# Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Theory and Practice

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Examples of oscillation
ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Pulse
The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Oscillation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Movement of the ball over time

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Frequency

Time From the duration of one oscillation T the frequency f (number of oscillations per second) is calculated:

One full oscillation T

1  f T

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
The actual displacement a is termed as:

a
Time

0

90

180

270

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

 ni s A  a
360
Phase

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Spectrum of sound
Frequency range Hz Description
Example

0 - 20 20 - 20.000 > 20.000

Infrasound
Audible sound Ultrasound

Earth quake Speech, music Bat, Quartz crystal

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Atomic structures

gas

liquid

solid

• low density • weak bonding forces

• medium density • medium bonding forces

• high density • strong bonding forces • crystallographic structure

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Understanding wave propagation:

Ball = atom

Spring = elastic bonding force

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

T
distance travelled

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

T

During one oscillation T the wave front propagates by the distance :

Distance travelled

From this we derive:
or

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

f  c

T

c

Wave equation

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Sound propagation

Longitudinal wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Sound propagation
Transverse wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Wave propagation
Longitudinal waves propagate in all kind of materials. Transverse waves only propagate in solid bodies. Due to the different type of oscillation, transverse waves travel at lower speeds. Sound velocity mainly depends on the density and Emodulus of the material.
Air Water Steel, long Steel, trans 330 m/s

1480 m/s
5920 m/s 3250 m/s

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Reflection and Transmission
As soon as a sound wave comes to a change in material characteristics ,e.g. the surface of a workpiece, or an internal inclusion, wave propagation will change too:

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Behaviour at an interface
Medium 1 Medium 2

Incoming wave

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave
Interface

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Reflection + Transmission: Perspex - Steel
1,87

Incoming wave

1,0 0,87

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Reflection + Transmission: Steel - Perspex
Incoming wave
1,0

Transmitted wave

0,13

-0,87
Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Amplitude of sound transmissions:

Water - Steel

Copper - Steel

Steel - Air • Strong reflection with inverted phase • No transmission

• Strong reflection • No reflection • Double transmission • Single transmission

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Piezoelectric Effect

+
Battery

Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz)
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Piezoelectric Effect

+

The crystal gets thicker, due to a distortion of the crystal lattice
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Piezoelectric Effect

+
The effect inverses with polarity change
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Piezoelectric Effect
Sound wave with frequency f

U(f)

An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Piezoelectric Effect

Short pulse ( < 1 µs )

A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystal‘s resonant frequency f0
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Reception of ultrasonic waves
A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal, induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces. Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal

Ultrasonic wave

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Probes
socket crystal Damping Delay / protecting face Electrical matching Cable

Straight beam probe

TR-probe
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Angle beam probe

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
RF signal (short)

100 ns

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
RF signal (medium)

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Sound field

Crystal

Focus

Accoustical axis

Angle of divergence
6

D0

N

Near field

Far field

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Instrument

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Instrument

-

+ Uh

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Instrument

+ Uh

-

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Instrument
+
Uv

+

Uh

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Block diagram: Ultrasonic Instrument
amplifier

IP

screen
BE

horizontal sweep clock pulser

probe work piece
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Sound reflection at a flaw
s

Probe

Sound travel path

Flaw

Work piece

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Plate testing
IP BE

F

plate

delamination

0

2

4

6

8

10

IP = Initial pulse

F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Wall thickness measurement

s
s

Corrosion

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Through transmission testing
Through transmission signal

1

T

R

1

2

T

R
0 2 4 6 8 10

2

Flaw

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Weld inspection
a = s sinß

F
s
0 20 40 60 80 100

a' = a - x d' = s cosß

d = 2T - t'

ß = probe angle s = sound path a = surface distance a‘ = reduced surface distance d‘ = virtual depth d = actual depth T = material thickness

x
ß
Work piece with welding

a a' s
Lack of fusion

d

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Straight beam inspection techniques:
Direct contact, single element probe Direct contact, Fixed delay

dual element probe

Through transmission

Immersion testing

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing
Immersion testing
1
surface = sound entry backwall IP

2
water delay

flaw

IE

1
BE

IP

IE

2
BE
F

0

2

4

6

8

10

0

2

4

6

8

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems