Module-I of Manufacturing Science-I

Any unwanted deviation from the desired requirements in a cast product results in a defect. Some defects in the cast products are tolerable while others can be rectified by additional processes like welding etc. The following are the major defects which are likely to occur in sand castings: 1. Gas defects 2. Shrinkage cavities 3. Moulding material defects 4. Pouring metal defects 5. Metallurgical defects

Gas Defects
These defects are due to lower gas passing tendency of the mould which is caused by lower venting , lower permeability of the mould and improper design of the casting. The lower permeability of the mould is due to use of finer size grains of sand, higher percentage of clay & moisture and excessive ramming of the mould.

Figure 1.9.1: Various gas defects The various gas defects are discussed here in detail. • Blow holes and Open blows: These are spherical, flattened or elongated cavities present inside the casting or on the surface. When present inside the casting it is called blow hole while it is termed as open blow if it appears on the surface of the casting. These defects are caused by the moisture left in the mould and the core. Due to heat of the molten metal the moisture is converted into steam, part of which when entrapped in the casting ends up as blow hole or ends up as open blow when it reaches the surface. Thus in green sand mould it is very difficult to get rid of the blow holes, unless properly vented. • Scar: A shallow blow, usually found on a flat casting surface, is referred to as a scar. • Blister: This is a scar covered by the thin layers of a metal. • Air inclusions: The atmospheric and other gases absorbed by the molten metal in the furnace, in the ladle and during the flow in the mould, when not allowed to escape, would be trapped inside the casting and weaken it. The main reasons for this defect are the higher pouring temperatures which increase the amount of gas absorbed; poor gating design such as straight sprue in unpressurised gating; abrupt bends and other turbulence causing practices in the gating, which increase the air aspiration and finally the low permeability of the mould. The remedies would be to choose the appropriate pouring temperature and improve gating practices by reducing the turbulence. • Pin hole porosity: As the molten metal gets solidified it loses the temperature which decreases the solubility of gases and thereby expelling the dissolved gases. The hydrogen which is picked up by the molten metal either in the furnace from the unburnt fuel or by the dissociation of water inside the mould cavity may escape the solidifying metal leaving behind very small diameter and long pin holes showing the path of escape. The high pouring temperature which increases the gas pick up is the main reason for this defect.

Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das

• Metal Penetration: When molten metal enters the gaps between the sand grains.2: Shrinkage cavity Moulding Material Defects These defects are originated due to some specific characteristics of the moulding materials like insufficient strength. This is due to either use of coarse sand grains in mould material or no use of mould wash. fairly shallow. • Cuts and Washes: Theses appear as rough spots and areas of excess metal and are caused by the erosion of the moulding sand by the flowing molten metal.Module-I of Manufacturing Science-I Shrinkage Cavities These are caused by the liquid shrinkage occurring during the solidification of the casting. This may be due to insufficient strength of mould material or the high velocity of the molten metal. The choice of an appropriate type and amount of Bentonite would cure this defect. This can also be caused by higher pouring temperature. Choosing appropriate grain sizes. improper ramming etc.3: Various moulding material defects Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das . glassy appearance on the casting surface. an expansion of the thin layer of sand at the mould face takes place before the liquid metal at the mould face solidifies. The main reasons for this defect are the lower refractoriness of the clay used in moulding sand and very high pouring temperature. forming the vee shape. • Run out: This is happened when the molten metal leaks out of the mould due to faulty mould making or defective moulding flask. Figure 1. • Fusion: This is caused by the fusion of sand grains with molten metal. Figure 1. together with proper mould wash should be able to eliminate this defect. the result would be a rough casting surface. An improper riser and gating system may give this type of defect which has a shape of a funnel. The proper choice of moulding sand and appropriate moulding method together with better design of gating system which reduces turbulence by increasing the size of the gates or by using multiple ingates can eliminate these defects.9. giving a brittle. At this high temperature. As this expansion is obstructed by the flask. A proper amount of volatile additives in the sand-mix is therefore essential to make room for this expansion and to avoid the buckles. The various defects under this category are discussed in detail. • Buckles: This refers to a long. the mould face tends to bulge out. vee-shaped depression occurring in the surface of a flat casting of a high temperature metal.9. broad.

