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**Space Propulsion and Energy Science International Forum
**

(BOE 021209-054)

MIKE GAMBLE 2/26/09

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BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 1/6/2009 | 1

**BOEING Release Memo
**

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

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Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 2

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

SPESIF PITCH NOTES

2/26/09

Figure 1A) This is the Boeing memo allowing the “Public Domain” release of this “Study of Gravity”. All Boeing documents have to be reviewed and approved before they can be presented or published.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

EOT_RT_template.ppt | 3

A week ago I had no idea that I would be here to present this study. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved. so I started collecting data about the earth.com) Page 1B Copyright © 2009 Boeing. I thought there must be more to it. I am an electronics engineer for The Boeing Co. harmonics and frequencies. After that things got real interesting! Mg09 Mike Gamble (michael. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology INTRODUCTION Hello. Being of the electronics type I was trained to think in terms of waves.a.gamble@boeing. Looking in textbooks all you find about gravity is the statement that it is an attraction between two bodies and varies as the mass and separation. Enjoy the gravity presentation and let me know what you think about it. The “wow moment” in the research came when I realized that the harmonic waveshapes were aligning very close to that of the measured data. (Seattle). Would like to thank the chair person of this conference for pulling the right strings. In engineering you start with a ballpark number (WAG or SWAG) and work the problem from there.ppt | 4 . This presentation is from a different perspective more of a macroscopic overview. my name is Mike Gamble. HISTORY I started this “Study of Gravity” back in 2007 more as a curiosity than research.STUDY OF GRAVITY Engineering.

ppt | 5 . known and relevant data • Mathematical analysis of this data leading to a wave shape (field) • Generation of this field • Phase reversal of field (lift) Mg07 Page 2 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.Steps in Understanding Gravity Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology • Document existing. All rights reserved.

Engineering. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. trig functions. 3) Generation of this accelerating force (gravity) wave by using regular (EM) ElectroMagnetic field equations. The goal was to generate a math model that accounted for the total system’s operation. The “Study of Gravity” (part 2) deals with the generation of this wave shape and proposed applications. matrix operations and high powered ones like curve fitting. 2) Mathematical analysis of all this data. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 2) “Steps in Understanding Gravity” is an outline of the tasks taken and the order preformed in doing this study. It was done in two parts as the total package would be too much information to cram into a single presentation. This would correlate the accelerating Force field (F-field) to the Electric field (E-field) and the Magnetic field (B-field) giving equation(s) that could be tested and used. Phase reversal and synchronization of this field should generate a usable lifting force. Chose MatLab as the number crunching software tool as it includes all the regular math functions. known and relevant data about the functioning of the earth system. The “Study of Gravity” (part1) deals with the documentation and math models concluding with a functioning accelerating force (gravity) equation. 1) Research and documentation of existing.ppt | 6 . This systems approach includes the data and analysis of all the major parts. imaginary number operations plus Fourier transforms. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template. not just of the surface acceleration commonly call “gravity”. 4) Proposed applications using this lifting force combined with other current technologies could be applied to space drive engines.

ppt | 7 . All rights reserved.GRAVITY DOCUMENTATION What is Known Mg07 Page 3 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.

Engineering. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. Most of the space data (magnetosphere. radiation belts) is from the NASA website. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 3) “Gravity Documentation” all of the research data for this study was from public domain no Boeing information was used in this presentation the “Study of Gravity”. The earth’s structure and core data (mantle. ionosphere) is from various geological websites. geo-sync orbit. atmosphere.ppt | 8 . crust.

ppt | 9 .174 ft/sec2 @ Re=1 S X axis (equator) Re = 1 (surface) Mg07 Page 4 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y axis (polar) Spherical Field N PLANET Re = 1 Earth Radius (surface) = 3963 Miles Gav = Gravity Average (radial) = 32. EOT_RT_template.PHYSICS: Gravity Engineering.

It was first discovered by Newton.ppt | 10 .Engineering. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 4) “Physics: Gravity” from the textbook this is the standard classical definition. Starting with the basic definition that gravity is a radial acceleration with an average value of 32ft/sec2 decreasing as the distance squared. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) The “Equator” direction is defined as the X-axis (+X = radial out) 2) The “Polar” direction is defined as the Y-axis (+Y = north) 3) The (Re) radius of the earth is 3963 miles 4) Average surface value (Re=1) is -32ft/sec2 5) Varies inversely as the distance (radius) squared Copyright © 2009 Boeing. something about getting hit on the head with an apple.

