Window Air conditioners

The control system (thermostat and selector switch), electrical protection system (motor overload switches and winding protection thermostat on the compress motor), air circulation system (fan motor, centrifugal evaporator blower and propeller fan for aircooled condenser) and ventilation (fresh air damper) and exhaust system

Installation
Ensure that there is liberal space on both the sides (minimum 30 cm on each side) for free flow of air to the condenser fan, So also the space behind the unit (condenser) should be clear (minimum 2 m) to allow free flow of the hot condenser outlet air. If there is any obstruction, the outlet air can short cycle to the suction side of the condenser fan, leading to higher condensing temperature and consequent reduction in unit capacity.

Installation
The best height of installation is about 75 to 120 cm above the floor level for uniform circulation of supply-air across the living height of the room. It also ensures easy accessibility for service. Too high or too low an installation should be avoided. Do not install near a heating appliance, nor near a door or in a corner of the room.

Split units
The indoor units are ceiling suspended, wall mounted or kept on floor as a console model and is generally known as the fan coil unit

Split units
The distance between the indoor and outdoor units has to be as small as possible(maximum 10 m) As this distance increases the pressure drop in the suction and liquid lines also increases, resulting in reduction of the unit capacity

Split units
Too high a vertical lift in the liquid line (when outdoor unit is at a lower level) can cause flash gas in the liquid line. Also higher vertical lift of the suction line (when outdoor unit is at a higher level than the indoor unit) can cause the problem of oil return

Package air conditioner
These can be considered as the bigger versions of the room air conditioners and are used for air conditioning loads beyond the capacity range of the room air conditioners. They are available in nominal capacities of 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 tonne. Like the room air conditioner, the package unit also houses the air filtering, coolingdehumidifying and air handling components and is factory assembled. Components for heating and humidifying purposes can also be included within the unit. The condenser can be of the water-cooled or the aircooled type.

Package air conditioner
The water-cooled type can be completely factory assembled, charged (with refrigerant) and tested. Thus the laying of refrigerant piping, pressure leak testing, evacuation. Charging. etc. need not have to be carried out in the field. This not only reduces the field labor, but also ensures a cleaner system, being assembled in the factory with strict quality control procedures

Package air conditioner
The air-cooled type obviously cannot be factory assembled and charged. Laying of the refrigerant piping between the indoor and outdoor units, pressure testing, evacuation, charging, etc. have to be carried out in the field. Because of the scarcity of water, air-cooled units are favored, Though their capacity will be less than that of, the watercooled condenser using the same compressor. For the evaporator side, centrifugal fans are provided, which can develop higher static pressure. So air distribution duct and grills can be connected to the unit. Air quantities generally ware 10 to 11.3 m3 /min. (350 to 400 cfm) per ton

Central air conditioning plants
The central air conditioning system can be either of the direct or the indirect type. In the direct system, the air from the space to be airconditioned is circulated over the cooling coil (of a refrigeration plant) in which the low-pressure refrigerant liquid is boiling. The latent heat of vaporization for the liquid refrigerant is taken from the air being circulated over the coil. So this is known as the `Direct-expansion (DX) system. In the indirect system, chilled water or brine from the refrigeration plant is circulated through the cooling coil located in the air-handling unit to cool and dehumidify the room air. Such a system is known as the central chilled water (or brine) system.

Chilled Water System
Though chilled water system requires more power per unit of refrigeration (kw/tonne), the system offers plenty of flexibility in selection, lay out and operation. The chiller packages can be located in a central plant room, away from the air-conditioned space. The air-handling units too can be located at convenient locations for each zone/ area and interconnected to the chiller packages with chilled water lines. Multiple chiller packages interconnected on the water sides (chilled water as well as condenser water systems) can be used for high loads, as high as say 1000 tonne. For loads exceeding 200 tonne, water-chilling packages with centrifugal compressors can be used,

