-SELF CHARGING MOBILE THAT SAVES ENERGY
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
VSB ENGINEERING COLLEGE KARUR- 639111
E-MAIL: email@example.com AUTHORS: AJANTHAN.M Pre-Final BE ECE
Contact no: 9944717704 9944473343
ABSTRACT:Usage of mobile phones is increasing day by day. It is hard to see a person without a cell phone now a day. Common problems faced by mobile users are due to poor signal and FREQUENT CHARGING. Here our idea will eradicate the later one. Motto of our idea is to reduce the use of charger. Using this it is enough if you charge the mobile once in 10 days. Piezoelectric crystals are the heart of our project. In a piezoelectric crystal, the application of stress along a polar axis produces an electric field between the two opposing faces. This phenomenon is known as PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT. We implement this method in mobile phones. There are two different ways by which we can achieve this they are placing crystals under KEYPAD and Placing crystals in mike. In the Keypads we are placing the crystals under the keypad of the mobile. So whenever a button is pressed the crystal is subjected to mechanical vibration. Due to piezoelectric effect charge is created we store this in capacitor. Whenever the charge of the battery goes down it is transferred from capacitor to battery. In the mike we are placing the crystal inside microphone. Attaching crystal with diaphragm and placing it in microphone. Through this we can charge our mobile by sound. When there is a sound diaphragm vibrates which vibrates the crystal connected to it then by piezoelectric effect the electric charge is produced. This will compensate the charge consumed by the microphone.
Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress. This is known as piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric effect is reversible in that piezoelectric crystals, when subjected to an externally applied voltage, can change shape by a small amount. The most commonly known piezoelectric material is Quartz (SiO2). Many other important minerals are often found within quartz deposits. Tiny pieces of quartz are used in watches, clocks and radio transceivers to provide a stable and precise frequency for the circuitry. On a nanoscopic scale, piezoelectricity results from a nonuniform charge distribution within a crystal's unit cells. When such a crystal is mechanically deformed, the positive and negative charge centers displace by differing amounts. So while the overall crystal remains electrically neutral, the difference in charge center displacements results in an electric polarization within the crystal. Electric polarization due to mechanical input is perceived as piezoelectricity.
GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Engineers are already familiar with the most common mechanical constitutive equation that applies for everyday metals and plastics. This equation is known as Hooke's Law and is written as: S=s*T
In words, this equation states: Strain = Compliance × Stress. However, since piezoelectric materials are concerned with electrical properties too, we must also consider the constitutive equation for common dielectrics: D=e*E
In words, this equation states: Charge Density = Permittivity × Electric Field. Piezoelectricity is described mathematically within a material's constitutive equation, which defines how the piezoelectric material's stress (T), strain (S), charge-density displacement (D), and electric field (E) interact. The piezoelectric constitutive law (in Strain-Charge form) is:
The block diagram shown above shows the basic piezoelectric effect. When we apply the mechanical stress over the crystal the crystal converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The charge is stored in the capacitor. We use diode here for the unidirectional flow of the current. The diode helps in protecting the device from INVERSE PIEZO ELECTRIC effect. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION: A Constitutive equation describes how a material strains when it is stressed, or vice-versa. Constitutive equations exist also for electrical problems; they describe how charge moves in a (dielectric) material when it is subjected to a voltage, or vice-versa.
The matrix d contains the piezoelectric coefficients for the material, and it appears twice in the constitutive equation (the superscript t stands for matrix-transpose). The four state variables (S, T, D, and E) can be rearranged to give an
additional 3 forms for a piezoelectric constitutive equation. Instead of the coupling matrix d, they contain the coupling matrices e, g, or q. It is possible to transform piezo constitutive data in one form to another form. The subscripts in piezoelectric constitutive equations have very important meanings. They describe the conditions under which the material property data was measured. For example, the subscript E on the compliance matrix sE means that the compliance data was measured under at least a constant, and preferably a zero, electric field. Likewise, the subscript T on the permittivity matrix eT means that the permittivity data was measured under at least a constant, and preferably a zero, stress field. The four possible forms for piezoelectric constitutive equations are shown below. The name for each of the forms is arbitrary; they were taken from the two dependent variables on the lefthand-side of each equation. Note that the Voltage and Electric Field variables are related via a gradient.
