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Conceptual Problems

*1 • Picture the Problem The electric forces are described by Coulomb’s law and the laws of attraction and repulsion of charges and are independent of the fact the charges are moving. The magnetic interaction is, on the other hand, dependent on the motion of the charges. Each moving charge constitutes a current that creates a magnet field at the location of the other charge. (a) The electric forces are repulsive; the magnetic forces are attractive (the two charges moving in the same direction act like two currents in the same direction). (b) The electric forces are again repulsive; the magnetic forces are also repulsive.

2 • No. The magnitude of the field depends on the location within the loop. 3 • Picture the Problem The field lines for the electric dipole are shown in the sketch to the left and the field lines for the magnetic dipole are shown in the sketch to the right. Note that, while the far fields (the fields far from the dipoles) are the same, the near fields (the fields between the two charges and inside the current loop/magnetic dipole) are not, and that, in the region between the two charges, the electric field is in the opposite direction to that of the magnetic field at the center of the magnetic dipole. It is especially important to note that while the electric field lines begin and terminate on electric charges, the magnetic field lines are continuous, i.e., they form closed loops.

4 • Determine the Concept Applying the right-hand rule to the wire to the left we see that the magnetic field due to its current is out of the page at the midpoint. Applying the righthand rule to the wire to the right we see that the magnetic field due to its current is out of

519

520 Chapter 27

the page at the midpoint. Hence, the sum of the magnetic fields is out of the page as well.

(c) is correct.

5 • Determine the Concept While we could express the force wire 1 exerts on wire 2 and compare it to the force wire 2 exerts on wire 1 to show that they are the same, it is simpler to recognize that these are action and reaction forces. (a ) is correct. *6 • Determine the Concept Applying the right-hand rule to the wire to the left we see that the magnetic field due to the current points to west at all points north of the wire.

(c) is correct.

7 • Determine the Concept At points to the west of the vertical wire, the magnetic field due to its current exerts a downward force on the horizontal wire and at points to the east it exerts an upward force on the horizontal wire. Hence, the net magnetic force is zero and

(e) is correct.

8 • Picture the Problem The field-line sketch follows. An assumed direction for the current in the coils is shown in the diagram. Note that the field is stronger in the region between the coaxial coils and that the field lines have neither beginning nor ending points as do electric-field lines. Because there are an uncountable infinity of lines, only a representative few have been shown.

*9 • Picture the Problem The field-line sketch is shown below. An assumed direction for the current in the coils is shown in the diagram. Note that the field lines never begin or end and that they do not touch or cross each other. Because there are an uncountable infinity of lines, only a representative few have been shown.

Sources of the Magnetic Field 521

10 • Determine the Concept Because all of these statements regarding Ampère’s law are true,

(e) is correct.

11 • (a) True (b) True *12 • Determine the Concept The magnetic susceptibility χm is defined by the

r r r r Bapp equation M = χ m , where M is the magnetization vector and Bapp is the applied

µ0

magnetic field. For paramagnetic materials, χm is a small positive number that depends on temperature, whereas for diamagnetic materials, it is a small negative constant independent of temperature. (a ) is correct. 13 • (a) False. The magnetic field due to a current element is perpendicular to the current element. (b) True (c) False. The magnetic field due to a long wire varies inversely with the distance from the wire. (d) False. Ampère’s law is easier to apply if there is a high degree of symmetry, but is valid in all situations. (e) True

522 Chapter 27

14 • Determine the Concept Yes. The classical relation between magnetic moment and angular momentum is µ =

r

q r L . Thus, if its charge density is zero, a particle with 2m

angular momentum will not have a magnetic moment. 15 • Determine the Concept No. The classical relation between magnetic moment and angular momentum is µ =

r

q r L . Thus, if the angular momentum of the particle is zero, 2m

its magnetic moment will also be zero. 16 • Determine the Concept Yes, there is angular momentum associated with the magnetic r moment. The magnitude of L is extremely small, but very sensitive experiments have demonstrated its presence (Einstein-de Haas effect). 17 • Determine the Concept From Ampère’s law, the current enclosed by a closed path within the tube is zero, and from the cylindrical symmetry it follows that B = 0 everywhere within the tube. *18 • Determine the Concept The force per unit length experienced by each segment of the wire, due to the currents in the other segments of the wire, will be equal. These equal forces will result in the wire tending to form a circle. 19 • Determine the Concept H2, CO2, and N2 are diamagnetic (χm < 0); O2 is paramagnetic (χm > 0).

**Estimation and Approximation
**

20 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the magnetization of the earth’s core to find its volume and radius. (a) Express the magnetization of the earth’s core in terms of the magnetic moment of the earth and the volume of the core:

M =

µ

V

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 523
**

Solve for and evaluate V:

V =

µ

M

=

9 × 1022 A ⋅ m 2 1.5 × 109 A/m

= 6.00 × 1013 m3

(b)Assuming a spherical core centered with the earth: Solve for r:

V = 4 πr 3 3

r=3

3V 4π

Substitute numerical values and evaluate r:

r=3

3(6 × 1013 m 3 ) = 2.43 × 104 m 4π

*21 •• Picture the Problem We can model the lightning bolt as a current in a long wire and use the expression for the magnetic field due to such a current to estimate the transient magnetic field 100 m from the lightning bolt. The magnetic field due to the current in a long, straight wire is:

B=

µ0 2I 4π r

∆Q 30 C = −3 = 3 × 10 4 A ∆t 10 s

where r is the distance from the wire. Assuming that the height of the cloud is 1 km, the charge transfer will take place in roughly 10−3 s and the current associated with this discharge is: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

I=

B=

4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 2(3 × 10 4 A ) 4π 100 m

= 60.0 µT

*22 •• Picture the Problem A rotating disk with total charge Q and surface charge density σ is shown in the diagram. We can find Q by deriving an expression for the magnetic field B at the center of the disk due to its rotation. We’ll use Ampere’s law to express the field dB at the center of the disk due to the element of current dI and then integrate over r to find B.

524 Chapter 27

Applying Ampere’s law to a circular current loop of radius r we obtain: The B field at the center of an annular ring on a rotating disk of radius r and thickness dr is: If σ represents the surface charge density, then the current in the annular ring is given by: Because T =

B=

µ0 I

2r

dB =

µ0

2r

dI

(1)

dI =

σ (2π r )

T

dr, where σ =

Q πR 2

2π

ω

:

dI = σω rdr

Substitute for dI in equation (1) to obtain: Integrate from r = 0 to R to obtain: Substitution for σ yields:

dB =

µ0

2r

σω rdr =

R

µ 0σω

2

dr

B=

µ 0σω

2

∫ dr =

0

µ 0σωR

2

B=

µ0 ⎜

⎛ Q ⎞ ωR 2 ⎟ µ Qω ⎝ πR ⎠ = 0 2 2π R

Solve for Q to obtain:

Q=

2π RB

µ 0ω

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Q:

Q=

(

2π 10 7 m (0.1 T ) = 5.00 × 1014 C −7 −2 2 4π × 10 N/A 10 rad/s

(

)

)(

)

The electric field above the sunspot is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

E=

E=

σ

2 ∈0

=

Q 2π ∈0 R 2

5.00 × 1014 C

2π 8.85 × 10 −12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 10 7 m

(

)(

)

2

= 90.0 GN/C

Sources of the Magnetic Field 525

**The Magnetic Field of Moving Point Charges
**

23 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the equation describing the

r r µ0 qv × r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for magnetic field of the moving charged particle ( B = 2 4π r r each of the given points of interest, and substitute to find B .

Express the magnetic field of the moving charged particle:

r r µ 0 qv × r ˆ B= 2 4π r = 10 −7 N/A 2 (12 µC ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2

( (

)

ˆ (30 m/s) iˆ × r r2

) i r× rˆ

ˆ

2

**ˆ (a) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at the origin:
**

Substitute and evaluate B(0,0 ) :

r ˆ r = −(2 m ) ˆ , r = 2 m , and r = − ˆ j j

r

ˆ r i× − ˆ j B (0,0 ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 2 (2 m )

(

) ( )

ˆ = − (9.00 pT )k

ˆ (b) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (0, 1 m):

Substitute and evaluate B (0,1 m ) :

r ˆ r = −(1 m ) ˆ , r = 1 m , and r = − ˆ j j

r

ˆ r i× − ˆ j B (0,1 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 2 (1m )

(

) ( )

ˆ = − (36.0 pT )k

ˆ (c) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (0, 3 m):

Substitute and evaluate B (0,3 m ) :

r ˆ j r = (1m ) ˆ , r = 1m , and r = ˆ j

r

ˆ j r i×ˆ B (0,3 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 (1m )2

(

)

=

ˆ (36.0 pT )k

526 Chapter 27

ˆ (d) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (0, 4 m):

Substitute and evaluate B (0,4 m ) :

r ˆ j r = (2 m ) ˆ , r = 2 m , and r = ˆ j

r

ˆ j r i×ˆ B (0,4 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 (2 m )2

(

)

=

ˆ (9.00 pT )k

r r µ0 qv × r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for magnetic field of the moving charged particle ( B = 2 4π r r each of the given points of interest, and substitute to find B .

The magnetic field of the moving charged particle is given by:

24 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the equation describing the

r r µ 0 qv × r ˆ B= 2 4π r

= (10 −7 N/A 2 )(12 µC ) = (36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 )

ˆ (a) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (1 m, 3 m): ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate

ˆ (30 m/s) iˆ × r

r2

ˆ ˆ i ×r r2

r ˆ r = (1 m ) i + (1 m ) ˆ , r = 2 m , and j 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ r= i+ j 2 2

r B (1 m,3 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2

r B (1m,3 m ) :

(

)

=

(36.0 pT ⋅ m )

2

ˆ ˆ ⎛ 1 i+ 1 i ×⎜ 2 ⎝ 2 × 2 2m

(

)

ˆ⎞ j⎟ ⎠ ˆ k

2

(

2m

)

2

ˆ = (12.7 pT )k

ˆ (b) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (2 m, 2 m):

r ˆ ˆ ˆ r = (2 m ) i , r = 2 m , and r = i

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 527
**

ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate r B (2 m,2 m ) :

ˆ ˆ r i ×i B (2 m,2 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 (2 m )2

(

)

= 0

ˆ (c) Find r and r for the particle at (0, 2 m) and the point of interest at (2 m, 3 m):

r ˆ r = (2 m ) i + (1 m ) ˆ , r = 5 m , and j 2 ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ r= i+ j 5 5

ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate B (2 m,3 m ) : ˆ ⎛ 2 i+ 1 ˆ i ×⎜ r 5 ⎝ 5 B (2 m,3 m ) = 36.0 pT ⋅ m 2 2 5m ˆ⎞ j⎟ ⎠=

r

(

)

(

)

ˆ (3.22 pT )k

r r µ0 qv × r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for each of the magnetic field of the moving proton ( B = 2 4π r r given points of interest, and substitute to find B.

The magnetic field of the moving proton is given by:

25 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the equation describing the

r ˆ r µ 0 qv × r ˆ 10 4 m/s i + 2 × 10 4 m/s ˆ × r j ˆ 2 −7 −19 B= = 10 N/A 1.60 × 10 C 2 2 r 4π r ˆ i + 2ˆ ×r j ˆ = 1.60 × 10 −22 T ⋅ m 2 2 r

(

)(

) [(

) (

)]

(

)(

)

**ˆ (a) Find r and r for the proton at (3 m, 4 m) and the point of interest at (2 m, 2 m):
**

ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate B (1 m,3 m ) :

r ˆ r = −(1 m ) i − (2 m ) ˆ , r = 5 m , and j 1 ˆ 2 ˆ ˆ r=− i− j 5 5

r

r B (1 m,3 m ) = 1.60 × 10 −22 T ⋅ m 2

(

)

(iˆ + 2 ˆj )× ⎛ − ⎜

⎝

1 ˆ 2 ˆ⎞ i− j⎟ 5 5 ⎠

=

(1.60 × 10

− 22

T ⋅ m2

)

5

r2 ⎡ − 2k + 2k ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎢ ⎥= 0 2 ⎢ 5m ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

528 Chapter 27

ˆ (b) Find r and r for the proton at (3 m, 2 m) and the point of interest at (6 m, 4 m):

r ˆ ˆ ˆ r = (3 m ) i , r = 3 m , and r = i

ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate B (6 m,4 m ) :

r

r B (6 m,4 m ) = 1.60 × 10 −22 T ⋅ m 2

(

) (i + 2 j )× i = (1.60 × 10

ˆ ˆ ˆ

(3 m ) 2

− 22

ˆ = − 3.56 × 10 −23 T k

ˆ (c) Find r and r for the proton at (3 m, 4 m) and the point of interest at the (3 m, 6 m):

ˆ Substitute for r and evaluate B (3 m,6 m ) :

(

)

ˆ ⎛ − 2k ⎞ ⎟ T ⋅ m2 ⎜ ⎜ 9 m2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝

)

r ˆ j r = (2 m ) ˆ , r = 2 m , and r = ˆ j

r

ˆ r i + 2ˆ × ˆ j j B (3 m,6 m ) = 1.60 × 10 −22 T ⋅ m 2 = 1.60 × 10 −22 T ⋅ m 2 2 (2 m )

(

)(

)

(

⎜ k )⎛ 4 m ⎜ ⎝

=

(4.00 × 10

− 23

ˆ T k

)

ˆ ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎠

26 • Picture the Problem The centripetal force acting on the orbiting electron is the Coulomb force between the electron and the proton. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the electron to find its orbital speed and then use the expression for the magnetic field of a moving charge to find B. Express the magnetic field due to the motion of the electron: Apply

B=

µ0 ev 4π r 2

∑F

radial

= mac to the

electron: Solve for v to obtain:

v2 ke 2 =m r r2 v= ke 2 mr

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

B=

µ0 e 4π r 2

ke 2 µ 0 e 2 = mr 4πr 2

k mr

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 529
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

(10 B=

−7

(5.29 × 10

N/A 2 1.6 × 10 −19 C

−11

)(

m

)

)

2

2

(

8.99 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 = 12.5 T 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 5.29 × 10 −11 m

)(

)

*27 •• Picture the Problem We can find the ratio of the magnitudes of the magnetic and electrostatic forces by using the expression for the magnetic field of a moving charge and r r Coulomb’s law. Note that v and r , where r is the vector from one charge to the other, r are at right angles. The field B due to the charge at the origin at the location (0, b, 0) is r perpendicular to v and r . Express the magnitude of the magnetic force on the moving charge at (0, b, 0):

FB = qvB =

µ0 q 2v 2 4π b 2

and, applying the right hand rule, we find that the direction of the force is toward the charge at the origin; i.e., the magnetic force between the two moving charges is attractive.

Express the magnitude of the repulsive electrostatic interaction between the two charges: Express the ratio of FB to FE and simplify to obtain:

1 q2 FE = 4πε 0 b 2

FE

µ0 q 2v 2 v2 FB 4π b 2 = = ε 0 µ0v 2 = 2 2

1 q 4πε 0 b 2

c

where c is the speed of light in a vacuum.

**The Magnetic Field of Currents: The Biot-Savart Law
**

28 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the Biot-Savart relationship

r r µ0 Id l × r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for each of the points of interest, and substitute to ( dB = 2 4π r r find dB .

530 Chapter 27

Express the Biot-Savart law for the given current element:

r r µ 0 Id l × r ˆ dB = 2 4π r

= 10 −7 N/A 2

( (

) (2 A )(2rmm)k × rˆ

ˆ

2

= 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2

ˆ (a) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (3 m, 0, 0):

Evaluate dB at (3 m, 0, 0):

) kr× rˆ

ˆ

2

r ˆ ˆ ˆ r = (3 m ) i , r = 3 m , and r = i

r

ˆ ˆ r k×i dB (3 m,0,0) = 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 (3 m )2

(

)

=

ˆ (b) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (−6 m, 0, 0):

Evaluate dB at (−6 m, 0, 0):

(44.4 pT ) ˆ j

r ˆ ˆ ˆ r = −(6 m ) i , r = 6 m , and r = −i

r

ˆ ˆ r k× −i dB (− 6 m,0,0) = 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 (6 m )2

(

) ( )

= − (11.1pT ) ˆ j

ˆ (c) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (0, 0, 3 m):

Evaluate dB at (0, 0, 3 m):

r ˆ ˆ ˆ r = (3 m )k , r = 3 m , and r = k

r

ˆ ˆ r k×k dB (0,0, 3 m ) = 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 (3 m )2

(

)

= 0

ˆ (d) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (0, 3 m, 0):

r ˆ j r = (3 m ) ˆ , r = 3 m , and r = ˆ j

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 531
**

Evaluate dB at (0, 3 m, 0):

r

ˆ j r k× ˆ dB (0,3 m,0) = 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 (3 m )2

(

)

ˆ = − (44.4 pT ) i

29 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the Biot-Savart relationship

**r r µ0 Id l × r r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for (0, 3 m, 4 m), and substitute to find dB. ( dB = 2 4π r
**

Express the Biot-Savart law for the given current element:

r r µ 0 Id l × r ˆ dB = 2 4π r

= 10 −7 N/A 2

( (

) (2 A )(2rmm)k × rˆ

ˆ

2

= 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2

ˆ Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (0, 3 m, 4 m):

) kr× rˆ

ˆ

2

r ˆ r = (3 m ) ˆ + (4 m )k , j r = 5m ,

and

ˆ r=

Evaluate dB at (3 m, 0, 0):

3ˆ 4ˆ j+ k 5 5

r

ˆ ⎛ 3 j 4 ˆ⎞ k ×⎜ ˆ + k⎟ r 5 5 ⎠ ˆ dB (3 m,0,0) = (0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 ) ⎝ = − (9.60 pT ) i 2 (5 m )

*30 • r Picture the Problem We can substitute for v and q in the Biot-Savart relationship

**r r r µ0 Id l × r ˆ ˆ ), evaluate r and r for the given points, and substitute to find dB . ( dB = 4π r 2
**

Express the Biot-Savart law for the given current element:

r r µ 0 Id l × r ˆ dB = 2 4π r

= 10 −7 N/A 2

( (

) (2 A )(2rmm)k × rˆ

ˆ

2

= 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2

) kr× rˆ

ˆ

2

532 Chapter 27

ˆ (a) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (2 m, 4 m, 0):

r ˆ r = (2 m ) i + (4 m ) ˆ , j

r = 2 5m,

and

ˆ r=

r

2 ˆ 4 ˆ 1 ˆ 2 ˆ i+ j= i+ j 2 5 2 5 5 5

Evaluate dB at (2 m, 4 m, 0):

r dB (2 m,4 m,0) = 0.400 nT ⋅ m 2

(

)

ˆ ⎛ 1 i+ 2 ˆ k ×⎜ 5 ⎝ 5

(2

5m

)

2

ˆ⎞ j⎟ ⎠ = − (17.9 pT ) i + (8.94 pT ) ˆ ˆ j

The diagram is shown to the right:

