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R AY M O N D M U R P H Y
• Present perfect (I have done) 2
Present perfect (I have done) and past simple (I did) 2
• I will and I’m going to 3 • Past continuous (I was doing) 4 • • • • • • • •
Past continuous (I was doing) past simple (I did) Past perfect (I had done) 5 Reported speech (He said that…) 6 If I do, If I did and If I had done 7 Must and can’t 8 May and might 8 Passive (is done / was done) 9 Passive verbs with two objects 9 Verb + -ing / to 10 Preposition (in / for / about etc.) + -ing 10 Spelling rules 11 List of irregular verbs 12 4
For Further Practice: English Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises Louise Hashemi with Raymond Murphy
Cambridge University Press © 2000. Not for sale separately.
he did. If somebody says ‘Tom lost his key’. see p.). He can’t find it.) finished lost done been etc. He has it now.). ‘Tom has lost his key’ = he doesn’t have his key now. The past simple tells us only about the past. Has he lost his key? (present perfect) No. The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle. He has lost his key. He lost his key (past simple) but now he has found it. yesterday / ten minutes ago / in 1985 / when I was a child). Have/has lost is the present perfect simple: I/we/they/you he/she/it have (=I’ve etc. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc. but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc. we don’t know whether he has it now or not.12. (not ‘has been nice’) • They arrived ten minutes ago. (not ‘have arrived’) 2 .) has (=he’s etc. Present perfect and past (I have done and I did) Now Tom has found his key. Use a past tense: • The weather was nice yesterday. It always tells us something about now. For a list of irregular verbs. ‘He has lost his key’ = He lost it and he still hasn’t got it. We only know that he lost it at some time in the past.Present perfect (I have done) Tom is looking for his key. He has found it. (present perfect) The present perfect is a present tense. Do not use the present perfect (I have done) when you talk about a finished time (for example. he hasn’t. Did he lose his key? (past simple) Yes.
I’ll go and visit her. I’ll phone him back.’ ‘Yes. The party is a new idea. 3 . I know. The man is walking towards the hole now. He is going to fall into the hole. I know. decision now I’ll… past now future Later that day.’ • ‘Ann is in hospital.’ ‘Oh really? I didn’t know.’ ‘OK. I’m going to visit her tomorrow.’ When we say that ‘something’ is going to happen’. The speaker has not decided before. so he is going to fall into it. Helen meets Dave: going to: We use (be) going to when we have already decided to do something. the situation now makes us believe this. I’m going to phone him back.’ but • ‘George phoned while you were out. decision before I’m going to… past now future Compare: • ‘George phoned while you were out.’ but • ‘Ann is in hospital.’ ‘Yes.I will and I’m going to Sue is talking to Helen: will (’ll): We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. Helen had already decided to invite lots of people before she spoke to Dave.
30 they were playing tennis.30.Past continuous (I was doing) Yesterday Karen and Jim played tennis. They had not finished playing. When we use it: We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. Was/were -ing is the past continuous: I/he/she/it we/you/they was were playing doing working etc. The action or situation had already started before this time but had not finished: I started doing past I was doing I finished doing past now • This time last year I was living in Brazil. at 10. Past continuous (I was doing) and past simple (I did) Past continuous (in the middle of an action) • I was walking home when I met Dave. (= in the middle of walking home) • Ann was watching television when the phone rang. They were playing = ‘they were in the middle of playing’. So. • What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? • I waved at her but she wasn’t looking. 4 . Past simple (complete action) • I walked home after the party last night. They began at 10 o’clock and finished at 11. completely) • Ann watched television a lot when she was ill last year. (= all the way.
So: When Sarah arrived at the party.Past perfect (I had done) Sarah went to a party last week.). see p. • I didn’t know who she was. Paul had already gone home.12. Had gone is the past perfect (simple): I/we/they/you he/she/it had (= I’d etc. This is the starting point of the story. They hadn’t cleaned it for weeks. Paul went home at 10. Compare have done (present perfect) and had done (past perfect): present perfect have done past now past perfect had done past now • Who is that woman? I’ve never seen her before.) (= he’d etc. We’d just had lunch. The past perfect simple is had + past participle (gone/seen/finished etc. Paul went to the party too but they didn’t see each other.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock.) gone seen finished etc. He had gone home. we use the past perfect (had…): • When Sarah arrived at the party. • We aren’t hungry. • The house is dirty. Paul wasn’t there. They haven’t cleaned it for weeks. Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past: • Sarah arrived at the party. Then. For a list of irregular verbs. I’d never seen her before. • The house was dirty. (= before that time) • We weren’t hungry. We’ve just had lunch. if we want to talk about things that happened before this time. 5 .
