (We/have/not/buy/a new/car/10 years)

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Present perfect continuous.
Se forma con el preterito perfecto del verbo to be + un gerundio: • I have been working.

Uso
Este tiempo se usa para una accion que empezo en el pasado y que todavia continua: • I have been waiting for half an hour. I'm getting mad. 0 que acaba de terminar: • Sorry, darling. Have you been waiting long? Fijate en la diferencia entre la forma continua y la simple. Tommy tiene la ropa manchada de grasa. • He has been repairing his bike. No nos interesa si la accion esta acabada o no. Puede que Tommy haya terminado de arreglar la moto, puede que no, pero lleva algun tiempo ejecutando la accion. Pero si la moto antes no andaba, y ahora sf anda: • He has repaired his motorbike. En este caso lo importante es que la accion esta acabada. Nos interesa el resultado de la accion, no la accion en si.

Mas ejemplos:
• Jerry's mother is covered in paint. • She has been painting the kitchen. (Puede que todavia no haya terminado) Pero, si la cocina antes era de un color y ahora es de otro: • Jerry's mother has painted the kitchen. Usamos la forma continua para indicar cuanto tiempo ha estado sucediendo algo. • The baby has been sleeping for ten hours. • I've been reading this book all afternoon. • That boy has been playing football since 2 o'clock. Usamos la forma simple para indicar cuanto hemos hecho, cuantas cosas hemos hecho, o cuantas veces hemos hecho algo. • I've written two books this year. • She has read two chapters of the book. • The children have washed the car this morning. • I've spoken to him on the phone three times.

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1. Elije entre la forma continua y la simple. Example: (This writer/write/100 pages of his book) This writer has written 100 pages of his book. 1. (He/paint/pictures/since he left the art school) 2. (He/paint/20 pictures/since he left the art school) 3. (He/play/tennis/since/1985) 4. (He/win/the county championship many times) 5. (The group/travel/around/Europe for two months) 6. (The group/visit/several countries already)

2. Ahora vas a hacer las preguntas para unas respuestas dadas. Example: My brother is learning French. How long has he been learning French? 1. 'My friend is collecting stamps.' 'How long 2. 'My father writes short stories.' 'How many 3. That girl is waiting for her boyfriend.' 'How long 4. 'Mrs Smith is painting the kitchen.' 'How many

3. Completa las frases con el preterite perfecto simple o con el continuo. Example: I have been writing letters all afternoon. I have written ten already. 1. Look at those people. They 2. I (finish) yet. 3. I have twenty already. 4. I'm tired. I 5. You've 6. That man (wait) for hours.

(read) this book all day, but I (phone) our customers. I have (cook) all morning. (smoke) too much recently. (talk) for hours.

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I would rather - prefer to.
Ambos significan lo mismo, pero would rather va seguido de un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). • I would rather phone than write. Mientras que prefer to puede ir seguido de un infinitive o un gerundio. • I prefer reading to watching TV. • I prefer to live / living in the country.

FIJATE
• My father prefers to drive rather than go by plane. O tambien: • My father prefers driving to going by plane. Prefer puede ir seguido de un sustantivo: • I prefer cider to beer. Mientras que would rather siempre lleva un verbo detras: • I'd rather drink cider than beer.

Would rather + infinitive
Equivale a would prefer to. • I'd rather fly than go by train. • I prefer to fly rather than go by train.

Would rather + infinitive
No puede usarse para frases en pasado. Si queremos poner la frase Jim would rather read than watch TV en pasado habra que usar el prefer. • Jim preferred reading to watching TV.

Would rather + sujeto + pasado
Cuando quieres que alguien haga algo, puedes decir. • I'd rather you went today. Usamos la estructura en pasado, sin embargo, el significado es presente o future: • I'd rather write the letter now. • I'd rather you wrote the letter now. • I'd rather she didn't try to repair the TV set. • I'd rather they studied more during the course. Would rather y would prefer pueden ir seguidos de un infinitive preterite: • We went by train, but I'd rather have gone by air. • We went to the theatre, but I would have preferred to have gone to the cinema.

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1. Haz frases usando I prefer como en el ejemplo. Example: (reading/watching TV) I prefer reading to watching TV. I prefer to read rather than watch TV. 1. (ski/skate) I prefer I prefer 2. (give/ receive) i prefer 3. (go out/stay at home) I prefer 4. (phone/write) I prefer I prefer I prefer I prefer

2. Responde a las preguntas usando I'd rather o I'd prefer Example: Shall we go by train? (rather/fly) I'd rather fly. Shall we go to the cinema? (prefer/go theatre) I'd prefer to go to the theatre. 1. Shall we play golf? (prefer/play/tennis) 2. Shall we watch TV? (rather/go for a walk) 3. Shall we pay with a cheque? (prefer/pay cash) 4. Shall we have wine? (rather/have beer) 5. Shall we cook dinner? (prefer/go to a restaurant)

3. Ahora termina las frases usando: I'd prefer.... rather than ... o I'd rather than .... Example: (walk/run) I'd rather walk than run. I prefer to walk rather than run. 1. (read/write) I'd rather I'd prefer 2. (have a shower/have bath) I'd rather I'd prefer 3. (work/study) I'd rather I'd prefer 4. Usa ahora I'd rather + otro sujeto. Example: /'// accept a cheque, but I'd rather you paid cash. 1. I'll go shopping if you want me to but 2. I'll phone him if you want me to but 3. I'll speak to her but

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Had better + infinitive. It's time.
Had aqui es un pasado irreal; el significado es presente o future. • I had/I'd better ring him up now. El significado de had better es parecido a should. • I'd better do something. = I should do something. A veces indica que es aconsejable hacer algo, si no, algo malo puede suceder. • We'd better leave now, otherwise we'll be late. • You'd better take the umbrella. It's going to rain. • We'd better hurry or we'll miss the bus. La forma negativa es had better not ('d better not). • You had better not miss the train. (You'd better not) • She's got a temperature. She'd better not go out today. RECUERDA Que had better va siempre seguido de infinitive sin to: • It looks like rain. I'd better take an umbrella. • It's getting late. We'd better hurry. Had better generalmente se usa en forma afirmativa, pero a veces se usa en forma interrogativa/negativa como un consejo: • Hadn't you better ask for permission? Para la forma indirecta el had better no varfa: • He said, 'I'd better do it as soon as possible.' • He said (that) he'd better do it as soon as possible. IT'S TIME ... Se suele decir 'it's time (for somebody) to do something.' • It's time for us to go home.* It's time for them to do it. Tambien se puede usar otra estructura: It's time somebody did something. • It's time we went back. • It's time you did something for me. Aunque usemos la frase en pasado el sentido es de futuro. • What! Still in bed? It's time you got up. Usamos este tipo de frase cuando nos quejamos o criticamos. Cuando creemos que alguien deberfa haber hecho algo ya. • It's time you bought a new car. • It's time the children were in bed. Look at the time! A veces reforzamos la estructura con la palabra about. • It's about time you did some work, James!

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1. Lee la situacion y escribe una frase con had better. Example: You are going to take the train. You're late. What do you say to your friend? We'd better hurry. 1. Your son doesn't look very well. You don't think he should go to school today.
'You

2. You want to go to a concert on Saturday. If you don't buy the tickets today you won't get in. 'We 3. Jim has bumped his head. You think you should take him to the doctor.

'We
4. You're late for the train. You think you should take a taxi.

'We
5. Jill is going to put on her old jeans to go to church. You don't think she should wear that. 'You 6. 'Your car is very old. You think you should buy a new car.

'We
7. If the children don't get up they'll be late. You think they should get up now.
'You

2. Escribe frases con It's time somebody did something. Example: Jack hasn't written to his parents for ages. You think Jack should write to them. It's time you wrote to your parents. You think something should be done about the housing problem. It's about time something was done about the housing problem. 1. Your husband never spends money on clothes. You think he should buy a suit. 'It 2. The kitchen looks terrible. It should be painted.
'It

3. You haven't been to the dentist for ages. You think you should go.

'It
4. Your husband is spending Sunday morning in bed. You think he should get
up. 'It

5. You think something should be done about the traffic problem.

'It's
6. You think something should be done about the unemployed. 'It's 7. You think something should be done about the immigrants.

'It's

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Past continuous.
RECUERDA
El pasado progresivo se forma con was/were + ing. • The birds were singing. • My mother was cooking. El uso mas comun del pasado progresivo es hablar acerca de lo que ya estaba sucediendo en un momento en particular en el pasado. • What were you doing yesterday at five? • They were playing football. They were playing significa que estaban en el medio del juego. Habian empezado pero no habfan terminado.