Chilled Water System
Chilled water system is particularly suitable for air conditioning of large hotels, multistoried office buildings, industrial processing’s, etc. As almost all the sides (generally three sides) of the rooms are surrounded by air-conditioned areas, the transmission gain and so the sensible heat load of the room is generally low. Each room has to be provided with independent ON/OFF and temperature control .Prevention of transmission of noise (cross-talk) from one room to the other. Transmission of odors (such as smoking of cigars, cigarettes, food articles, human body odor etc.) from one room to another should be avoided

Chilled Water System Air distribution through the ducts from a common air-handling unit for a number of rooms cannot be used. Here the fan-coil unit is the correct choice. Fan-coil units are similar to the indoor unit in a split system room air conditioner except that the chilled water coil replaces the DX coil. Usually, a solenoid operated three-way diverting (or by-pass) valve is provided on the inlet-chilled waterline to the unit.

Chilled Water System
The valve is controlled by the room thermostat, When the room temperature is above the set point, the solenoid coil of the three-way valve is energized and the valve opens the port to supply chilled water to the coil. When the thermostat goes off on temperature, the solenoid is de energized closing the supply port to the coil and opening the by-pass port. The by-pass port is connected to the return chilled water line from the unit and thus the supply-chilled water by passes the coil of the unit. A two-way solenoid valve can also be used, but it has the disadvantage of creating `water hammer' (and associated banging noise) every time it closes. Further, when the two-way valve is closed, water flow to the particular unit is stopped.

Refrigeration components
Refrigeration unit / chiller Compressor and motor condenser Metering device Evaporator Accessories Lubrication system Safety and operational controls

Air side components air handling units Fan coil units Blower coil units Fresh air ahu Ducting system Variable air volumes Grills and dampers controls

Water side components
Chilled water pumps Chilled water piping system Valves and strainers Mixing valves Double regulating valves Auto vents Pressurization units

Selecting a system
Performance requirements

Capacity requirements Spatial requirements First cost Operating cost Reliability Flexibility Maintainability

Control options
Noise Ventilation Filtration Effect of failure Space considerations Floor space Plenum space Furniture placement Maintenance accessibility Roofs First cost System cost Cost to add zones Ability to increase capacity Contribution to life safety needs Air quality control Operating costs Energy costs

Control options
Electricity Water costs Chemical costs Manpower costs Maintenance costs Labor costs
Licensing for operators Material costs Energy-efficient operating modes Economy cycle (free cooling) Heat recovery

The system selection
1.Does the system fit in the available space, or does it require some architectural modification? 2.Does the system use more floor space than others considered, or does it require construction of additional space for mechanical rooms or shafts? 3.Will the system deliver the desired uniform temperature under varying weather and solar conditions? If compromises are made from the ideal control zoning, how much variation may be expected between spaces? 4.How much will the system cost to own compared to others considered? What is the recovery time of the initial investment, interest on investment system life, and the future cost of replacement equipment? 5.What are the operating costs for energy, maintenance, labor, and supplies of this system compared to others?

The system selection
What reliability can the owner expect compared to other systems? What component failures affect the entire building, and which affect only limited areas? How easily can the system be serviced? How quickly can the system be restored to operation after various equipment failures? Is the system flexible enough to meet changes in the owner’s needs? What is required to add a control zone? Can the system meet the increased capacity requirements of a space when equipment is added? How will changes in the interior layout and arrangement affect performance?

All-Air Systems
An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling, preheating, and humidification capacity in the air supplied by the system. No additional cooling or humidification is required at the zone, except in the case of certain industrial systems. Heating may be accomplished by the same air stream, either in the central system or at a particular zone.

All-air systems - advantages
The location of the central mechanical room for major equipment allows operation and maintenance to be performed in unoccupied areas. In addition, it allows the maximum range of choices of filtration equipment, vibration and noise control, and the selection of high quality and durable equipment. Keeping piping, electrical equipment, wiring, filters, and vibration and noise-producing equipment away from the conditioned area minimizes service needs and reduces potential harm to occupants, furnishings, and processes These systems offer the greatest potential for use of outside air (free cooling) instead of mechanical refrigeration for cooling. Seasonal changeover is simple and adapts readily to automatic control A wide choice of zoning, flexibility, and humidity control under all operating conditions is possible, with the availability of simultaneous heating and cooling even during off-season periods.