ˆ (b) Find r and r for the point whose coordinates are (2 m, 0, 4 m):

r ˆ ˆ r = (2 m ) i + (4 m )k ,

r = 2 5m,

and

ˆ r=

r

2 ˆ 4 ˆ 1 ˆ 2 ˆ i+ k= i+ k 2 5 2 5 5 5

Evaluate dB at (2 m, 0, 4 m):

r dB (2 m,0,4 m ) = (0.400 nT ⋅ m 2 )

ˆ ⎛ 1 i + 2 k⎞ ˆ ˆ⎟ k ×⎜ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 = (8.94 pT ) ˆ j 2 2 5m

(

)

The diagram is shown to the right:

**r B Due to a Current Loop
**

31 •

Picture the Problem We can use Bx =

µ0 2πR 2 I to find B on the axis of the 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 533
**

current loop. Express B on the axis of a current loop: Substitute numerical values to obtain:

Bx =

µ0 2πR 2 I 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

Bx = 10 N/A =

(

−7

2

)

2π (0.03 m ) (2.6 A )

2

(x

2

+ (0.03 m )

3

2 32

)

(x

1.47 × 10 T ⋅ m

2

−9

+ (0.03 m )

2 32

)

(a) Evaluate B at the center of the loop:

B(0) =

1.47 × 10−9 T ⋅ m 3

(0 + (0.03 m) )

2 32

= 54.5 µT

(b) Evaluate B at x = 1 cm:

B(0.01 m ) =

((0.01m) + (0.03 m) )

2

1.47 × 10 −9 T ⋅ m 3

2 32

= 46.5 µT

(c) Evaluate B at x = 2 cm:

B(0.02 m ) =

((0.02 m) + (0.03 m) )

2

1.47 × 10 −9 T ⋅ m 3

2 32

= 31.4 µT

(d) Evaluate B at x = 35 cm:

B(0.35 m ) =

((0.35 m) + (0.03 m) )

2

1.47 × 10 −9 T ⋅ m 3

2 32

= 33.9 nT

*32 •

**µ0 2πR 2 I for I with x = 0 and substitute Picture the Problem We can solve Bx = 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2
**

the earth’s magnetic field at the equator to find the current in the loop that would produce a magnetic field equal to that of the earth. Express B on the axis of the current loop: Solve for I with x = 0:

µ0 2πR 2 I Bx = 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

I= 4π R B µ 0 2π x

534 Chapter 27

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

(0.1 m )3 (0.7 G )⎛ 1 T ⎞ = 11.1 A 1 ⎜ 4 ⎟ I= ⎜ 10 G ⎟ (10−7 N/A 2 ) 2π (0.1 m)2 ⎠ ⎝

The orientation of the loop and current is shown in the sketch:

33

••

Picture the Problem We can solve Bx =

µ0 2πR 2 I for B0, express 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

the ratio of Bx to B0, and solve the resulting equation for x. Express B on the axis of the current loop: Evaluate Bx for x = 0:

Bx =

µ 0 2πR 2 I 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

B0 =

µ 0 2πI 4π R

Express the ratio of Bx to B0:

µ 0 2πR 2 I 32 Bx 4π (x 2 + R 2 ) R3 = = µ 0 2πI B0 (x 2 + R 2 )3 2 4π R

⎛B ⎞ x=R ⎜ 0⎟ ⎜B ⎟ ⎝ x⎠

23

Solve for x to obtain:

−1

(1)

(a) Evaluate equation (1) for Bx = 0. 1B0:

⎛ B ⎞ x = 10 cm ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ 0.1B ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ B0 x = 10 cm ⎜ ⎜ 0.01B 0 ⎝

23

− 1 = 19.1 cm

(b) Evaluate equation (1) for Bx = 0. 01B0:

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

23

− 1 = 45.3 cm

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 535
**

(a) Evaluate equation (1) for Bx = 0. 001B0:

⎛ B0 ⎞ x = 10 cm ⎜ ⎜ 0.001B ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝

23

− 1 = 99.5 cm

34

••

Picture the Problem We can solve Bx =

µ0 2πR 2 I for I with x = 0 and substitute 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

the earth’s magnetic field at the equator to find the current in the loop that would produce a magnetic field equal to that of the earth. Express B on the axis of the current loop: Solve for I with x = 0 and Bx = BE: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

Bx = I=

µ0 2πR 2 I 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

4π R BE µ 0 2π

I=

(

⎛ ⎞ 1 0.085 m (0.7 G )⎜ 14T ⎟ = 9.47 A 2 ⎜ 10 G ⎟ 10 N/A 2π ⎝ ⎠

−7

)

The normal to the plane of the loop must be in the direction of the earth’s field, and the current must be counterclockwise as seen from above. Here BE denotes the earth’s field and BI the field due to the current in the coil. 35 •• Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the magnetic field on the axis of a current loop and the expression for the electric field on the axis of ring of charge Q to plot graphs of Bx/B0 and E(x)/(kQ/R2) as functions of x/R. (a) Express Bx on the axis of a current loop: Express B0 at the center of the loop:

r

r

Bx =

µ 0 2πR 2 I 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

µ 0 2πR 2 I µ 0 I = 4π (R 2 )3 2 2 R

B0 =

536 Chapter 27

Express the ratio of Bx to B0 and simplify to obtain:

Bx 1 = 32 B0 ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

The graph of Bx/B0 as a function of x/R shown below was plotted using a spreadsheet program:

1.0

0.8

0.6

Bx /B 0

0.4 0.2 0.0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x /R

Express Ex on the axis due to a ring of radius R carrying a total charge Q:

E (x ) =

(R

kQx

2

+ x2

)

32

x kQ R = 2 32 R ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Divide both sides of this equation by kQ/R2 to obtain:

x E (x ) R = 32 kQ ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ R2 ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

The graph of Ex as a function of x/R shown below was plotted using a spreadsheet program. Here E(x) is normalized, i.e., we’ve set kQ/R2 = 100.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 537
**

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

E x 0.0

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1.0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

x /R

(b) Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the loop centered at x = 0:

B1 ( x ) = =

2 x2 + R2 µ0 I

(

µ0 R 2 I

)

3 2

⎛ x2 ⎞ 2 R ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

3 2

where N is the number of turns. Because B0 =

µ0 I

2R

:

B1 (x ) =

B0 ⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

3 2

or

2 B1 ( x ) ⎡ ⎛ x ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ B0 ⎢ ⎝R⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

−3 2

Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the loop centered at x = R:

B2 (x ) =

2 (R − x ) + R 2

2

[

µ0 R 2 I

]

3 2

538 Chapter 27

Simplify this expression to obtain:

B2 ( x ) = =

2 (R − x ) + R 2 µ0 I

2

[

µ0 R 2 I

]

3 2

2 ⎡⎛ ⎤ x⎞ 2 R ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ + 1⎥ ⎢⎝ R ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

32

=

B0

2 ⎡⎛ ⎤ x⎞ ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ + 1⎥ ⎢⎝ R ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 32

or

2 ⎤ B2 ( x ) ⎡⎛ x⎞ = ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ + 1⎥ B0 ⎢⎝ R ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

−3 2

The graphs of B1/B0, B2/B0, and B1/B0 + B2/B0 as functions of x/R with the second loop displaced by d = R from the center of the first loop along the x axis shown below were plotted using a spreadsheet program.

1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -3 -2 -1 0 x /R 1 2 3 B1/B0 B2/B0 B1/B0 + B2/B0

Note that, midway between the two loops, dB(x)/dx = 0. Also, when d = R, B(x) is nearly flat at the midpoint which shows that in the region midway between the two coils B(x) is nearly constant. 36 •• Picture the Problem Let the origin be midway between the coils so that one of them is centered at x = −r/2 and the other is centered at x = r/2. Let the numeral 1 denote the coil centered at x = −r/2 and the numeral 2 the coil centered at x = r/2. We can express the magnetic field in the region between the coils as the sum of the magnetic fields B1 and B2 due to the two coils.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 539
**

Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = −r/2:

B1 ( x ) =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ + x ⎟ + r 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 32

where N is the number of turns. Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = r/2:

B2 (x ) =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ − x ⎟ + r 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 32

Add these equations to express the total magnetic field along the x axis:

Bx ( x ) = B1 ( x ) + B2 ( x ) =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ + x ⎟ + r 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ −3 2 32

+

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ − x ⎟ + r 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎣ ⎦ −3 2 32

=

µ 0 Nr 2 I ⎛ ⎡⎛ r ⎜

2

2 ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ + x ⎟ + r ⎥ ⎜ ⎝2 ⎜⎢ ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎝⎣

2 ⎡⎛ r ⎤ ⎞ + ⎢⎜ − x ⎟ + r 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell B1 B2 B3 B3 B5 A8 B8 Formula/Content 1.13×10−7 0.30 250 15 0.5*$B$1*$B$3*($B$2^2)*$B$4 −0.30 $B$5*(($B$2/2+A8)^2+$B$2^2)^(−3/2) Algebraic Form

µ0

r N I

Coeff =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2

−3 2

−r

µ 0 Nr 2 I ⎡⎛ r

2

2 ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ + x ⎟ + r ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

C8

$B$5* (($B$2/2−A8)^2+$B$2^2)^(−3/2)

µ 0 Nr 2 I ⎡⎛ r

2

D8

10^4(B8+C8) A B mu_0= 1.26E-06 r= 0.3 N= 250 C N/A^2 m turns D

Bx = 10 4 (B1 + B2 )

2 ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ − x ⎟ + r ⎥ ⎠ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

−3 2

1 2 3

540 Chapter 27

4 I= 15 A 5 Coeff= 2.13E−04 6 7 x B_1 B_2 B(x) 8 −0.30 5.63E−03 1.34E−03 70 9 −0.29 5.86E−03 1.41E−03 73 10 −0.28 6.08E−03 1.48E−03 76 11 −0.27 6.30E−03 1.55E−03 78 12 −0.26 6.52E−03 1.62E−03 81 13 −0.25 6.72E−03 1.70E−03 84 14 −0.24 6.92E−03 1.78E−03 87 15 −0.23 7.10E−03 1.87E−03 90 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 1.87E−03 1.78E−03 1.70E−03 1.62E−03 1.55E−03 1.48E−03 1.41E−03 1.34E−03 7.10E−03 6.92E−03 6.72E−03 6.52E−03 6.30E−03 6.08E−03 5.86E−03 5.63E−03 90 87 84 81 78 76 73 70

**The following graph of Bx as a function of x was plotted using the data in the above table.
**

120 100 80 B x (G) 60 40 20 0 -0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0 x (m)

0.1

0.2

0.3

The maximum value of Bx is 113 G. Twenty percent of this maximum value is 23 G. Referring to the table of values we see that the field is within 20 percent of 113 G in the interval − 0.23 m < x < 0.23 m. 37 ••• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote the coil centered at the origin and the numeral 2 the coil centered at x = R. We can express the magnetic field in the region between the coils as the sum of the magnetic fields due to the two coils and then evaluate

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 541
**

the derivatives at x = R/2. Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = 0:

B1 ( x ) =

2 x2 + R2

(

µ 0 NR 2 I

)

32

where N is the number of turns. Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = R:

B2 ( x ) =

2 (x − R ) + R 2

2

[

µ0 NR 2 I

]

32

Add these equations to express the total magnetic field along the x axis:

Bx ( x ) = B1 ( x ) + B2 ( x ) = =

2 x2 + R2 1

(

µ0 NR 2 I

)

32

+

2 (x − R ) + R 2

2

[

µ0 NR 2 I

]

32

µ0 NR 2 I ⎛ ⎜

2

⎜ x2 + R2 ⎝

(

)

32

+

[

⎞ ⎟ 2 2 32 ⎟ (x − R ) + R ⎠ 1

]

Evaluate x1 and x2 at x = R/2:

x1 ( 1 R ) = 2

and

1 4

R2 + R2 =

(

5 4

R2

)

12

x2 ( 1 R ) = 2

Differentiate Bx with respect to x to obtain:

( 1 R − R )2 + R 2 2

= (5 R 2 ) 4

12

dBx µ 0 NR 2 I d ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ + 3⎟ = dx dx ⎜ x13 x2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ =

µ 0 NR 2 I ⎛ x

2

x−R⎞ ⎜ 5+ 5 ⎟ ⎜x x2 ⎟ ⎝ 1 ⎠

Evaluate dBx/dx at x = R/2 to obtain:

dBx dx

=

x= 1 R 2

µ 0 NR 2 I ⎛ ⎜

2 ⎜ ⎝

(

1 2 5 4

R

R

2 52

)

+

(

−1R ⎞ 2 ⎟= 0 52 5 R2 ⎟ 4 ⎠

)

**Differentiate dBx/dx with respect to x to obtain:
**

2 d 2 Bx µ0 NR 2 I d ⎛ x x − R ⎞ µ0 NR 2 I ⎛ 1 1 5 x 2 5( x − R ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 5+ 5− 7 − ⎜ 5+ 5 ⎟= = 7 ⎜x ⎟ dx 2 2 dx ⎜ x1 x2 ⎟ 2 x2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 x2 x1 ⎝ ⎠

Evaluate d2Bx/dx2 at x = R/2 to obtain:

542 Chapter 27

d 2 Bx dx 2 =

x= 1 R 2

µ0 NR 2 I ⎛ ⎜

2 ⎜ ⎝

(

1

5 4

R

2 52

)

+

(

1

5 4

R

2 52

)

−

(

5 4 5 4

R2

2 72

R

)

−

(

5 4 5 4

R2

2 72

R

)

⎞ ⎟= 0 ⎟ ⎠

**Differentiate d2Bx/dx2 with respect to x to obtain:
**

2 d 3 Bx µ0 NR 2 I d ⎛ 1 1 5 x 2 5( x − R ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 5+ 5− 7 − = 7 ⎟ 2 dx 3 dx ⎜ x1 x2 x1 x2 ⎝ ⎠

=

µ0 NR 2 I ⎛ 35 x 3 15 x 15( x − R ) 35( x − R )3 ⎞ ⎟

2

⎜ 9 − 7 − ⎜ x x1 ⎝ 1

7 x2

−

9 x2

⎟ ⎠

Evaluate d3Bx/dx3 at x = R/2 to obtain:

d 3 Bx dx 3

=

x= 1 R 2

µ0 NR 2 I ⎛ ⎜

2

⎜ ⎝

(

35 8 5 4

R3

R2

)

92

−

(

15 2 5 4

R

R2

)

72

−

(

− 15 R 2

5 4

R2

)

72

−

(

− 35 R 3 ⎞ 8 ⎟= 0 2 92 ⎟ 5 4 R ⎠

)

*38 ••• Picture the Problem Let the origin be midway between the coils so that one of them is centered at x = −r 3 / 2 and the other is centered at x = r 3 / 2 . Let the numeral 1 denote the coil centered at x = −r 3 / 2 and the numeral 2 the coil centered at

x = r 3 / 2 . We can express the magnetic field in the region between the coils as the difference of the magnetic fields B1 and B2 due to the two coils.

Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = −r 3 / 2 :

B1 ( x ) =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎤ ⎞ 2 ⎢⎜ + x⎟ + r2⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ 32

where N is the number of turns. Express the magnetic field on the x axis due to the coil centered at x = r 3 /2:

B2 (x ) =

µ0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎤ ⎞ ⎟ + r2⎥ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎜ − x⎟ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 32

Subtract these equations to express the total magnetic field along the x axis:

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 543
**

Bx (x ) = B1 (x ) − B2 (x ) =

µ0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎤ ⎞ + x⎟ + r2⎥ 2⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ 32

−

µ0 Nr 2 I

2 ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎤ ⎞ − x⎟ + r2⎥ 2⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ 32

−3 2 −3 2 2 2 ⎛⎡ ⎤ ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎤ ⎞ ⎛r 3 ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ µ Nr I ⎜ ⎜ 2 2 = 0 ⎜ ⎢⎜ 2 + x ⎟ + r ⎥ − ⎢⎜ 2 − x ⎟ + r ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ ⎢⎝ ⎥ ⎢⎝ ⎥ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝⎣ 2

The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell B1 B2 B3 B3 B5 A8 B8 Formula/Content 1.26×10−6 0.30 250 15 0.5*$B$1*$B$3*($B$2^2)*$B$4 −0.30 $B$5*(($B$2*SQRT(3)/2+A8)^2 +$B$2^2)^(−3/2) $B$5* (($B$2*SQRT(3)/2−A8)^2 +$B$2^2)^(−3/2) 10^4*(B8−C8) A mu_0= r= N= I= Coeff= x −0.30 −0.29 −0.28 −0.27 −0.26 −0.25 −0.24 −0.23 B 1.26E−06 0.3 250 15 2.13E−04 B_1 5.63E−03 5.86E−03 6.08E−03 6.30E−03 6.52E−03 6.72E−03 6.92E−03 7.10E−03 C N/A^2 m turns A D Algebraic Form

µ0

r N I

Coeff =

µ 0 Nr 2 I

2

−3 2

−r

µ0 Nr 2 I ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎜

2

2 ⎤ ⎞ ⎢ + x⎟ + r2⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ 2 ⎤ ⎞ ⎢ − x⎟ + r2⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ Bx = B1 − B2

C8

µ0 Nr 2 I ⎡⎛ r 3 ⎜

2

−3 2

D8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

B_2 1.34E−03 1.41E−03 1.48E−03 1.55E−03 1.62E−03 1.70E−03 1.78E−03 1.87E−03

B(x) 68.4 68.9 69.2 69.2 68.9 68.4 67.5 66.4

544 Chapter 27

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 1.87E−03 1.78E−03 1.70E−03 1.62E−03 1.55E−03 1.48E−03 1.41E−03 1.34E−03 7.10E−03 6.92E−03 6.72E−03 6.52E−03 6.30E−03 6.08E−03 5.86E−03 5.63E−03 −66.4 −67.5 −68.4 −68.9 −69.2 −69.2 −68.9 −68.4

**The following graph of Bx as a function of x was plotted using the data in the above table.
**

60 40 20 B x (G) 0 -20 -40 -60 -0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0 x (m)

0.1

0.2

0.3

39 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the two coils of radii r1 and r2 with the currents flowing in the directions given. We can use the expression for B on the axis of a current loop to express the difference of the fields due to the two loops at a distance x from their common center. We’ll denote each field by the subscript identifying the radius of the current loop. The magnitude of the field on the x axis due to the current in the inner loop is: The magnitude of the field on the x axis due to the current in the outer loop is:

**µ 0 2π r12 I µ 0 r12 I B1 = = 4π (x 2 + r12 ) 3 2 2(x 2 + r12 ) 3 2
**

B2 =

µ 0 2π r22 I µ 0 r22 I = 4π (x 2 + r22 ) 3 2 2(x 2 + r22 ) 3 2

The resultant field at x is the difference between B1 and B2:

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 545
**

Bx ( x ) = B1 ( x ) − B2 ( x ) =

2 x 2 + r12

(

µ 0 r12 I

)

32

−

2 x 2 + r22

(

µ 0 r22 I

)

32

(a) The spreadsheet program to calculate Bx as a function of x, for r2 = 10.1 cm, is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell Formula/Content B1 1.26×10−6 B2 0.1 B3 1 B4 0.101 A7 0 B7 0.5*$B$1*$B$2^2*$B$3/(A7^2+$B$2^2)^(3/2) Algebraic Form

µ0

r1 I r2 x

2 x 2 + r12

C7 0.5*$B$1*$B$4^2*$B$3/(A7^2+$B$4^2)^(3/2)

(

µ 0 r12 I µ 0 r22 I

) )

32

D7

10^4*(B7−C7)

2 x 2 + r22 Bx ( x ) = B1 ( x ) − B2 ( x )

(

32

The spreadsheet for Bx when r = 10.1 cm follows. The other three tables are similar. A mu_0= r_1= I= r_2= r_2= r_2= r_2= x 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 B 1.26E−06 0.1 1 0.101 0.11 0.15 0.2 B_1 6.30E−06 6.21E−06 5.94E−06 5.54E−06 5.04E−06 4.51E−06 6.04E−08 5.68E−08 5.34E−08 5.04E−08 4.75E−08 C N/A^2 m A m m m m B_2 6.24E−06 6.15E−06 5.89E−06 5.49E−06 5.01E−06 4.49E−06 6.15E−08 5.78E−08 5.45E−08 5.13E−08 4.84E−08 D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 56 57 58 59 60

B_x 6.24E−04 5.97E−04 5.21E−04 4.14E−04 2.95E−04 1.81E−04 −1.13E−05 −1.07E−05 −1.01E−05 −9.51E−06 −8.99E−06

The following graph shows B(x) for r = 10.1 cm, 11 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm.