La accion habi'a empezado a un tiempo determinado pero todavia no habfa terminado. • This time last week I was flying to Miami. • What were you doing at this time yesterday? El pasado continue no nos dice si una accion estaba terminada o no. Quiza estaba quiza no. • Jim was studying his lessons. (Estaba en ello) • Jim studied his lessons. (Ya habi'a terminado) Muy a menudo usamos el pasado continue y el pasado simple juntos para decir que algo sucedio en el medio de alguna otra cosa. • Jimmy fell off the ladder when he was painting the room. • I saw my friend Jenny. She was walking in the park with a boy. • It was raining when I went to bed. Sin embargo, para decir que una cosa sucedio despues de otra, usamos el pasado simple. • Yesterday I was having dinner when the phone rang. I got up and answered the phone.

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1. Ron el verbo en past continuous. Example: (8 o'clock/breakfast) At 8 o'clock I was having breakfast. 1. (9 o'clock/read the paper) . . . 2. (10 o'clock/do the shopping) . 3. (11 o'clock/clean flat) 4. (12 o'clock/prepare/lunch) . . . 5. (1 o'clock/have/lunch) 6. (2 o'clock/wash/dishes) 7. (3 o'clock/watch/serial on TV) 2. Ayer hubo un terremoto. Cuentanos lo que esta gente estaba haciendo cuando sucedio. Example: (Mrs Evans/have/bath) Mrs Evans was having a bath. 1. (Mr Evans/talk/phone) 2. (David/do/homework) 3. (Susan/watch/TV) 4. (Jerry/read/book) 5. (Tom/play/garden) 6. (cat/sleep/chair) 3. Ron el verbo en la forma correcta, pasado progresivo o simple. Example: The phone rang while Mrs Cook was making the beds. 1. Little Jill 2. Jimmy (come). 3. When it 4. I (dance) when I (breakfast) when the school bus (happen) I (run) downstairs when I (fall). 5. I (shower) and 6. When the accident very fast. (ring) the bell several times, but she (not/hear/me). (happen) I (not/drive) (live) in Eastbourne. (slip) and (arrive).

7. Linda (wait) for her boyfriend when she (see) the man run out of the jeweller's shop. 8. That man the photograph. (bump) into me while I (take) (play)

9. The clock (strike) twelve while we the last set of our tennis match.

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The past perfect.
El pluscuamperfecto se construye con had + participio. • • • • • I had worked. She had done. We had made. When I arrived he had just left. He had lost his umbrella and had to borrow one.

El pluscuamperfecto a menudo se usa con always/since/for etc. para una accion que comenzo en el pasado y que todavfa continue o que acaba de terminar. • He had always been an honest man. • He had been with the company since he was 18. • The secretary had been with us for ten years.

RECUERDA
El pluscuamperfecto es muy comun en habla indirecta, con verbos como say, told, ask, explain, wonder, etc. Se refiere a cosas que ya habfan sucedido cuando la conversacion o los pensamientos tuvieron lugar. • I said that I had already finished. • I wondered who had sent the letter. • She told the boss that she had done enough work for one day.

El pluscuamperfecto se puede usar con till/until. • She refused to go until she had seen all the photographs. • We didn't wait till we had finished our breakfast. Con before y after se usa mucho el pluscuamperfecto. • After the rescue party had arrived, there were tears. • Before they had been there a week, they had spent all their money. Con oraciones de tiempo, when etc. • When he arrived to the place, they had already gone. • When I got to the office, I found that somebody had broken in during the night. El pluscuamperfecto progresivo se usa para hablar acerca de acciones o situaciones mas largas, las cuales han estado en progreso hasta ese momento. • When Peter arrived Linda had been waiting for half an hour. • They had been working for hours when I got there. • Mrs Brent had been cooking all morning and was tired.

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1. Completa las frases con el past perfect. Volviste a tu casa despues de las vacaciones y te encontraste con algunos cambios. Example: The kitchen window was broken. Somebody had broken into the house. 1. The TV set was not there. It (disappear). 2. All the drawers were open. They 3. The the children's piggy bank was broken. The money (steal). 4. The kitchen was full of empty beer bottles. Somebody (drink). 5. The porcelain vase in the hall was broken on the floor. It (break). 2. Completa estas frases usando el pluscuamperfecto. Example: She was nervous. She had never driven (drive) before. 1. He didn't know how to hold the racket. He (play) before. 2. The native didn't know how to take a photo. He (see) a camera before. 3. I was afraid of planes. I 4. She was very tired. She marathon before. 3. Usa el pluscuamperfecto con las frases siguientes. Example: Dad wasn't at home when I arrived, (he/just/go out) He had just gone out. 1. Tommy said he couldn't come, (he/arrange/do/something else) 2. They arrived at the theatre late. (The play/already/begin) 3. The workmen weren't working when we arrived. (They/just finish) (fly) before. (run) a (search).

4. Usa ahora el pluscuamperfecto continue. Example: / was tired because I (be/run) had been running. 1. He was dirty because he (work/cellar) 2. The house was quiet because everyone (go/bed) 3. He was weak because he (be/ill) 4. It was cold because it (be/snow)

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I wish, if only.
Wish + subject + unreal past se usa para lamentar la presente situacion. La traduccion podrfa ser: ojala, ya podi'a. • I wish I knew what to do.» I wish it rained.

RECUERDA
Que el verbo que va a continuacion del wish se pone en pasado aunque el significado de la frase sea presente. • I wish I got more letters. • I wish he phoned me. • I wished it stopped raining. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect lamenta una situacion pasada. • I wish I had known the truth.* I wish you had written to me before. En estas frases wished puede reemplazar I wish. • He wished he had known the truth. • She wished she had asked someone's advice. If only se puede usar de la misma manera. Tiene el mismo significado que I wish pero es mas dramatico: • • • • If If If If only only only only I knew where to look for her! she had asked my advice! I hadn't lost the money! I had listened to you!

Wish + suject + would se pueden usar para lamentar una situacion presente, pero solo con acciones que el sujeto puede controlar, acciones que el podrfa cambiar si quisiera. • I wish he would come to see us more often. (Ya podfa venir a vernos mas a menudo!) • I wish you would help me. (Ya podias ayudarme!) • I wish it would stop raining. • I wish they would stop making bombs. • I wish you would shut up. If only + would puede reemplazar por regla general a wish + would. • • • • If If If If only only only only he would come to see me! he would have listened to me! she would just stop talking for a minute! they would listen to me!

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1. Escribe las mismas frases usando I wish. Example:! live in London. I should like to live in Malaga. / wish I lived in Malaga. 1. I haven't got any cigarettes. I should like to have one. 2. I should like to buy a book, but I haven't got money. 3. It is raining and I don't like it. 4. My husband is not here. I should like him to be here. 5. I'm not very tall. I would like to be taller.

2. Las frases siguientes vas a ponerlas en pluscuamperfecto. Example: I wish he took my advice. / wish he had taken my advice. 1. I wish he came to see me 2. I wish he said something about it 3. I wish it stopped raining 4. I wish he didn't sing in the bath 5. I wish he didn't speak so fast 3. Escribe frases con I wish you would. Example: / wish you would have said hello. 1. You don't come to see us very often. I wish 2. He doesn't vocalise. I can't understand him. I wish 3. My son doesn't study very much. I wish 4. Usa ahora if only. Example: / don't know what's going to happen. I should like to know. If only I knew what is going to happen! 1. You lost the money. I wish you hadn't lost it.

If
2. It was raining all day. You wish it hadn't been raining.

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Quantifiers.
Quantifiers son las palabras o las frases como few, little, plenty, las cuales a menudo modifican los sustantivos y muestran de cuantas cosas o de cuanto estamos hablando. • 'How many people are there?' There are a few.' • 'How much water is there in the jug?' There is a little.' Quantifier + plural countable noun: • not many houses. both, dozens, a couple of, few, fewer, many, several, a number of. • There are hundreds of students in this school. Quantifier + uncountable noun: • Not much water. an amount of, a bit of, a drop of, a good deal of, a little, less, (not) much. Quantifier + plural countable noun: • a lot of houses.

Quantifier + (singular) uncountable noun: • a lot of coffee. Some, any, all, hardly any, a lot of , lots of, more, most,no, none of, the other, part of, plenty of, the rest of. • We've hardly got any tea left in the house. • There are plenty of chairs in the sitting-room. Quantifier + singular countable noun: • each person. all the, another, any, each, either, every, half the, most of the, neither, no, none of the, one, the only, the other, some, the whole. • Every/each man has to do his duty.

