You are on page 1of 8

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME A- I CNG V POLIME

I KHI NIM, PHN LOI V DANH PHP 1. Khi nim - Polime l nhng hp cht c phn t khi rt ln do nhiu n v nh (gi l mt xch) lin kt vi nhau.V d: do cc mt xch NH [CH2]6 CO lin kt vi nhau to nn h s n c gi l h s polime ha hay polime ha. Cc phn t to nn tng mt xch ca polime c gi l monome 2. Phn loi a) Theo ngun gc:

b) Theo cch tng hp:

3. Danh php - Poli + tn ca monone (nu tn monome gm 2 t tr ln hoc t hai monome to nn polime th tn ca monome phi trong ngoc n) - Mt s polime c tn ring (tn thng thng). V d: II CU TRC 1. Cc dng cu trc mch polime a) Mch khng phn nhnh. V d: polietilen, amiloz b) Mch phn nhnh. V d: amilopectin, glicogen c) Mch mng li. V d: cao su lu ha, nha bakelit 2. Cu to iu ha v khng iu ha a) Cu to iu ha: cc mt xch ni nhau theo mt trt t nht nh (chng han theo kiu u ni ui). V d:

b) Cu to khng iu ha: cc mt xch ni vi nhau khng theo trt t nht nh (chng hn theo kiu u ni u, ch th u ni vi ui). V d:

III TNH CHT VT L Hu ht polime l cht rn, khng bay hi, khng c nhit nng chy xc nh, mt s tan trong cc dung mi hu c. a s polime c tnh do, mt s polime c tnh n hi, mt s c tnh dai, bn, c th ko thnh si IV TNH CHT HA HC 1. Phn ng gi nguyn mch polime a) Poli(vinyl axetat) (PVA) tc dng vi dung dch NaOH:

Trang 20

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME


b) Cao su thin nhin tc dng vi HCl:

Cao su hiroclo ha c) Poli(vinyl clorua) (PVC) tc dng vi Cl2: (gi s c 2 mt xch th 1 nguyn t clo)

T clorin 2. Phn ng phn ct mch polime a) Phn ng thy phn polieste:

b) Phn ng thy phn polipeptit hoc poliamit:

Nilon 6 c) Phn ng thy phn tinh bt, xenluloz d) Phn ng nhit phn polistiren

3. Phn ng khu mch polime a) S lu ha cao su: Khi hp nng cao su th vi lu hunh th thu c cao su lu ha. cao su lu ha, cc mch polime c ni vi nhau bi cc cu SS (cu isunfua)

b) Nha rezit (nha bakelit): Khi un nng nha rezol thu c nha rezit, trong cc mch polime c khu vi nhau bi cc nhm CH2 (nhm metylen)

Trang 21

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME


Polime khu mch c cu trc mng khng gian do tr nn kh nng chy, kh tan v bn hn so vi polime cha khu mch V IU CH C th iu ch polime bng phn ng trng hp hoc trng ngng 1. Phn ng trng hp a) Khi nim: - Trng hp l qu trnh kt hp nhiu phn t nh (monome), ging nhau hay tng t nhau thnh phn t rt ln (polime) - iu kin cn v cu to ca monome tham gia phn ng trng hp phi c l: + Lin kt bi. V d: CH2 = CH2, CH2 = CHC6H5 + Hoc vng km bn: V d:

b) Phn loi: - Trng hp ch t mt loi monome to homopolime. V d:

- Trng hp m vng. V d:

Nilon 6 (t capron) - Trng hp t hai hay nhiu loi monome (gi l ng trng hp) to copolime. V d:

Poli(butaien stiren) (cao su buna S) 2. Phn ng trng ngng a) Khi nim: - Trng ngng l qu trnh kt hp nhiu phn t nh (monome) thnh phn t ln (polime) ng thi gii phng nhng phn t nh khc (nh H2O) - iu kin cn c phn ng trng ngng l: cc monome tham gia phn ng trng ngng phi c t nht hai nhm chc c kh nng phn ng to c lin kt vi nhau b) Mt s phn ng trng ngng:

axit -aminocaproic

Nilon 6 (t capron)

axit -aminoenantoic

Nilon 7 (t enan)

Trang 22

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME

Phn ng trng hp

Nha rezol Phn ng trng ngng

Khi nim Qu trnh kt hp nhiu phn t monome ging nhau hoc Qu trnh kt hp nhiu phn t monome polime v tng t nhau polime nc. c im cu to Phn t c lin kt bi. Phn t c t nht hai nhm chc tham gia to lin kt. Phn t c vng km bn. V d: CH2=CH2, C6H5-CH=CH2 HO-CH2-CH2-OH, HOOC-[CH2]4-COOH, CH2-CH2-CH2 p-HOOC-C6H4-COOH, H2N-[CH2]6-NH2, C=O, . CH2-CH2 Cc phn ng xy ra:
Xt, to

nCH2=CH
Cl

(CH2-CH)n
Cl
Na, t
o

nCH2=CH-CH=CH2

(CH2-CH=CH-CH2)n Caosubuna Phn ng ng trng hp: Caosubuna-S, caosubuna-N Na, t nCH2=CH-CH=CH2+ C6H5-CH=CH2 (CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH)n + nH2O
o

C6H5
t ,P Caosubuna-S nCH2=CH-CH=CH2 + CH2=CH-CN (CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH)n + nH2O CN Caosubuna-N
o

B- VT LIU POLIME
I CHT DO 1. Khi nim - Cht do l nhng vt liu polime c tnh do - Tnh do l tnh b bin dng khi chu tc dng ca nhit, p lc bn ngoi v vn gi nguyn c s bin dng khi thi tc dng - C mt s cht do ch cha polime song a s cht do c cha thnh phn khc ngoi polime bao gm cht n (nh mui than, cao lanh, mn ca, bt aming, si thy tinhlm tng mt s tnh nng cn thit ca cht do v h gi thnh sn phm) v cht do ha (lm tng tnh do v d gia cng hn) 2. Mt s polime dng lm cht do

