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EIA Analysis of Jindal Thermal Power Plan1

EIA Analysis of Jindal Thermal Power Plan1

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Published by: Sudarshan Kashikar on Nov 27, 2011
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EIA analysis of Jindal thermal power plant

Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. (JSPL) is planning to set up a thermal power plant in village Dongamahua, located in Raigarh district of Chattisgarh. On behalf of the local community there, two activists (from Ekta Parishad and Jan Chetna) requested the Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, to technically evaluate the Rapid Environment Impact Assessment done for the project. The EIA has been conducted by the New Delhi-based Min Mec Consultancy Pvt Ltd. The study area for the EIA includes a core zone (area to be occupied by the project) and a buffer zone (area within a 10-km radius of the project site). About the project JSPL is operating the Gare IV/1 open cast coal mine, along with a crushing, screening, and washing plant, in Raigarh. This mine and washery is located in Nagarmuda, Janjgir, Tapranga, Dongamahua and Dhaurabhata villages. JSPL is now proposing to set up a 2x150 MW thermal power plant in Dongamahua, which will use the middling and coal fines generated during coal washing at Gare IV/1 as raw material. The company runs a steel plant in Raigarh, and proposes to transmit the power generated by this thermal power plant to its steel plant through its own dedicated transmission network.

Salient features of the project
Location: JSPL wants to set up the thermal power plant in village Dongamahua, Gharghoda Tehsil, of Raigarh district. The site is approximately 50 kms away from Raigarh, and 30 kms off the Raigarh-Ambikapur state highway. The Kelo Nadi flows at a distance of around 3.5 km from the proposed site. There are many seasonal nullahs, and tributaries of the Kelo, which ultimately merge into the Kelo river. The area surrounding the project site is rich in coal, and therefore many coalmines are either operating, or are proposed. Also, industries based on coal have also come up. The 4x250 MW OP Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant is under construction 7 km away from the project site. Within a 0-7 km radius of the project site, apart from the Gare IV/1 open cast coal mine, one underground coalmine is operational 3 km away from the proposed site, and another five coalmines are proposed. Raigarh district is also an emerging hub for the sponge iron industry in Chhattisgarh, with many plants already operational and many more in the pipeline. Fuel: The plant will source its fuel requirement from the Gare IV/1 mine located close to the project site. The project requires 2.47million tonnes of coal per annum (at the rate of 312 tonnes/hour for 330 days). Middling and coal fines will be transported to the plant site via road, or conveyor belts. The project will also require some light diesel oil (LDO). Water requirement: The project will require 7.46 million cubic meters of water (MCM), which will be sourced from groundwater collected in the mine sump, and from borewells. The entire

57 per cent of the area is agricultural land. Baljor (2 km). according to the same report. some in Sundergarh district of Orissa. The mine‟s colony is the nearest human habitation. the land acquired for the project is either agricultural or wasteland (page 2-1).water requirement will therefore be met from groundwater. Janjgir (3 km). According to the EIA report. There are some discrepancies in the EIA while calculating the water consumption. there are 94 inhabited revenue villages within a 10-km radius (page 3-31).4 km). Also. the EIA report mentions that 26. Wheat. Jharna (2. Silot. either irrigated or rainfed. 77 per cent of the forest land in the study area is under reserve or protected forests. Burapahar. The area has a flat topography. According to the EIA report. 25 per cent of the area (83 hectares out of a total of 325 hectares) in Dongamahua village is forested (Annexure-XI).39 MCM (page 4-6) and therefore the additional 2. Jamkhani and Barkachar reserve forests and the Gare and Devgaon protected forests are located within a 10-km radius of the project site. or water from borewells.84 MCM through recirculation and reuse. Tapranga. Around 85. Dhaurabhata (2. the water requirement will be reduced from 7. Some of the villages close to the proposed site are Libra (2 km away). Amgaon (3. The Tolge.000 people reside in a 10-km radius (page 3-31). However. Impact of water consumption by the project Thermal power projects are normally water intensive. All of this will be groundwater – either seepage of groundwater in the existing mine sump. and the impact on local water resources is one of the major impact areas that should be studied in good detail.6 km). No diversion of forestland has been mentioned.45 MCM will have to be met from borewells.84 MCM through recirculation and reuse of water (page 2-7). Jhinkabahal.46 MCM to 6. Land use pattern: The project requires 56 acres of land (approximately 22. Environmental impact of the project and the analysis of the EIA report 1.4 km). According to the EIA report. located 1 km away. which will reduce to 6. The EIA report has calculated the water consumption in the mines and the washeries using 300 as the number of working days.5 per cent of the area within the EIA‟s study area is forestland (Annexure-XI). millet and maize are the main crops grown.46 MCM of water. and others in Gharghoda Tehsil of Raigarh district in Chhattisgarh.7 hectares). The EIA report states that the excess water available in the mine sump is 4. However. paddy. Figures in the EIA report indicate that agriculture is a main occupation in the buffer zone. if the number of working days were to taken as 330 (as the same EIA report has subsequently done for calculating the water consumption in the thermal . the proposed project will consume 7. Dangamouha and Sarsmal Kasampali. Human habitation: According to the EIA report.