Degrees of quantity: definite ...
• Buy a dozen eggs and half a kilo of sugar. • 'Is there any coffee in the cupboard?' 'Yes, there is some in that box.' • Are there any bottles of beer in the fridge?

RECUERDA uncountable nouns sing How much?
There is too much milk. a lot of/lots of milk. plenty of milk. no milk. very little milk. hardly any milk. a little milk. not enough milk.

countable nouns plural How many?
There are too many people. a lot of/lots of people. plenty of people. no people. very few people. hardly any people. a few people. not enough people.

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1. Completa las frases usando los quantifiers que se te dan a continuacion: dozens, fewer, the majority of, a number of, several, hundreds of, both, a couple of. Example: There were hundreds of people in the square. 1. The 2. I'll be away for a 3. There were 4 our pupils are very good students. hours. of eggs in the large basket. Jim and Tom are very good players. pupils than in that one.

5. In this classroom there are 6. A 7 attitude.

people are waiting at the door to talk to you. men approached the young couple in a threatening

2. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: a large amount of, a bit of, a drop of, a good deal of, little, less, the least. Example: You need a good deal of patience. 1. We have 2. There is very 3. Just another 4. That is 5. There was 6. There was 7. We are ruined. We've got time than you think. doubt about the truth of that. water and the glass will overflow. I can do for you. white powder on a saucer. grain in the barn. money than you think.

3. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: some (of the), any (of the), all (the), hardly any, enough, a lot of, more, most, none of the, half the. Example: There is hardly any traffic at all. 1 2. I'm sure that 3 4. Without their leader were very surprised, others already knew. boys can tell you the answer. our employees are trustworthy. I can trust them all. people at the meeting knew what to do. of , cake.

5. 'Did they all speak English?' 'Well, not all, but them could speak a little English.' 6. 'Do you want thanks.' ?' 'No, I have

7. I don't want the whole cake, just give me

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Quantifiers (cont.)
Little (poco) - Few (pocos)
Dan una idea negativa, es decir, que no hay mucho. • Come on! We've got little time left. • My son has got few friends in this town. Tambien se puede usar usar very little y very few. • Hurry up! We've got very little time. • Mary has very few friends. She's a strange girl.

A little (un poco) - A few (unos pocos)
Da una idea de que hay una cierta cantidad. • • • • Let's After Let's Let's go to the hills. There's a little snow left. a week or so in here, I've already got a few friends. go for a walk. I've still got a little time left. go for a drink. I've still got a few pounds I can spend.

Sin embargo, only a little y only a few tienen un sentido mas bien negative: • Come on! We've only got a little time left. • The meeting was a failure. Only a few people came.

Much (mucho) y Many (muchos)
Usamos much con sustantivos incontables, y many con contables. • much time. • much water. • many people. • many houses.

RECUERDA
Sin embargo, que usamos a lot of/lots of/plenty of con contables y con incontables. • a lot of/lots of/plenty of water/time/people/houses. Usamos much y many con frases interrogativas y negativas. Aunque tambien podrfamos usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. • We didn't have much time. • Were there many people at the concert? En frases afirmativas se prefiere usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. • We've got a lot of time. • There were lots of people at the concert. Sin embargo, too much y too many si se usan en frases afirmativas. • There are too many people here. • There is too much money in that box.

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1. Completa las frases con much, many and a lot of. A veces hay dos posibilidades. Example There weren't many things to do in that village. 1. Did you take in Switzerland? 2. She always puts 3. That firm has got so how to invest it. 4. My car is very big. It uses 5. This village is very little. There isn't 6. He is very quiet. He doesn't speak 7. That man drinks 8. Hurry up! We haven't got 9. He needs a transfusion. He's lost 10. It's not surprising you're hungry. You haven't eaten 11. We can have omelettes for supper. We've got 12. Go away. I've got 13. We'll have to stop. We haven't got 14. There aren't pupils in that school. work to do. petrol. eggs. beer. Two pints every day. time. blood. photographs when you were sugar in her coffee. money that they don't know of petrol. to do.

2. Completa estas frases con little / a little/ few / a few. Example:The train is leaving we've got little time. 1. The theatre was nearly empty. There were 2. I don't speak much Japanese. Only times before. 4. My grandfather died 5. I didn't have any money but my friend had 6. As a teacher he is terrible. He's got very 7. I saw your brother 8. Come on, let's hurry! We've got 9. The land is dry. There has not been very 10.'Any more tea?' 'Yes, please, but only 11 .The country is politically unsafe. Very 12. He is a very strange boy. He has 13. Let's have a drink. We've got 14.1 've got very 15.There were ' tourists dare to come. friends. time before the train leaves. things to tell you, I 'm afraid. of them on the table. days ago. time. rain recently. patience. years ago. words. people.

3. This is not the first time that this machine breaks down. It has happened

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Links: however, whichever, whenever, etc.
Todas • • • • • • estas conjunciones sirven para unir dos oraciones I'll go with you wherever you go. However rich people are, they always want more. Whoever told you that was lying. Come to see me whenever you are in town. No matter what you say to him, he doesn't get angry. I'll always love you whatever you do.

WHILE Como conjunction (mientras, aunque). • While I admit there are problems, I don't think they are so difficult to solve. • I drink black coffee while he prefers it with cream. • Spanish is easy to write, while Chinese is very difficult.

WHEREAS Como conjuncion (mientras que). • Some people earn a lot of money whereas others don't get enough to eat. • He works 16 hour a day whereas she doesn't do any work at all.

YET

Conjuncion ( pero al mismo tiempo, sin embargo). • He did it slowly, yet, thoroughly. • He trained hard all year, yet he still failed to reach his best form.

BESIDES Como preposicion (ademas). • I do all my work and besides that I help my mates. • Besides doing my work I help my mates.

Como adverbio (ademas de eso). • I have no time to go to the cinema, besides, films nowadays are horrible. • John is our youngert child, we have three others besides him.

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1. Completa las frases con: whoever, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however, no matter what. Example: Darling, I'll be with you wherever you are. 1 2 3. You'll be welcome 4. You'll find friendly people 5. We'll get there 6. Don't get nervous 7 8 much she eats, she never gets fat. telephones, tell them I'm not here. you come. you go. road we take. happens. you drive, I always feel safe. you go you'll find a bottle of this kind of beer. problems car you are not using. told you that was lying. you say to her. I see that girl I feel nervous. difficult the problem is, he always solves it. the difficulties are, he always overcomes them.

9. You can always come to me for help you may have. 10. I'll take 11 12. She always smiles back, 13 14 15

2. Completa las frases usando: while, whereas, yet, besides, moreover. Example: They knew I was coming. Moreover, they were waiting for me. 1. This one is very cheap, expensive. 2. I was doing this 3. There were eleven people 4. He's been studying hard all his exams. 5. These people work slowly 6. That girl is very pretty, 7. They knew the banknotes were counterfeit knew who the counterfeiters were. 8 the one you bought is quite Peter was doing that. Mr Flint, the host. he hasn't been able to pass , very thoroughly. she is very intelligent. , they

I admit there are problems, I don't think it's so difficult to reach an agreement. he doesn't study much. the one we need for that part

9. He is not very intelligent 10.This girl is very tall, must be small.

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Too and enough + infinitive.
Too + infinitive.
• The case is too heavy to carry. • This parcel is too bulky to send. • That girl is too silly to go out with. • The soup is too hot to eat. • The grass was too wet to sit on. • That lamp is too heavy to hang on the wall.

Enough + infinitive.
• • • • • That child is not old enough to go to school. We haven't got enough money to go on holiday. He is not strong enough to carry that. He hasn't got enough experience. He is not experienced enough.

RECUERDA
Que enough se pone detras de los adjetivos: • big enough. • large enough. • silly enough.

mientras que con sustantivos se pone delante. • enough people. • enough milk. • enough time.

Construccion de for + noun/pronoun delante del infinitive.
• • • • This box is too heavy for a child to lift. This problem is too difficult for you to understand. The grass was too wet for us to sit on. The house was too small for the Jones to live in.

Y con enough.
• • • • This box is not light enough for a child to carry. This problem is not easy enough for you to understand. The grass was not dry enough for us to sit on. The house was not big enough for the Jones to live in.

Too + adjetive + a + noun + infinitive. • He is too experienced a director to mind what the critics say. • She was too clever to accept the first offer.

Too + adverb + infinitive
• It's too soon for me to say what is going to happen. • He works too slowly to be of any use to me.