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME


a) Polietilen (PE)

PE l cht do mm, c dng lm mng mng, bnh cha, ti ng b) Poli(vinyl clorua) (PVC)

PVC l cht do cng, cch in tt, bn vi axit, c dng lm vt liu in, ng dn nc, da gi c) Poli(metyl metacrylat) (thy tinh hu c PEXIGLAS)

Poli(metyl metacrylat) l cht do cng, trong sut, khng vnn c gi l thy tinh hu c. Dng ch to knh my bay, t, knh bo him, dng lm rng gi d) Poli(phenol fomanehit) (PPF) (xem thm bi i cng v polime) PPF c ba dng: nha novolac, nha rezol, nha rezit Nha novolac: - un nng hn hp fomanehit v phenol ly d vi xc tc axit c nha novolac mch khng phn nhnh (cu ni metylen CH2 c th v tr ortho hoc para) - Nha nhit do, d nng chy, tan trong mt s dung mi hu c, dng sn xut vecni, sn Nha rezol: - un nng hn hp phenol v fomanehit theo t l mol 1 : 1,2 c xc tc kim. Nha rezol khng phn nhnh, mt s nhn phenol c gn nhm CH2OH v tr s 4 hoc 2 Trang 23 - Nha nhit rn, d nng chy, tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c dng sn xut sn, keo, nha rezit Nha rezit (nha bakelit): - un nng nha rezol 150oC c nha rezit (hay nha bakelit) c cu trc mng li khng gian - Khng nng chy, khng tan trong nhiu dung mi hu c, dng sn xut in, v my 3. Khi nim v vt liu compozit Khi trn polime vi cht n thch hp thu c vt liu mi c bn, chu nhittng ln so vi polime thnh phm. l vt liu compozit - Cht nn (polime): c th dng nha nhit do hay nha nhit rn - Cht n: phn tn (nhng khng tan) vo polime. Cht n c th l: si (bng, ay, aming, si thy tinh) hoc cht bt (silicat, bt nh (CaCO3), bt tan (3MgO.4SiO2.2H2O) II T 1. Khi nim T l nhng vt liu polime hnh si di v mnh vi bn nht nh 2. Phn loi

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME

3. Mt s loi t tng hp thng gp a) T poliamit (c nhiu nhm amit CONH)

b) T polieste (c nhiu nhm este)

c) T vinylic (c nhiu nhm polivinyl)

Trang 24 III CAO SU 1. Khi nim - Cao su l vt liu polime c tnh n hi - Tnh n hi l tnh bin dng khi chu lc tc dng bn ngoi v tr li dng ban u khi lc thi tc dng - C hai loi cao su: cao su thin nhin v cao su tng hp 2. Cao su thin nhin (polime ca isopren) a) Cu trc:

- Cng thc cu to: n = 1500 15000 - Tt c cc mt xch isopren u c cu hnh cis nh sau:

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME

b) Tnh cht v ng dng: - Cao su thin nhin ly t m cy cao su, n hi tt (nh cu trc cis iu ha), khng dn nhit v in, khng thm kh v nc, khng tan trong nc, etanolnhng tan trong xng v benzen - Cao su thin nhin cho phn ng cng H2, Cl2, HCl, c bit l cng lu hunh to cao su lu ho c tnh n hi, chu nhit, lu mn, kh tan trong dung mi hn cao su khng lu ha. 3. Cao su tng hp a) Cao su buna, cao su buna S v cao su buna N :

- Cao su buna c tnh n hi v bn km cao su thin nhin. Khi dng buta-1,3-ien 10oC, polime sinh ra cha 77% n v trans-1,4 v 7% n v cis-1,4 (cn li l sn phm trng hp 1,2). Cn 100oC sinh ra polime cha 56% n v trans-1,4 v 25% n v cis-1,4 (cn li l sn phm trng hp 1,2)

Cao su buna S - Cao su buna S c tnh n hi cao

Cao su buna N - Cao su buna N c tnh chng du tt b) Cao su isopren - Trng hp isopren c h xc tc c bit, ta c poliisopren gi l cao su isopren, cu hnh cis chim 94 %, gn ging cao su thin nhin

- Ngoi ra ngi ta cn sn xut policloropren v polifloropren. Cc polime ny u c c tnh n hi nn c gi l cao su cloropren v cao su floropren. Chng bn vi du m hn cao su isopren

Trang 25 IV KEO DN 1. Khi nim Keo dn l vt liu polime c kh nng kt dnh hai mnh vt liu ging nhau hoc khc nhau m khng lm bin i bn cht cc vt liu c kt dnh 2. Phn loi a) Theo bn cht ha hoc: - Keo v c (thy tinh lng) - Keo hu c (h tinh bt, keo epoxi) b) Dng keo: - Keo lng (h tinh bt) - Keo nha do (matit) - Keo dn dng bt hay bn mng 3. Mt s loi keo dn tng hp thng dng

TNG HP L THUYT CHNG 4- POLIME V VT LIU POLIME


a) Keo dn epoxi: gm 2 hp phn: - Polime lm keo c cha hai nhm epoxi hai u - Cht ng rn thng l cc triamin nh H2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 b) Keo dn ure fomanehit

Poli(ure fomanehit) 4. Mt s loi keo dn t nhin: a) Nha v sm: l dung dch dng keo ca cao su thin nhin trong dung mi hu c nh toluen b) Keo h tinh bt: l dung dch h tinh bt trong nc nng, dng lm keo dn giy

Trang 26