start freezing before reaching the farthest point of the mould cavity. Figure 1. This is caused by dropping of sand from the cope or other overhanging projections into the mould. As a result of the swell. Cold shut: For a casting with gates at its two sides.Module-I of Manufacturing Science-I • • • • • • • Rat tail: It is a long shallow angular depression normally found in a thin casting. Swell: Under the influence of metallostatic forces. gliding over the other. the feeding requirements of the casting increase which should be taken care of by the proper choice of risering.4: Mould shift and core shift defects Pouring Metal Defects • • The likely defects under this category are mentioned here. the misrun may show up at the centre of the casting due to non fusion of two streams of metal resulting in a discontinuity or weak spot in casting. An adequate strength of the sand and the use of gaggers can help in avoiding the drops. Drop: An irregularly shaped projection on the cope surface of a casting is called a drop. high heat transfer rate of the mould material and back pressure of the gases entrapped in the mould cavity due to inadequate venting. The other causes for these defects are large surface area to volume ratio of the casting. The fluidity of the metal can be increased by changing the composition of molten metal or raising the pouring temperature. The main cause of this defect is improper ramming of the mould. Mould and Core shift: A misalignment between two halves of a mould or of a core may give rise to a defective casting. known as dirts. these leave small. The layer is held onto the casting by a metal stringer through the sand. Dross: Lighter impurities appearing on the top of a casting are called dross. due to insufficient superheat. instead of the expanding sand up heaving. It can be taken care of at the pouring stage by using items such as a strainer and skim bob. Here.9. the compressed layer fails by one layer.5: Misrun and cold shut Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das . Above two defects are due to lower fluidity of the molten metal or small thickness of the casting. Figure 1. Misrun: Many a time. protruding above the casting surface. Dirt: Sometimes sand particles dropping out of the cope get embedded on the top surface of a casting. The reason for its formation is the same as that of buckles.9. the mould wall may move back causing a swell in the dimensions of the casting. A scab results when the upheaved sand is separated from the mould surface and the liquid metal flows into the space between the mould and the displaced sand. When removed. on top of a thin layer of sand. angular holes. the liquid metal may. This defect is called Misrun. Scab: This refers to the rough thin layer of a metal.

page 195 -198 Manufacturing Science by A. Manufacturing Technology by P.9. Reference: 1.Rao. with grey cast iron having small amounts of silicon. page 253-254 Manufacturing Science-I. The remedies of some defects are also causes of others. For example.Module-I of Manufacturing Science-I • Slag inclusions: During the melting process. At the time of tapping. Pearson Education. Otherwise any slag entering the mould cavity will be weakening the casting and also spoiling the surface of the casting. 3. Metallurgical Defects • The defects under this category are hot tears and hard spots.6: Hot tears • Hard spots: These are caused by the chilling of the casting. the slag should be properly removed from the ladle. flux is added to remove the undesirable oxides and impurities (refractory materials. NPTEL website Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das . Mallik .Ghosh and A.N. sand) present in the metal. very hard white cast iron may result at the chilled surface. Therefore one has to analyse the casting from the viewpoint of its final application and thus arrive at a proper moulding procedure to eliminate or minimize the most undesirable casting defects. The better design of casting avoids this defect. This hard spot will interfere with subsequent machining of this region. before the metal is poured into the mould. page 90-92 Manufacturing Engineering and Technology by Kalpakjian and Schmid . East-West Press Private Limited. 4. Hot tears: Since metal has low strength at higher temperatures. 2.K. Proper metallurgical control and chilling practices are essential for eliminating the hard spots. Figure 1. TMH Publication. any unwanted cooling stress may cause the rupture of the casting.

6.Module-I of Manufacturing Science-I Review Questions 1. 9. Differentiate between metal penetration and fusion defects in casting. Explain how shrinkage cavities are formed in a casting? Why blow holes are formed in casting if we use green sand moulding? Why leakage of fluids under high pressure occurs if pin holes are there in the casting? Write the causes for rat tail defects. 3. 8. What are the possible casting defects that may be caused by the improper gating system design? State at least four defects. 7. misruns. 2. 15. Mention the causes and remedies of the following sand casting defects: blow holes. 4. Why is it important to remove dross or slag during the pouring of molten metal into the mould? What methods are used to remove them? What are discontinuity defects in castings? What type of defects will come into picture if molten metal is poured slowly to avoid turbulence? What are the effects of non-metallic inclusions in the casting? Why washes and drop defects appear on drag and cope sides of casting respectively? Lecture Notes of Chinmay Das . 11. 10. How to avoid cold shuts and misruns? Why most critical surfaces should be placed in the drag side of the flask. 14. 13. 12. Describe the various defects which are likely to be caused in sand castings because of higher pouring temperatures. hot tears. 5.

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