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1. Complete estas frases usando enough con cada una de estas palabras: small, good, plates, time, money, hot, qualifications. Example: He hasn't got enough qualifications to get the job. 1. This jacket should be 2. She didn't finish the exam. She didn't have 3. The weather is not 4. That boy is from a poor family. He is not for you, Sylvia. 5. We haven't got 6. There are fourteen of us for dinner. We haven't got for everybody. 2. Responde las preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: 'Is Jimmy going to school this year?' (not old enough) 'No, he is not old enough to go to school.' 1. 'Does your brother get up early?' 'No, he is (lazy) to get up early.' 2. 'Can that man understand what I say?' 'No, he doesn't speak (English) to understand you.' 3. 'Can you hear what that man is saying?' 'No, we are (far away) to hear.' 4. 'Are you going to take a holiday this year?' 'No, we haven't got (money) to take a holiday.' 5. 'I'd like to go to the cinema.' 'Sorry, it's to go now.' 6. 'Let's take a photograph.' 'It's take a photo in here.' (late) (dark) to to pay the bill. to go to the beach. for little Jimmy.

3. En este ejercicio tienes que elegir entre too y enough para completar la frase. Example:! couldn't eat the soup. It was too hot. The soup was too hot lor me to eat. 1. Four people can't sit in the back of the car. It's not very wide. The seat 2. We can't move this piece of furniture. It's too heavy. This piece of 3. Don't stand on that sideboard. It is not very strong. That sideboard 4. I can't drink this tea. It is very hot. This tea

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Need y want + gerund - help.
Need
Puede ser conjugado como verbo ordinario. Tiene entonces las formas regulares normales, pero no el tiempo continue. To need se puede usar con un infinitivo o con un objeto nombre/pronombre: • I need to know the exact date. • 'How much money does she need?' 'She needs £10.' To need se puede usar con el infinitivo pasivo o el gerundio en frases tales como: • • • • • The grass in the garden needs to be cut/needs cutting. That shirt needs to be ironed/needs ironing. The garden needs to be watered/needs watering. The batteries in this radio need to be changed/changing. Do you think my hair needs to be cut?/needs cutting?

RECUERDA
Que el verbo want tiene el mismo significado: • • • • Your car wants servicing/to be serviced. Your hair wants cutting/to be cut. The front gate wants painting/to be painted. That handrail wants polishing/to be polished.

HELP
puede ir seguido del infinitivo con el to o sin el to. Las dos forma son validas. • Can you help me (to) do the washing up. • Everybody helped (to) push the car. • We'll all help you (to) do the cleaning.

Sin embargo, la expresion: can't help + ing (no puedo evitar), va seguida de gerundio. • I can't help laughing every time I see that little man. • I couldn't help crying when I heard the news. • I can't help wondering what would have happened if he had been here.

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1. Termina las frases usando need + gerund. Example: That little spoiled child needs smacking. 1. Your essay is very good but it 2. That old house is very solid but it 3. The hedge has overgrown. It 4. The windows are very dirty. They 5. That engine sounds well, but it 6. Your shirt is very dirty. It 7. The battery is run down. It 2. Gambia estas frases a need + gerund. Example: The kitchen is dirty. It needs to be cleaned. The kitchen is dirty. It needs cleaning. 1. The screws are loose. They need to be tightened. 2. That skirt is too long. It needs to be taken up. 3. My car makes strange noises. It needs to be serviced. 4. The lock is very rusty. It needs to be oiled. (wash). (charge). (polish up). (paint). (cut). (clean). (overhaul).

3. Completa las frases usando want + gerund. Example: That water needs to be filtered. That water wants filtering. 1. The accounting is in a mess. It needs to be looked into. 2. The clock has stopped. It needs to be wound. 3. You have to soften your new shoes. They need to be worn.

4. Completa las frases con can't help. Example: Every time I hear that sound I can't help thinking about your father. 1. Every time I see that romantic scene I (cry). 2. Every time I wake up I what to do the rest of the day. 3. Every time I hear that song I (remember) our first dinner in that little restaurant. (wonder)

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Causative verbs: have y get.
Esta construccion es del tipo: 'Yo pago a alguien para que me haga algo.' • I had my car serviced, (me hice revisar el coche) • He had his hair cut. (se hizo cortar el pelo) FIJATE en el orden de las palabras: have + object + past participle. Si cambiamos el orden... • I had serviced my car. (Yo habfa revisado el coche) • He had cut his hair, (el se habfa cortado a si mismo el pelo) ... el significado es muy diferente.

RECUERDA
que cuando usamos have en este sentido la forma interrogativa y negative se forma con do: • Do you have your chimney swept very often? • No, I don't have my chimney swept very often. • Did you have your central heating installed? • No, I didn't have my central heating installed.

Tambien se puede usar en tiempos continues. • We can't have the party this week. I'm having my sitting- room redecorated. • While I was having my photo taken somebody stole my car. • The house is too small and I am having a garage built on. Get se puede usar de la misma manera que have pero es mas coloquial. Get tambien se usa cuando mencionamos la persona que Neva a cabo la accion: • She got him to cut the grass in the garden. Esta misma frase se puede construir con have + infinitive sin to. • She had him cut the grass in the garden. La construccion have + object + past participle se puede usar coloquialmente para reemplazar al verbo pasivo: • His new car was stolen before he had the chance to drive it. Se puede reemplazar por: • He had his new car stolen before he had the chance to drive it. El sujeto puede ser tambien un objeto: • Several houses had their chimneys ripped off by the storm. Tambien con get: • The car got all four tyres punctured by the hooligans.

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1. Responde a las preguntas usando el have + object + past participle. Example: Your front tooth is missing. What happened to it? (pull out). / had it pulled out this morning. 1. Are you going to change the wheel alone?

No, I
2. Are you going to repair the shoes yourself?

No, I
3. Is your mother going to clean the windows?

No, she
4. Are you going to service the car yourself?

No, I
5. Did you install the central heating? Yes, I 2. Responde ahora a las preguntas usando el get. Example: Did you wash the car yourself? No, I had it washed yesterday. 1. Did your father cut the hedge himself? last week.

No, he
2. Did you pick the fruit yourselves? No, we 3. Are you going to repair the TV yourself? by those people.

No, I'll
4. When are you going to paint the house? Well, I'll 3. Completa las frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. Example: (l/get/Jimmy/clear/snow/by the front door) /'// get Jimmy to clear the snow by the front door. 1. (Yesterday/Mrs Evans/get/her son/do the washing up for her) 2. (Tomorrow/l/have/my son/repair the dishwasher) 3. (Last week/Mr Brown/get/Jim/paint/kitchen) 4. (Last Sunday/l/have/your brother/clean up his room) next month.

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Indirect speech.
Los verbos siguientes se usan muy a menudo en el estilo indirecto: ask, advise, beg, command, encourage, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn. • He said, 'Come here, Jim.'= He told Jim to go there. Las ordenes negativas generalmente se dicen con not + infinitive. • 'Don't play near the river, boys,' I said. = • I warned/told the boys not to play near the river. A veces la persona a la que se dirije no se menciona. Si es asf debemos afiadir un nombre o pronombre: • 'Come here,' he said. = He told me/him/her/them to go there. Los verbos ask y beg pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo pasivo: • 'Please, give me some money,' he begged. = • He asked/begged to be given some money (he begged for some money).

RECUERDA
Algunos ejemplos en estilo indirecto: • • • • • » 'You had better not leave you bicycle unlocked,' said my friend. My friend warned me not to leave my bicycle unlocked. 'Try again,' said Tom's friends encouragingly. Tom's friends encouraged him to try again. 'Don't forget to order the wine,' said Mrs Print. Mrs Print reminded her husband to order the wine.

Con las frases de will you ... se suele usar el verbo ask. • 'Will all the people standing please sit down,' he said. • He asked all the people standing to sit down. Pero si el will you se dice de una manera irritable entonces se usa el tell o order. • 'Will you shut up!' he said. = He ordered them to shut up. Say/tell + subject + be + infinitive: • 'Don't open the window,' he said. = He told me not to open the window. He said I wasn't to open the window.

Cuando introducimos un verbo en presente. • Meet me at the corner at 5, 'he says.' • He says that we are to meet at the corner at 5. Cuando la orden es precedida por una oracion. • 'When he leaves the office follow him,' she said. • She said that I was to follow him when he left the office.