Elsewhere. which will be met from borewells.165 for the washeries). and another 0. there is no information on how these figures were calculated. while assessing the impact on local groundwater resources. Only a rapid EIA has been done. 3-20). and data recorded by the company elsewhere. Also. According to the EIA report.1 MCM (pages 3-19.J11015/204/2005. However.52 m3/day for other mining operations will be met from mine water (sump). the EIA has not taken into account the cumulative impact of water consumption by various industrial and non-industrial sources. the EIA report claims that the water requirement in the washeries would increase to 1. there is also some discrepancy in the data provided in the EIA report. the report claims that groundwater seepage from Gare IV/2&3 (proposed. Similarly. it is also important to calculate groundwater utilisation by others users – for instance groundwater consumption by cattle. This is the minimum water requirement of the proposed thermal power plant. and not operational mines) would be 4872 m3/day.687 MCM. the water consumption would increase (0. while the current groundwater utilisation is just 5. recharge through irrigated areas and recharge through mine discharge.27 m3/day. which is a generally accepted figure for number of working days in any industry. the total groundwater recharge is 46 MCM. However.IA.214 MCM.235 MCM for the mines. “the total water requirement of the project is 2325. out of which 244.200 m3/day (page 4-6). Apart from the huge 4x250 MW OP Jindal Super Thermal Power Plant (which is completely dependent on groundwater).II (M)).38 MCM. Even if the water availability and water consumption from the proposed Gare IV/2&3 mines is taken into consideration.45 MCM. from the current 500 m3/day (page 4-6). and not 2. However. However. the EIA has not made any estimation of possible recharge through other sources – for instance recharge through water spread areas.power plant). the water requirement which will be met from borewells will be 3. 2005 (No.” Therefore. while calculating groundwater utilisation. the actual water consumption by the mines is not 0. The EIA has tried to assess the impact of the project‟s operations on local water resources by doing a simple water balance.400 m3/day in the future. (this is the letter where the MoEF grants environmental clearance for the expansion of the capacity of the Gare IV/I mines from 2 million tonnes per day to 6 million tonnes per day). Also. Therefore. with data collection for one season.23 MCM. but 0.75 m3/day is drinking water requirement which will be met from ground water and remaining 2080. The EIA report has calculated the annual monsoon recharge by using the water table fluctuation method. the water consumption required would be 1. the EIA report has calculated the average seepage of groundwater into the mine sump as 11. According to the letter dated December 6. and written by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) to Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. if an overall groundwater balance has to be done. the EIA report has only taken into consideration domestic water consumption and water consumption for irrigation. water utilisation in . the other industrial users in the region have not been accounted for in the EIA. This means an additional consumption of 900 m3/day. However.

Without a comprehensive water balance for the entire area. This is theoretically possible. since the groundwater table in the area is quite low – varying between 2-10 m below the ground. and their impact assessed.forest areas. it will not be possible to predict the impact on local groundwater resources.200 m3/day (page 4-6). For example. are now becoming increasingly dependent on groundwater. In yet another communication. is already heavily stressed. the Groundwater Survey Department recommended against giving this permission – stating the possible adverse impacts on the local groundwater regime (ref: letter dated 15/04/2006). The poor water flow in the river has meant that various users. the water crisis in the area will increase to unmanageable levels. which is one of the important sources of water in the region. Assessing the impact of air pollutants is therefore very important in the EIA for a thermal power plant. (CMPDI) while conducting the environment impact assessment for the Nataraj Underground Project in the Talcher coalfields. as well as the Groundwater Survey Department in Bilaspur have calculated the groundwater availability in the area as just 0. this estimation is based on an assumption that the concentration of outlet gases will be at most 50 mg/Nm3 (page 4-3). If this is the case. and that too after the proposed Gare IV/2&3 mines are opened). Another issue related to groundwater is that breaching of groundwater by mining activity has the potential to substantially alter the local groundwater regime. including industry. If industries (dependent on groundwater) come up in the region without a proper assessment of their impact. Impact of the project on local air quality Thermal power projects are hugely air polluting. protecting the groundwater from being excessively exploited is imperative. the Water Resources Department of Raigarh. 2. There are many operational and proposed coal mining projects in the area. asked for permission to dig 40 tubewells for its Super Thermal Power Plant. Particulate emissions: The EIA for the proposed project has estimated the particulate emissions as 64. It is estimated that at Gare IV/2&3. However. Therefore. the average seepage of groundwater is 11. Breaching of the groundwater table is likely to be the rule rather than the exception.872 m3/day. This has not been given any consideration in the EIA report. the area is completely incapable of handling the water requirement of the proposed plant (the minimum water requirement for the project is 1. such a study was done by the Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Ltd. the daily mine water seepage will be 4. It has consequently been the focus of many protests against industrialisation in Raigarh. The other mines in the area (either operational or proposed) will also probably similarly alter the local groundwater regime.9 MCM. Suspended particulates.38 MCM. sulphur dioxide (SO2). vastly reducing water availability and increasing stress. operated by Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. . and groundwater losses. carbon dioxide (CO2) and emissions of mercury have to be estimated. oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For instance. The cumulative impact of large-scale and widespread breaching of the groundwater table could have serious adverse impacts on the local water regime. when Jindal Power Ltd. which works out to 511 tonnes of particulate emissions per annum (page 4-3). The Kelo river.5 kg/hr. groundwater pumped out as mines discharge. according to the EIA report. but vast experiences show that even with Electro Static Precipitators (ESPs) attached. In fact. in the Gare IV/1 mine.