546 Chapter 27

0.035 0.030 0.025 0.020 B (G) 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 -0.005 -0.010 x (m)

r = 10.1 cm r = 11 cm r = 15 cm r = 20 cm

40 ••• Picture the Problem We can approximate B(x) by using the result from Problem 39 for the field due to a single coil of radius r and evaluating B( x ) ≈ r = r1. The magnetic field at a distance x on the axis of a coil of radius r is given by: Express B(x) in terms of the rate of change of B with respect to r:

∂B ∆r at ∂r

B(x ) =

µ0 I 2πr 2 4π (x 2 + r 2 ) 3 2

∂B ∆r ∂r

(1)

B( x ) ≈

Evaluate the partial derivative of B with respect to r:

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 547
**

∂ ⎡ µ0 I ⎢ ∂r ⎢ 4π ⎣ ⎛ 2πr 2 ⎜ ⎜ x2 + r 2 ⎝

(

)

⎞⎤ µ 0 I ∂ ⎡ 2πr 2 ⎤ ⎟ = ⎢ 3 / 2 ⎟⎥ 3/ 2 ⎥ ⎥ 4π ∂r ⎢ x 2 + r 2 ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ∂ 2 ⎡ 2 2 3/ 2 ∂ 2πr 2 − 2πr 2 x + r2 ⎢ x +r µ0 I ∂r ∂r = ⎢ 3 4π ⎢ x 2 + r12 ⎣

(

)

( (

)

(

)

[(

)

3/ 2

(

)

]⎤⎥

⎥ ⎥ ⎦

⎡ 2 x + r2 µ0 I ⎢ ⎢ = 4π ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢ x +r = µ 0 Ir ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

) (4πr ) − 2πr ⎡ 3 (x ⎢2 ⎣ (x + r )

3/ 2 2 2 2 3 1

2

+ r2

) (2r )⎤ ⎤ ⎥⎥

1/ 2

⎦⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(

)

3/ 2

( )

3 2 2 r x + r2 2 3 x2 + r 2 −

( )

)

1/ 2

⎡ 2 x 2 + r 2 3 / 2 − 3r 2 x 2 + r 2 = µ 0 Ir ⎢ 3 2 x2 + r 2 ⎢ ⎣

(

(

( )

)

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

1/ 2

= µ 0 Ir x 2 + r 2 =

(

)

1/ 2

⎡ 2 x 2 + r 2 − 3r 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢ 2 x2 + r 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(

(

)

)

µ0 I ⎡ 2 x 2 r − r 3 ⎤

⎢ 2 ⎢ x2 + r 2 ⎣

(

)

52

⎥ ⎥ ⎦

Evaluate ∂B ∂x at r = r1 to obtain:

µ I ⎡ 2 x 2 r1 − r13 ⎤ ∂B = 0 ⎢ ⎥ ∂r r =r1 2 ⎢ x 2 + r12 5 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

2 3 ⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎡ 2 x r1 − r1 ⎤ B(x ) ≈ ⎜ 0 ⎟⎢ 2 52⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ x + r12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

Remarks: This solution shows that the field due to two coils separated by ∆r can be approximated by the given expression. 41 •••

Picture the Problem We can factor x from the denominator of the equation from Problem 40 to show that B ( x) ≈ ⎜ From Problem 40:

⎛ µ 0 I∆r ⎞ ⎛ 2r1 ⎞ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟ . ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ x ⎠

2 3 ⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎡ 2 x r1 − r1 ⎤ B(x ) ≈ ⎜ 0 ⎟⎢ 2 52⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ x + r12 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

548 Chapter 27

Factor x2 from the denominator of the expression to obtain:

**⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 2 3 ⎛ µ 0 I∆r ⎞ ⎢ 2r1 x − r1 ⎥ B( x) ≈ ⎜ ⎟ 52 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ 5 ⎛ r12 ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ x ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ x2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎛ r12 ⎞ x ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

5 5/ 2

For x >> r1:

≈ x5

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

2 3 ⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎛ 2r1 x − r1 ⎞ ⎟ B ( x) ≈ ⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎟ x5 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ ⎠ 2 r3 ⎞ ⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎛ 2r1 x ⎜ 5 − 15 ⎟ =⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ x ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ x ⎠ 3 ⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎛ 2r1 r1 ⎞ =⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ 3 − 5 ⎟ ⎜ x ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ x ⎠

For x >> r:

⎛ µ I∆r ⎞ ⎛ 2r1 ⎞ B ( x) ≈ ⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ x ⎠

The spreadsheet-generated graph that follows provides a comparison of the exact and approximate fields. Note that the two solutions agree for large values of x.

0.001 0.000 -0.001 Exact solution -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 0.00 A pproximate solution

B (G)

0.10

0.20 x (m)

0.30

0.40

0.50

Sources of the Magnetic Field 549

**Straight-Line Current Segments
**

42 • Picture the Problem The magnetic field due to the current in a long straight wire is given by B =

**µ0 2 I where I is the current in the wire and R is the distance from the wire. 4π R
**

B=

Express the magnetic field due to a long straight wire: Substitute numerical values to obtain:

µ0 2 I 4π R

B = 10−7 T ⋅ m/A =

(

) 2(10 A ) R

2.00 × 10−6 T ⋅ m R 2.00 ×10 −6 T ⋅ m = 20.0 µT 0.1 m 2.00 × 10−6 T ⋅ m = 4.00 µT 0.5 m

(a) Evaluate B at R = 10 cm: (b) Evaluate B at R = 50 cm: (c) Evaluate B at R = 2 m:

B(10 cm ) = B(50 cm ) = B(2 m ) =

2.00 × 10−6 T ⋅ m = 1.00 µT 2m

Problems 43 to 48 refer to Figure 27-45, which shows two long straight wires in the xy plane and parallel to the x axis. One wire is at y = −6 cm and the other is at y = +6 cm. The current in each wire is 20 A.

Figure 27-45 Problems 43-48 *43 • Picture the Problem Let + denote the wire (and current) at y = +6 cm and − the wire (and current) at y = −6 cm. We can use B =

µ0 2 I to find the magnetic field due to each of 4π R

the current carrying wires and superimpose the magnetic fields due to the currents in the

550 Chapter 27

wires to find B at the given points on the y axis. We can apply the right-hand rule to find r the direction of each of the fields and, hence, of B . (a) Express the resultant magnetic field at y = −3 cm: Find the magnitudes of the magnetic fields at y = −3 cm due to each wire:

r r r B (− 3 cm ) = B+ (− 3 cm ) + B− (− 3 cm )

B+ (− 3 cm ) = 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A = 44.4 µT

and

(

) 2(.20 A ) 0 09 m ) 2(.20 A ) 0 03 m

**B− (− 3 cm ) = 10−7 T ⋅ m/A = 133 µT
**

Apply the right-hand rule to find the

(

r r directions of B+ and B− :

r ˆ B+ (− 3 cm ) = (44.4 µT )k

and

r ˆ B− (− 3 cm ) = −(133 µT )k

Substitute to obtain:

r ˆ ˆ B (− 3 cm ) = (44.4 µT )k − (133 µT )k

ˆ = − (88.6 µT )k

(b) Express the resultant magnetic field at y = 0: Because B+ (0 ) = − B− (0 ) : (c) Proceed as in (a) to obtain:

r r r B (0) = B+ (0) + B− (0)

r B (0 ) = 0

r

r

r ˆ B+ (3 cm ) = (133 µT )k , r ˆ B− (3 cm ) = −(44.4 µT )k ,

and

r ˆ ˆ B (3 cm ) = (133 µT )k − (44.4 µT )k ˆ = − (88.6 µT )k

(d) Proceed as in (a) with y = 9 cm to obtain:

r ˆ B+ (9 cm ) = −(133 µT )k , r ˆ B− (9 cm ) = −(26.7 µT )k ,

and

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 551 r ˆ ˆ B (9 cm ) = −(133 µT )k − (26.7 µT )k ˆ = − (160 µT )k
**

44 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the two wires with the currents flowing in the negative x direction. We can use the expression for B due to a long, straight wire to express the difference of the fields due to the two currents. We’ll denote each field by the subscript identifying the position of each wire.

The field due to the current in the wire located at y = 6 cm is: The field due to the current in the wire located at y = −6 cm is:

B6 =

µ0 2I 4π 0.06 m − y µ0 2I 4π 0.06 m + y

B−6 =

The resultant field Bz is the difference between B6 and B−6:

Bz = B6 − B−6 =

⎞ µ0 µ µ I⎛ I I 1 1 − 0 = 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.06 m − y − 0.06 m + y ⎟ 4π 0.06 m − y 4π 0.06 m − y 4π ⎝ ⎠

The following graph of Bz as a function of y was plotted using a spreadsheet program:

552 Chapter 27

4

2

Bz (G)

0

-2

-4 -0.10

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

y (m)

45 • Picture the Problem Let + denote the wire (and current) at y = +6 cm and − the wire (and current) at y = −6 cm. We can use B =

µ0 2 I to find the magnetic field due to each of 4π R

the current carrying wires and superimpose the magnetic fields due to the currents in the wires to find B at the given points on the y axis. We can apply the right-hand rule to find r the direction of each of the fields and, hence, of B. (a) Express the resultant magnetic field at y = −3 cm: Find the magnitudes of the magnetic fields at y = −3 cm due to each wire:

r r r B (− 3 cm ) = B+ (− 3 cm ) + B− (− 3 cm )

B+ (− 3 cm ) = 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A

(

) 2(.20 A ) 0 09 m ) 2(.20 A ) 0 03 m

= 44.4 µT

and

B− (− 3 cm ) = 10−7 T ⋅ m/A

(

= 133 µT

Apply the right-hand rule to find the directions of B+ and B− :

r

r

r ˆ B + (− 3 cm ) = −(44.4 µT )k

and

r ˆ B − (− 3 cm ) = −(133 µT )k r ˆ ˆ B (− 3 cm ) = −(44.4 µT )k − (133 µT )k ˆ = − (177 µT )k

Substitute to obtain:

(b) Express the resultant magnetic field at y = 0: Find the magnitudes of the magnetic fields at y = 0 cm due to each wire:

Sources of the Magnetic Field 553 r r r B (0) = B+ (0) + B− (0)

B+ (0) = 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A

(

) 2(.20 A ) 0 06 m ) 2(.20 A ) 0 06 m

= 66.7 µT

and

B− (0) = 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A

(

= 66.7 µT

Apply the right-hand rule to find the directions of B+ and B− :

r

r

r ˆ B + (0) = −(66.7 µT )k

and

r ˆ B − (0) = −(66.7 µT )k

Substitute to obtain:

r ˆ ˆ B (0) = −(66.7 µT )k − (66.7 µT )k ˆ = − (133 µT )k

(c) Proceed as in (a) with y = +3 cm to obtain:

r ˆ B + (3 cm ) = −(133 µT )k , r ˆ B − (3 cm ) = −(44.4 µT )k ,

and

r ˆ ˆ B (3 cm ) = −(133 µT ) k − (44.4 µT ) k ˆ = − (177 µT ) k

(d) Proceed as in (a) with y = +9 cm to obtain:

r ˆ B+ (9 cm ) = (133 µT ) k , r ˆ B− (9 cm ) = −(26.7 µT ) k ,

and

r ˆ ˆ B (9 cm ) = (133 µT ) k − (26.7 µT ) k ˆ = (106 µT ) k

46 •• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the two wires with the currents flowing in the negative x direction. We can use the expression for B due to a long, straight wire to express the difference of the fields due to the two currents. We’ll denote each field by the subscript identifying the position of each wire.

554 Chapter 27

The field due to the current in the wire located at y = 6 cm is: The field due to the current in the wire located at y = −6 cm is: The resultant field Bz is the sum of B6 and B−6:

B6 =

µ0 2I 4π 0.06 m − y µ0 2I 4π 0.06 m + y

B−6 =

Bz = B6 − B−6 =

⎞ µ0 µ µ I⎛ I I 1 1 + 0 = 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.06 m − y + 0.06 m + y ⎟ 4π 0.06 m − y 4π 0.06 m − y 4π ⎝ ⎠

The following graph of Bz as a function of y was plotted using a spreadsheet program:

4

2 Bz (G)

0

-2

-4 -0.10

-0.05

0.00 y (m)

0.05

0.10

47 • Picture the Problem Let + denote the wire (and current) at y = +6 cm and − the wire (and current) at y = −6 cm. We can use B =

µ0 2 I to find the magnetic field due to each 4π R

of the current carrying wires and superimpose the magnetic fields due to the currents in the wires to find B at the given points on the z axis.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 555
**

(a) Apply the right-hand rule to show that, for the currents parallel and in the negative x direction, the directions of the fields are as shown to the right:

Express the magnitudes of the magnetic fields at z = +8 cm due to the current-carrying wires at y = −6 cm and y = +6 cm:

B z − = B z + = 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A

(

×

2(20 A )

)

(0.06 m )2 + (0.08 m )2

= 40.0 µT r B ( z = 8 cm ) = 2(40.0 µT ) sin θ ˆ j = 2(40.0 µT )(0.8) ˆ j =

Noting that the z components add to zero, express the resultant magnetic field at z = +8 cm:

(64.0 µT ) ˆ j

(b) Apply the right-hand rule to show that, for the currents antiparallel with the current in the wire at y = −6 cm in the negative x direction, the directions of the fields are as shown to the right: Noting that the y components add to zero, express the resultant magnetic field at z = +8 cm:

r ˆ B (z = 8 cm ) = −2(40.0 µT ) cos θ k ˆ = −2(40.0 µT )(0.6) k ˆ = − (48.0 µT ) k

48 • Picture the Problem Let + denote the wire (and current) at y = +6 cm and − the wire (and current) at y = −6 cm. The forces per unit length the wires exert on each other are action and reaction forces and hence are equal in magnitude. We can use F = IlB to express the force on either wire and B =

**µ 0 2I to express the magnetic field at the location of either 4π R
**

F = IlB

wire due to the current in the other. Express the force exerted on either wire:

556 Chapter 27

Express the magnetic field at either location due to the current in the wire at the other location: Substitute to obtain:

B=

µ 0 2I 4π R

⎛ µ 2 I ⎞ 2lµ 0 I 2 lµ 0 I 2 = F = Il⎜ 0 ⎟= 4π R 2π R ⎝ 4π R ⎠

F 2µ 0 I 2 = l 4π R F 2 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A (20 A ) = 0.12 m l

Divide both sides of the equation by l to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate F/ l :

(

)

2

= 667 µN/m

49 •

Picture the Problem We can use

F 2µ 0 I 2 = to relate the force per unit length each l 4π R

current-carrying wire exerts on the other to their common current. (a)

Because the currents repel, they are antiparallel.

(b)Express the force per unit length experienced by each wire: Solve for I:

F 2µ 0 I 2 = l 4π R

I= 4πR F 2µ 0 l

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

I=

2 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A

(

(8.6 cm )

) (3.6 nN/m )

= 39.3 mA

50 •• Picture the Problem Note that the current segments a-b and e-f do not contribute to the magnetic field at point P. The current in the segments b-c, c-d, and d-e result in a magnetic field at P that points into the plane of the paper. Note that the angles bPc and ePd are 45° and use the expression for B due to a straight wire segment to find the contributions to the field at P of segments bc, cd, and de.

Sources of the Magnetic Field 557

Express the resultant magnetic field at P: Express the magnetic field due to a straight line segment: Use equation (1) to express Bbc and Bde:

B = Bbc + Bcd + Bde

B=

µ0 I (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) 4π R

(1)

Bbc =

µ0 4π µ = 0 4π

I (sin 45° + sin 0°) R I sin 45° R

Use equation (1) to express Bcd:

Bcd =

µ0 I (sin 45° + sin 45°) 4π R µ I = 2 0 sin 45° 4π R

Substitute to obtain:

B= +

**sin 45° 4π R µ0 I =4 sin 45° 4π R
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

µ0 I µ0 I sin 45° + 2 sin 45° 4π R 4π R µ0 I

B = 4 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A = 226 µT

(

) 0.8 Am sin 45° 01

51 •• Picture the Problem The forces acting on the wire are the upward magnetic force FB and the downward gravitational force mg, where m is the mass of the wire. We can use a condition for translational equilibrium and the expression for the force per unit length between parallel current-carrying wires to relate the required current to the mass of the wire, its length, and the separation of the two wires. Apply

∑F

y

= 0 to the floating

FB − mg = 0

558 Chapter 27

wire to obtain: Express the repulsive force acting on the upper wire: Substitute to obtain:

FB = 2

µ0 I 2l 4π R

2

µ0 I 2l − mg = 0 4π R

4πmgR 2µ 0 l

Solve for I:

I=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

I=

(14 × 10

kg )(9.81 m/s 2 )(1.5 × 10 −3 m ) = 80.2 A 2(10 −7 T ⋅ m/A )(0.16 m )

−3

*52 •• Picture the Problem Note that the forces on the upper wire are away from and directed along the lines to the lower wire and that their horizontal components cancel. We can

**µ0 I 2 F use =2 to find the resultant force in the upward direction (the y direction) l 4π R
**

acting on the top wire. In part (b) we can use the right-hand rule to determine the directions of the magnetic fields at the upper wire due to the currents in the two lower wires and use B = currents. (a) Express the force per unit length each of the lower wires exerts on the upper wire: Noting that the horizontal components add up to zero, express the net upward force per unit length on the upper wire:

µ 0 2I to find the magnitude of the resultant field due to these 4π R

µ I2 F =2 0 l 4π R

∑

Fy

**µ0 I 2 cos 30° 4π R l µ0 I 2 +2 cos 30° 4π R µ I2 =4 0 cos 30° 4π R
**

=2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 559
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

∑

Fy

∑

Fy

l

:

l

= 4(10 −7 T ⋅ m/A )

(15 A )2 cos 30°

0.1 m

= 7.79 × 10 −4 N/m

r µ 2I ˆ cos 30°i B=2 0 4π R

(b) Noting, from the geometry of the wires, the magnetic field vectors both are at an angle of 30° with the horizontal and that their y components cancel, express the resultant magnetic field: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B = 2 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A = 52.0 µT

(

( A ) 2015m ) cos 30° .1

53 •• Picture the Problem Note that the forces on the upper wire are away from the lower left hand wire and toward the lower right hand wire and that, due to symmetry, their vertical

**µ0 I 2 F =2 to find the resultant force in the x components cancel. We can use l 4π R
**

direction (to the right) acting on the top wire. In part (b) we can use the right-hand rule to determine the directions of the magnetic fields at the upper wire due to the currents in the two lower wires and use B = to these currents. (a) Express the force per unit length each of the lower wires exerts on the upper wire: Noting that the vertical components add up to zero, express the net force per unit length acting to the right on the upper wire:

µ 0 2I to find the magnitude of the resultant field due 4π R

µ I2 F =2 0 l 4π R

Fx µ I2 =2 0 ∑ l 4π R cos 60° µ I2 +2 0 cos 60° 4π R µ I2 =4 0 cos 60° 4π R

560 Chapter 27

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

F ∑ lx :

F (15 A ) ∑ lx = 4 10−7 T ⋅ m/A 0.1 m cos 60°

(

)

2

= 4.50 × 10 −4 N/m

(b) Noting, from the geometry of the wires, that the magnetic field vectors both are at an angle of 30° with the horizontal and that their x components cancel, express the resultant magnetic field: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

r µ 2I sin 30° ˆ B = −2 0 j 4π R

B = 2 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A = 30.0 µT

(

( A ) 2015m ) sin 30° .1

54 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote the current flowing in the positive x direction and the magnetic field resulting from it and the numeral 2 denote the current flowing in the positive y direction and the magnetic field resulting from it. We can express the magnetic field anywhere in the xy plane using B =

rule and then impose the condition that B = 0 to determine the set of points that satisfy this condition. Express the resultant magnetic field due to the two current-carrying wires: Express the magnetic field due to the current flowing in the positive x direction: Express the magnetic field due to the current flowing in the positive y direction: Substitute to obtain:

r

µ 0 2I and the right-hand 4π R

r r r B = B1 + B2

r µ 2I ˆ B1 = 0 1 k 4π y r µ 2I ˆ B2 = − 0 2 k 4π x

r µ 2I ˆ µ 2I k ˆ B= 0 k− 0 4π y 4π x

⎛ µ 2I µ 0 2I ⎞ ˆ =⎜ 0 ⎜ 4π y − 4π x ⎟k ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 561
**

because I = I1 = I2. For B = 0 :

r

µ0 2I µ 0 2I − = 0 ⇒ x = y. 4π y 4π x

r Hence, B = 0 along a line that makes an angle of 45° with the x axis.

55 •• Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote the current flowing along the positive z axis and the magnetic field resulting from it and the numeral 2 denote the current flowing in the wire located at x = 10 cm and the magnetic field resulting from it. We can express the magnetic field anywhere in the xy plane using B =

and then impose the condition that B = 0 to determine the current that satisfies this condition. (a) Express the resultant magnetic field due to the two current-carrying wires: Express the magnetic field at x = 2 cm due to the current flowing in the positive z direction: Express the magnetic field at x = 2 cm due to the current flowing in the wire at x = 10 cm: Substitute to obtain:

r

µ 0 2I and the right-hand rule 4π R

r r r B = B1 + B2

r µ 2 I1 ˆ B1 ( x = 2 cm ) = 0 j 4π 2 cm

r µ 2I 2 ˆ B2 ( x = 2 cm ) = − 0 j 4π 8 cm r µ 2 I1 ˆ − µ0 2I 2 ˆ B= 0 j j 4π 2 cm 4π 8 cm

⎛ µ 2I1 µ 0 2 I 2 ⎞ ˆ =⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ 4π 2 cm − 4π 8 cm ⎟ j ⎠ ⎝

For B = 0 :

r

µ 0 2 I1 µ 0 2 I 2 − =0 4π 2 cm 4π 8 cm

or

I1 I − 2 =0 2 cm 8 cm

562 Chapter 27

Solve for and evaluate I2:

I 2 = 4 I 1 = 4(20 A ) = 80.0 A

(b) Express the magnetic field at x = 5 cm:

r µ 2 I1 ˆ − µ0 2I 2 ˆ B= 0 j j 4π 5 cm 4π 5 cm 2µ 0 (I 1 − I 2 ) ˆ = j 4π (5 cm ) r 2(10 −7 T ⋅ m/A ) (20 A − 80 A ) ˆ B= j 5 cm = − (0.240 mT ) ˆ j

Substitute numerical values and

r evaluate B (x = 5 cm ) :

56 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system with its origin at the lower left-hand corner of the square, the positive x axis to the right and the positive y axis upward. We can use B =

µ 0 2I and the right-hand rule to find the magnitude and direction of the 4π R

magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to each of the currents, and superimpose these fields to find the resultant field. (a) Express the resultant magnetic field at the unoccupied corner: When all the currents are into the paper their magnetic fields at the unoccupied corner are as shown to the right: Express the magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to the current I1 : Express the magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to the current I2 :

r r r r B = B1 + B2 + B3

(1)

r µ 2I ˆ B1 = − 0 j 4π L

r µ 2I ˆ j B2 = 0 cos 45° i − ˆ 4π L 2 µ 2I ˆ ˆ = 0 i−j 4π 2 L

(

)

(

)

Express the magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to the current I3 :

r µ 2I ˆ B3 = 0 i 4π L

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 563
**

Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

r µ 2I ˆ µ0 2I ˆ ˆ µ0 2I ˆ µ0 2I ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ⎞ B=− 0 j+ i−j + i= ⎜− j + i − j + i ⎟ 4π L 4π 2 L 4π L 4π L ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3µ 0 I ˆ ˆ µ 2 I ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ⎤ = 0 ⎢⎜1 + 2 ⎟i + ⎜ − 1 − 2 ⎟ j ⎥ = 4πL i − j 4π L ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

( )

( )

[ ]

(b) When I2 is out of the paper the magnetic fields at the unoccupied corner are as shown to the right:

Express the magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to the current I2 :

r µ 2I ˆ j B2 = 0 cos 45° − i + ˆ 4π L 2 µ 2I ˆ ˆ = 0 −i + j 4π 2 L

(

)

(

)

Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

r µ 2I ˆ µ0 2I ˆ ˆ µ0 2I ˆ µ0 2I ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ⎞ B=− 0 j+ −i + j + i= ⎜− j + − i + j + i ⎟ 4π L 4π 2 L 4π L 4π L ⎝ 2 ⎠ µ 2 I ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ ⎛ µ0 I ˆ ˆ 1 ⎞ ˆ⎤ µ0 2 I ⎡ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ⎤ = 0 ⎢⎜1 − 2 ⎟i + ⎜ − 1 + 2 ⎟ j ⎥ = 4π L ⎢ 2 i − 2 j ⎥ = 4πL i − j 4π L ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝

(

)

(

)

[ ]

(c) When I1 and I2 are in and I3 is out of the paper the magnetic fields at the unoccupied corner are as shown to the right: From (a) or (b) we have:

r µ 2I ˆ B1 = − 0 j 4π L

From (a) we have:

r µ 2I ˆ j B2 = 0 cos 45° i − ˆ 4π L 2 µ 2I ˆ ˆ = 0 i−j 4π 2 L

(

)

(

)

Express the magnetic field at the unoccupied corner due to the current I3 :

r µ 2I ˆ B3 = − 0 i 4π L

564 Chapter 27

Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

r µ 2I ˆ µ0 2I ˆ ˆ µ0 2I ˆ µ0 2I ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ⎞ B=− 0 j+ i−j − i= ⎜− j + i − j − i ⎟ 4π L 4π 2 L 4π L 4π L ⎝ 2 ⎠ µ 2 I ⎡⎛ µ0 I ˆ ˆ 1 ⎞ˆ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ⎤ = 0 ⎢⎜ − 1 + 2 ⎟i + ⎜ − 1 − 2 ⎟ j ⎥ = 4πL − i − 3 j 4π L ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

( )

( )

[

]

*57 •• Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system with its origin at the lower left-hand corner of the square, the positive x axis to the right and the positive y axis upward. Let the numeral 1 denote the wire and current in the upper left-hand corner of the square, the numeral 2 the wire and current in the lower left-hand corner (at the origin) of the square, and the numeral 3 the wire and current in the lower right-hand corner of the square. We can use B =

µ 0 2I and the right-hand rule to find the magnitude and direction of the 4π R

magnetic field at, say, the upper right-hand corner due to each of the currents, superimpose these fields to find the resultant field, and then use F = IlB to find the force per unit length on the wire. (a) Express the resultant magnetic field at the upper right-hand corner: When all the currents are into the paper their magnetic fields at the upper right-hand corner are as shown to the right: Express the magnetic field due to the current I1: Express the magnetic field due to the current I2:

r r r r B = B1 + B2 + B3

(1)

r µ 2I ˆ B1 = − 0 j 4π a

r µ 2I ˆ j B2 = 0 cos 45° i − ˆ 4π a 2 µ 2I ˆ ˆ = 0 i−j 4π 2a

(

)

(

)

Express the magnetic field due to the current I3:

r µ 2I ˆ B3 = 0 i 4π a

Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

Sources of the Magnetic Field 565 r µ 2I ˆ µ0 2I ˆ ˆ B=− 0 j+ i−j 4π a 4π 2a

**µ0 2 I ˆ µ0 2 I ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ⎞ i= ⎜− j + i − j + i ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ 2 ⎠ µ 2 I ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ ⎤ 3µ 0 I ˆ ˆ = 0 ⎢⎜1 + 2 ⎟i + ⎜ − 1 − 2 ⎟ j ⎥ = 4πa i − j 4π a ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦
**

+

( )

( )

[ ]

Using the expression for the magnetic force on a currentcarrying wire, express the force per unit length on the wire at the upper right-hand corner: Substitute to obtain:

F = BI l

(2)

r F 3µ 0 I 2 ˆ ˆ = i−j 4πa l

and

2

[ ]

2

⎛ 3µ I 2 ⎞ ⎛ 3µ I 2 ⎞ F = ⎜ 0 ⎟ +⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ 4πa ⎟ ⎜ 4πa ⎟ l ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 3 2µ0 I 2 4πa

(b) When the current in the upper right-hand corner of the square is out of the page, and the currents in the wires at adjacent corners are oppositely directed, the magnetic fields at the upper right-hand are as shown to the right: Express the magnetic field at the upper right-hand corner due to the current I2:

r µ 2I ˆ j cos 45° − i + ˆ B2 = 0 4π a 2 µ 2I ˆ ˆ = 0 −i + j 4π 2a

(

)

(

)

Using B1 and B3 from (a), substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

r

r

r µ 2I ˆ µ0 2I ˆ ˆ µ0 2I ˆ µ0 2I ⎛ ˆ 1 ˆ −i + j + B=− 0 j+ i= ⎜− j + − i + 4π a 4π 2a 4π a 4π a ⎝ 2 µ 2 I ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ˆ⎤ µ0 2 I ⎡ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ⎤ µ0 I ˆ = 0 ⎢⎜1 − 2 ⎟i + ⎜ − 1 + 2 ⎟ j ⎥ = 4π a ⎢ 2 i − 2 j ⎥ = 4πa i − 4π a ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(

)

(

ˆ +i⎞ j ˆ⎟ ⎠

)

[ ˆj ]

566 Chapter 27

Substitute in equation (2) to obtain:

r F µ0 I 2 ˆ ˆ = i−j 4πa l

and

2

[ ]

2

⎛ µ I2 ⎞ ⎛ µ I2 ⎞ F = ⎜ 0 ⎟ +⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ 4πa ⎟ ⎜ 4πa ⎟ l ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ = 2µ0 I 2 4πa

58 •• Picture the Problem The configuration is shown in the adjacent figure. Here the z axis points out of the plane of the paper, the x axis points to the right, the y axis points up. We can use B =

µ 0 2I and the 4π R

right-hand rule to find the magnetic field due to the current in each wire and add these magnetic fields vectorially to find the resultant field. Express the resultant magnetic field on the z axis:

r r r r r r B = B1 + B2 + B3 + B4 + B5

r B1 is given by: r B2 is given by:

r B3 is given by:

**r B1 = Bˆ j r ˆ B2 = (B cos 45°)i + (B sin 45°) ˆ j
**

r ˆ B3 = Bi

r B4 is given by:

r B5 is given by:

**r ˆ B4 = (B cos 45°)i − (B sin 45°) ˆ j
**

r B5 = − Bˆ j

Substitute for B1 , B2 , B3 , B4 , and B5 and simplify to obtain:

r

r

r

r

r

r ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bˆ + (B cos 45°)i + (B sin 45°) ˆ + Bi + (B cos 45°)i − (B sin 45°) ˆ − Bˆ j j j j ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = (B cos 45°)i + Bi + (B cos 45°)i = (B + 2 B cos 45°)i = 1 + 2 Bi

(

)

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 567
**

Express B due to each current at z = 0: Substitute to obtain:

B=

µ 0 2I 4π R

r µI ˆ B = 1+ 2 0 i 2πR

(

)

**r B Due to a Current in a Solenoid
**

59 •

Picture the Problem We can use B x = 1 µ 0 nI ⎜ 2

⎛ b a + ⎜ 2 2 2 a + R2 ⎝ b +R

⎞ ⎟ to find B at ⎟ ⎠

any point on the axis of the solenoid. Note that the number of turns per unit length for this solenoid is 300 turns/0.3 m = 1000 turns/m. Express the magnetic field at any point on the axis of the solenoid: Substitute numerical values to obtain:

⎛ b a + B x = 1 µ 0 nI ⎜ 2 ⎜ 2 2 a2 + R2 ⎝ b +R

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Bx =

1 2

(4π × 10

−7

⎛ b a + T ⋅ m/A (1000 )(2.6 A ) ⎜ 2 ⎜ b 2 + (0.012 m )2 a 2 + (0.012 m ) ⎝

)

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎛ b a = (1.63 mT ) ⎜ + 2 2 ⎜ b 2 + (0.012 m ) a 2 + (0.012 m ) ⎝

(a) Evaluate Bx for a = b = 0.15 m:

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎛ Bx = (1.63 mT ) ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

0.15 m

(0.15 m )2 + (0.012 m )2

+

0.15 m

(0.15 m )2 + (0.012 m )2

⎞ ⎟ = 3.25 mT ⎟ ⎠

(b) Evaluate Bx for a = 0.1 m and b = 0.2 m:

⎛ Bx (0.2 m ) = (1.63 mT ) ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ = 3.25 mT

0.2 m

(0.2 m )2 + (0.012 m )2

+

0.1 m

(0.1 m )2 + (0.012 m )2

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

(c) Evaluate Bx (= Bend) for a = 0 and b = 0.3 m:

568 Chapter 27 ⎛ Bx = (1.63 mT ) ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 = 2 Bcenter . 0.3 m ⎞ ⎟ = 1.63 mT ⎟ ⎠

(0.3 m )2 + (0.012 m )2

Note that Bend

*60 • Picture the Problem We can use Bx = µ 0 nI to find the approximate magnetic field on the axis and inside the solenoid. Express Bx as a function of n and I: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Bx:

Bx = µ 0 nI

⎛ 600 ⎞ Bx = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 2.7 m ⎟(2.5 A ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

= 0.698 mT

61 ••• Picture the Problem The solenoid, extending from x = − l 2 to x = l 2 , with the origin at its center, is shown in the diagram. To find the field at the point whose coordinate is x outside the solenoid we can determine the field at x due to an infinitesimal segment of the solenoid of width dx′ at x′, and then integrate from x = − l 2 to x = l 2 . The segment may be considered as a coil ndx′ carrying a current I. Express the field dB at the axial point whose coordinate is x:

dBx =

µ0 2πR 2 I 4π ( x − x')2 + R 2

[

]

3 2

dx'

Integrate dBx from x = − l 2 to x = l 2 to obtain:

Bx =

µ 0 nIR 2

2

l2

−l 2

∫ [(x − x' )

dx'

2

+ R2

]

3 2

=

µ 0 nI ⎛ ⎜

2 ⎜ ⎝

(x + l 2)2 + R 2

x+l 2

−

⎞ ⎟ 2 2 ⎟ (x − l 2) + R ⎠ x−l 2

Refer to the diagram to express cosθ1 and cosθ2:

cos θ1 =

and

[R

2

+ (x + 1 l ) 2

x+ 1l 2

2 12

]

Sources of the Magnetic Field 569 cos θ 2 =

[R

2

+ (x − 1 l ) 2

x− 1l 2

2 12

]

Substitute to obtain:

B=

1 2

µ 0 nI (cos θ1 − cos θ 2 )

62 ••• Picture the Problem We can use Equation 27-35, together with the small angle approximation for the cosine and tangent functions, to show that θ1 and θ2 are as given and that B is given by Equation 27-37. (a) The angles θ1 and θ2 are shown in the diagram. Note that tan θ1 = R ( x + l 2 ) and

tan θ 2 = R ( x − l 2 ) .

Apply the small angle approximation tanθ ≈ θ to obtain:

θ1 ≈

and

R x+ 1l 2 R x− 1l 2

θ2 ≈

(b) Express the magnetic field outside the solenoid: Apply the small angle approximation for the cosine function to obtain:

B = 1 µ 0 nI (cosθ1 − cosθ 2 ) 2

⎛ R ⎞ cos θ1 = 1 − ⎜ ⎜ x+ 1l⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝

1 2

2

and

⎛ R ⎞ ⎟ cos θ 2 = 1 − 1 ⎜ 2⎜ x− 1l⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

2

2 2 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ R ⎞ ⎤ 1 ⎛ R ⎞ 1 1 1⎜ 1⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 4 µ 0 nIR 2 ⎢ ⎟ −1+ 2 ⎜ B = µ 0 nI ⎢1 − 2 ⎜ − 2 2⎥ 1 ⎟ 1 ⎟ 1 1 ⎢ ⎢ (x − 2 l ) (x + 2 l ) ⎦ ⎝ x− 2l⎠ ⎥ ⎝ x+ 2l⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 1 2

Let r1 = x − 1 l be the distance to 2 the near end of the solenoid, r1 = x + 1 l the distance to the far 2

B=

µ0 4π

⎛ qm q m ⎞ ⎜ 2 − 2⎟ ⎜r r2 ⎟ ⎝ 1 ⎠

570 Chapter 27

end, and q m = nIπR 2 = µ l , where

**µ = nIπR2 is the magnetic moment
**

of the solenoid to obtain:

Ampère’s Law

*63 • Picture the Problem We can apply Ampère’s law to a circle centered on the axis of the cylinder and evaluate this expression for r < R and r > R to find B inside and outside the cylinder. Apply Ampère’s law to a circle centered on the axis of the cylinder:

∫ B ⋅ dl = µ I

C

r

r

0 C

Note that, by symmetry, the field is the same everywhere on this circle.