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1. Ron las siguientes frases en estilo indirecto. Example: 'I can see him now, he said.' He said (that) he could see him then. 1. 'You haven't got much time,' he told me. 2. The meeting is off,' Jim said. 3. 'Forget all about that young man,' said her father. 4. 'Post some letters for me,' my boss said. 5. 'Could you show me your papers, please,' said the officer to him. 6. 'Why don't you take off your coat,' she said to the little girl. 7. 'I have lived in this country for many years,' said Mrs Merryat. 8. 'I can see you later,' he said to Peter. 9. 'I'll tell him exactly what I think,' she said. 10.'If I were you I'd go to see another lawyer,' Jill told Tom. 11.'I must have slept through the alarm,' she said. 12.'If you pass the driving test I'll buy you a car,' he said. 13.'If you'd just sign the register,' said the receptionist. 14.'Please, don't take any risks,' said his mother. 15.'I'm writing a book,' said Mr Jones. 16. There has been a lot of stealing from cars,' he said. 17.'If I were you I'd stop taking sleeping pills,' he said. 18.'Could you live on £100 a week?' he asked.

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Indirect speech (cont.)
Presente - Present
• 'I have read the book and I don't understand it.' • She says (that) she has read the book and doesn't understand it.

Present - Past
• Mary: 'I need to get some money.' • Mary said that she needed to get some money.

Present perfect - Past perfect
• Frank: 'We've just finished the job.' • Frank said that they had just finished the job.

Past simple - Past perfect
• 'I went to Madrid,' John said. • John said that he had gone to Madrid.

Past progressive - Past perfect continuous
• 'I was waiting for you,' she said to me. • She told me that she had been waiting for me.

Future - Conditional
• 'I will tell you tomorrow,' she said to Jack. • She told Jack that she would tell him the next day.

Future perfect - Conditional perfect
• 'I will have finished by 9,' he said. • He said that he would have finished by 9.

Say o tell con should
• 'If you drink don't drive,' he said to me. • He told me that if I drank I shouldn't drive. He advised me not to drive if I drank.

Advise, recommend, and urge + that
• 'I advise closing the premises,' he said. • He advised that the premises should be closed. Command and order se pueden usar con should.

should.

• 'Evacuate the building,' ordered the police officer. • The police officer ordered that everyone should leave the building / He ordered that the building should be evecuated / He ordered the building to be evacuated. Let's, let us, let him/her se pueden expresar con suggest. • 'Let's go for a picnic,' he said. • He suggested going for a picnic./That they should go for a picnic.

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1. Gambia las siguientes frases a estilo indirecto. Example: 'Come and visit us,' he says. He says that we are to go and visit him. 1. 'Let's sell the house,' said Mr Thomson. 2. 'Let's not go alone,' he said. 3. 'Let's leave the cases at the station,' she said. 4. 'I advise cancelling the meeting,' she said. 5. 'Evacuate the area,' ordered the police officer. 6. 'Follow him if he leaves the studio,' she told me. 7. 'I was living in Wales at that time,' said Mrs Jones. 8. 'I lived in Scotland for many years,' said Mr Bruce. 9. Sandy: 'I have moved to another flat.' 10.'I'll help you if I can,' he said. 11.'I would complain if I were you,' she said to me. 12.'Don't touch that,' she said to the children. 13.'I could see you tomorrow,' she said to me. 14.'What does the article say?' asked Jim. 15.'I've been waiting for hours,' she said. 16.'Can you understand the instructions,' she asked me. 17.'If there is any danger don't do it,' he said to me. 18.'Let's not play silly games,' he said.

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92

The passive. Prepositions.
BY en la voz pasiva va seguido de agente ablative. Un agente es la persona o cosa que Neva a cabo la accion indicada por el verbo. • The bicycle was stolen by those two boys. • The window was broken by the wind. By + agent solo es necesario cuando el que habla quiere indicar quien o que es el responsable del acontecimiento en cuestion. La posicion del by + ablative agente al final de la oracion le da un cierto enfasis: • The bicycle was smashed by a heavy branch that fell off that tree. Tambien se puede dar informacion por medio de frases que no sean by + agente. • That old mansion was built 200 years ago. By + agente a menudo se usa en la voz pasiva de verbos tales como: build, compose, damage, design, destroy, discover, invent, make, wreck and write.

FIJATE
Que a menudo una pregunta en activa es contestada en voz pasiva, de tal manera que la informacion importante se enfatiza al final: • Who designed that Cathedral? - It was designed by Wren. • Who destroyed the bridge? - It was destroyed by a borrib. En preguntas con who(m) se puede incluir by: • Who(m) was 'Don Quixote' written by? - Cervantes.

WITH tambien se usa a menudo con un ablative agente, sobre todo despues de participios tales como: crowded, filled, packed, crammed: • The room was filled with smoke. • The lock was covered with paint. • The bag was stuffed with dirty clothes.

Compara:
• He was killed by a runaway car. (accidentalmente) • He was killed with a knife, (deliberadamente)

FOR cuando indica proposito:
• This is a machine for lifting weights. • That is a gadget for slicing bread.

BY MEANS OF (por medio de).
• The crate was lifted by means of a crane.

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EXERCISES

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1. Pon estas frases en voz pasiva usando el ablative agente by. Example: A slate that fell off your roof damaged my car. My car was damaged by a slate that fell off your roof. 1. That boy broke the window with a stone. 2. Experts can solve your problems quite easily. 3. I think that Keats must have written those sonnets. 4. Hilton is going to open this new luxury hotel very soon. 5. A bomb destroyed this bridge during the war.

2. Responde a estas preguntas usando la voz pasiva. Example: Who composed that piece? It was composed by Mozart. 1. Who wrote Hamlet? (Shakespeare) 2. Who destroyed the bridge? (enemy army) 3. Who built this cathedral? (Wren) 4. Who operated on your father? (Dr. Brown) 3. Escribe estas frases en pasiva con with o by. Example: (falling stone/kill/cat accidentally). The cat was killed accidentally by a falling stone. 1. (jug/fill/water) 2. (room/crammed/people) 3. (his hair/cover/dirty oil) 4. (window/break/boy next door) 5. (Council/build/new library/soon) 6. (boy's face/smear/coal) 7. (hail/ruin/crops)

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U N I T 47

9*

Before, after as, soon as, until.
RELATIVE CLAUSES: DEFINING, NON-DEFINING
La defining relative clause describe el sustantivo que la precede. La non-defining clause anade una informacion extra y va separada por comas.

Sujeto: Who o that.
DEFINING: • The woman who told me this refused to give me her name. NON-DEFINING: • My father, who is very cheerful, wants to go to the beach.

Objeto de un verbo: Whom o who o that.
DEFINING: • The secretary (whom/who/that) I saw told me to come back today. NON-DEFINING: • The butler, who/whom everybody suspected, is innocent.

Con preposicion: whom o that
• The man to whom I spoke is here. / The man (who/whom/that) I spoke to is here. NON-DEFINING: • Mary, with whom I play tennis on Sundays, is very fit. / Mary, who/whom I play tennis with on Sundays, is very fit. DEFINING:

Posesivo. Whose es la unica forma:
DEFINING: • Those are the people whose houses were destroyed by the storm. NON-DEFINING: • Jane, whose children have grown up, is trying to get a job.

Objetos. Which o that.
DEFINING: • This is the film that/which caused such a scandal. NON-DEFINING: • That ship, which cost millions to build, has never sailed.

Complementos. Which o that o nada.
DEFINING: • This is the computer (that/which) I bought yesterday. NON-DEFINING: • This book, which you can buy anywhere, will tell you all about it.

Objeto de una preposicion.
DEFINING: • That's the stool on which I was sitting./ That's the stool which I was sitting on./That's the stool I was sitting on. NON-DEFINING: • His yacht, for which he paid so much money, is always anchored. / His yacht, which he paid so much money for, is

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EXERCISES

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1. Elige entre defining y non-defining cuando el relative es sujeto. Example: Frank had been driving for hours. He suggested stopping for a while. Frank, who had been driving for hours, suggested stopping for a while. 1. The tiles fell off the roof. They nearly wrecked my car.

2. Nobody was expecting the storm. It caused a lot of damage.

3. The boy has been arrested. He snatched your bag.

4. This river is very clean. It was polluted for years.

5. Mr Smith is going to undergo an operation. He ran a marathon last year.

2. Elige entre defining o non-defining cuando el relative es objeto del verbo. Example: The woman is my wife. You met her at the party. The woman, who/whom you met at the party, is my wife. 1. The man is coming this way. I saw him near the place of the crime.

2. That tall man works for your uncle. You can see him from here.

3. The writer of this book proved to be a famous politician. I met him last week.

4. The nice boy is studying at Harvard. You met him in Benidorm.

3. Elige entre defining y non-defining con whom o that con preposicion. Ron la preposicion al final. Example: This is the boy. I've been travelling with him. This is the boy I've been travelling with. 1. That person is the manager. I complained to him.