1 per cent of this raw material escapes in the . Therefore. There is no mention whatsoever – no estimation. often. Considering average mercury content of 0. as per page 2-6). The EIA report for the proposed project has not made any estimation of fugitive emissions. This estimation has been crosschecked and verified by CSE.5% as per page 2-5). emissions from non-point sources. In fact. Further. potential of fugitive dust will be the greatest threat. this should not be ignored. mercury emissions from the proposed plant account for 618 kg/annum. Similarly the EIA report has estimated the NOx emissions as approximately 4. entire transportation of the coal will be done by roads hence. Mercury emissions: Mercury emissions from the power plant have been completely overlooked by the EIA. and sulphur content in coal (between 0.25 ppm. The proposed plant will release 9. mangoes etc. Carbon dioxide emissions: The EIA has also completely ignored CO2 emissions from the proposed plant.47 million tonnes of middling and coal fines will be used every year. They can cause decreased yields. Oil has a high sulphur content (1. However.47 lakh tonnes of carbon dioxide per annum (calculated at the rate of 997 gms of CO2/kWh of power generated). there is no mention of how much oil would be consumed. Fugitive emissions: Regulations governing air pollution concentrate on point source emissions – however.particulate emission levels < 50 mg/Nm3 are often not achieved. According to the EIA report. transportation and handling are equally important to monitor and control. i.4-0. while the EIA mentions that light diesel oil will be used as a secondary fuel. EIA report also states that flyash from the thermal power will be used for filling the dug out area. fugitive emissions are more harmful than particulate emissions.000 tonnes per annum.e emissions during raw material storage. The EIA report has not paid attention to the control of SO2 emissions – no mitigation measures have been suggested. no impact analysis. litchi. The impact of SO2 emissions is even higher under humid and high wind conditions. by using information provided on coal consumption. chlorophyll loss and greater leaf fall. on an average 0. SO2 and NOx emissions: The EIA has estimated the SO2 emissions as approximately 3120 kg/hr. and therefore. approximately 2. But EIA is silent on the impact of flyash on environment due to transportation. However. The report has not suggested any mitigative measures. as the thermal power sector contributes 11 per cent of total CO2 emissions. it is quite likely that the particulate emissions will be much higher. Assuming that just 0. Studies show that SO2 emissions even at low concentrations of 5-20 mg/Nm3 can be detrimental to some kinds of plants – for instance chickoo.8%. data on the quantity of oil consumed would make the estimation of SO2 emissions much more robust.6%. no mitigation. This is not acceptable. cashew. NOx emissions can be detrimental at low concentrations of 3-20 ppm. as thermal power plants account for 70 per cent of the country‟s mercury emissions. 65 per cent of the industrial greenhouse gas emissions. Increase in traffic load: According to the EIA report.

