Chapter 2: Heat Conduction Equation

Yoav Peles
Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

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Objectives
When you finish studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Understand multidimensionality and time dependence of heat transfer, and the conditions under which a heat transfer problem can be approximated as being one-dimensional, • Obtain the differential equation of heat conduction in various coordinate systems, and simplify it for steady one-dimensional case, • Identify the thermal conditions on surfaces, and express them mathematically as boundary and initial conditions, • Solve one-dimensional heat conduction problems and obtain the temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux, • Analyze one-dimensional heat conduction in solids that involve heat generation, and • Evaluate heat conduction in solids with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity.

2.1. Introduction
• Although heat transfer and temperature are closely related, they are of a different nature. • Temperature has only magnitude it is a scalar quantity. • Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude it is a vector quantity. • We work with a coordinate system and indicate direction with plus or minus signs.

• The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the temperature difference. t)) . • Three prime coordinate systems: – rectangular (T(x. z. y.

t)) – spherical (T(r. φ. . φ.– cylindrical (T(r. z. θ. t)).

• multidimensional heat transfer.Classification of conduction heat transfer problems: • steady versus transient heat transfer. . • heat generation.

Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer • Steady implies no change with time at any point within the medium • Transient implies variation with time or time dependence .

However. heat transfer through a medium is three-dimensional.Multi-dimensional Heat Transfer • Heat transfer problems are also classified as being: – one-dimensional. . some problems can be classified as two. • In the most general case. – three-dimensional.or onedimensional depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer rates in different directions and the level of accuracy desired. – two dimensional.

in the x-direction) is expressed by Fourier’s law of heat conduction for one-dimensional heat conduction as: dT = − kA dx Qcond (W) (2-1) • Heat is conducted in the direction of decreasing temperature. .• The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified direction (say. and thus the temperature gradient is negative when heat is conducted in the positive x-direction.

General Relation for Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction • The heat flux vector at a point P on the surface of the figure must be perpendicular to the surface. and it must point in the direction of decreasing temperature • If n is the normal of the isothermal surface at point P. the rate of heat conduction at that point can be expressed by Fourier’s law as dT Qn = − kA dn (W) (2-2) .

the heat conduction vector can be expressed in terms of its components as Qn = Qx i + Qy j + Qz k (2-3) • which can be determined from Fourier’s law as ⎧ ∂T ⎪Qx = − kAx ∂x ⎪ ∂T ⎪ ⎨Qy = −kAy ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂T ⎪Qz = −kAz ∂z ⎩ (2-4) .• In rectangular coordinates.

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• The rate of heat generation units : W/m3 or Btu/h · ft3. . – fuel elements of nuclear reactors. – exothermic chemical reactions. • Heat generation is a volumetric phenomenon.Heat Generation • Examples: – electrical energy being converted to heat at a rate of I2R.

• The total rate of heat generation in a medium of volume V can be determined from Egen = ∫ egen dV V (W) (2-5) .• The rate of heat generation in a medium may vary with time as well as position within the medium.

六個面均可簡化考慮為onedimensional problem ! .

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2 One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation .(i) Plane Wall Rate of heat conduction at x - Rate of heat conduction at x+∆x + Rate of heat generation inside the element = Rate of change of the energy content of the element Qx −Qx +∆x + Egen.element (2-6) ∆Eelement = ∆t .2.

element ∆Eelement = ∆t (2-6) • The change in the energy content and the rate of heat generation can be expressed as ⎧∆Eelement = Et +∆t − Et = mc (Tt +∆t − Tt ) = ρcA∆x (Tt +∆t − Tt ) (2-7) ⎪ ⎨ (2-8) ⎪Egen. 2–6. taking the limit as ∆x and from Fourier’s law: 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜ kA A ∂x ⎝ ∂x ∂T ⎞ + egen = ρ c ⎟ ∂t ⎠ Tt +∆t − Tt ∆t (2-9) 0 and ∆t 0. we get Qx − Qx+∆x +egen A∆x = ρcA∆x • Dividing by A∆x.Qx − Qx+∆x + Egen.element = egenVelement = egen A∆x ⎩ • Substituting into Eq. (2-11) .

no heat generation: d 2T egen + =0 2 dx k ∂ 2T 1 ∂T = 2 ∂x α ∂t d 2T =0 2 dx (2-15) (2-16) (2-17) . α= (2-14) The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces to the following forms under special conditions 1) Steady-state: 2) Transient.The area A is constant for a plane wall the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall is Variable conductivity: Constant conductivity: ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜k ∂x ⎝ ∂x ∂T ⎞ + egen = ρ c ⎟ ∂t ⎠ (2-13) k ρc ∂ 2T egen 1 ∂T + = 2 k ∂x α ∂t . no heat generation: 3) Steady-state.