2. The hotel manager happened to be an old friend of mine. I complained to him.

3. This is the company. I work for it.

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U N I T 48

96

Indirect and embedded questions.
Para convertir las preguntas directas en indirectas cambiamos los tiempos del verbo y los adverbios como en las afirmaciones y omitimos el signo de interrogacion. • 'What does she want?' he said. / He asked what she wanted. • 'When did you give it to me?' / He asked me when I had given it to him. • 'Where are you going?' he said to us. / He asked us where we were going. Si en el estilo directo se usa say, entonces debemos cambiarlo por: ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc. • • • • • • 'Where's the bank?' he said. / He asked where the bank was. 'When is the next train?' she said. / She wanted to know when the next train was. 'How can I go to the Town Hall?' he asked a policeman. / He asked a policeman how he could go to the Town Hall. 'What caused the fire?' he asked the firemen. / He asked the firemen what had caused the fire.

Si en vez de ask usaramos inquire o wanted to know omitirfamos firemen. • He wanted to know what had caused the fire. • He inquired what had caused the fire. Si no usamos un pronombre interrogativo debemos poner if o whether. • 'Is anybody at home?' she asked. • She asked if/whether anybody was at home. Cuando tenemos una eleccion usamos el whether. • 'Where do you want to go, to Miami or to the Bahamas?' he asked me. • He asked me whether I wanted to go to Miami or to the Bahamas.

RECUERDA
Que las preguntas que empiecen con shall I/we se introducen con wonder si especulan sobre el future. • 'Shall I ever see you again?' he said. • He wondered if he would ever see her again. Con should + infinitive para peticion de instrucciones. • 'What shall I do, Dad?' / He asked his father what he should do. Con ofertas se puede decir: • 'Shall 1 do it for you, sir?' / He offered to do it for him. Con sugerencias se puede usar suggest. • 'Shall me meet at five?' / He suggested meeting at five.

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EXERCISES

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1. Pasa las siguientes preguntas a forma indirecta. Usa ask. Example: Who is in charge here? He asked who was in charge there. 1. 'Who lives next door?' he said 2. 'When are you coming?' she asked Peter 3. 'How much did it cost you?' he asked her. .. . 4. 'Where is the station?' he asked 5. 'Why are you so late?' his mother said to him.

2. Responde ahora usando inquire, wanted to know. Example: Mum, when is Dad coming back? He wanted to know/inquired when his father was coming/going back. 1. 'Jane, when are you getting married?' 2. 'Dad, when is the next train?' said Jim 3. 'Diana, what are you doing tonight?' 4. 'Sir, did you see the accident?' said the policeman.

3. Ahora usa whether o if. A veces se pueden usar ambos. Example: 7s anyone there?' he asked. He asked if/whether anyone was there. 1. 'Do you want to go by air or by train?' he asked 2. 'Did you see the accident?' asked the policeman. .

4. Ahora haremos preguntas con shall. Example: 'What shall I do, Mum?' He wanted to know what he should do. 1. 'Shall we go out for dinner tonight?' He 2. 'Shall I bring you another blanket?' He 3. 'Shall we ever meet again?' She

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U N I T 49

SB

Infinitives after adjectives.
It + be + adjective (+ of + object) + infinitive se usa principalmente con adjetivos que conciernen al caracter: brave, coward, careless, cruel, generous, good, nice, kind, mean, rude, selfish, wicked, wrong, fair, just, clever, foolish, idiotic, sensible, intelligent, silly, stupid. • It was very silly of you to leave the money there. • It was very kind of him to help us. It + be + adjective + infinitive se puede formar con: advisable, better, best, desirable, essential,important, necessary, vital, only fair/right/just. • It is better to reserve a table. • It is only fair to give him his share. For + object se puede afiadir a este tipo de frases.
• It wouldn't be advisable for you to mix with those people. • It won't be necessary for you to tell them what happened. It + be + adjective + for + object + infinitive se puede formar con: convenient, dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, possible, impossible safe, unsafe. • It's dangerous for people to go out at night in this town. • It's quite impossible to find food in the besieged city. Estos adjetivos (menos posible) se pueden usar con la construccion noun + be + adjective + infinitive: • This dish is very easy to make. • A trailer is difficult to drive.

It + be + adjective/participle + infinitive se puede formar con adjetivos y participios que muestren sentimientos y reacciones: agreeable, awful, delightful, disagreeable, dreadful, good, nice, horrible, lovely, marvellous, splendid, strange, terrible, wonderful depressing, interesting, amusing, annoying, etc.. • It's been lovely to see you again.
• It was delightful to hear that song again.

Subject + be + adjective/participle + infinitive con: able, unable, apt, inclined, liable, prone, prepared, ready, willing, reluctant, prompt, quick, slow.
• I am inclined to believe her story. • She was unable to utter a word.

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EXERCISES

"

1. Forma frases con los siguientes adjetivos como el ejemplo: stupid, generous, nice, brave, cruel. Example: (It was/them/leave/bicycles/unlocked) It was stupid of them to leave their bicycles unlocked. 1. (It was/him/give/us/money) 2. (It was/you/come/see/us)

3. (It was/you/save/drowning child) 4. (It was/him/tell/children/about/dead mother)

2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos siguientes: advisable, right, vital, better, important. Example: (advisable/book/holidays/advance) It is advisable to book your holidays in advance, 1. (only right/him/get/fair/trial) 2. (vital/food/reach/stricken area) 3. (better/play/on Saturday) 4. (important/keep/control/ball)

3. Haz lo mismo con: terrible, lovely, strange, depressing, annoying, encouraging, boring. Example: (terrible/hear/bombs/falling) It was terrible to hear the bombs falling. 1. (lovely/see/you again) 2. (strange/find/water/this desert) 3. (depressing/be/unemployed/long time) 4. (annoying/hear/your neighbour/playing/piano)

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U N I T 50

10

°

Participles (ind - ed) in clauses.
Tanto los participios presentes (ing) como los participles pasados (ed) se pueden usar como adjetivos. No se deben confundir. Los participios presentes, exciting, amusing etc., son activos y significan que 'tienen este efecto'. Los participios pasados, excited, amused etc., son pasivos y significan 'afectados de esta manera.'

USE (Participles ING)
Para formar continuous tenses: • We are walking. * She is cooking. Como adjetivos: • leaking tank. • running water.

Despues de have + object: • They had me walking in a month. Un presente de participio a veces puede reemplazar a un pronombre relative + verbo: • People who need medical care. / People needing medical care. Las frases de presente de participio tales como adding/pointing out/reminding/ warning pueden introducir aseveraciones en estilo indirecto: • They told me to go early, pointing out that traffic is very bad on that road. Despues de verbs of sensation: • I heard the rain falling all night. Despues de catch/find/leave + object: • I left them opening a hole in the road.

Despues de go, come, spend, waste, be busy:
• Why don't you come dancing with us? Cuando dos acciones con el mismo sujeto ocurren a la vez: • She walked away thinking. Cuando una accion va seguida de la otra: • Opening the box he took out the books. Cuando la segunda accion forma parte de la primera: • He shouted, warning the bandits. Un oracion de presente de participio que reemplaza a una subordinada: • As he heard / Hearing that she lived in the area he stayed overnight. El participio perfecto a veces reemplaza al presente de participio: having made, having seen. • Writing /Having written a few lines on a paper he tucked it in his pocket.

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1, Usa el presente de participio en las siguientes frases: Example: This is a map that marks political boundaries. This is a map marking political boundaries. 1. Those are the children who need medical care. 2. These are the people who wish to visit the premises. 3. Those are the men who work on the road.

2. En este ejercicio tienes dos frases. Juntalas usando el presente de participio. Example: He got on his horse. He took out his guitar. Getting on his horse he took out his guitar. 1. He opened the drawer. He took out a gun. 2. He raised the trapdoor. He pointed to a place on the wall. 3. She took off her shoes. She crept along the passage.

3. Haz con las frases siguientes lo mismo que en el ejemplo. Example:! caught them. They were stealing apples. / caught them stealing apples. 1. I saw her. She stood by the window.

2. He found a tree. It lay across the road. 3. I left him. He talked to my brother.

4. Ahora vamos a cambiar estas frases de infinitive por otras de participio presente. Example: Tomorrow they are going to sail. Tomorrow they are going sailing. 1. Hello, John. Come to dance with us.

2. She is going to ride after lunch.

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U N I T 51

1 2

°

The participle (ing - ed) (cont.).
El participio pasado de los verbos regulares se forma afiadiendo ed o d al infinitivo. Para el participio de los verbos irregulares vease la lista de verbos irregulares en el volumen II de esta coleccion.

uso
Como adjetivo: • Stolen car. • Broken window. • Abandoned house. Para formar los tiempos compuestos y la voz pasiva. • I have loved • We have seen. • It was done.