PIEZO ELECTRIC AMPLIFIERS:
Ct = transducer capacitance Cc= cable capacitance Cr = range (or feedback) capacitor Rt = time constant resistor (or insulation of range capacitor) Ri = insulation resistance of input circuit (cable and transducer) q = charge generated by the transducer Vo = output voltage A = open loop Gain Vo = q / (1+ (Ct + Cr + Cc)/ACr) For sufficiently high open loop gain, the cable and transducer capacitance can be neglected and the output voltage depends only on the input charge and the range capacitance. Vo = q / Cr The amplifier acts as a charge integrator which compensates the transducers electrical charge with a charge of equal magnitude and opposite polarity and ultimately produces a voltage across the range capacitor. In effect, the purpose of the charge amplifier is to convert the high impedance charge input (q) into a usable output voltage.
Time Constant and Drift Two of the more important considerations in the practical use of charge amplifiers are time constant and drift. The time constant is defined as the discharge time of an AC coupled circuit. In a period of time equivalent to one time constant, a step input will decay to 37% of its original value. Time Constant (TC) of a charge amplifier is determined by the product of the range capacitor (Cr and the time constant resistor (Rt) : TC = Rt Cr FREQUENCY RESPONSE CURVE:
IMPLEMENTING PIEZOELECTRIC CELL PHONES: •
Here we implement the piezoelectric effect by placing the piezoelectric crystals under the keypad of the cell phones. So, whenever a key is pressed the crystal is subjected to mechanical vibration and hence the electric charge is created. Next by placing the crystal in microphone. So, whenever we speak the crystals vibrate and the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy and is stored into the capacitor.
CRYSTALS IN MICROPHONE:
DIAPHRAM CONNECTED WITH CRYSTAL
A typical frequency response curve is shown in Figure above, about a 5% amplitude rise can be expected at 9/40 of the resonant frequency. Lowpass (LP) filtering can be used to attenuate the effects of this.
The block diagram shown above clearly explains our idea (conversion of sound energy into electrical energy). Here we are connecting piezoelectric crystal with diaphragm. This makes the crystal to vibrate whenever the microphone is used. Thus due to piezo electric effect charge is produced due to vibration of piezoelectric crystal. The charge is amplified using charge amplifier and thus we can control the voltage to the required amount.
CRYSTAL AND DIAPHRAM CIRCUIT The setup is shown clearly in the above diagram. Whenever we speak the diaphragm vibrates making the crystal connected to it to vibrate. Terminal A & B shown in the diagram are connected to the piezoelectric charge amplifier. Thus the charge is converted to voltage and it is stored in the capacitor and then transferred to battery whenever the charge goes down. Crystals used in key pad.
CRYSTALS IN KEYPAD:
Here we are converting the mechanical energy directly into electrical energy. Without the help of keypad we cannot use mobile so we are placing piezoelectric crystal under the keypad. Whenever a key is pressed the mechanical movement of your hand is converted into electrical energy this is clearly shown in the block diagram shown.
Pressure over keypad
converting it into electrical energy. Thus the effect due to radiation is reduced. In the above picture the black dots represent piezoelectric crystal. This crystal is directly connected to the charge amplifier. So whenever the keypad is pressed the crystal vibrates and due to piezoelectric effect charge is produced and the charge is amplified using charge amplifier and stored in the capacitor and then transferred to the battery. The crystal used is also shown near. The dotted lines represent crystal while the outer one is metal plate and that is connected to the charge amplifier. FEATURES OF THIS MOBILE: 1. Problem of frequent charging is reduced. So we can save some amount of electrical energy. 2. Very useful to the person who spends most of the time in traveling. 3. Self dependent. •
REFERENCE: • “Designing with Piezoelectric Transducers” by ‘Vander klose’, physik international publishers, Third edition. D. Roy Choudry, Shail B. Jain, “LINEAR INTEGERATED CIRCUITS”, New Age International Publishers, Second Edition. “Fundamentals of Electronic circuits” by ‘Boylstead’, Tata McGraw Hills, Fifth edition. “Piezo Basics” by M.C. MacKay & Temlame, Essorts Book Wizards, second Edition.
WEBSITES: • • • www.efunda.com www.nolica.com www.google.com
CONCLUTION: Through our idea charging time is reduced completely because when ever we use mobile, charge is generated and it will compensate the loss and thus the charging time is reduced twice proportionally. This is very useful for the person who spends most of the time in traveling because there is no need for the charger where ever he/she goes. Charge is produced when you send SMS or when you are in conversation with the other.Our main aim is to implement PYROELECTRICITY in mobile thus converting the radiation to heat and then