Evaluate this expression for r < R: Solve for Binside to obtain:

∫

C

r r Binside ⋅ d l = µ 0 (0 ) = 0

Binside = 0

Evaluate this expression for r > R: Solve for Boutside to obtain:

∫

C

r r Boutside ⋅ d l = B(2πR ) = µ 0 I

Boutside =

µ0 I 2πR

64 • r r Picture the Problem We can use Ampère’s law, B ⋅ d l = µ 0 I C , to find the line integral

**r r B ⋅ d l for each of the three paths. ∫
**

C

∫

C

(a) Evaluate

∫ B ⋅ d l for C :

C

r

r

1

r r B ⋅ dl = µ 0 (8 A ) ∫

C1

Evaluate

r r B ⋅ dl for C2: ∫

C

∫ B ⋅ dl = µ (8 A − 8 A ) =

C2 0

r

r

0

Evaluate

∫ B ⋅ dl for C :

C

r

r

3

r r B ⋅ dl = − µ 0 (8 A ) ∫

C1

because the field

is opposite the direction of integration.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 571
**

(b)

None of the paths can be used to find B at a general point because there the current configuration does not have cylindrical symmetry.

65 • Picture the Problem Let the current in the wire and outer shell be I. We can apply Ampère’s law to a circle, concentric with the inner wire, of radius r to find B at points between the wire and the shell far from the ends (r < R), and outside the cable (r > R). (a) Apply Ampère’s law for r < R: Solve for Br<R to obtain:

∫

C

r r Br < R ⋅ d l = Br < R (2πr ) = µ 0 I

Br < R =

µ0 I 2πr

(b) Apply Ampère’s law for r > R: Solve for Br>R to obtain:

∫

C

r r Br > R ⋅ dl = µ 0 (0 )

Br > R = 0

66 •• Picture the Problem. Let the radius of the wire be a. We can apply Ampère’s law to a circle, concentric with the center of the wire, of radius r to find B at various distances from the center of the wire. Express Ampère’s law: Using the fact that the current is uniformly distributed over the crosssectional area of the wire, relate the current enclosed by a circle of radius r to the total current I carried by the wire: Substitute and evaluate the integral to obtain: Solve for Br<a:

r r B ⋅ d l = µ0 I C ∫

C

IC I = 2 2 πr πa

or

IC = I

r2 a2

B r (2πr ) =

µ0r 2

a2

I

Br <a =

µ0 r I 2πa 2

(1)

For r ≥ a:

∫

C

r r Br ≥a ⋅ d l = Br ≥a (2πr ) = µ 0 I

572 Chapter 27

Solve for Br ≥ a:

Br ≥a =

µ0 I 2πr

(2)

(a) Use equation (1) to evaluate B(0.1 cm):

B(0.1 cm ) =

(4π × 10

**N/A 2 (0.001 m ) (100 A ) = 8.00 × 10 −4 T 2 2π (0.005 m )
**

−7

)

(b) Use either equation to evaluate B at the surface of the wire:

B(0.005 cm ) =

(4π × 10

**N/A 2 (0.005 m ) (100 A ) = 4.00 × 10 −3 T 2 2π (0.005 m )
**

−7

)

(c) Use equation (2) to evaluate B(0.7 cm):

(4π × 10 B(0.007 m ) =

N/A 2 (100 A ) 2π (0.007 m )

−7

)

= 2.86 × 10 −3 T

(d) A graph of B as a function of r follows:

1.0 0.8 B (arbitrary units) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 r (arbitrary units)

*67 •• Determine the Concept The contour integral consists of four portions, two horizontal r r portions for which B ⋅ d l = 0 , and two vertical portions. The portion within the

∫

C

magnetic field gives a nonvanishing contribution, whereas the portion outside the field gives no contribution to the contour integral. Hence, the contour integral has a finite value. However, it encloses no current; thus, it appears that Ampère’s law is violated. What this demonstrates is that there must be a fringing field so that the contour integral does vanish.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 573
**

68 •• Picture the Problem Let r1 = 1 mm, r2 = 2 mm, and r3 = 3 mm and apply Ampère’s law in each of the three regions to obtain expressions for B in each part of the coaxial cable and outside the coaxial cable. Apply Ampère’s law to a circular path of radius r < r1 to obtain: Because the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the inner wire: Substitute for IC to obtain:

Br <r1 (2π r ) = µ0 I C

r2 IC I = ⇒ IC = 2 I r1 π r 2 π r12

Br <r1 (2π r ) = µ0

2µ 0 I r 4π r12

r2 I r12

(1)

Solve for Br <r1 :

B r < r1 =

Apply Ampère’s law to a circular path of radius r1 < r < r2 to obtain: Solve for Br1<r <r2 :

Br1<r <r2 (2π r ) = µ0 I 2µ0 I 1 4π r

Br1<r <r2 =

(2)

Apply Ampère’s law to a circular path of radius r2 < r < r3 to obtain:

Br2 <r <r3 (2π r ) = µ 0 I C = µ 0 (I − I' )

where I′ is the current in the outer conductor at a distance less than r from the center of the inner conductor.

Because the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the outer conductor: Solve for I′:

I' I = 2 2 π r − π r2 π r3 − π r22

2

I '=

**r 2 − r22 I r32 − r22
**

⎞ I⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Substitute for I′ to obtain:

⎛ r2 − r2 Br2 <r <r3 (2π r ) = µ0 ⎜ I − 2 22 ⎜ r3 − r2 ⎝ Br2 <r <r3 = 2 µ0 I ⎛ r 2 − r22 ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ 4π ⎜ r32 − r22 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Solve for Br1<r <r2 :

(3)

574 Chapter 27

A spreadsheet program was used to plot the following graph of equations (1), (2), and (3).

3.0 2.5 2.0 B (G) 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 r (mm) 2.0 2.5 3.0

Apply Ampère’s law to a circular path of radius r > r3 to obtain:

Br >r3 (2π r ) = µ 0 I C

and Br >r3 = 0

= µ 0 (I − I ) = 0

69 •• Picture the Problem We can use Ampère’s law to calculate B because of the high degree of symmetry. The current through C depends on whether r is less than or the inner radius a, greater than the inner radius a but less than the outer radius b, or greater than the outer radius b. (a) Apply Ampère’s law to a circular path of radius r < a to obtain:

∫

C

r r B r < a ⋅ d l = µ 0 I C = µ 0 (0 ) = 0

and

Br < a = 0

(b) Use the uniformity of the current over the cross-section of the conductor to express the current I′ enclosed by a circular path whose radius satisfies the condition a < r < b: Solve for IC = I′:

I' I = 2 2 π r −a π b − a2

(

2

)

(

)

I C = I' = I

r 2 − a2 b2 − a2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 575
**

Substitute in Ampère’s law to obtain:

∫

C

**r r Ba<r <b ⋅ d l = Ba<r <b (2πr )
**

= µ 0 I' = µ 0 I r 2 − a2 b2 − a2

Solve for Ba<r<b:

Ba<r <b = IC = I

µ0 I r 2 − a 2 2πr b 2 − a 2

(c) Express IC for r > b: Substitute in Ampère’s law to obtain: Solve for Br>b:

∫

C

r r Br >b ⋅ d l = Br >b (2πr ) = µ 0 I

Br >b =

µ0 I 2πr

70 •• Picture the Problem The number of turns enclosed within the rectangular area is na. Denote the corners of the rectangle, starting in the lower left-hand corner and proceeding counterclockwise, as 1, 2, 3, and 4. We can apply Ampère’s law to each side of this r r rectangle in order to evaluate B ⋅ d l .

∫

C

Express the integral around the closed path C as the sum of the integrals along the sides of the rectangle: Evaluate

**r r r r r r r r B ⋅ dl = ∫ B ⋅ dl + ∫ B ⋅ dl + ∫ B ⋅ dl ∫C 1→2 2→3 3→4 r r + ∫ B ⋅ dl
**

4→1

∫ B ⋅ dl :

1→2

r

r

∫ B ⋅ d l = aB

1→2

r r

r r

For the paths 2 → 3 and 4 → 1, B is either zero (outside the solenoid) or r is perpendicular to d l and so: For the path 3 → 4, B =0 and:

r

∫ B ⋅ dl = ∫ B ⋅ dl = 0

2→3 4→1

r

r

r

∫ B ⋅ dl = 0

3→4

r

r

Substitute in Ampère’s law to obtain:

r r B ⋅ d l = aB + 0 + 0 + 0 = aB ∫

C

= µ 0 I C = µ 0 naI

576 Chapter 27

Solve for B to obtain:

B = µ 0 nI

71 •• Picture the Problem The magnetic field inside a tightly wound toroid is given by B = µ 0 NI (2πr ) , where a < r < b and a and b are the inner and outer radii of the toroid. Express the magnetic field of a toroid:

B=

µ 0 NI 2πr

(a) Substitute numerical values and evaluate B(1.1 cm):

B(1.1 cm ) =

(4π × 10

−7

N/A 2 (1000)(1.5 A ) = 27.3 mT 2π (1.1 cm )

)

(b) Substitute numerical values and evaluate B(1.5 cm):

(4π × 10 B(1.5 cm ) =

−7

N/A 2 (1000)(1.5 A ) = 20.0 mT 2π (1.5 cm )

)

*72 •• Picture the Problem In parts (a), (b), and (c) we can use a right-hand rule to determine the direction of the magnetic field at points above and below the infinite sheet of current. r r In part (d) we can evaluate B ⋅ d l around the specified path and equate it to µ0IC and

∫

C

solve for B.

(a)

ˆ At P the magnetic field points to the right i.e., in the − i direction since its vertical components cancel. Because the sheet is infinite, the same argument used in (a) applies; B is in ˆ the − i direction. ˆ Below the sheet the magnetic field points to the left, i.e., in the i direction. The vertical components cancel.

r r B ⋅ d l , in the ∫

C

(

)

(b)

(c)

(d) Express

r r B ⋅ dl = 2 ∫

C

parallel

r r r r B ⋅ dl + 2∫ B ⋅ dl ∫

⊥

counterclockwise direction, for the given path:

For the paths perpendicular to the r r sheet, B and d l are perpendicular to each other and: For the paths parallel to the sheet, and: Substitute to obtain:

⊥

Sources of the Magnetic Field 577 r r ∫ B ⋅ dl = 0

r r B and d l are in the same direction

parallel

∫ B ⋅ d l = Bw

r r r r

r

r

∫ B ⋅ d l = 2 ∫ B ⋅ d l = 2 Bw

C

= µ 0 I C = µ 0 (λw)

Solve for B:

parallel

r ˆ B = 1 µ 0 λ and Babove = − 1 µ 0 λi 2 2

**Magnetization and Magnetic Susceptibility
**

73 • Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp = µ0 nI to find B and Bapp at the center when there is no core in the solenoid and B = Bapp + µ 0 M when there is an iron core with a magnetization M = 1.2×106 A/m. (a) Express the magnetic field, in the absence of a core, in the solenoid : Substitute numerical values and evaluate B and Bapp:

B = Bapp = µ0 nI

⎛ 400 ⎞ B = Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.2 m ⎟(4 A ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

= 10.1 mT

(b) With an iron core with a magnetization M = 1.2×106 A/m present:

Bapp = 10.1 mT

and

B = Bapp + µ 0 M = 10.1 mT + 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 1.2 × 10 6 A/m = 1.52 T

74 • Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp = µ0 nI to find B and Bapp at the center when there is no core in the solenoid and B = Bapp + µ 0 M when there is an aluminum core. We

(

)(

)

578 Chapter 27

can use M = χ m

Bapp

µ0

to find the magnetization of the core with the aluminum present.

Express the magnetic field, in the absence of a core, in the solenoid : Substitute numerical values and evaluate B and Bapp:

B = Bapp = µ0 nI

⎛ 400 ⎞ B = Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.2 m ⎟ (4 A ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

= 10.1 mT

Express the magnetization in the core with the aluminum present: Use Table 27-1 to find the value of χm for aluminum: Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M = χm

Bapp

µ0

χ m, Al = 2.3 × 10−5

M = 2.3 × 10 − 5

10.1 mT 4π × 10 − 7 N/A 2

= 0.185 A/m

75 • Picture the Problem We can use Bapp = µ 0 nI to find Bapp at the center of the tungsten core in the solenoid. The magnetization is related to Bapp and χm according to M = χ m Bapp µ0 = χ m nI and we can use B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) to find B. Express the magnetic field, for a tungsten core, in the solenoid : Substitute numerical values and evaluate Bapp:

Bapp = µ0 nI

⎛ 400 ⎞ Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.2 m ⎟ (4 A ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

= 10.053 mT

Express the magnetization in the core with the aluminum present: Use Table 27-1 to find the value of χm for tungsten:

M = χm

Bapp

µ0

= χ m nI

χ m, tungstenl = 6.8 × 10 −5

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 579
**

⎛ 400 ⎞ M = 6.8 × 10 −5 ⎜ ⎜ 0.2 m ⎟(4 A ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

(

)

= 0.544 A/m

Express B in terms of Bapp and χm: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) B = (10.053 mT ) (1 + 6.8 × 10 −5 ) = 10.054 mT

76 • Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) to relate B and Bapp to the magnetic susceptibility of tungsten. Dividing both sides of this equation by Bapp and examining the value of χm, tungsten will allow us to decide whether the field inside the solenoid decreases or increases when the core is removed. Express the magnetic field inside the solenoid with the tungsten core present B in terms of Bapp and χm: Express the ratio of B to Bapp:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m )

where Bapp is the magnetic field in the absence of the tungsten core.

B = 1 + χm Bapp

(1)

(a) Because χm, tungsten > 0:

B > Bapp

and

**B will decrease when the tungsten core is removed.
**

(b) From equation (1) the fractional change is:

χ m = 6.8 × 10 −5 = 6.8 × 10−3%

77 • Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) to relate B and Bapp to the magnetic susceptibility of liquid sample. Express the magnetic field inside the solenoid with the liquid sample present B in terms of Bapp and χm,

B = Bapp (1 + χ m, sample )

where Bapp is the magnetic field in the absence of the liquid sample.

580 Chapter 27

sample:

The fractional change in the magnetic field in the core is: Substitute numerical values and evaluate χm, sample:

∆B = χ m, sample Bapp

χ m, sample =

∆B = −0.004% Bapp

= − 4.00 × 10 −5

78 • Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp = µ0 nI to find B and Bapp at the center when core. (a) Express the magnetic field, in the absence of a core, in the solenoid:

there is no core in the solenoid and B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) when there is an aluminum or silver

B = Bapp = µ0 nI

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B and Bapp:

⎛ 50 ⎞ B = Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.01 m ⎟ (10 A ) = 62.8 mT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

(b) With an aluminum core: Use Table 27-1 to find the value of χm for aluminum:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m )

χ m, Al = 2.3 × 10−5

and

1 + χ m, Al = 1 + 2.3 × 10 −5 ≈ 1

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B and Bapp:

⎛ 50 ⎞ B = Bapp = (4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )⎜ ⎜ 0.01 m ⎟ (10 A ) = 62.8 mT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(c) With a silver core: Use Table 27-1 to find the value of χm for silver:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m )

χ m, Ag = −2.6 × 10−5

and

1 + χ m, Ag = 1 − 2.6 × 10 −5 ≈ 1

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 581
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B and Bapp:

⎛ 50 ⎞ B = Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.01 m ⎟ (10 A ) = 62.8 mT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

*79 •• Picture the Problem We can use the data in the table and Bapp = µ 0 nI to plot B versus Bapp. We can find Km using B = K m Bapp . We can find the applied field Bapp for a long solenoid using: Km can be found from Bapp and B using:

Bapp = µ0 nI

Km =

B Bapp

The following graph was plotted using a spreadsheet program. The abscissa values for the graph were obtained by multiplying nI by µ0. B initially rises rapidly, and then becomes nearly flat. This is characteristic of a ferromagnetic material.

2.0 1.6 1.2 B (T) 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.000

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

0.010

0.012

0.014

B app (T)

The graph of Km versus nI shown below was also plotted using a spreadsheet program. Note that Km becomes quite large for small values of nI but then diminishes. A more revealing graph would be to plot B/(nI), which would be quite large for small values of nI and then drop to nearly zero at nI = 10,000 A/m, corresponding to saturation of the magnetization.