El participio pasado puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo pasivo igual que el participio presente puede reemplazar al sujeto + verbo active: • The child enters the classroom. He is accompanied by his mother. / The little child enters the class, accompanied by his mother. • He was woken up by the din. He jumped to his feet. • Woken up by the din, he jumped to his feet.

El perfecto de participio pasivo (having been + past participle)
se usa cuando es necesario poner entasis que la accion expresada por el participio sucedio antes que la accion expresada por el verbo siguiente: • Having been told about the chaos on the roads, he took the train. • Having been assaulted twice, he always carried a gun.

RECUERDA
Que un participio se considers que pertenece al nombre o pronombre que le precede: • Jim, terrified by what he had seen, took a step backwards. • Mark Anthony, believing that Cleopatra was dead, killed himself. El participio puede estar separado del nombre por el verbo. • The young boy entered, followed by his friend. Si no hay sustantivo o pronombre en esta parte de la oracion se considera que el participio pertenece al sujeto del verbo principal. • Amazed by the spectacle, Alice stared eyes wide open. • Believing that he was alone, the miser took out his coffer of gold coins.

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1. Escribe otra vez las siguientes frases usando el past participle. Example: The old house had been weakened by the earthquake. It was not safe. Weakened by the earthquake, the old house was not safe. 1. She was convinced that she was right. She tried to persuade him.

2. He was warned about the unsafe situation in the streets. He didn't leave the hotel 3. They were alarmed by the shouting in the street. They ran to the window.

2. Usa ahora el 'perfect participle passive' (having been + past participle). Example: She had been warned about that boy. She didn't go out with him. Having been warned about that boy, she didn't go out with him. 1. He had been bitten several times. The postman refused to deliver the mail.

2. He had already lost a lot of money. He stopped playing.

3. As they had won the football pools. They decided to buy a new house.

4. As he had finished writing his book. They decided to celebrate it.

3. Escribe estas frases otra vez usando bien el 'present participle' o el 'past participle. Example: The man was horrified at what he saw. He couldn't move. The man, horrified at what he had seen, couldn't speak. 1. The two men came in. They were followed by their wives.

2. The boxer was stunned by the blow. He fell heavily.

3. He believed he was the best. He entered for the competition.

4. A woman got off the bus. She was carrying a large parcel.

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104

Bare infinitives, after make and verbs of perception.
MAKE en voz activa Neva un infinitive sin to. Significa 'hacer' en el sentido de 'obligar'.
• The maths teacher made the boys stay in after school. • His thinning hair makes him look much older. • The policeman made me move my car. Sin embargo, cuando make esta en voz pasiva va seguido del infinitive con to. • The boys were made to stay in after school. • I was made to move my car.

LET como verbo normal signified 'permitir'.
Siempre va seguido de un complemento nombre o pronombre antes de un infinitivo sin to. Si el complemento es us se puede contraer a let's. • Come on. Let us go shopping. • Don't let the children disturb father. Let puede ir seguido de un infinitive pasivo: • She let it be known she was going to apply for the post. Let se usa sin ningun complemento en la expresion: • Live and let live!. Los verbos de percepcion son: see, feel, watch, hear, smell. Con estos verbos la accion en el presente de participio puede ser completa o incompleta: • I saw her washing the dishes Puede significar que contemple toda la accion o solo parte de ella. Estos verbos junto con listen to y notice pueden ir seguidos de un objeto + bare infinitive. • I saw her leave the house. • I heard them make a plan. Si usamos el infinitive significa que la accion esta completa: • I saw him change the batteries of the transistor radio. Mientras que si usamos el gerundio la accion puede que este incompleta. • I saw him changing the batteries of the transistor radio. El infinitivo describe una accion corta, rapida. • I heard him cough. Mientras que el gerundio indica una accion que dura algun tiempo o que todavi'a esta en progreso. • I heard him coughing all night. Para una serie de acciones seguidas preferimos el infinitivo. • I saw the him break the window, clear the broken glass and enter the house. El see y el hear en pasiva llevan el 'full infinitive'. • He was seen to enter the building.* He was heard to say that.

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1. Las frases siguientes van seguidas de make + 'bare infinitive' o 'full infinitive' Example: He compelled me. I had to do it. He made me do it. 1. The teacher told me to come on Saturday.

I was
2. I told the dog to lie down.

I
3. She told me to sit down next to her.
She

4. They forced me to write the letter.

2. Completa estas frases con let + infinitive. Example: She wants to go out but her mother won't let her go. 1. I want to go trecking to the Sahara but my parents won't 2. Leave other people alone. Live and ! 3. He wasn't allowed to see the documents. They 4. She wasn't allowed to smoke. They

3. Elige entre infinitivo y gerundio detras de un verbo de percepcion. Example: I watched them take a picture and go. 1. I heard somebody 2. I heard people 3. I felt somebody 4. I watched the firemen (break) the window and 5. I heard the little girl 6. We saw these people 7. I heard the child in his sleep a couple of times. 8. I saw them 9. They heard the wolves 10.1 smelt something (unlock) the door and enter the house. (shout) in the street. (tap) my back and disappear. (climb) a ladder (enter) the building. (cry) all night. (walk) along the road for miles. (cry) and (wait) patiently for hours. (howl) all night long. (burn) in the kitchen. (moan)

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106

Future continuous, future perfect, and perfect continuous.
The future continuous tense se forma con el future simple del verbo be + el presente participio: • At this time tomorrow I will be working. Como otros tiempos continues expresa una accion que empieza antes de un tiempo determinado y continua despues. • This time next week we will be lying on the beach in Salou. • At this time tomorrow the children will be watching a film. El futuro continue usado para expresar futuro sin intencion. • I will be helping my mother with the shopping tomorrow. • I'll be seeing your sister tomorrow. Indica que la accion ocurrira siguiendo el curso normal de los acontecimientos. Mientras que el presente continuo: • I am seeing your sister tomorrow. Indica que se ha concertado una entrevista previa. Hay, por lo tanto, una intencion. A menudo, sin embargo, esta diferencia no es muy importante. • He'll be coming tomorrow. / He is coming tomorrow. • She won't be coming to the meeting. / She isn't coming ...

RECUERDA
La diferencia entre el futuro simple y el continuo: • I'll write to my parents and tell them about us. Anuncio una accion futura deliberada. Mientras que en ... • I'll be writing to my parents tomorrow to tell them about us. Indico que ya les iba a escribir de todas formas. • He won't cook (no quiere cocinar). • He won't be cooking (informa que no va a ser el el que cocine). Preguntas acerca de intenciones. • Will you be playing golf tomorrow?* Will he be working all day? El futuro perfecto generalmente se usa con una expresion de tiempo que empieza con by: • By this time tomorrow I'll have arrived in the Bahamas. • By then I will have become a graduate. • By the end of the year I will have saved £1000. El futuro perfecto continuo: • By the end of this year he will have been working here for 20 years. • By the end of the month he will have been living with us for six months.

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EXERCISES

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1. Las frases que tienes a continuation estan en future simple. Cambialas y ponlas en futuro continuo. Example: I'll come to see your mother tomorrow. /'// be coming to see your mother tomorrow. 1. I'll take my driving test next week. 2. We'll come to your party on Saturday night. 3. I'll write to my father tomorrow. 4. I'll meet him next week.

2. Termina las frases usando el futuro perfecto. Example: By this time tomorrow (we/arrive/Miami). By this time tomorrow we'll have arrived in Miami. 1. By this time next week (I/take/all/my/exams). 2. By 10 o'clock (l/cut/grass/and/prune/roses). 3. By the end of the year (they/get married). 4. By 1999 (I/finish/my studies).

3. Escribe las frases siguientes en futuro perfecto continuo. Example: By the end of this month (he/work/20 years). By the end of this month he will have been working for 20 years. 1. By the year 2000 (we/climb/mountains/30 years). 2. By midnight (they/dance/for 24 hours). 3. By Christmas (we/live/this town/15 years). 4. By the time we compete in the Championship (we/train/10 months).

