Libra 4: A group around a campfire

T h e w o r d g r oup d e s c e n d s f r o m t he I n d o - E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r o o t g (e )r -2 w h i ch m e a n s “ c u r v i n g, c ro o k e d . ” 1 I t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e gra p e , gra p ne l ,

gra p p l e, c ru m m ie , c ru m p e t, c ru m b l e, c ri m p , c ra m p, c ripp l e, c re ep, c ri n gl e, c ri n kl e , c re e k, c roo k, c ro c h e t, c roq u et , c ro c h e t , c ro c ke t, cro t c h , c ro u c h, e n c ro a c h, c ru t c h, ca rp , c ru l l e r, c u rl, l a c ro s s e, a n d c ro u p , c ro up ie r, c rop per, c ro p, c ru s e, c rè ch e , c ra dl e, ca rt , c ro f t , a n d e n c roa ch .
W h e n t he w o r d r oun d me a n s b a l l -s h a p e d i t d e s ce n d s f r om t h e I E r o ot r et - w h i c h me a n s “ t o r u n , r o l l. ”
2

I t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e rode o , ro l l, ro t a ry,

ro t a t e, ro we l, ba rou c h e , c on t ro l, p ru ne , ro t un d, a n d ro t un da . Round c a n
a l s o m e a n “ t o w h i sp e r . ” T h a t s e n s e de s c e n d s f r o m t he I E r o o t , ru -no w h i c h m e a n s “ m y s t e r y , s e c re t ” a n d w hi c h i s a “ Ge r m a n i c a n d C e l t i c technical term of magic.”
3

P a r o n y m s i n c l u d e t he w o r d s ru n e a n d

ru n n ym e de .
T h e w o r d c a mp d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e L a t i n c a mp u s m e a n i n g “ o p e n fi e l d , l e v e l s p a c e ” , e sp e ci a l l y “ op e n sp a c e fo r m i l i t a r y e x e r c i se . ” 4 T h e t e r m w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o n o n - m i l i t a r y se n se i n t h e m i d - 1 6 t h ce n t u ry a n d b y t h e mid-19th century also came to mean “body of adherents of a doctrine or cause.” T h e w o r d f i r e d e sce n d s f r o m t h e IE ro o t p a ewr - w h i c h m e a n s “ f i r e . ” 5 I t s p a r on y m s i n c l ud e p yre , p yro - , p yro s i s, a n d rh o ti t e.

1 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 27 2 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 71 3 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 72 4 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=camp 5 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 61 Starling Hunter © 2011 1

TH EMES : Re c a l l t ha t t h e d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e p r i m a r y s e n s e o f r ou nd i s r et - w hi c h m e a n s “ t o r u n , r o l l” a n d w h o s e p a r o n y m s i n cl u d e ro l l a n d

ro t a t e. F u r t h e r r e ca l l t h a t t h e w o r d grou p d e s c e n d s f r om a r o o t t ha t
m e a n s “ c u r v i n g, c ro o k e d ” a n d w h o se p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e c u rl , “ t o f o r m a c u r v e d o r r o u n d s h a p e ” 6 a n d c ro o k , “ a n i n st r u m e n t h a v i n g a b e n t o r c u r v e d p a r t . ” 7 T h u s , t h e s h a re d t h e me s h e r e a r e C I RCU LAR o r TU RNI NG MOTIO N a n d C U RVED SHA PE S fo r m e d t h e r e b y. S e c o n d l y, t h e re i s a b r o a d l y s y n o n y mo u s r e l a t i o n s hi p b e t w e e n t h e k e y w o r d s g rou p a n d c a mp . T h e f o r m e r m e a n s “ a n A SS EMBLA GE o f p e r s o n s o r o b j e ct s g a t h e r e d o r l o c a t e d t o g e t h e r ” 8 w h i l e t h e l a t t e r c a n m e a n “ a grou p o f p e o p l e w h o t h i n k a l i k e o r s h a r e a c a u se . ” 9 T h u s , a c a mp i s a sp e ci f i c k i n d of g r oup .

6 http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/curl 7 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/crook 8 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/group 9 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/camp Starling Hunter © 2011 2