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation – (ii) Long Cylinder Rate of heat conduction at r - Rate of heat conduction at r+∆r + Rate of heat generation inside the element = Rate of change of the energy content of the element Qr −Qr +∆r + Egen.element ∆Eelement = ∆t (2-18) .

element = egenVelement = egen A∆r ⎩ • Substituting into Eq. we get Qr − Qr +∆r +egen A∆r = ρcA∆r • Dividing by A∆r. (2-23) . 2–18.element ∆Eelement = ∆t (2-18) • The change in the energy content and the rate of heat generation can be expressed as ⎧∆Eelement = Et +∆t − Et = mc (Tt +∆t − Tt ) = ρcA∆r (Tt +∆t − Tt ) (2-19) ⎪ ⎨ (2-20) ⎪Egen.Qr − Qr +∆r + Egen. taking the limit as ∆r and from Fourier’s law: 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜ kA A ∂r ⎝ ∂r ∂T ⎞ + egen = ρ c ⎟ ∂t ⎠ Tt +∆t − Tt ∆t (2-21) 0 and ∆t 0.

no heat generation: 1 d ⎛ dT ⎜r r dr ⎝ dr ⎞ egen = 0 (2-27) ⎟+ ⎠ k 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜r r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎞ 1 ∂T ⎟= ⎠ α ∂t ⎞ ⎟=0 ⎠ (2-28) (2-29) 3) Steady-state.Noting that the area varies with the independent variable r according to A=2πrL. no heat generation: d ⎛ dT ⎜r dr ⎝ dr . the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall becomes Variable conductivity: Constant conductivity: 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜ rk r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ∂T ⎞ + egen = ρ c ⎟ ∂t ⎠ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ egen 1 ∂T = ⎜r ⎟+ α ∂t r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ k (2-25) (2-26) The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces to the following forms under special conditions 1) Steady-state: 2) Transient.

One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation .(iii) Sphere Variable conductivity: Constant conductivity: 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂T ⎜r k 2 ∂r r ∂r ⎝ 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂T ⎜r 2 r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ∂T ⎞ + egen = ρ c ⎟ ∂t ⎠ ⎞ egen 1 ∂T = ⎟+ α ∂t ⎠ k (2-30) (2-31) .

One-dimensional steady-state heat conduction equation: d 2T =0 dx 2 .

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y+∆y.3 General Heat Conduction Equation Rate of heat conduction at x.element . and z Rate of heat Rate of heat .2. inside the and z+∆z element = Rate of change of the energy content of the element ∆Eelement (2-36) = ∆t Qx + Qy + Qz −Qx +∆x − Qy +∆y − Qz +∆z + Egen .conduction + generation at x+∆x. y.

no heat ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T egen + 2 + 2 + = 0 (2-40) 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z k ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T 1 ∂T generation: ∂x 2 + ∂y 2 + ∂z 2 = α ∂t ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T generation: 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 ∂x ∂y ∂z (2-41) (2-42) 3) Steady-state. no heat .Repeating the mathematical approach used for the onedimensional heat conduction the three-dimensional heat conduction equation is determined to be Two-dimensional Constant conductivity: ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T egen 1 ∂T + 2 + 2 + = 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z α ∂t k Three-dimensional (2-39) 1) Steady-state: 2) Transient.

Cylindrical Coordinates 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜ rk r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎞ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟+ 2 ⎜ k ∂φ ⎠ r ∂φ ⎝ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟ + ∂z ⎜ k ∂z ⎝ ⎠ ∂T ⎞ ⎟ + egen = ρ c ∂t ⎠ (2-43) .

Spherical Coordinates ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ∂T 1 ∂ ⎛ 2 ∂T ⎞ 1 1 + 2 2 + 2 + egen = ρ c kr k k sin θ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ∂r ⎠ r sin θ ∂φ ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ r sin θ ∂θ ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ∂t r 2 ∂r ⎝ (2-44) .