There are two ways of doing this: You can repeat Tom’s words (direct speech): Tom said ‘I’m feeling ill. In general. the main verb of the sentence is usually past (Tom said that… / I told her that… etc. (not ‘Ann said me goodbye’) • What did you say to the police? 6 .’ In writing we use these to show direct speech.Reported speech (He said that…) You want to tell somebody else what Tom said. wanted/liked/knew/went etc. (not ‘Sonia told that…’) • What did you say? TELL SOMEBODY SAY SOMEBODY But you can ‘say something to somebody’: • Ann said goodbye to me and left.’ Or you can use reported speech: Tom said that he was feeling ill. When we use reported speech. • I told her that I didn’t have any money. use tell: • Sonia told me that you were ill. Compare: direct: reported: Tom said Tom said that ‘ I am feeling ill.) The rest of the sentence is usually past too: • Tom said that he was feeling ill. the present form in direct speech changes to the past form in reported speech: am/is was do/does did will would are were have/has had can could want/like/know/go etc. he was feeling ill. Say and tell If you say who you are talking to. (not Sonia said me’) • What did you tell the police? (not ‘say the police’) Otherwise use say: • Sonia said that you were ill.
SUE: I think I left my watch at your house. you use if + had (’d)…(if I had known/been/done etc. I would have taken some photographs. you use if + past (if I found / if you were / if we didn’t etc. So she says: If I found…. Ann is not thinking about a real possibility. (but I didn’t have a camera) 7 . When you imagine something like this. of course I would have said hello. (1) If I had known… Study this example situation: Last month Gary was in hospital for an operation. But the meaning is not past: • Sarah has decided not to apply for the job. so she didn’t go to visit him. (but I didn’t see you) • The view was wonderful.If I do… and If I did… Compare: Sue has lost her watch. Liz said: If I had known you were in hospital. The real situation was that she didn’t know he was in hospital. She thinks it may be at Ann’s house. If I’d seen you.): • I didn’t see you when you passed me in the street. I’d take it to the police. Liz said: If I had known you were in hospital… . I’ll… . I’ll…’). I’ll tell you. They met a few days ago. I’d (= I would)… (not ‘If I find…. I would have gone to visit you. Here. Ann feels there is a real possibility that she will find the watch. Liz didn’t know this. If I find it. (2) Ann says: If I found a wallet in the street. so she probably wouldn’t get it if she applied. This is a different type of situation. So she says: If I find…. If I’d had a camera. but I’ll have a look when I get home. Have you seen it? ANN: No. In this example. When you are talking about the past. she is imagining the situation and doesn’t expect to find a wallet in the street. She isn’t really qualified for it.).
I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone.) may might (not) have been asleep / at work etc.) done / known / had / seen etc. • The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. We use may or might to say that something is a possibility.) We use can’t to say that we feel sure something is not possible: • You’ve just had lunch. so you can’t be hungry.) be (doing / coming / joking etc. May and might Present I/you/he (etc. She may have been asleep. Usually you can use may or might.) must can’t be (tired / hungry / at work etc.) do / go / know / have etc.) may might (not) be (true / in his office etc. Past • • A: B: A: B: I/you/he (etc. (People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal. (= perhaps she didn’t know) 8 .) been (doing / working etc. You must be tired.) been (doing / waiting etc. (= perhaps it is true) • She might know. • Tom walked straight into a wall. She might not have known about it. so you must be tired.) done / gone / known / had etc. He can’t have been looking where he was going.) We use must to say that we feel sure something is true: • You’ve been travelling all day.) Past I/you/he (etc. (= perhaps she was asleep) I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.) must can’t have been (asleep / at work etc.) do / know / have / want etc. or She may know. or It might be true. so you can say: • It may be true.Must and can’t Present I/you/he (etc.) be (doing / working / having etc. You’ve just eaten. I must have been asleep. (Travelling is tiring and you’ve been travelling all day. You can’t be hungry already.