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APPENDIX

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APPENDIX

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ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS
Adjective
absent from work/school afraid of something/ somebody amazed at/by something/ somebody angry at/about something angry with someone annoyed at/about something annoyed with somebody anxious about/over something ashamed of someone/ something

Nouns
absence from fear of something amazement at anger at/about angry with annoyance at/ about annoyance with anxiety about/ over shame at something

Adjective
free from danger free of charge full of something glad about something good at something good with the hands grateful to someone for something happy about/at/over/with interested in/by something jealous of someone keen on something kind to someone late to work married to someone nervous of something obliged to someone please about/with something ready for something right about something sad about something safe from something satisfied with something separate from something slow at doing something sorry about/for something sorry for someone surprised about/at/by terrible at something thankful to/for something worried about something wrong about something

Nouns
freedom from freedom of speect

gladness about

gratitude for/to happiness over/at interest in jealousy of keenness on kindness to lateness for work marriage to nervousness about obligation to pleasure about readiness for

aware of something/someone awareness of awful at doing something bad at doing something bored with/by something busy at/with something capable of doing something careful of/with something careless of danger certain of/about facts clever at something content with something contrary to advice curious about something different from/to something eager from something excited about/a t/by/over faithful to somebody famous for something fond of something/somebody

boredom with

.
capability for carefulness with carelessness of certainty of/about cleverness at/in contentment with

sadness about safety from satisfaction with separation from slowness at sorrow for

curiosity about difference from/to eagerness for excitement at/ about faithfulness to fame as fondness for

surprise about/at

.
thankfulness to/fo worry about/over

.

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EXPRESSIONS WITH AS ... AS
as blind as a bat (tan ciego como un topo) as bold as brass (muy atrevido) as bright as a button (espabilado como una ardilla) as cheap as dirt (muy barato) as clear as a bell (claro como una campana) as cool as a cucumber (fresco como una lechuga) as deaf as a post (sordo como una tapia) as dry as dust (aburridfsimo) as easy as pie (estaba tirado) as fat as a pig (gordo como un cerdo) as free as a bird (libre como un pajaro) as hard as nails (muy duro) as keen as mustard (muy entusiasta) as large as life (grandfsimo) as mad as a hatter (chalado) as pleased as Punch (muy complacido) as pretty as a picture (tan bella como una rosa) as quick as lightning (rapido como una centella) as right as rain (mas razon que un santo) as safe as houses (segurfsimo)

REGULAR VERBS (pronunciation)
Pronounced /d/ in the past
bribed, described, robbed, rubbed begged, dragged, plugged, tugged banged, belonged, longed arranged, changed, exchanged damaged, emerged, judged, managed called, filled, pulled, smiled, travelled assumed, claimed, combed cleaned, explained, listened, opened answered, appeared, dared arrived, lived, loved, moved, proved accused, closed, excused, refused bathed, lathed delayed, obeyed, played, weighed agreed, freed, guaranteed annoyed, destroyed, employed, enjoyed cried, denied, dried, fried, qualified replied, satisfied, terrified, tried buried, carried, hurried, married, worried borrowed, followed, showed, videoed argued, continued, rescued, reviewed

Pronounced / 1 / in the past
asked, joked, liked, locked, looked picked, talked, thanked, walked, worked addressed, crossed, danced discussed, faced, guessed, missed matched, reached, switched, touched crashed, finished, pushed, washed coughed, laughed, stuffed camped, developed, dropped, helped

hoped, jumped, shopped, stopped axed, boxed, foxed, relaxed, waxed a

Pronounced /id/ in the past
added, afforded attended, avoided, decided, ended handed, included, mended, minded needed, provided, reminded, skidded admitted, attempted, collected completed, counted, dated, educated, excited, expected greeted, hated, insisted, invited, lifted, painted, posted printed rested shouted started tasted, visited, waited, wanted, wasted

STANLEY

APPENDIX

112

VERB + PREPOSITION (idiomatic)
Cakes don't agree with me. (me sientan mal) You answer to him. (explfcate) Appear for him in court (representale) You're asking for trouble, (buscando problemas) You can bank on my help, (puedes confiar) I didn't bargain for this, (no me esperaba esto) Please bear with me. (ten paciencia) I have broken with her. (he terminado con ella) Burst into the room, (irrumpiren) She burst into tears, (estallo en lagrimas) Call for me at five, (ven a buscarme) I can call on you. (puedo visitarte) I came across this manuscript, (me encontre) They came at me with knives, (se echaron encima) Where did she come by this? (i,d6ndeencontr6?) She came into a lot of money, (heredo) What came over you? (<:,que mosca te pico?) Can I count on you? (contar contigo) My uncle descended on me. (me visito) You can't dictate to me. (imponerme) She's dying for a drink, (se muere por) Stop digging at me. (deja de buscar faltas) This coat will do for you. (esto valdra) Shall I do for you now? (limpiar la habitacion) I could do with a drink, (me vendria bien) I can't do without you. (no me puedo pasar sin) We'll go into the matter, (consideraremos el asunto) The house grew on us. (le cogimos carino) I must hand it to you. (debo darte el merito) It hangs on this agreement, (depende de)

Bills are eating into my savings, It headed for the port, (me estan arruinando) (se dirigio a) He entered for an exam, (se presento a) She's fallen for him. (se ha enamorado de el) I won't fall for that trick, (no caere en esa trampa) She fell on the food, (se lanzo sobre la comida) He finished with her. (termino con ella) He flew into a rage, (se puso como una fiera) I gather from him that ... (adivino que) Gather around me. (reunirse a mi alrededor) Stop getting at me. (deja de meterte conmigo) She got into trouble, (se metio en Ifos) He's got over his illness, (se ha repuesto de) You can't get around me. (no me vas a convencer) How can we get around this? (icomo podemos resolver?) He's going about his work, (sigue con su trabajo) He's gone after the thief, (ha ido tras el ladron) The dog went for the burglar, (el perro se lanzo a por ...) The picture went for £500. (el cuadro se vendio por) I won't hear of. (no lo considerare) Help yourself to some cake, (sfrvete) I hit on this idea, (se me ocurrio) We must hold on to our agreement, (debemos atenernos) He jumped at the idea, (acepto con entusiasmo) Don't jump on me for this, (no me culpes) Keep at it. (sigue con ello) You can't keep a secret from him. (no le ocultes) She keeps him in money, (le proporciona) I'm keeping off tobacco, (me mantengo sin fumar) Keep to that point/plan, (sigue con) He kicked up a fuss, (armo un alboroto) He landed me into trouble, (me metio en Ifos) I've been landed with this, (me han dado esto)
Lay off her. (dejala en paz)

Leave it to me. (dejalo a mi cuenta)

STANLEY

APPENDIX

113

hope we can look to you for help. (podemos esperar tu ayuda) He lives on fruit, (vive de fruta) We'll look into this, (lo investigaremos) Look over the house, (revisa la casa) She looked right through her. (la ignore) Leave him to it. (dejale que lo haga) We can't make anything of this, (no entendemos nada) You won't pass for German, (no te haras pasar por) Let's pass over that, (pasemos por alto) Don't pick/peck at. (no comas sin apetito/no piques) He plays at being a teacher, (no es serio)

He will run for president, (se presentara a / sera candidato) We'll run for it. (escaparse) A lorry ran into the car. (chocb contra) I've run into difficulties, (me he concontrado con) The cost runs into millions, (asciende a) He ran through a fortune, (se gasto) I can't run to a new car. (no puedo permitirme) Don't rush into. (no te precipites) I'll see about that. (me encargare de) We'll see over the house, (examinaremos) I saw through it. (entendi) I'll see to the dinner, (me ocupare de la cena) They sat on my application, (no hicieron nada) I sat through a boring lecture, (soporte) I slept on your suggestion, (estuve pensando) I'll stand by you. (te apoyare) He's is standing for parliament, (se presenta a) I won't stand for you attitude, (no soportare) Don't stand over me. (no me supervises) We must step on it. (debemos darnos prisa) She'll stick by me. (me sera leal)

swear by this medicine, (tengo confianza) She takes after her mother (se parece a) She took to English easily (le parecio facil) Work is telling on her. (le esta afectando) She didn't touch on the subject. (no toco el tema) I'm toying with it. (estoy considerandolo) She turned against us. (se volvio contra) I've been turned off it. (he perdido interes) It turns on this document, (depende de) She turned to me for help, (se volvio a mi) I waded though it. (termine con dificultad) Who is waiting on us? (^quien nos sirve?) I walked into a job. (lo encontre con facilidad) I walked into a trap. (me metf en una trampa) They walked over the other team, (les derrotaron facilmente)

Don't play on my feeling
(no juegues con mis sentimientos) I'll press for a rise, (insistire) How much do you put it at? (<j,Cuanto crees que vale?) Put money on a horse, (apostar por) Put money towards it. (aportardinero) He's reading for a degree, (esta estudiando para) Can you read much into this? (i,Entiendes?) He's rolling in money, (esta forrado) I ran across him. (me tropece con el)

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