2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions • (i) Specified Temperature Boundary Condition • (ii) Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition • (iii) Convection Boundary Condition • (iv) Radiation Boundary Condition • (v) Interface Boundary Conditions • (vi) Generalized Boundary Conditions .

which is the case for steady heat conduction. t) = T2 (2-46) The specified temperatures can be constant. for example. the specified temperature boundary conditions can be expressed as T(0. or may vary with time. . t) = T1 T(L.(i) Specified Temperature Boundary Condition For one-dimensional heat transfer through a plane wall of thickness L.

and negative if it is in the opposite direction. including the boundaries. can be expressed by Fourier’s law of heat conduction as dT q = −k = dx Heat flux in the positive x-direction (2-47) The sign of the specified heat flux is determined by inspection: positive if the heat flux is in the positive direction of the coordinate axis.(ii) Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition The heat flux in the positive xdirection anywhere in the medium. .

t ) =0 ∂x (2-49) ∂T ( L / 2. t ) = 0 (2-50) ∂x . t ) k =0 ∂x or ∂T (0.Two Special Cases – Insulated Boundary Insulated boundary Thermal symmetry ∂T (0.

(iii) Convection Boundary Condition Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction = Heat convection at the surface in the same direction .

t ) − T∞ 2 ] ∂x (2-51b) . t ) −k = h2 [T ( L.∂T (0. t ) −k = h1 [T∞1 − T (0. t ) ] ∂x and (2-51a) ∂T ( L.

(iv) Radiation Boundary Condition Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction = Radiation exchange at the surface in the same direction .

t ) 4 ⎤ −k = ε1σ ⎣ ⎦ ∂x and (2-52a) ∂T ( L.1 − T (0.∂T (0. t ) 4 − Tsurr .2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ∂x (2-52b) . t ) 4 −k = ε 2σ ⎡T ( L. t ) 4 ⎡Tsurr .

(v) Interface Boundary Conditions
At the interface the requirements are: (1) the same temperature at the area of contact, (2) the heat flux on the two sides of an interface must be the same.

TA(x0, t) = TB(x0, t)
and

(2-53)

∂TA ( x0 , t ) ∂TB ( x0 , t ) −k A = −kB (2-54) ∂x ∂x

(vi) Generalized Boundary Conditions
In general a surface may involve convection, radiation, and specified heat flux simultaneously. The boundary condition in such cases is again obtained from a surface energy balance, expressed as

Heat transfer to the surface in all modes

=

Heat transfer from the surface in all modes

2.5 Solution of Steady One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Problems

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(a) OK ! .

不成立 ! 相依 .

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2.6 Heat Generation (熱生成) in Solids 核能、電阻加熱 與化學反應熱於 過程中之轉換能 量，在分析時均 被當作生成熱。 .

The quantities of major interest in a medium with heat generation are (i) the surface temperature Ts (ii) the maximum temperature Tmax that occurs in the medium in steady operation. .

(i) The Surface Temperature Rate of heat transfer from the solid = Rate of energy generation within the solid (2-63) For uniform heat generation within the medium Q = egenV (W) (2-64) The heat transfer rate by convection can also be expressed from Newton’s law of cooling as - Q = hAs (Ts − T∞ ) Ts = T∞ + (W) (2-65) (2-66) egenV hAs .Heat Generation in Solids .

sphere = T∞ + egen r0 3h (2-69) .cylinder = T∞ + egen r0 2h (2-68) (c) For a solid sphere of radius r0 (As=4πr02 and V=4/3πr03) Ts . plane wall = T∞ + egen L h (2-67) (b) For a long solid cylinder of radius r0 (As=2πr0L and V=πr02L) Ts .(a) For a large plane wall of thickness 2L (As=2Awall and V=2LAwall) Ts .

we get egen dT 2 −k ( 2π rL ) = egen π r L → dT = − rdr 2k dr egen r02 4k ( ) Integrating from r =0 where T(0) =T0 to r=ro ∆Tmax.cylinder = T0 − Ts = (2-71) .Heat Generation in Solids – (ii)The maximum Temperature in a Cylinder (the Centerline) The heat generated within an inner cylinder must be equal to the heat conducted through its outer surface. dT −kAr = egenVr dr (2-70) Substituting these expressions into the above equation and separating the variables.

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• An average value for the thermal conductivity is commonly used when the variation is mild. • This is also common practice for other temperaturedependent properties such as the density and specific heat.Variable Thermal Conductivity. k(T) . . in general. varies with temperature.略 • The thermal conductivity of a material.

the average value of the thermal conductivity in the temperature range between T1 and T2 can be determined from kave ∫ = T2 T1 k (T )dT (2-75) T2 − T1 The variation in thermal conductivity of a material with can often be approximated as a linear function and expressed as (2-79) k (T ) = k0 (1 + β T ) β the temperature coefficient of thermal conductivity. .Variable Thermal Conductivity for OneDimensional Cases When the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is known.

Variable Thermal Conductivity • For a plane wall the temperature varies linearly during steady onedimensional heat conduction when the thermal conductivity is constant. . • This is no longer the case when the thermal conductivity changes with temperature (even linearly).