• How is this word pronounced? Past simple active: cleaned/saw etc. or The information was given to the police. For example. • I’m not often invited to parties. For irregular past participles (done/known/seen etc. (= they offered me the job) • You will be given plenty of time to decide. • ‘Did you go to the party?’ No. Somebody cleans this room every day.) object 2 So it is possible to make two passive sentences: • The police were given the information.). This room was cleaned yesterday. • We were woken up by a loud noise during the night. I wasn’t invited. This room is cleaned every day. (= somebody paid the men £200) 9 . most often we begin with the person: • I was offered the job but refused it. give: • We gave the police object 1 the information. see Present simple active: clean(s)/sees(s) etc. (= we will give you plenty of time) • Have you been shown the new machine? (= has anybody shown you…?) • The men were paid £200 to do the work. (= We gave the information to the police.): (be) done (be) cleaned (be) seen (be) damaged (be) built etc.) + the past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc. Other verbs which can have two objects are: ask offer pay show teach tell When we use these verbs in the passive. passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc. • Many accidents are caused by careless driving.’ • How much money was stolen? Verbs with two objects Some verbs can have two objects. passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc.Passive (is done / was done) The passive is be (is/was/have been etc. Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.
) is followed by a verb. ill. Preposition (in/for/about etc. so I agreed to lend him some money. the structure is usually verb + to…(infinitive): offer agree refuse decide plan arrange hope aim learn deserve afford forget attempt manage fail promise threaten • It was late. • I’ll do the shopping when I’ve finished cleaning the flat. There was silence.) + -ing If a preposition (in/for/about etc. so we decided to take a taxi home. tennis tomorrow? away on holiday. having cutting playing going feeling Are you interested I’m not very good She must be fed up What are the advantages This knife is only How I bought a new bicycle Carol went to work for us? languages. For example: preposition in at with of for about instead of in spite of verb (-ing) working learning studying. a car? bread. Verb + to… If these verbs are followed by another verb. • Simon was in a difficult situation. the verb ends in -ing. 10 .Verb + -ing Here are some verbs that are followed by -ing: stop finish delay postpone fancy imagine consider avoid admit deny miss risk involve practise • Suddenly everybody stopped talking.
easy etc. verbs and adjectives can have the following endings: noun + s/es (plural) verb + s/-es (after he/she/it) verb + -ing verb + -ed adjective + -er (comparative) adjective + -est (superlative) adjective + -ly (adverb) books works working worked cheaper cheapest cheaply ideas enjoys enjoying enjoyed quicker quickest quickly matches washes washing washed brighter brightest brightly Words ending in -y (baby.): y changes to ie before the ending -s: baby/babies lorry/lorries hurry/hurries study/studies y changes to i before the ending -ed: hurry/hurried study/studied y changes to i before the endings -er and -est: easy/easier/easiest heavy/heavier/heaviest y changes to i before the ending -ly: easy/easily heavy/heavily temporary/temporarily country/countries apply/applies apply/applied secretary/secretaries try/tries try/tried lucky/luckier/luckiest Doubling consonants (stop/stopping/stopped. n nn . For example: stop plan rub big wet thin p n b g t n pp nn bb gg tt nn stopping planning rubbing bigger wetter thinner stopped planned rubbed biggest wettest thinnest 11 pp.) Sometimes a word ends in vowel + consonant.) If a word ends in a consonant* + y (-by/-ry/-sy insert / oblique -vy etc.Spelling rules Nouns. carry. For example: stop plan wet thin slip prefer regret Before the endings -ing/-ed/-er/-est. So p etc. we double the consonant at the end. wet/wetter/wettest etc.
List of irregular verbs infinitive be beat become begin bend bet bite blow break bring broadcast build burst buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay lead leave lend let lie past simple was/were beat became began bent bet bit blew broke brought broadcast built burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found fled flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led left lent let lay past participle been beaten become begun bent bet bitten blown broken brought broadcast built burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led left lent let lain infinitive light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend spit split spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weep win write past simple lit lost made meant met paid put read [red]* rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spent spat split spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wrote past participle lit lost made meant met paid put read [red]* ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn/sewed shaken shone shot shown/showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spent spat split spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won written 12 .
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