P. 1


|Views: 171|Likes:
Published by knazareta

More info:

Published by: knazareta on Nov 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less









• In 1998. • 2500 US cases diagnosed per year. OTHER KNOWN NAME: Osteogenic Sarcoma INCIDENCE: • Most common cancerous(malignant) bone tumor in youth.OSTEOSARCOMA DEFINITION: • a malignant primary neoplasm of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of malignant osteoid. most common: 10-20 y. as a teenager matures into an adult. • Incidence increase at age 60 (DOH). bone or cartilage formation. boys are commonly affected. • Average age diagnosis is 15. • Age affected: 15-30. RISK FACTORS  PREDISPOSING • Hereditary or Family History • Rapid bone growth • Age and height • Prescence of benign bone disease  PRECIPITATING • Previous treatment with radiation for another cancer. 479 cases among male and 290 among females. • Osteosarcoma is a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor that usually develops during the period of rapid growth that occurs in adolescence. 18th in males and 21st in females. In the Philippines: • It is the 24th in overall. especially at young age or with high doses of radiation .o. • Most common childhood malignancy. an estimated 769 new cases will be seen.

When osteosarcoma recurs. Recurrent  Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come back (recurred) after it has been treated.  By far the most common osteosarcoma. It may also spread to other bones.high grade Stage IIAStage IIB- Stage III. TYPES OF OSTEOSARCOMA 1. but rare. but have not spread to the lungs. 2.intracompartmental intracomparmental StageIB. it is usually within 2 to 3 years after treatment is completed. Later recurrence is possible. Metastatic osteosarcoma  The cancer cells have spread from the bone in which the cancer began to other parts of the body. It may come back in the tissues where it first started or it may come back in another part of the body.STAGES /CLASSIFICATIONS /TYPES  STAGES OF OSTEOSARCOMA: Stage I.  In multifocal osteosarcoma.metastatic disease for either grade  CLASSIFICATION 1. .extracompartmental extracompartmantal Stage II. 3. tumors appear in 2 or more bones. Classical or conventional high grade central type  which accounts for 90% of all osteosarcomas.low grade tumor tumor Stage IA. Localized osteosarcoma  The cancer cells have not spread beyond the bone or nearby tissue in which the cancer began. Osteosarcoma most often recurs in the lung. The cancer most often spreads to the lungs.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS: • Localized pain at the site of the tumor • Swelling. Low grade central osteosarcoma. warmth. Surface or juxtacortical low grade osteosarcoma also known by the names parosteal or periosteal osteosarcoma 6. Secondary  (associated with another pre-existing disease such as Paget’s disease or prior radiation exposure) type. and redness caused by the vascularity of the tumor • Cough • Dyspnea • limp or pathologic fracture • Trauma • Bone fracture • Bone pain • Limitation of motion • Pain when lifting (if the tumor is in the arm) • Muscle atrophy DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES • • • • • • • • Bone marrow aspiration Increased serum alkaline phosphate Blood tests Bone scan X-ray CT scan PET sacan Biopsy . There are low grade types of osteosarcoma too. Telangiectatic 3. Several other unusual high grade types: 2. 5. Small cell 4.

contour enlarges Bulky tumor forms and destroys the trabeculae of the affected area Tumor grows outward Muscle compressed Reaches lungs. swelling. and visceral organs Pathologic fracture Metastasized through blood stream Bone structure becomes weak Circulation impeded Pain.PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Predisposing Factors • Hereditary/ Family History • Rapid bone growth • Age and height • Presence of benign bone disease Precipitating Factor • Exposure to radiation Causes normal bone to react by osteolytic response Adjacent normal bone responds to tumor by altering its pattern or remodeling Bone surfaces changes. bones. muscle atrophy OSTEOSARCOMA MANAGEMENT:  MEDICAL: .

and cisplatin. medication. Assess muscle strength. Acute pain related to abnormal enlargement of bone as manifested by bone tumor. treatment. 2. Provide pillow for cushion and support. 3. Keep side rails up to ensure safety. NURSING DIAGNOSIS: 1. actinomycin. Ineffective role performance related to body image alteration and physical illness . 4. 7. 8. -Carboplatin (Paraplatin)  SURGICAL • Amputation of affected extremity • In most cases. change position and use of hot and cold application. Provide comfort measures such as back rub. gross and fine motor coordination. Encourage rest periods to prevent fatigue.• Chemotherapy: -High-dose methotrexate with leucovorin citrovorum factor rescue -Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) -combinations of bleomycin. Administer analgesics as indicated. NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES: 1. Encourage to increase fluid intake. 10. 6. Ineffective breathing pattern related to musculoskeletal impairment as evidenced by usage of accessory muscles in breathing 3. cyclophosphamide(Cytoxan). Provide accurate information about the situation. Encourage diversional activities. Activity intolerance related to pain 4.(health teachings). Impaired social interaction related to limited physical mobility 5. ifosfamide(Ifex). 5. 9. Provide quiet environment/ calm activities to prevent or lessen pain 2. surgery can remove the tumor while sparing the affected limb (this is called limb-salvage surgery).

Illustration: This x-ray shows a malignant bone tumor (osteogenic sarcoma) of the knee.reininsarcoma.com/Hemeonc/Ortho/Ostsrcm. This type of tumor is usually seen in adolescents (around 15 years old). An abnormal growth of cells within the bone that may be benign or malignant (cancerous). .gov/medlineplus/ http://www.htm http://www. This tumor extends from the bone into the surrounding tissue.fpnotebook. Black. REFERENCES: http://www.org/content/types-bone-sarcomas Huether. Medical-Surgical 7th ed. Joyce. Understanding Pathophysiology 2nd ed.nih. Sue.nlm.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->