963 miles 4.ppt | 11 . Re = 3.640 miles Rout = 12.400 miles BWout = 6.300 miles X-AXIS 15.963 miles Rin = 5. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y-AXIS OUTER BELT N INNER BELT 3.VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELTS (Donut Shaped Rings) Engineering.200 miles EOT_RT_template.180 miles 9.500 miles S BWout (Belt Width) Re BWin Rin Rout (Belt Center Radius) Mg07 Page 5 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.540 miles 7.860 miles BWin = 2. All rights reserved.

The inner belt starts about 500miles above the equator and is about 2.Engineering. EOT_RT_template.600miles wide. they are thickest around the equator and taper off to zero at both the poles.ppt | 12 . All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 5) “Van Allen Radiation Belts” moving further out from the earth’s surface is the Van Allen Radiation Belts. Which have a crescent (half moon) shaped cross section when viewed from the side. Main points: 1) The radiation belts are two concentric donut shaped rings above the equator 2) All radius measurements are from the center of the earth 3) The (BW) Belt Width and (R) Radius are both measured at the equator Copyright © 2009 Boeing. These belts are actually two concentric donut shaped rings.300miles above the equator and is 6.200miles wide. While the outer belt starts about 5.

All rights reserved.156 Miles (6.963 Miles (1Re) GeoSync = 22.6Re Rgeo = 26.ppt | 13 . EOT_RT_template.6Re) Re = 3.193 Miles (above surface) Mg07 Page 6 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology GeoSync PLANET Rgeo | 1Re | 6.GEOSYNC ORBIT Engineering.

It has the unique feature that satellites at this distance (radius) have an orbital speed that exactly matches the earths rotation so they appear to remain stationary (in one place) with respect to any point on the earth’s surface even though they are moving at speeds of thousands of miles per hour. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.6 Re) 2) The (Re) radius of the earth is 3963miles Copyright © 2009 Boeing.000miles (6.ppt | 14 .Engineering. Main points: 1) The (Rgeo) radius of geosync orbit is 26. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 6) “GeoSync Orbit” moving further out from the radiation belts is the place known as geosynchronous orbit (GeoSync for short). This place 22.000miles above the equator is where all the communications satellites are “parked”.

000miles/365*24hr = 66.MAGNETOSPHERE Engineering. though “aero” might not be the right word. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology (Rmag) Radius 13 -14Re Wake Extends 100Re Leading Edge (bow) Deformed 3-4Re Sun 93M miles Earth Planet Velocity(cir) = 2*pi*93. 3) Wake and bow compression caused by high speed passage through some type of (fluid) media. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.000.ppt | 15 Page 7 .700 miles/hr Mg07 1) That’s magnetoSPHERE with the accent on “sphere” 2) A circle (sphere) is a poor aerodynamic shape.

Engineering. However.000miles (100Re) Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.000miles (13-14Re) 2) The earth is orbiting the sun at about 67. Therefore.000miles above the equator. Main points: 1) The magnetosphere has an outer radius (Rmag) of about 52.000 to 16.000 to 56. if not for the fact the earth was traveling at high speed through some type of (fluid) media.ppt | 16 .000miles/hr 3) A sphere is a poor aerodynamic shape. the front edge of the earth’s spherical shell (magnetosphere) is compressed from the impact of this media. The shell would be a perfect sphere. It is located about 52. though “aero”(air) is not the correct media 4) Front of magnetosphere is compressed 12. a boat has a ridged bow structure and the earth does not. Like a boat going through the water the earth has a bow wave and leaves a long wake behind it. All rights reserved.000miles (3-4Re) 5) Leaves a long wake of about 400. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 7) “Magnetosphere” moving much further out from GeoSync orbit is the outer edge of the earth’s magnetic shell or magnetosphere.

ppt | 17 . EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.GRAVITY ANALYSIS Number Crunching Mg07 Page 8 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

The first tutorial is on the relevant mathematical equations used in the analysis and the other on wave basics as they apply to this study. The waveshape generation section shows what forces are needed to construct the crescent shaped rings and spherical shells along with their harmonic placements and frequencies. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 8) “Gravity Analysis” the number crunching section contains two short tutorials and the main section on waveshape generation followed by a short tutorial on Tesla’s work. Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Engineering. All rights reserved.ppt | 18 . EOT_RT_template.

ppt | 19 . All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.Relevant Equations Mg07 Page 9 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 9) “Relevant Equations” is a short tutorial on the mathematical equations used in this study and how they apply to the math modeling.ppt | 20 .Engineering. EOT_RT_template.