582 Chapter 27

6000 5000 4000

Km

3000 2000 1000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

nI (A/m)

80 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the magnetization of a sample to find M and the relationship between the Bohr magneton and the magnetic moment of the sample to find the number of electrons aligned in the sample. In part (c) we can express the magnetic moment of the disk in terms of the amperian surface current and solve for the latter. (a) Express the magnetization of the sample in terms of its magnetic moment and volume: Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M =

µ

V

=

µ πr 2 d

M=

1.5 × 10 −2 A ⋅ m 2

π (1.4 cm )2 (0.3 cm )

= 8.12 × 10 3 A/m

(b) Relate the magnetic moment of the sample to the Bohr magneton: Solve for and evaluate N:

µ = Nµ B

1.5 × 10 −2 A ⋅ m 2 µ = µ B 9.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2

N=

= 1.62 × 10 21

(c) Express the magnetic moment of the disk in terms of the amperian

µ = AI

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 583
**

surface current: Solve for I and substitute for µ to obtain:

I=

µ

A

=

MV MAt = = Mt A A

where t is the thickness of the disk. Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: 81 •• Picture the Problem We can imagine the cylinder with the hole cut out as the superposition of two uniform cylinders with radii r and R, respectively, and magnetization −M and M, respectively. We can use the expression for B on the axis of a current loop to express the difference of the fields due to the two cylinders at a distance x from their common center. We’ll denote each field by the subscript identifying the radius of the current loop. From Problem 39 we have:

I = (8.12 × 103 A/m )(0.3 cm ) = 24.4 A

Br =

and

µ0 2π r 2 I µ0 r 2 I = 4π (x 2 + r 2 ) 3 2 2(x 2 + r 2 ) 3 2 µ0 2π R 2 I µ0 R 2 I = 4π (x 2 + R 2 ) 3 2 2(x 2 + R 2 ) 3 2

BR =

The resultant field at x is the difference between BR and Br:

Bx ( x ) = BR (x ) − Br (x ) = =

2 x2 + R2 −

(

µ0 R 2 I

)

32

−

2 x2 + r 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(

µ0 r 2 I

)

32

µ0 I ⎡

⎢ 2 ⎢ x2 + R2 ⎣

(

R2

)

32

(x

r2

2

+ r2

)

32

The resultant magnetization of the disks is M = B/µ0:

M (x ) =

⎤ I⎡ R2 r2 − ⎢ 2 32 32⎥ 2 ⎢ (x + R 2 ) (x 2 + r 2 ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

The magnetization current is the product of M and the thickness of the disks:

584 Chapter 27

The magnetization is related to the amperian current:

M =

dI amperian dl

⇒ I amperian = Mdl

0

∫

t

Substitute for M to obtain:

I amperian

I⎡ R2 =∫ ⎢ 2 ⎢ x2 + R2 0 ⎣

t

(

)

32

−

(x

r2

2

+ r2

)

⎤ It ⎡ R2 dl = ⎢ 32⎥ 2 ⎢ x2 + R2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(

)

32

−

(x

r2

2

+ r2

)

⎤ 32⎥ ⎥ ⎦

**Atomic Magnetic Moments
**

*82 •• Picture the Problem We can find the magnetic moment of a nickel atom µ from its relationship the saturation magnetization MS using M S = nµ where n is the number of molecules. n, in turn, can be found from Avogadro’s number, the density of nickel, and its molar mass using n =

NA ρ . Μ

Express the saturation magnetic field in terms of the number of molecules per unit volume and the magnetic moment of each molecule: Express the number of molecules per unit volume in terms of Avogadro’s number NA, the molecular mass M, and the density ρ: Substitute and simplify to obtain:

M S = nµ

or

µ=

n=

MS n NA ρ Μ

µ=

MS µM µM M = 0 S = 0 S N A ρ µ0 N A ρ µ0 N A ρ Μ Μ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate µ:

µ=

(4π × 10

(0.61 T ) (58.7 × 10 −3 kg/mol)

−7

N/A

2

)(6.02 × 10

23

atoms/mol 8.7 g/cm

)(

3

)

= 5.44 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2

Express the value of 1 Bohr magneton:

µ B = 9.27 ×10−24 A ⋅ m 2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 585
**

Divide µ by µB to obtain:

**µ 5.44 ×10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 = = 0.587 µ B 9.27 ×10 −24 A ⋅ m 2
**

or

µ = 0.587 µ B

83 •• Picture the Problem We can find the magnetic moment of a cobalt atom µ from its relationship to the saturation magnetization MS using M S = nµ, where n is the number of molecules. n, in turn, can be found from Avogadro’s number, the density of cobalt, and its molar mass using n =

NA ρ . Μ

Express the saturation magnetic field in terms of the number of molecules per unit volume and the magnetic moment of each molecule: Express the number of molecules per unit volume in terms of Avogadro’s number NA, the molecular mass M, and the density ρ: Substitute and simplify to obtain:

M S = nµ

or

µ=

n=

MS n NA ρ Μ

µ=

MS µM µM M = 0 S = 0 S N A ρ µ0 N A ρ µ0 N A ρ Μ Μ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate µ:

µ=

(4π × 10

(1.79 T ) (58.9 × 10 −3 kg/mol)

−7

N/A

2

)(6.02 × 10

23

atoms/mol 8.9 g/cm

)(

3

)

= 1.57 × 10 −23 A ⋅ m 2

Express the value of 1 Bohr magneton: Divide µ by µB to obtain:

**µ B = 9.27 ×10−24 A ⋅ m 2 µ 1.57 ×10 −23 A ⋅ m 2 = = 1.69 µ B 9.27 ×10−24 A ⋅ m 2
**

or

µ = 1.69µ B

586 Chapter 27

Paramagnetism

84 • Picture the Problem We can show that χm = µµ0Ms/3kT by equating Curie’s law and the equation that defines χm ( M = χ m

Bapp

µ0

) and solving for χm.

Express Curie’s law:

M =

1 µBapp MS 3 kT

where MS is the saturation value. Express the magnetization of the substance in terms of its magnetic susceptibility χm: Equate these expressions to obtain:

M = χm

Bapp

µ0

1 µBapp MS 3 kT

χm

or

Bapp

µ0

=

χm 1 µ = M µ0 3 kT S

µ0 µM S

3kT

Solve for χm to obtain:

χm =

85 •• Picture the Problem We can use the assumption that M = fM S and Curie’s law to solve these equations simultaneously for the fraction f of the molecules have their magnetic moments aligned with the external magnetic field. (a) Assume that some fraction f of the molecules have their magnetic moments aligned with the external magnetic field and that the rest of the molecules are randomly oriented and so do not contribute to the magnetic field: From Curie’s law we have:

M = fM S

M =

1 µBapp MS 3 kT

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 587
**

Equate these expressions and solve for f to obtain:

fM S =

and

1 µBapp MS 3 kT

f =

µB

3kT

because B given in the problem statement is the external magnetic field Bapp. (b) Substitute numerical values and evaluate f:

(9.27 × 10 f = 3(1.381 × 10

−24

A ⋅ m 2 (1 T ) − 23 J/K (300 K )

)

)

= 7.46 × 10 −4

*86 •• Picture the Problem In (a) we can express the saturation magnetic field in terms of the number of molecules per unit volume and the magnetic moment of each molecule and use n = N A ρ Μ to express the number of molecules per unit volume in terms of Avogadro’s number NA, the molecular mass M, and the density ρ. We can use χ m = µ0 µM S 3kT from Problem 84 to calculate χm. (a) Express the saturation magnetic field in terms of the number of molecules per unit volume and the magnetic moment of each molecule: Express the number of molecules per unit volume in terms of Avogadro’s number NA, the molecular mass M, and the density ρ: Substitute to obtain:

M S = nµ B

n=

NA ρ Μ

MS =

NA ρ µB Μ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate MS:

MS =

(6.02 ×10

23

atoms/mol 2.7 × 103 kg/m 3 9.27 × 10−24 A ⋅ m 2 27 g/mol

)(

)(

)

= 5.58 × 105 A/m

and

BS = µ 0 M S = (4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )(5.58 × 105 A/m ) = 0.701 T

588 Chapter 27

(b) From Problem 84 we have:

χm =

µ0 µM S

3kT

Substitute numerical values and evaluate χm:

χm =

(4π ×10

−7

N/A 2 9.27 × 10−24 A ⋅ m 2 5.58 × 105 A/m = 5.23 × 10−4 3 1.381× 10−23 J/K (300 K )

(

)(

)

)(

)

(c) In calculating χ m in (b ) we neglected any diamagnetic effects. 87 •• Picture the Problem We can use Equation 27-17 to express Bapp and Equation 27-21 to express B in terms of Bapp and M. Express Bapp inside a tightly wound toroid: The resultant field B in the ring is the sum of Bapp and µ0M:

Bapp =

µ0 NI for R − r < a < R + r 2πa µ 0 NI + µ0 M 2πa

B = Bapp + µ 0 M =

88 •• Picture the Problem We can find the magnetization using M = χ m Bapp µ0 and the magnetic field using B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) .

(a) Using Equation 27-22, express the magnetization M in terms of χm and Bapp: Express Bapp inside a tightly wound toroid: Substitute to obtain:

M = χm

Bapp

µ0

Bapp =

µ0 NI 2πrmean

µ0 NI NI 2πrmean M = χm = χm µ0 2πrmean

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

(4 × 10 )(2000)(15 A ) M=

−3

2π (0.2 m )

= 95.5 A/m

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 589
**

(b) Express B in terms of Bapp and χm: Substitute for Bapp to obtain:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m )

B=

µ0 NI (1 + χ m ) 2πrmean

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B=

(4π × 10

−7

N/A 2 (2000)(15 A ) 1 + 4 × 10 −3 = 30.1 mT 2π (0.2 m )

)

(

)

(c) Express the fractional increase in B produced by the liquid oxygen:

∆B B − Bapp = B B Bapp (1 + χ m ) − Bapp χ m Bapp = = B B 1 χm = = 1 1 + χm +1

χm

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ∆B/B:

∆B = B

1 1 +1 4 × 10 −3

= 3.98 × 10 −3

= 0.398%

89 ••

Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp (1 + χ m ) and Bapp = within the substance and M = χ m

µ0 NI = µ0 nI to find B 2πrmean

Bapp

µ0

to find the magnitude of the magnetization.

(a) Express the magnetic field B within the substance in terms of Bapp and χm: Express Bapp inside the toroid:

B = Bapp (1 + χ m )

Bapp =

µ0 NI = µ0 nI 2πrmean

Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B = µ0 nI (1 + χ m )

590 Chapter 27

B = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 60 × 10 2 m −1 (4 A ) 1 + 2.9 × 10 −4 = 30.2 mT

(b) Express the magnetization M in terms of χm and Bapp: Substitute for Bapp to obtain:

(

)(

)

(

)

M = χm M = χm

Bapp

µ0 µ0 nI = χ m nI µ0

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M = 2.9 × 10 −4 6000 m −1 (4 A ) = 6.96 A/m

B = Bapp = 30.2 mT

(

)(

)

(c) If there were no paramagnetic core present:

Ferromagnetism

*90 • Picture the Problem We can use B = K m Bapp to find B and M = (K m − 1) Bapp µ 0 to find M. Express B in terms of M and Km: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

**B = K m Bapp B = (5500 ) 1.57 × 10 −4 T = 0.864 T
**

M = (K m − 1) Bapp ≈ K m Bapp

(

)

Relate M to Km and Bapp:

µ0

µ0

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M =

(5500) (1.57 × 10 −4 T )

4π × 10 −7 N/A 2

= 6.87 × 105 A/m

91 •• Picture the Problem We can relate the permeability µ of annealed iron to χm using

**µ = (1 + χ m )µ0 , find χm using Equation 27-22 ( M = χ m
**

( K m = 1 + χ m ) to evaluate Km.

Bapp

µ0

), and use its definition

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 591
**

Express the permeability µ of annealed iron in terms of its magnetic susceptibility χm: Using Equation 27-22, express the magnetization M in terms of χm and Bapp: Solve for and evaluate χm (see Table 27-2 for the product of µ0 and M): Use its definition to express and evaluate the relative permeability Km: Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate µ:

µ = (1 + χ m )µ0

(1)

M = χm

Bapp

µ0

2.16 T = 10.75 0.201 T

χm =

µ0 M

Bapp

=

K m = 1 + χ m = 1 + 10.75 = 11.75

µ = (1 + 10.75) (4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )

= 1.48 × 10 −5 N/A 2

92 •• Picture the Problem We can use the relationship between the magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid and the current in the solenoid to find the minimum current is needed in the solenoid to demagnetize the magnet. Relate the magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid to the current in the solenoid: Solve for I to obtain:

Bx = µ0 nI

I=

Bx µ0 n Bapp

Let Bapp = Bx to obtain:

I=

µ0 n

5.53 × 10 −2 T ⎛ 600 ⎞ 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.15 m ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

I=

(

)

= 11.0 A

592 Chapter 27

93 •• Picture the Problem We can use the equation describing the magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid, as a function of the current in the solenoid, to find Bapp. We can then use B = Bapp + µ0 M to find M and B = K m Bapp to evaluate Km. (a) Relate the magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid to the current in the solenoid: Substitute numerical values to obtain:

Bx = µ0 nI

Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 50 cm −1 (2 A ) = 12.6 mT

(

)(

)

(b) Relate M to B and Bapp: Solve for and evaluate M:

B = Bapp + µ0 M M = B − Bapp = 1.72 T − 12.6 mT 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2

µ0

= 1.36 × 10 6 A/m

(c) Express B in terms of Km and Bapp: Solve for and evaluate Km:

B = K m Bapp

Km =

B 1.72 T = = 137 Bapp 12.6 mT

94 •• Picture the Problem We can use the equation describing the magnetic field on the axis of a solenoid, as a function of the current in the solenoid, to find Bapp. We can then use B = Bapp + µ0 M to find M and B = K m Bapp to evaluate Km. (a) Relate the magnetic field on the axis of the solenoid to the current in the solenoid: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Bapp:

Bx = µ0 nI

Bapp = 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 50 cm −1 (0.2 A ) = 1.26 mT

(

)(

)

(b) Relate M to B and Bapp:

B = Bapp + µ0 M

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 593
**

Solve for M:

M =

B − Bapp

µ0

1.58 T − 1.26 mT 4π × 10−7 N/A 2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M =

= 1.26 × 106 A/m

(c) Express B in terms of Km and Bapp: Solve for and evaluate Km:

B = K m Bapp

Km =

B 1.58 T = = 1.25 × 103 Bapp 1.26 mT

95 •• Picture the Problem The magnetic field in the core of a hollow solenoid is related to the current in its coils according to Bx = Bapp = µ0 nI . The presence of the iron increases the magnetic field by a factor of Km. In part (b), requiring that the magnetic field be unchanged when the iron core is removed will allow us to find the current that will produce the same field within the solenoid. (a) Relate the magnetic field on the axis of the solenoid to the current in the solenoid: Express B in terms of Bapp: Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

Bx = Bapp = µ0 nI

B = K m Bapp B = K m µ0 nI

B = 1200 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 2000 m −1 (20 mA ) = 60.3 mT

(b) We require, that with the iron core removed, the magnetic field is unchanged: Solve for and evaluate I0:

(

)(

)

B = K m µ0 nI = µ0 nI 0

I 0 = K m I = 1200(20 mA ) = 24.0 A

594 Chapter 27

*96 •• Picture the Problem Because the wires carry equal currents in opposite directions, the magnetic field midway between them will be twice that due to either current alone and will be greater, by a factor of Km, than it would be in the absence of the insulator. We can use Ampère’s law to find the field, due to either current, at the midpoint of the plane of r r r the wires and dF = Id l × B to find the force per unit length on either wire. (a) Relate the magnetic field in the insulator to the magnetic field in its absence: Apply Ampère’s law to a closed circular path a distance r from a current-carrying wire to obtain: Solve for Bapp to obtain:

B = K m Bapp

r r B ⋅ d l = Bapp (2πr ) = µ0 I C = µ0 I ∫

C

Bapp =

µ0 I 2πr µ0 I K m µ0 I = 2πr πr

Because there are two current carrying wires, with their currents in opposite directions, the fields are additive and: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B = 2K m

B=

120 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 (40 A ) π (0.02 m )

(

)

= 96.0 mT

(b) Express the force per unit length experienced by either wire due to the current in the other: Apply Ampère’s law to obtain:

F = BI l

∫ B ⋅ d l = B(2πr ) = µ I

C

r

r

0 C

= µ0 I

where r is the separation of the wires. Solve for B:

B=

µ0 I K µI and Bapp = m 0 2πr 2πr

Substitute to obtain:

F K m µ0 I 2 = l 2πr

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 595
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

F : l

F 120(4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )(40 A ) = l 2π (0.04 m ) = 0.960 N/m

2

97 •• Picture the Problem We can use B = Bapp + µ 0 M and the expression for the magnetic field inside a tightly wound toroid to find the magnetization M. We can find Km from its definition, µ = K m µ 0 to find µ, and K m = 1 + χ m to find χm for the iron sample. (a) Relate the magnetization to B and Bapp: Solve for M:

B = Bapp + µ0 M

M =

B − Bapp

µ0 µ0 NI 2πr µ0 NI 2πr = B − NI µ0 µ0 2πr

Express the magnetic field inside a tightly wound toroid: Substitute and simplify to obtain:

Bapp =

M =

B−

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M =

1.8 T 2000(10 A ) − −7 2 4π ×10 N/A 2π (0.2 m )

= 1.42 ×106 A/m

(b) Use its definition to express Km:

Km =

2πrB B B = = Bapp µ0 NI µ0 NI 2πr

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Km:

Km =

(

2π (0.2 m )(1.8 T ) 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 (2000)(10 A )

)

= 90.0

Now that we know Km we can find µ using:

µ = K m µ0 = 90(4π × 10−7 N/A 2 )

= 1.13 × 10 −4 T ⋅ m/A Km = 1+ χm

Relate χm to Km:

596 Chapter 27

Solve for and evaluate χm:

χ m = K m − 1 = 89.0

98 •• Picture the Problem We can substitute the expression for applied magnetic field ( Bapp =

**µ0 NI ) in the defining equation for Km ( B = K m Bapp ) to obtain an expression 2πr
**

B = K m Bapp

for the magnetic field B in the toroid. Relate the magnetic field in the toroid to the relative permeability of its core: Express the applied magnetic field in the toroid in terms of the current in its winding: Substitute to obtain:

Bapp =

µ0 NI 2πr

B=

K m µ0 NI 2πr

Express the number of turns N of wire in terms of the number of turns per unit length n: Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

N = 2πrn

B = K m µ0 nI B = 500 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 60 cm −1 (0.2 A ) = 0.754 T

(

)(

)

99 •• Picture the Problem We can use Ampère’s law to obtain expressions for the magnetic field inside the wire, inside the ferromagnetic material, and in the region outside the insulating ferromagnetic material. (a) Apply Ampère’s law to a circle of radius r < 1 mm and concentric with the center of the wire: Assuming that the current is distributed uniformly over the crosssectional area of the wire (uniform current density), express IC in terms

r r B ⋅ d l = B(2πr ) = µ0 I C ∫

C

IC I = 2 2 πr πR

or

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 597
**

of the total current I:

IC =

r2 I R2

Substitute to obtain:

B(2πr ) =

µ0 Ir 2

R2

Solve for B:

B=

µ0 I r 2πR 2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B=

(4π × 10

N/A 2 (40 A ) r 2 2π (1 mm )

−7

)

= (8.00 T/m ) r

(b) Relate the magnetic field inside the ferromagnetic material to the magnetic field due to the current in the wire: Apply Ampère's law to a circle of radius 1 mm < r < 4 mm and concentric with the center of the wire: Solve for Bapp:

B = K m Bapp

r r B ⋅ d l = Bapp (2πr ) = µ0 I C = µ0 I ∫

C

Bapp = B=

µ0 I 2πr

Substitute to obtain:

K m µ0 I 2πr

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B=

400(4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )(40 A ) 2πr 1 = (3.20 × 10 −3 T ⋅ m ) r

r

0 C

(c) Apply Ampère’s law to a circle of radius r > 4 mm and concentric with the center of the wire: Solve for B:

∫ B ⋅ d l = B(2πr ) = µ I

C

r

= µ0 I

B=

µ0 I 2πr

598 Chapter 27

N/A 2 )(40 A ) 2πr 1 = (8.00 × 10 −6 T ⋅ m ) r

−7

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B=

(4π × 10

(d) Note that the field in the ferromagnetic region is that which would be produced in a nonmagnetic region by a current of 400I = 1600 A. The ampèrian current on the inside of the surface of the ferromagnetic material must therefore be (1600 − 40) A = 1560 A in the direction of I. On the outside surface there must then be an ampèrian current of 1560 A in the opposite direction.

