You are on page 1of 21

DIFFUSION

Diffusion
Why impurity doping:
To change electrical properties.
Methods:
Ion implantation
Diffusion
Diffusion deep junction
Ion implantation shallow junction
Basic Process
Ambient:
Carefully controlled
High temperature quartz tube furnace
Gas mixture containing desired dopants.
Temperature range: 800-1200
0
C
P-type: boron n-type: phosphorous
Uses liquid sources.
Process:
Cause: concentration gradient.
Ambient: higher concentration
Initially there are no impurities in the bulk
crystal.
Hence impurity atoms move inside
crystal.
Mechanism:
Substitution
Interstitial
Interstitialcy

Diffusion Mechanisms
Vacancy model
For substitutional
impurities like P, B,
As, Al, Ga

Impurity atom
exchanges position
with a vacancy in the
lattice

Interstitial Diffusion

For interstitial
impurities like O, Au,
Fe, Cu, Ni

Rapid diffusion but
impurities do not
contribute to doping

The two principal diffusion mechanisms:
Schematic diagrams

Vacancy diffusion
in a semiconductor.

Interstitial diffusion
in a semiconductor.

Diffusivity
Intrinsic diffusivity is a function of
temperature:
D = D
0
exp(-E
a
/kT)
Where Ea is the activation energy for
the diffusion process
Ficks Laws of Diffusion:
1st Law: Flux of dopants is proportional to
concentration gradient


2nd Law: Rate of change of concentration is
proportional to change of concentration gradient
with depth
Constant of proportionality is called diffusivity or
diffusion constant which is dependent on
temperature
dx
t x dC
D J
) , (
=
Ficks 2
nd
law:
Change in flux with position = rate of
change of concentration at given
point
) ( . .
1 2
J J A
dt
dC
dx A =
dx
D d
dx
dJ
dt
dC
dx
dC
] [
= =
Depending on D, diffusion can be of 2
types:
Constant surface concentration-/constant
source-/infinite source- diffusion.
Constant total dose diffusion
Case 1: D is constant
Case 2: D depends on x (position).
Infinite source diffusion
Boundary condition:
C (0, t) = Cs
C ( , t) = 0

Initial condition
C (x, 0) = 0
Solving for Ficks law (subjected to these
conditions):
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t D
x
erf c C t x C
s
2
,
Nature of the curve:
Constant total dopant
Limited Source:
C (x, 0) = 0; x 0 (initial condition)
C ( , t) = 0


Solution:
Called drive-in diffusion
Solution is Gaussian
Junction depth (X
j
)
When concentration of impurity is equal to
background doping concentration, that
depth is junction depth
Case 1: pre-deposition diffusion


Case 2: drive-in diffusion


|
|
.
|

\
|
=

s
B
j
C
C
erfc Dt x
1
. . 2
) ln( . . 4
Dt C
Q
Dt x
B
T
j
t
=
Where C
B
is the
background concentration
Diffusion Process: Pre-deposition
followed by Drive-in.
Pre-deposition:

Drive-in:

Finally,
At the mask edge
Impurities will diffuse downwards and
sideways.
This is lateral diffusion.
Ratio of lateral to vertical penetration:
75% for constant total dopant.
65-70% for concentration dependant.
A comparison with Ion-
Implantation:
Advantages of implantation over
diffusion;
Lesser contamination.
Better control over the process.
Room temperature process.
Better flexibility.
Not governed by solid solubility or
concentration gradient.
Disadvantages of Implantation over
diffusion:
Expensive.
Damage creation.
Can be annealed out. But