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology F = M*A Force equals Mass times Acceleration EQUATION APPLIES: 1) Force is proportional to Acceleration (in the presence of Mass) 2) Mass in a Force field will (try to) Accelerate Mg07 Page 10 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 21 . All rights reserved.PHYSICS: Newton’s Law Engineering. EOT_RT_template.

if a Mass is placed in a Force field it will (try to) Accelerate unless it can not move (blocked force). First. Mass being the constant of proportionality. EOT_RT_template.Engineering. This equation applies to the analysis in two ways.ppt | 22 . All rights reserved. And second. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Force is proportional or equivalent to Acceleration. it shows that in the presence of Mass. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 10) “Physics: Newton’s Law” straight from the textbooks states that “Force equals Mass times Acceleration”.

**CALCULUS: Acc/Velocity/Position
**

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

A = dV/dt = d P/d t

Acceleration equals the derivative of Velocity or the second derivative of Position

2

2

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Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

Figure 11) “Calculus: Acc/Velocity/Position” basic calculus shows the correlation between position (p), velocity (v) and acceleration (a). First, Velocity (v) equals the derivative (dp/dt) of position (p). Second, Acceleration (a) equals the derivative (dv/dt) of Velocity (v). Therefore, Acceleration (a) equals the second derivative (d2p/dt2) of position (p).

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

EOT_RT_template.ppt | 24

**PHYSICS: Left Hand Motor Rule
**

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

F=EXB

Force equals Electric [E] field “[vector] cross product” Magnetic [B] field

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Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 25

This is only an empirical equation showing the general relationship of all the fields as it needs correct constants added to be exact.Engineering. All rights reserved.ppt | 26 . EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 12) “Physics: Left Hand Motor Rule” shows that the force turning a motor armature is related to the flow of the electric (E) field times the strength of the magnetic (B) field. all fields being orthogonal (90deg) to each other. Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

ppt | 27 .Wave Basics Mg07 Page 13 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.

It is background material for understanding the acceleration waves and their analysis.Engineering. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.ppt | 28 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 13) “Wave Basics” is a short tutorial on waves in general starting with the basic definitions and common names. EOT_RT_template.

Waves in General Engineering. All rights reserved.ppt | 29 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology (anti-node) + amplitude(pk) (node) 0 ½ Lambda (node) (node) -amplitude(pk) (anti-node) Wavelength (Lambda) Mg07 Page 14 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.

Engineering.ppt | 30 . All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 14) “Waves in General” shows one cycle of a basic wave and describes and defines its makeup. Nodes are the zero crossings or transition points of the wave. λ Main points: 1) Wave nodes 2) Wave amplitude and peaks 3) Wavelength (λ) λ Copyright © 2009 Boeing. The peaks or anti-nodes are the maximum and minimum wave values. EOT_RT_template. The unit of length for one cycle of a wave is called wavelength (λ = Lambda).

637 = 32. All rights reserved. .ppt | 31 Page 15 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Wave Amplitude Engineering.7% Peak Average = 63.01 miles/sec2 @ Re=1 EOT_RT_template.637 = 50.174 / .174 ft/sec2 @ Re=1 Gpk = Peak Gravity Mg07 (node) Zero (0%) Therefore: Gpk = Gav / . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology (anti-node) Peak (100%) RMS = 70.7% Peak (node) ½ Lambda Gav = Average Gravity = 32.509 ft/sec2 / 5280 ft = .

The units of “feet” were also converted to “miles” as the math modeling was done in those units.ppt | 32 .707pk defined as 70. First.Engineering.637pk defined as 63. the average value of the acceleration of gravity (-32.174ft/sec2 @ Re=1) can be converted to its peak value (-0. is the (RMS) Root Mean Squared value of 0. EOT_RT_template. Using these standard values for conversion.7%.01miles/sec2) for the analysis. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 15) “Wave Amplitude” defines the three ways of measuring a wave’s amplitude and shows the correlation between them.7%. Second. And third. the average or DC value of 0. is the maximum or peak (pk) value defined as 100%. Main points: 1) Three types of wave amplitude measurement 2) Conversion of the acceleration of gravity to its peak value Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Two waves of equal amplitude traveling in opposite directions generate a standing wave of double amplitude 1 Incident (Traveling) Wave 0 -1 Reflected (Traveling) Wave 1 0 -1 2 1 0 -1 Mg07 Resultant (Standing) Wave Page 16 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.STANDING WAVES Engineering. All rights reserved.ppt | 33 . -2 EOT_RT_template.

This basic textbook definition holds only if the phase and frequency of the wave was not changed much in the reflection.ppt | 34 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 16) “Standing Waves” shows how a standing wave is generated. Waves are either traveling (moving) or standing (stationary). Main points: 1) Two types of waves: traveling and standing 2) The standing wave has double (2x) the traveling wave’s amplitude Copyright © 2009 Boeing. When a transmitted wave called an “incident” wave is reflected back totally or partially these two (incident/reflected) traveling waves each going in opposite directions combine (mix) to produce a resultant wave that is stationary and only varies in amplitude. EOT_RT_template.Engineering. All rights reserved. Real world wave analysis must account for these changes as they appear as distortion and polarization in the results.

