Capacitor protection Summary Slide

Capacitor Protection

© ABB Group - 1 2-May-12

Protection Application Handbook

Capacitor Protection

© ABB Group - 2 2-May-12

Capacitor protection Capacitor banks.General  Phase compensation of loads  Reactive generation for voltage control Series reactors used to limit inrush current Harmonic filters used for thyristor capacitor banks   © ABB Group .3 2-May-12 .

Capacitor protection Shunt Reactors-General 400 kV 130 kV © ABB Group .4 2-May-12 40 Mvar Circuit-Breaker Capacitor Switch 60 Mvar XX Mvar .

Capacitor protection Shunt Reactors-General © ABB Group .5 2-May-12 .

6 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Shunt Capacitor Configurations  D-connected    Single Y-connected Double Y-connected Earthed or unearthed © ABB Group .

7 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Earthing of Shunt Capacitors  Solidly Earthed Shunt Capacitors  Increases the capacitive earth fault current in high-impedance earthed systems Reduces the stress on the switching devices   Unearthed Shunt Capacitors   Safety Regulation may prescribe unearthed shunt capacitors Sensitive earth fault protection may be easy to arrange © ABB Group .

Capacitor protection Bank Connections and Grounding  Grounded Wye Advantages:    Lower cost (insulation of neutral) switch duty not as severe (recovery voltages are reduced) mechanically.8 2-May-12  . structure is simpler High inrush currents may occur in station grounds which may and cause instrumentation problems (protection relay performance) An open phase produces zero-sequence harmonic currents and cause telephone interference Need for current limiting fuses if only one series group  Grounded Wye Disadvantages:   © ABB Group .

Capacitor protection DOUBLE Y-CONNECTED UNEARTHED CAPACITOR © ABB Group .9 2-May-12 .

10 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Shunt Capacitor Faults     Terminal shunt faults Capacitor unit failures Capacitor unit over voltages Capacitor rack arc-over © ABB Group .

11 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Abnormal Conditions     Inrush currents Transient over voltages Temporary over voltages Out rush currents © ABB Group .

s.Capacitor protection General conditions as per IEC 60871-1 (1997)   Capacitors should be able to withstand 10% over voltage The capacitors should tolerate 30% overcurrent (r.m.  © ABB Group . the maximum current may be up to 1.15 x 1.12 2-May-12 .5 In Capacitors may not be reconnected until they have discharged to 10% of their rated voltage. which may be not more than 1. value) arising from overvoltage and harmonics. Depending on the capacitance deviations.3 = 1.15 Cn.

Capacitor protection CAPACITOR UNITS AND FUSES P © ABB Group .13 2-May-12 S .

14 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Unit Overcurrent Protection     External or internal fuses Risk for damage: P < Pmax Fusing: P > Pmin Often done by manufacturer © ABB Group .

15 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Capacitor Bank Protections  Short -circuit protection (3I >>)    Ground-fault protection (I ) Overload protection (3I/U >) Under current protection (I/U <)  Unbalance protection (IN-N) © ABB Group .

circuit protection    Provides protection against short circuits and earth faults Two or three phase over current along with earth fault relay used This should be set to as short a time as possible without causing spurious tripping due to switching transients.Capacitor protection Short.16 2-May-12 . © ABB Group .

Capacitor protection PHASE-TO-PHASE RACK FAULT A B C © ABB Group .17 2-May-12 .

18 2-May-12 .fault protection  Protection settings have to be coordinated with the existing ground-fault protection of the network and carried out individually in each case without any general guidelines.Capacitor protection Ground. © ABB Group .

19 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection BANK OVERCURRENT PROTECTION Using I> I> I> I> © ABB Group .

The SPAJ 160C is actually a maximum-valuedetecting voltage protection whereby the relay converts measured capacitor currents.Capacitor protection Capacitor bank overload relay  This protection prevents capacitor overload due to overvoltage and/or harmonic currents. Its characteristic corresponds to the voltage tolerance levels according to ANSI/IEE std. including harmonics up to the 13th. For banks with insulated neutral it is usually measuring in two phases. The overload protection is measuring in three phases for banks with grounded neutral.20 2-May-12 . 18 and IEC 60871-1.  © ABB Group . to a maximum voltage value.

Capacitor protection Under current relay  This protection disconnects the bank from the busbar upon voltage failure. © ABB Group .21 2-May-12 . The relay can inhibit reclosing of the capacitor bank circuit breaker for a preset discharge time. trec by means of an auxiliary contact connected in the closing circuit. to prevent reconnection of a charged capacitor.

22 2-May-12 If capacitor value decrease below 5/6 of nominal value bank must be taken out of service Faulty elements taken out by fuses cause increase in voltage level Capacitors can withstand 110% of rated voltage  .Capacitor protection Unbalance relay  Detects asymmetry due to    Blown internal fuses Short circuits across bushings Short circuits between capacitor units /racks   © ABB Group .

Capacitor protection Unbalance Protection Schemes  Provide early unbalance alarm signal to indicate the operation of fuses (internally or externally fused capacitors) or failure of capacitor elements (fuseless capacitors) Trip the bank for unbalances that are large enough to indicate that continuing operation may result in damage to remaining good capacitors or elements from overvoltage Many schemes available for detecting unbalances    Most installations will require an individual engineering analysis to determine the most appropriate detection scheme © ABB Group .23 2-May-12 .

Capacitor protection UNBALANCE PROTECTION Double Y-connected unearthed Capacitor Neutral Unbalance Overcurrent Relay © ABB Group .24 2-May-12 I> .

25 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection SPAJ 160 C : Unbalance . Overload and Under current functions © ABB Group .

© ABB Group .26 2-May-12 Capacitor protection .

Is there any standard IS or IEC for this? Capacitor failure rates is very high compared to other devices (e.27 2-May-12 .Capacitor protection Questions to be answered  What is the % of allowable unbalance current in a healthy bank. Often clearance between terminal of capacitor and other live parts is not enough.g: NDPL). Why not provide them external to capacitor. Why? With internal fuses replacement not possible.    © ABB Group .

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