General Problems

100 • Picture the Problem Because point P is on the line connecting the straight segments of the conductor, these segments do not contribute to the magnetic field at P. Hence, we can use the expression for the magnetic field at the center of a current loop to find BP. Express the magnetic field at the center of a current loop:

B=

µ0 I

2R 1 µ0 I µ0 I = 2 2R 4R

where R is the radius of the loop. Express the magnetic field at the center of half a current loop: Substitute numerical values and evaluate B:

B=

B=

(4π × 10

N/A 2 (15 A ) 4(0.2 m )

−7

)

= 2.36 × 10 −5 T

*101 • Picture the Problem Let out of the page be the positive x direction. Because point P is on the line connecting the straight segments of the conductor, these segments do not contribute to the magnetic field at P. Hence, the resultant magnetic field at P will be the sum of the magnetic fields due to the current in the two semicircles, and we can use the expression for the magnetic field at the center of a current loop to find BP . Express the resultant magnetic field at P:

r

r r r BP = B1 + B2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 599
**

Express the magnetic field at the center of a current loop:

B=

µ0 I

2R 1 µ0 I µ0 I = 2 2R 4R

where R is the radius of the loop. Express the magnetic field at the center of half a current loop: Express B1 and B2 :

B=

r

r

r µI ˆ B1 = 0 i 4 R1

and

r µI ˆ B2 = − 0 i 4 R2

Substitute to obtain:

r µ Iˆ µ I ˆ µ I⎛ 1 1 ⎞ˆ BP = 0 i − 0 i = 0 ⎜ − ⎜ R R ⎟i ⎟ 4 R1 4 R2 4 ⎝ 1 2 ⎠

102

••

Picture the Problem We can express B as a function of N, I, and R using B = eliminate R by relating l to R through l = 2πRN . Express the magnetic field at the center of a coil of N turns and radius R: Relate l to the number of turns N: Solve for R to obtain:

µ0 NI

2R

and

B=

µ0 NI

2R

l = 2πRN

R=

l 2πN

Substitute to obtain:

B=

µ 0 NI

2

l 2πN

=

µ 0πN 2 I

l

103 •• Picture the Problem The magnetic field at P (which is out of the page) is the sum of the magnetic fields due to the three parts of the wire. Let the numerals 1, 2, and 3 denote the left-hand, center (short), and right-hand wires. We can then use the expression for B due to a straight wire segment to find each of these fields and their sum.

600 Chapter 27

Express the resultant magnetic field at point P: Because B1 = B3: Express the magnetic field due to a straight wire segment: For wires 1 and 3 (the long wires), θ1 = 90° and θ2 = 45°:

BP = B1 + B2 + B3

BP = 2 B1 + B2

B=

**µ0 I (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) 4π R
**

I (sin 90° + sin 45°) a 1 ⎞ I⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ a⎝ 2⎠ I (sin 45° + sin 45°) a I⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ a⎝ 2⎠

B1 =

µ0 4π µ = 0 4π µ0 4π µ = 0 4π

For wire 2, θ1 = θ2 = 45°:

B2 =

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

⎡µ I ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ µ 0 I ⎛ 2 ⎞ BP = 2 ⎢ 0 ⎜ 1 + ⎟⎥ + ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠⎦ 4π a ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ 4π a ⎝ µ I⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = 0 ⎜1 + + ⎟ 2π a ⎝ 2 2⎠ =

µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I 2 ⎞ 1+ 2 ⎜1 + ⎟= 2π a ⎝ 2π a 2⎠

(

)

*104 •• Picture the Problem Depending on the direction of the wire, the magnetic field due to its current (provided this field is a large enough fraction of the earth’s magnetic field) will either add to or subtract from the earth’s field and moving the compass over the ground in the vicinity of the wire will indicate the direction of the current. Apply Ampère’s law to a circle of radius r and concentric with the center of the wire: Solve for B to obtain:

r r B ⋅ d l = Bwire (2πr ) = µ0 I C = µ0 I ∫

C

Bwire =

µ0 I 2πr

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 601
**

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Bwire:

Bwire =

N/A 2 (50 A ) 2π (2 m ) = 0.0500 G

−7

(4π × 10

)

Express the ratio of Bwire to Bearth:

Bwire 0.05 G = ≈ 7% Bearth 0.7 G

Thus, the field of the current-carrying wire should be detectable with a good compass.

If the cable runs east-west, its magnetic field is in the north-south direction and thus either adds to or subtracts from the earth’s field, depending on the current direction and location of the compass. Moving the compass over the region one should be able to detect the change. If the cable runs north-south, its magnetic field is perpendicular to that of the earth, and moving the compass about one should observe a change in the direction of the compass needle. 105 •• r r r Picture the Problem Let I1 and I2 represent the currents of 20 A and 5 A, F1 , F2 , F3 , and F4 the forces that act on the horizontal wire at the top of the loop, and the other

r

wires following the current in a counterclockwise direction, and B1 , B2 , B3 , and B4 the magnetic fields at these wires due to I1. Let the positive x direction be to the right and the positive y direction be upward. Note that only the components into or out of the paper r r r r r r r r of B1 , B2 , B3 , and B4 contribute to the forces F1 , F2 , F3 , and F4 , respectively. (a) Express the forces F2 and F4 in terms of I2 and B2 and B4 :

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r r r F2 = I 2 l 2 × B2

and

r r r F4 = I 2 l 4 × B4 r µ 2I ˆ B2 = − 0 1 k 4π R1

Express B2 and B4 :

r

r

and

r µ 2I ˆ B4 = − 0 1 k 4π R4

602 Chapter 27

Substitute to obtain:

r ⎛ µ 2I ˆ ⎞ F2 = − I 2l 2 ˆ × ⎜ − 0 1 k ⎟ j ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4π R1 ⎠ µl II ˆ = 0 2 1 2i 2πR2

and

r ⎛ µ 2I ˆ ⎞ F4 = I 2 l 4 ˆ × ⎜ − 0 1 k ⎟ j ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 4π R4 ⎠ µl II ˆ =− 0 4 1 2i 2πR4

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2 and F4 :

r

r

r (4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 )(0.1 m )(20 A )(5 A ) ˆ ˆ F2 = i = (1.00 × 10 −4 N ) i 2π (0.02 m )

and

r (4π × 10−7 N/A 2 )(0.1 m )(20 A )(5 A ) iˆ = F4 = − 2π (0.07 m )

(− 0.286 × 10

−4

ˆ N i

)

(b) Express the net force acting on the coil: Because the lengths of segments 1 and 3 are the same and the currents in these segments are in opposite directions:

r r r r r Fnet = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 r r F1 + F3 = 0

and

(1)

r r r Fnet = F2 + F4

Substitute for F2 and F4 in equation (1) and simplify to obtain:

r

r

**r ˆ Fnet = (− 0.250 × 10 −4 N ) ˆ + (1.00 × 10 −4 N ) i + (0.250 × 10 −4 N ) ˆ j j ˆ + (− 0.286 × 10 −4 N ) i
**

ˆ = 0.714 × 10 −4 N i

106 •• Picture the Problem Let out of the page be the positive x direction and the numerals 40 and 60 refer to the circular arcs whose radii are 40 cm and 60 cm. Because point P is on the line connecting the straight segments of the conductor, these segments do not contribute to the magnetic field at P. Hence the resultant magnetic field at P will be the sum of the magnetic fields due to the current in the two circular arcs and we can use the

(

)

Sources of the Magnetic Field 603 r expression for the magnetic field at the center of a current loop to find BP .

Express the resultant magnetic field at P: Express the magnetic field at the center of a current loop:

r r r BP = B40 + B60

B=

µ0 I

2R 1 µ0 I µ0 I = 6 2 R 12 R

where R is the radius of the loop. Express the magnetic field at the center of one-sixth of a current loop: Express B40 and B60 :

B=

r

r

r µI ˆ B40 = − 0 i 12 R40

and

r µI ˆ B60 = 0 i 12 R60

Substitute to obtain:

r µI ˆ µI ˆ BP = − 0 i + 0 i 12 R40 12 R60

=

µ0 I ⎛ 1

1 ⎞ˆ ⎜ ⎜ R − R ⎟i ⎟ 12 ⎝ 60 40 ⎠

Substitute numerical values and evaluate BP :

r

r 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 (8 A ) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ˆ ⎜ BP = ⎜ 0.6 m − 0.4 m ⎟ i = ⎟ 12 ⎝ ⎠

(

)

(− 6.98 × 10 T )iˆ

−7

107 •• Picture the Problem Let the positive x direction be into the page and the numerals 20 and 40 refer to the circular arcs whose radii are 20 cm and 40 cm. Because point P is on the line connecting the straight segments of the conductor, these segments do not contribute to the magnetic field at P and the resultant field at P is the sum of the fields due to the two semicircular current loops. Express the resultant magnetic field at P: Express the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop:

r r r BP = B20 + B40

B=

µ0 I

2R

604 Chapter 27

where R is the radius of the loop. Express the magnetic field at the center of half a circular current loop: Express B20 and B40 :

B=

1 µ0 I µ0 I = 2 2R 4R

r

r

**r r µI ˆ µI ˆ B20 = 0 i and B40 = 0 i 4 R20 4 R40 r µI ˆ µI ˆ BP = 0 i + 0 i 4 R20 4 R40
**

=

Substitute to obtain:

µ0 I ⎛ 1

1 ⎞ˆ ⎜ ⎟i + 4 ⎜ R20 R40 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substitute numerical values and evaluate BP:

r 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 (3 A ) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ˆ ⎜ BP = + ⎜ 0.2 m 0.4 m ⎟ i = ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠

(

)

(7.07 µT ) iˆ

*108 •• Picture the Problem Chose the coordinate system shown to the right. Then the current is in the positive z direction. Assume that the electron is at (1 cm, 0, 0). We can use

r r r µ 2I r r r ˆ to F = qv × B to relate the magnetic force on the electron to v and B and B = 0 j 4π r r express the magnetic field at the location of the electron. We’ll need to express v for r r r each of the three situations described in the problem in order to evaluate F = qv × B .

Express the magnetic force acting on the electron:

r r r F = qv × B

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 605
**

Express the magnetic field due to the current in the wire as a function of distance from the wire: Substitute to obtain:

r µ 2I ˆ B= 0 j 4π r r r µ 2 I ˆ 2qµ0 I r ˆ F = qv × 0 j= v× j 4π r 4πr

r ˆ v = vi

( )

(1)

(a) Express the velocity of the electron when it moves directly away from the wire: Substitute to obtain:

r 2qµ0 I ˆ j 2qµ0 Iv k ˆ vi × ˆ = F= 4πr 4πr r

(

)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F :

ˆ r 2 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 − 1.6 × 10 −19 C 5 × 10 6 m/s (20 A ) k F= 4π (0.01 m ) =

r

(

)(

)(

)

(− 3.20 × 10

−16

ˆ N )k

(b) Express v when the electron is traveling parallel to the wire in the direction of the current: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

r ˆ v = vk

r 2qµ0 I 2qµ0 Iv ˆ ˆ j vk × ˆ = − F= i 4πr 4πr

(

)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F :

r

ˆ r 2 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 − 1.6 × 10 −19 C 5 × 10 6 m/s (20 A ) i ˆ F =− = 3.20 × 10 −16 N i 4π (0.01 m )

(

)(

)(

)

(

)

(c) Express v when the electron is traveling perpendicular to the wire and tangent to a circle around the wire: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

r

r v = vˆ j

r 2 qµ 0 I F= vˆ × ˆ = 0 j j 4πr

(

)

606 Chapter 27

109 •• Picture the Problem We can apply Ampère's law to derive expressions for the magnetic field as a function of the distance from the center of the wire. Apply Ampère's law to a closed circular path of radius r < r0 to obtain: Because the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the wire: Substitute to obtain:

Br <r0 (2πr ) = µ 0 I C

IC I r2 = ⇒ IC = 2 I π r 2 π r02 r0

Br <r0 (2πr ) =

µ0 r 2 I

r02

(1)

Solve for Br <r0 :

Br <r0 =

µ 0 rI µ 0 2 I = r 2πr02 4π r02

Apply Ampère's law to a closed circular path of radius r > r0 to obtain: Solve for Br >r0 :

Br >r0 (2πr ) = µ 0 I C = µ 0 I

Br >r0 =

µ0 2I 4π r

(2)

The spreadsheet program to calculate B as a function of r in the interval 0 ≤ r ≤ 10r0 is shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows: Cell B1 B2 B3 A6 B6 C6 C17 Formula/Content 1.00E−07 5 1 2.55E−03 0.00E+00 10^4*$B$1*2*$B$2*A6/$B$3^2 10^4*$B$1*2*$B$2*A6/A17 Algebraic Form

µ0 4π

µ0 2 I r 4π r02 µ0 2 I 4π r

C N/A^2

I I r (m) r (mm)

1

A B mu/4pi= 1.00E−07

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 607
**

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 105 106 I= 5 r_0= 2.55E−03 r (m) 0.00E+00 2.55E−04 5.10E−04 7.65E−04 1.02E−03 2.45E−02 2.47E−02 2.50E−02 2.52E−02 2.55E−02 r (mm) 0.00E+00 2.55E−01 5.10E−01 7.65E−01 1.02E+00 2.45E+01 2.47E+01 2.50E+01 2.52E+01 2.55E+01 A m B (T) 0.00E+00 3.92E−01 7.84E−01 1.18E+00 1.57E+00 4.08E−01 4.04E−01 4.00E−01 3.96E−01 3.92E−01

**A graph of B as a function of r follows.
**

4

3 B (G)

2

1

0 0 4 8 12 r (mm) 16 20 24

110 •• Picture the Problem We can use

(magnetic moment = µ ) by the magnetic field B due to the current in the large coil. Relate the torque exerted by the large coil on the small coil to the r magnetic moment µ of the small coil and the magnetic field B due to the current in the large coil: Express the magnetic moment of the small coil:

r

**r r r τ = µ × B to find the torque exerted on the small coil
**

r

r r r τ = µ× B

or, because the planes of the two coils are perpendicular,

r

τ = µB

µ = NIA

where I is the current in the coil, N is the number of turns in the coil, and A is the

608 Chapter 27

cross-sectional area of the coil. Express the magnetic field at the center of the large coil:

B=

N'µ 0 I' 2R

where I′is the current in the large coil, N′ is the number of turns in the coil, and R is its radius. Substitute to obtain:

τ=

NN'II'Aµ 0 2R

Substitute numerical values and evaluate τ :

τ=

(50)(20)(4 A )(1 A )π (0.5 cm )2 (4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 ) = 2(10 cm )

1.97 µN ⋅ m

*111 •• Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law for rotational motion to obtain the differential equation of motion of the bar magnet. While this equation is not linear, we can use a small-angle approximation to render it linear and obtain an expression for the square of the angular frequency that we can solve for κ when there is an external field and for the period T in the absence of an external field. Apply

∑τ = Iα to the bar magnet

when B ≠ 0 to obtain the differential equation of motion for the magnet:

− κθ − µB sin θ = I

d 2θ dt 2

where I is the moment of inertia of the magnet about an axis through its point of suspension.

For small displacements from equilibrium (θ << 1): Rewrite the differential equation as:

− κθ − µBθ ≈ I

d 2θ dt 2

I

or

d 2θ + (κ + µB )θ = 0 dt 2

d 2θ ⎛ κ + µB ⎞ +⎜ ⎟θ = 0 dt 2 ⎝ I ⎠

Because the coefficient of the linear term is the square of the angular frequency, we have:

ω2 =

κ + µB

I

(1)

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 609
**

1 I = 12 mL2

Express the moment of inertia (see Table 9-1) of the bar magnet about an axis through its center: Substitute to obtain:

ω2 =

κ + µB

1 12

mL2 ⎛ 4π 2 ⎞ ⎟ − µB 2 ⎟ ⎝T ⎠

Solve for κ to obtain:

1 1 κ = 12 mL2ω 2 − µB = 12 mL2 ⎜ ⎜

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate κ :

π 2 mL2

3T 2

− µB

κ=

π 2 (0.8 kg )(0.16 m )2

3(0.5 s )

2

− 0.12 A ⋅ m 2 (0.2 T ) = 0.246 N ⋅ m/rad 4π 2 κ = T2 I T = 2π I = 2π mL2 m = πL 12κ 3κ

(

)

Substitute B = 0 and ω = 2π/T in equation (1) to obtain: Solve for T:

κ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

T = π (0.16 m ) = 0.523 s

0.8 kg 3(0.246 N ⋅ m/rad )

112 •• Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law for rotational motion to obtain the differential equation of motion of the bar magnet. While this equation is not linear, we can use a small-angle approximation to render it linear and obtain an expression for the square of the angular frequency that we can solve for the frequency f of the motion. Apply

∑τ = Iα to the bar magnet

− µB sin θ = I

to obtain the differential equation of motion for the magnet:

d 2θ dt 2

where I is the moment of inertia of the magnet about an axis through its point of suspension.

610 Chapter 27

For small displacements from equilibrium (θ << 1): Rewrite the differential equation as:

d 2θ − µBθ ≈ I 2 dt d 2θ I 2 + µBθ = 0 dt

or

d 2θ µB + θ =0 dt 2 I

Because the coefficient of the linear term is the square of the angular frequency, we have: Solve for ω to obtain:

ω2 =

µB

I

ω=

µB

I

113 •• Picture the Problem We can use the potential energy of the displaced bar magnet to find the force acting on it to return it to its equilibrium position. While this restoring force is not, in general, linear, we can use a binomial expansion to show that for displacements that are small compared to the radius of the coil, the restoring force is linear and, hence, the motion of the bar magnet is simple harmonic motion. We can then apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain the differential equation of motion of the bar magnet and use the coefficient of the linear term to express the period of the motion. Express the potential energy of the displaced bar magnet: Express the magnetic field on the axis of the current loop:

U = − µB

B=

µ0 2πNR 2 I 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

where I is the current in the loop and R is its radius. Substitute to obtain:

µ0 2πµNR 2 I U =− 4π (x 2 + R 2 )3 2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 611
**

Differentiate U with respect to x to find the restoring force acting on the bar magnet:

Fx = −

dU dx

−3 2 d 2 x + R2 dx 2 ⎡ ⎤ 3µ µNR I 1 =− 0 x ⎢ 2 52⎥ 2 ⎢ x + R2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

= 1 µ 0 µNR 2 I 2

[(

)

]

(

)

Factor R from the radical to obtain:

2

**⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 3µ0 µNR 2 I ⎢ 1 ⎥x Fx = − 52⎥ 5 ⎢ 2 2R ⎢ ⎛1 + x ⎞ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ R2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ 3µ µNI ⎛ x2 ⎞ = − 0 3 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ 2R ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

−5 2

x

Expand the radical factor to obtain:

⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

terms

−5 2

= 1−

5 x2 + higher order 2 R2

For x << R:

⎛ x2 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Fx = −

−5 2

≈1

Substitute in Fx to obtain:

3µ0 µNI x 2R3

Thus, we' ve shown that the bar magnet experiences a linear restoring force and, hence, its motion will be simple harmonic motion.

Apply

r r F = ma to the bar ∑

−

or

magnet to obtain:

3µ0 µNI d 2x x=m 2 2R3 dt

d 2 x 3µ 0 µNI + x=0 dt 2 2mR 3

Because the coefficient of the linear term is the square of the angular frequency we have:

ω2 =

4π 2 3µ0 µNI = T2 2mR 3

612 Chapter 27

Solve for T to obtain:

T = 2π

2mR 3 3µ0 µNI

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

2(0.1 kg )(0.1 m ) T = 2π = 10.2 s −7 3 4π × 10 N/A 2 0.04 A ⋅ m 2 (100)(5 A )

3

(

)(

)

114 •• Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law for rotational motion to obtain the differential equation of motion of the bar magnet. While this equation is not linear, we can use a small-angle approximation to render it linear and obtain an expression for the square of the angular frequency that we can solve for the frequency f of the motion. Apply

∑τ = Iα to the bar magnet

− µB sin θ = I

to obtain the differential equation of motion for the magnet:

d 2θ dt 2

where I is the moment of inertia of the magnet about an axis through its point of suspension.