and that there will be „effective dust suppression/collection systems at the transfer points‟.5 per cent is lost as fugitive dust. monitoring stations should ideally be located at the mine colony. even the core zone is home to mammals . monitoring and data collection should be done during winter also. The EIA has not done monitoring at all these locations. Therefore. mines. Local biodiversity The region surrounding the proposed site is rich in biodiversity. for proper air pollution impact analysis. The report does mention that raw material will be transported from the mines to the plant through roads or covered conveyor belts. given the sensitive nature of the project site. According to the EIA report. fly ash is also a source of fugitive emissions.500 tonnes of dust per annum. More than a fourth of the area in the buffer zone is forested. nor analysed the impact of fugitive emissions. Jharna. Monitoring impact of air pollution: The EIA has been conducted during the summer season. 3. closed transportation systems. Overall. If ash is stored in the open. While dealing with control of fugitive emissions. there is no mention of other infrastructure/mechanisms that should be installed to reduce fugitive emissions (like covered material storage yards. An estimated 1. The EIA report does not adequately address how fly ash will be handled so as to reduce fugitive emissions. effective control of fugitive emissions requires closed storage areas. and the location of other polluting industries in the vicinity (thermal power plants. this figure jumps to over 12. These issues are particularly important with respect to the storage and handling of fly ash. The EIA report has neither made estimations. The EIA report has not elaborated on many of these points. sponge iron plants etc. and Janjgir. for proper evaluation of air pollution impacts. Apart from coal.500 tonnes of dust per annum.). the data collected on air quality is not sufficient to adequately analyse the impact of air pollution. Tapranga. If 0. However. the potential of fugitive emissions is very high given the extremely fine nature of ash particles. though no details have been provided (page 5-3). and all of this will be highly susceptible to fugitive emissions.). and wherever possible conversion of non-point source emissions to point source emissions through creation of vacuum or suction. monitoring should be done in the downwind direction – i. The EIA has mentioned „water spraying‟ as a means of controlling emissions.37 million tonnes of ash (fly ash and bottom ash) will be generated every year (page 4-7). the emphasis is on water spraying. Therefore. Bajlor. a rapid EIA with one-season data collection is insufficient. However. According to the EIA report. and at the villages of Libra. this will mean approximately 2. the most prevalent wind directions near the project site are northeast and southwest (page 3-13). The only way of controlling these emissions is through proper infrastructure and proper management. covered material loading/unloading points with attached suction devices etc.atmosphere in the form of dust. but in reality. or handled manually. Jhinkubahal.e monitoring stations should be located southwest and northeast of the proposed site. Therefore. mechanical material handling systems.

there is no mention of whether a brick making facility will be set up. 5-9). The region surrounding the proposed plant is also rich in mahua plantations. It is the site of the project that will play the largest role in deciding its overall environmental impact. or whether users of fly ash (like cement manufacturers etc. which is of very high economic value to the local community (page 3-30). The ecologically-rich study area is now facing the brunt of not just this proposed project. The EIA report has not dealt extensively with how fugitive emissions from fly ash storage and handling will be controlled. 4.) have been identified and long-term contacts signed to ensure use of the fly ash generated. even though India has a huge cement manufacturing capacity. Conclusion JSPL‟s proposed thermal power plant is not a small-scale project. manufacturing of pozzolona cement …Unutilised fly ash shall be converted to high concentration slurry and shall be transported to abandoned portion of coal mines‟ (pages 5-8.like foxes and bandars (Bandar is included in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972). fly ash will not be used even if it can be used – just 10 per cent of the fly ash generated in the country is reused.37 million tonnes of solid wastes will be generated. and impact on forests and local biodiversity. It is therefore important to conduct a thorough study of the exact impact of various pollutants on mahua as well as other vegetation in the forests in the region. efforts will be made to ensure maximum utilisation of fly ash in dry form for commercial use such as brick making. the biggest weakness of the EIA in terms of evaluating the impact of the project on local biodiversity is that no attempt has been made to do a cumulative impact analysis of the various industrial activities. There are two main impact areas of the project – impact on local groundwater regime. but also of other large projects in the area – including the 4x250 MW Super Thermal Power Plant. Experience shows that unless proper mechanisms are set in place. which is reviewing the environmental clearance given to the 2nd stage of JSPL‟s existing steel plant) that emissions from JSPL‟s existing steel plant in Raigarh have caused a reduction in the yields of mahua crop in the surrounding areas.e. Therefore. . No such analysis is available in the EIA report. However. the project has not incorporated reuse of fly ash as part of its operations – i. Solid waste management The proposed plant will generate fly ash and bottom ash – a total of 1. just implying that fly ash may be used does not mean that it will actually be used. There are allegations (recorded in a case submitted to the National Appellate Authority. The project is coming up in a forested area. the bear. However. „in the initial years of operations. the rheasus macaque. and the leopard. according to the EIA report. the forests are also home to many protected species and moreover forests play an extremely important role in groundwater recharging. The region is eco-sensitive for many reasons – the forests form the base of peoples‟ livelihood in this predominantly tribal area (mahua in particular is central to the local economy). The buffer zone consists of many protected species including the spotted deer. Regarding waste utilisation.

The biggest weakness of the EIA report is that it has not been able to capture the overall. Therefore. the larger picture has to be kept in mind. cumulative impact of the project. or on the local groundwater regime .The ecology in the area is facing the impacts of many industrial projects – including the 4x250 MW Super Thermal Power Plant.will be cumulative. many coal mines. and many sponge iron plants. in considering the environmental impact of this proposed project. . The impact on the local ecology – whether on the forests.


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