All-air systems - advantages

vi. Air-to-air and other heat recovery may be readily incorporated. vii. They permit good design flexibility for optimum air distribution, draft control, and adaptability to varying local requirements. viii.The systems are well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust or makeup air quantities negative or positive pressurization, etc.) ix. All air systems adapt well to winter humidification.

Disadvantages
They require additional duct clearance, which reduces usable floor space and increases the height of the building.

All-Water Systems
All-water systems for heating and cooling use hot or chilled water for space conditioning, with the air in the space heated or cooled by conduction, convection, or radiation. The following are the principal types of all-water systems: i. Baseboard radiation ii. Freestanding radiators and convectors iii. Wall, floor, or ceiling panels iv. Bare pipe (racked on wall) v. Fan-coil units

Fan-coil units
Four basic principles of air conditioning that also apply to heating are i. Temperature control ii. Humidity control iii. Air movement iv. Air purity (filtration and outside air makeup) Room fan-coil units for the domestic market are generally available in nominal sizes of 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, and 1200 cfm, often with multispeed, high-efficiency fan motors

Capacity Control
Fan-coil unit capacity can be controlled by coil water flow, air bypass, fan speed, or a combination of these. Water flow can be thermostatically controlled by either return air or wall thermostats Fan speed control may be automatic or manual. Automatic control is usually on-off with manual speed selection. Units are available with variable-speed motors for modulated speed control. Room thermostats are preferred where fan speed control is used. Return air thermostats do not give a reliable index of room temperature when the fan is off.

Maintenance
Room fan-coil units are equipped with either cleanable or disposable filters that should be cleaned or replaced when dirty. Good filter maintenance improves sanitation and provides full airflow, ensuring full capacity. The frequency of cleaning varies with the application. Applications in apartments, hotels, and hospitals usually require more frequent filter service because of lint. Fan-coil unit motors require periodic lubrication. Motor failures are not common, but when they occur, it is possible to replace the entire fan quickly with minimal interruption in the conditioned space. The defective motor can be repaired or replaced. The condensate drain pan and drain system should be cleaned or flushed periodically to prevent overflow and microbiological buildup. Drain pans should be trapped to prevent any gaseous backup.

Advantages
A major advantage of the all-water system is that the delivery system (piping versus duct systems) requires less building space, a smaller or no central fan room, and little duct space. The system has all the benefits of a central water chilling and heating plant, while retaining the ability to shut off local terminals in unused areas. It gives individual room control with little cross contamination of recirculated air from one space to another. Extra capacity for quick pull down response may be provided. Because this system can heat with low-temperature water, it is particularly suitable for solar or heat recovery refrigeration equipment. For existing building retrofit, it is often easier to install the piping and wiring for an all-water system than the large ductwork required for an all-air system.

Disadvantages
All-water systems require much more maintenance than central all-air systems, and this work must be done in occupied areas. Units that operate at low dew points require condensate pans and a drain system that must be cleaned and flushed periodically. Condensate disposal can be difficult and costly. It is also difficult to clean the coil. Filters are small, low in efficiency, and require frequent changing to maintain air volume. In some instances, drain systems can be eliminated if dehumidification is positively controlled by a central ventilation air system.

Air-and-Water Systems
Air-and-water systems condition spaces by distributing air and water sources to terminal units installed in habitable spaces throughout a building. The air and water are cooled or heated in central mechanical equipment rooms. The air supplied is called primary air; the water supplied is called secondary water. Sometimes a separate electric heating coil is included in lieu of a hot water coil. This chapter is concerned primarily with airand-water induction units, fan-coil units, and radiant panels as used in air-water systems Air-and-water systems apply primarily to exterior spaces of buildings with high sensible loads and where close control of humidity is not required. They may, however, be applied to interior zones as well. These systems work well in buildings such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels, schools, apartment buildings, and research laboratories.

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