For small displacements from equilibrium (θ << 1): Rewrite the differential equation as:

− µBθ ≈ I

d 2θ dt 2

I

or

d 2θ + µBθ = 0 dt 2

d 2θ µB + θ =0 dt 2 I

Because the coefficient of the linear term is the square of the angular frequency, we have: Solve for f to obtain:

ω 2 = 4π 2 f 2 =

µB

I

where f is the frequency of oscillation.

**I or, because µ = 2.2NµB where N is the
**

number of iron atoms in the bar magnet,

f =

1 2π

µB

f =

1 2π

2.2 Nµ B B I

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 613
**

From Table 9-1 we have: Express the number of iron atoms in terms of Avogadro’s number and the atomic weight of iron M:

1 1 I = 12 mL2 = 12 ρVL2

N m ρV = = NA M M

and

N=

N A ρV M 1 2π 2.2 N A ρVµ B B 2 1 12 ρVL M

Substitute for I and N and simplify to obtain:

f = =

1 6.6 N A µ B B πL M

Substitute numerical values and evaluate f:

f =

1 6.6 6.02 × 10 23 / mol 9.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 0.5 × 10 −4 T π (0.08 m ) 55.85 g/mol

(

)(

)(

)

= 0.723 Hz

115 •• Picture the Problem We can solve the equation for the frequency f of the compass needle given in Problem 112 for magnetic dipole moment of the needle. In Parts (b) and (c) we can use their definitions to find the magnetization M and the amperian current Iamperian. (a) In Problem 112 it is established that the frequency of the compass needle is:

f =

1 2π

µB

I

where I is the moment of inertia of the needle. Solve for µ to obtain:

4π 2 f 2 I µ= B

1 1 1 I = 12 mL2 = 12 ρVL2 = 12 ρπr 2 L3

Express the moment of inertia of the needle: Substitute to obtain:

µ=

π 3 f 2 ρr 2 L3

3B

614 Chapter 27

Substitute numerical values and evaluate µ:

µ=

π 3 (1.4 s -1 ) (7.96 × 103 kg/m 3 )(0.85 × 10 −3 m ) (0.03 m )3

2 2

3(0.6 × 10 −4 T )

= 5.24 × 10 −2 A ⋅ m 2

(b) Use its definition to express the magnetization M: Substitute to obtain:

M =

µ

V

M =

µ

V

=

π 3 f 2 ρr 2 L3

3BV

=

π 2 f 2 ρL2

3B

Substitute numerical values and evaluate M:

M =

π 2 (1.4 s -1 ) (7.96 × 103 kg/m 3 )(0.03 m )2

2

3 0.6 × 10 −4 T

(

)

= 7.70 × 105 A/m

(c) Express and evaluate the amperian current on the surface of the needle:

I amperian = ML = 7.70 × 105 A/m (0.03 m ) = 2.31 × 10 4 A

*116 •• Picture the Problem We can use the definition of angular momentum and Equation 2727, together with the definition of the magnetization M of the iron bar, to derive an expression for the rotational angular velocity of the bar just after it has been demagnetized. Assuming its angular momentum to be conserved, use the definition of L to express the angular momentum of the iron bar just after it has been demagnetized: Solve for the angular velocity ω:

(

)

L = Iω

ω=

L I

Assuming that Equation 27-27 holds yields:

**2m 2m 2m µ = e MV = e Mπr 2l q e e where r is the radius of the bar and l its L=
**

length.

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 615
**

Modeling the bar as a cylinder, express its moment of inertia with respect to its axis: Substitute to obtain:

I = 1 mr 2 = 1 ρVr 2 = 1 ρπr 4l 2 2 2

2me Mπr 2l 4me M e ω= 1 = 4 eρ r 2 2 ρπr l

Substitute numerical values (see Table 13-1 for the density of iron) and evaluate ω:

ω=

(

4 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 1.72 × 10 6 A/m = 4.92 × 10 −5 rad/s 2 3 3 −19 1.6 × 10 C 7.96 × 10 kg/m (0.01 m )

(

)(

)(

)

)

117 •• Picture the Problem The dipole moment of the bar is given by µ = 2.219 Nµ B , where N is the number of atoms in the bar. We can express N in terms of Avogadro’s number, the density of iron, the volume of the bar, and the atomic weight of iron. We can use the definition of torque to find the torque that must be supplied to hold the iron bar perpendicular to the given magnetic field. (a) Express the magnetic dipole moment of the magnetized iron bar:

µ = 2.219 Nµ B

where N is the number of iron atoms in the bar.

Express the number of iron atoms in terms of Avogadro’s number and the atomic weight of iron M:

N m ρV = = NA M M

and

N=

N A ρV M 2.219 N A ρVµ B 2.219 N A ρlAµ B = M M

Substitute to obtain:

µ=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate µ:

µ=

2.219 6.02 × 10 23 mol-1 7.96 × 103 kg/m 3 (0.2 m ) 55.85 × 10 -3 kg/mol × 2 × 10 −4 m 2 9.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2

(

)(

)

(

)(

)

= 70.6 A ⋅ m 2

616 Chapter 27

(b) Express the torque required to hold the iron bar perpendicular to the magnetic field: Substitute numerical values and evaluate τ:

τ = µB sin θ = µB sin 90° = µB

τ = (70.6 A ⋅ m 2 )(0.25 T ) = 17.7 N ⋅ m

*118 •• Picture the Problem Note that Be and Bc are perpendicular to each other and that the resultant magnetic field is at an angle θ with north. We can use trigonometry to relate Bc and Be and express Bc in terms of the geometry of the coil and the current flowing in it. Express Bc in terms of Be:

Bc = Be tan θ

where θ is the angle of the resultant field from north.

Express the field Bc due to the current in the coil:

Bc =

Nµ 0 I 2R

where N is the number of turns. Substitute to obtain:

Nµ 0 I = Be tan θ 2R

I= 2 RBe tan θ µ0 N

Solve for I:

119 •• Picture the Problem Let the positive x direction be out of the page. We can use the expressions for the magnetic fields due to an infinite straight line and a circular loop to express the net magnetic field at the center of the circular loop. We can set this net field to zero and solve for r. Express the net magnetic field at the center of circular loop: Letting R represent the radius of the r loop, express Bloop : Express the magnetic field due to the current in the infinite straight line:

r r r B = Bloop + Bline r µIˆ Bloop = − 0 i 2R r µIˆ Bline = 0 i 2πr

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 617
**

Substitute to obtain:

**r µ I ˆ µ I ˆ ⎛ µ I µ I⎞ˆ B = − 0 i + 0 i = ⎜− 0 + 0 ⎟ i 2R 2πr ⎝ 2 R 2πr ⎠
**

−

or

If B = 0 , then:

r

µ0 I

2R

+

µ0 I =0 2πr

−

1 1 + =0 R πr R

Solve for r:

r=

π

10 cm

Substitute numerical values and evaluate r:

r=

π

= 3.18 cm

120 •• Picture the Problem Note that only the current in the section of wire of length 2a contributes to the field at P. Hence, we can use the expression for B due to a straight wire segment to find the magnetic field at P. In Part (b) we can use our result from (a), together with the value for θ when the polygon has N sides, to obtain an expression for B at the center of a polygon of N sides. Express the magnetic field at P due to a straight wire segment: Because θ1 = θ2 = θ :

BP =

**µ0 I (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) 4π R µ0 I (2 sin θ ) = ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ sin θ ⎜ ⎟ 4π R ⎝ 2π R ⎠
**

a a + R2

2

BP =

Refer to the figure to obtain:

sin θ =

Substitute to obtain:

BP =

µ 0 aI

2πR a 2 + R 2

(b) Express θ for an N-sided polygon: Because each side of the polygon contributes to B an amount equal to that obtained in (a):

θ=

π

N

⎛ Nµ 0 I ⎞ ⎛ π ⎞ B= ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2πR ⎠ ⎝ N ⎠

618 Chapter 27

As N → ∞:

π ⎛π ⎞ sin ⎜ ⎟ → N ⎝N⎠

and

**µI ⎛ Nµ0 I ⎞⎛ π ⎞ B→⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0 , the 2R ⎝ 2πR ⎠⎝ N ⎠
**

expression for the magnetic field at the center of a current-carrying circular loop. 121 •• Picture the Problem We can use Ampère’s law to derive expressions for B(r) for r < R, r = R, and r > R that we can evaluate for the given distances from the center of the cylindrical conductor. Apply Ampère’s law to a closed circular path a distance r < R from the center of the cylindrical conductor to obtain: Solve for B(r) to obtain:

∫ B ⋅ d l = B(r )(2πr ) = µ I

C

r

r

0 C

= µ0 I (r )

B(r ) = B(r ) =

µ0 I (r ) 2πr µ 0 (50 A/m) r µ 0 (50 A/m) = 2π r 2π

Substitute for I(r):

(a) and (b) Noting that B is independent of r, substitute numerical values and evaluate B(5 cm) and B(10 cm):

B(5 cm ) = B(10 cm ) =

(4π × 10

−7

N/A 2 (50 A/m ) 2π

)

= 10.0 µT

(c) Apply Ampère’s law to a closed circular path a distance r > R from the center of the cylindrical conductor to obtain: Solve for B(r):

∫ B ⋅ d l = B(r )(2πr ) = µ I

C

r

r

0 C

= µ 0 I (R )

B(r ) =

µ 0 I (R ) 2πr

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B(20 cm):

Sources of the Magnetic Field 619 B(20 cm ) =

(4π × 10

−7

N/A 2 (50 A/m )(0.1 m ) = 5.00 µT 2π (0.2 m )

)

122 •• r Picture the Problem The field B due to the 10-A current is in the yz plane. The net force on the wires of the square along the y direction cancel and do not contribute to a net r r r r r r torque or force. We can use τ = l × F , F = I l × B , and the expression for the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire to express the torque acting on each of the wires and hence, the net torque acting on the loop. (a) Express the torque on the loop:

where l is the lever arm. Express the magnetic force on a current element: Express the magnetic field at the wire at y = 10 cm:

r r r τ = l ×F r

r r r F = Il × B

r µ 2I 1 B y =10 = 0 − ˆ−k j ˆ 4π R 2

where

(

)

= 0.141 m .

R=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B y =10 :

(0.1 m )2 + (0.1 m )2

r

r 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 2(10 A ) ˆ ˆ B y =10 = − j − k = (1.00 × 10 −5 T ) − ˆ − k j ˆ 0.141 m 4π 2

(

)

(

)

Proceed similarly to obtain: Evaluate Fy =10 :

r B y =−10 = (1.42 × 10 −5 T ) − ˆ + k j ˆ

(

)

r

r r r ˆ Fy =10 = I l × B y =10 = (5 A )(0.2 m ) i × (1.00 × 10 −5 T ) − ˆ − k j ˆ

ˆ ˆ j = 1.00 × 10 −5 N i × − ˆ − k = 1.00 × 10 −5 N − k + ˆ j ˆ

Evaluate Fy =−10 :

(

)[ (

)] (

(

)(

)

)

r

r ˆ Fy =−10 = (5 A )(− 0.2 m ) i × (1.00 × 10 −5 T ) − ˆ + k j ˆ

ˆ ˆ j = − 1.00 × 10 −5 N i × − ˆ + k = 1.00 × 10 −5 N k + ˆ j ˆ

(

)[ (

)] (

(

)

)(

)

620 Chapter 27

Express and evaluate the net force acting on the loop:

r r r ˆ j ˆ j F = Fy =10 + Fy =−10 = (1.00 × 10 −5 N ) − k + ˆ + (1.00 × 10 −5 N ) k + ˆ

= 2.00 × 10 −5 N ˆ j

Express and evaluate the torque about the x axis acting on the loop:

(

)

(

)

(

)

τ = (0.1 m ) (2.00 × 10 −5 N )

= 2.00 × 10 −6 N ⋅ m

(b) The net force acting on the loop is the sum of the forces acting on the four sides (see the next to last step in (a)):

r r r F = Fy =10 + Fy =−10

=

(2.00 × 10

−5

N ˆ j

)

123 •• Picture the Problem The force acting on the lower wire is given by Flower wire = IlB, where I is the current in the lower wire, l is the length of the wire on the balance, and B is the magnetic field at the location of the lower wire due to the current in the upper wire. We can apply Ampère’s law to find B at the location of the wire on the pan of the balance. The force experienced by the lower wire is given by: Apply Ampère’s law to a closed circular path of radius r centered on the upper wire to obtain: Solve for B to obtain:

Flower wire = IlB B(2πr ) = µ 0 I C = µ 0 I

B=

µ0 I 2π r

⎛ µ 0 I ⎞ µ 0 lI 2 = Il⎜ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ = 2π r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

Substitute for B in the expression for the force on the lower wire:

Flower wire

Solve for I to obtain:

I=

2π rFlower wire µ0l

Noting that the force on the lower wire is the increase in the reading of the balance, substitute numerical values and evaluate I:

I=

(

2π (2 cm ) 5 × 10 −6 kg 4π × 10 −7 N/A 2 (10 cm )

(

)

)

= 2.24 A

124 •• Picture the Problem We can use a proportion to relate minimum current detectible using

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 621
**

this balance to its sensitivity and to the current and change in balance reading from Problem 123. The minimum current Imin detectible is to the sensitivity of the balance as the current in Problem 123 is to the change in the balance reading in Problem 123: Solve for and evaluate Imin:

2.24 A I min = 0.1 mg 5.0 mg

⎛ 2.24 A ⎞ I min = (0.1 mg ) ⎜ ⎜ 5.0 mg ⎟ = 44.8 mA ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

The " standard" current balance can be made very sensitive by increasing the length (i.e., moment arm) of the wire balance, which one cannot do with this kind; however, this is compensated somewhat by the high sensitivity of the electronic balance.

*125 ••• Picture the Problem The diagram shows the rotating disk and the circular strip of radius r and width dr with charge dq. We can use the definition of surface charge density to express dq in terms of r and dr and the definition of current to show that dI = ωσr dr. We can then use this current and expression for the magnetic field on the axis of a current loop to obtain the results called for in (b) and (c).

(a) Express the total charge dq that passes a given point on the circular strip once each period: Using its definition, express the current in the element of width dr:

dq = σdA = 2πσrdr

dI =

dq 2πσrdr = = ωσrdr 2π dt

ω

622 Chapter 27

(c) Express the magnetic field dBx at a distance x along the axis of the disk due to the current loop of radius r and width dr:

µ 0 2πr 2 dI dBx = 4π (x 2 + r 2 )3 2

= 2 x2 + r 2

R

(

µ 0ωσr 3

)

32

dr

Integrate from r = 0 to r = R to obtain:

Bx = =

µ 0ωσ

2

∫ (x

0

r3

2

+ r2

)

32

dr

µ 0ωσ ⎛ R 2 + 2 x 2 ⎜

2

⎞ − 2x ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ R +x

⎜ ⎟= ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠

(b) Evaluate Bx for x = 0:

Bx (0 ) =

µ 0ωσ ⎛ R 2 ⎞

2

1 2

µ 0σωR

126 ••• Picture the Problem From the symmetry of the system it is evident that the fields due to each segment of length l are the same in magnitude. We can express the magnetic field at (x,0,0) due to one side (segment) of the square, find its component in the x direction, and then multiply by four to find the resultant field.

Express B due to a straight wire segment:

B=

µ0 I (sin θ1 + sin θ 2 ) 4π R

where R is the perpendicular distance from the wire segment to the field point. Use θ1 = θ2 and R =

x 2 + l 2 4 to

B1 ( x,0,0 ) =

express B due to one side at (x,0,0):

µ0 4π µ0 2π

I

l2 x + 4 I

2

(2 sin θ1 ) (sin θ1 )

=

l2 x + 4

2

**Sources of the Magnetic Field 623
**

Referring to the diagram, express sinθ1:

l sin θ1 = 2 = d

l 2

x2 +

l2 2

Substitute to obtain:

µ B1 ( x,0,0) = 0 2π

=

I x2 + l2 4

l 2 x2 + l l2 4 x2 + l2 2 l2 2

µ0 I

4π x 2 +

By symmetry, the sum of the y and z components of the fields due to the four segments must vanish, whereas the x components will add. The diagram to the right is a view of the xy plane showing the relationship between B1 and the angle β it makes with the x axis. Express B1x: Substitute and simplify to obtain:

r

B1x = B1 cos β

B1x =

µ0 I

4π x 2 +

l l2 l2 x2 + 4 2 2 µ 0 Il

l 2 x2 + l2 4

=

⎛ l2 ⎞ l2 8π ⎜ x 2 + ⎟ x 2 + ⎜ 4⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠

The resultant magnetic field is the sum of the fields due to the 4 wire segments (sides of the square):

r ˆ B = 4 B1x i

=

µ 0 Il 2

⎛ l ⎞ l 2π ⎜ x 2 + ⎟ x 2 + ⎜ ⎟ 4⎠ 2 ⎝

2 2

ˆ i

624 Chapter 27

Factor x2 from the two factors in the denominator to obtain:

r B=

µ 0 Il 2

⎛ ⎛ l ⎞ l ⎞ 2πx 2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ x 2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ 4x ⎟ ⎜ 2x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

2 2

ˆ i

=

µ 0 Il 2

⎛ l ⎞ 2πx 3 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ 4x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

2

⎛ l ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ 2x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

2

ˆ i

For x >> l:

r µ 0 Il 2 µ0 µ ˆ ˆ B≈ i= i 3 2πx 2πx 3 where µ = Il2.

- Ism Chapter 41
- Ism Chapter 40
- Ism Chapter 39
- Ism Chapter 38
- Ism Chapter 37
- Ism Chapter 36
- Ism Chapter 35
- Ism Chapter 34
- Ism Chapter 33
- Ism Chapter 32
- Ism Chapter 31
- Ism Chapter 30
- Ism Chapter 29
- Ism Chapter 28
- Ism Chapter 26
- Ism Chapter 25
- Ism Chapter 24
- Ism Chapter 23
- Ism Chapter 22
- Ism Chapter 21
- Ism Chapter 20
- Ism Chapter 19
- Ism Chapter 18
- Ism Chapter 17

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UsefulNot useful- Ism Chapter 26
- Ism Chapter 28
- Ism Chapter 25
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- Ism Chapter 29
- Paul Tipler Sol Capitulo 31 (farfismat)
- Tipler - Exercícios Resolvidos ( capítulo 22 )
- Ism Chapter 34
- Ism Chapter 23
- Ism Chapter 17
- Tipler - Física - Exercícios Resolvidos ( capítulo 21 )
- Ism Chapter 19
- Ism Chapter 20
- Ism Chapter 30
- Ism Chapter 35
- Ism Chapter 38
- Ism Chapter 36
- Ism Chapter 39
- Ism Chapter 32
- Ism Chapter 37
- Ism Chapter 41
- Ism Chapter 40
- Ism Chapter 18
- Paul Tipler Sol Capitulo 33 (farfismat)
- ch
- Cap27
- Chap 27
- Resoluções de Exercícios - Cap. 22 - Princípios de Física Vol. 3
- Exam3-T111
- Problems and Solutions on Magnetism
- Ism Chapter 27