-1 EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Fundamental plus second harmonic (half amplitude) results in a nonsymmetrical (polarized) wave 2 Fund 0 -2 1 3 Result 0 Mg07 0 -1Harmonic Second Page 17 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.ppt | 35 .POLARIZED (rectified) WAVE Engineering.

This waveshape is not symmetrical (same amplitude) above and below the zero point. it can be beneficial if DC rectification is wanted.ppt | 36 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 17) “Polarized (rectified) Wave” if the reflected waves amplitude is halved and its frequency is doubled from that of the incident wave then the resultant standing wave will be what is called polarized. All rights reserved. However. frequency and phase 2) Generates DC wave rectification Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Usually it is caused by some phase shifting between the two traveling waves. it is pushed off to one side or the other. Main points: 1) Caused by a change in a waves: amplitude.Engineering. EOT_RT_template.

Wave Shape Generation Mg07 Page 18 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 37 . EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.

EOT_RT_template. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.ppt | 38 .Engineering. Proceeding with the wave harmonics and placements needed to build them. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 18) “Wave Shape Generation” This is the main section of the presentation and gives the details about how the different shapes and structures are constructed.

0) ½ Lambda apart (dipole) on the Y-axis Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y axis Acc1 (+/-45deg) Node (null) Line (Acc = 0) + X axis Acc2 = max (0 deg) Anti-Node (-Acc = max negative) Acc3 (+/-30 deg) Feedpoints (dipole) Anti-Node (+Acc = max positive) Acc = 0 (+/-90deg) 1) Angles and amplitudes of (radial) Acceleration needed to generate the wave shape (+Acc = outwards. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.Wave Shape (field) Analysis [donut shaped ring] Engineering. -Acc = inwards) 2) The 3D wave shape (donut) is generated by two (2) feedpoints centered at the origin (0.ppt | 39 Mg07 Page 19 .

This placement generates a circular field pattern with a crescent shaped cross section having a maximum field on the X-axis tapering to zero (no field) on the Y-axis. Pattern size is determined by the wavelength (inverse of frequency).Engineering.ppt | 40 . Main points: 1) A crescent shaped ring pattern can be generated by a dipole sourced field pattern 2) Dipole wavelength is λ/2 which centered at the origin (0. A dipole feedpoint spacing of half lambda (λ/2) is required at the proper frequency. EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 19) “Wave Shape (field) Analysis (donut shaped ring)” to generate a crescent shaped donut ring field pattern requires an acceleration wave beat frequency from two different sources (dipole feedpoints). The cross sectional area of this pattern has a node (zero point) in the middle of the field pattern which is bounded by a plus (+Acc) maximum amplitude on the inner radius and a negative (-Acc) maximum amplitude on the outer radius producing an “S” shaped pattern in the acceleration wave. To place the acceleration maximum on the X-axis (equator) requires the dipole to be located on the Y-axis (polar) as the feedpoints are orthogonal (90deg) to the point of maximum field strength. All rights reserved.0) on the Y-axis 3) Wavelength determines the pattern size Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

Wave Shape (field) Analysis [Spherical shell] Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y axis Node (null) Line (Acc = 0) Acc1 (-180 to 180deg) X axis Anti-Node (-Acc = max negative) Anti-Node (+Acc = max positive) 1) Angles and amplitude of radial Acceleration needed to generate the wave shape (+Acc = outwards. All rights reserved.ppt | 41 feedpoint .0) Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. -Acc = inwards) Mg07 2) The 3D wave shape (shell) is generated by one (1) feedpoint centered Page 20 at the origin (0.

This placement generates a circular shell field pattern with equal maximums on both the X-axis and Y-axis. Main points: 1) A spherical shell pattern can be generated by a single sourced field pattern 2) Feedpoint is centered at the origin (0. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 20) “Wave Shape (field) Analysis (spherical shell)” to generate a spherical shell field pattern requires an acceleration wave from only one source (feedpoint) located at its center (0.Engineering.ppt | 42 . Pattern size is determined by the wavelength (inverse of frequency). EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved. The cross sectional area of this pattern has a node (zero point) in the middle of the field pattern which is bounded by a plus (+Acc) maximum amplitude on the inner radius and a negative (-Acc) maximum amplitude on the outer radius producing an “S” shaped pattern in the acceleration wave.0) on the Y-axis 3) Wavelength determines the pattern size Copyright © 2009 Boeing. 0).

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Radius(R) = Lambda / 2*pi Rgeo = Lambda Rmag = 2*Lambda Lambda R Lambda (2x) Lambda Rgeo PLANET Geosync Orbit Rmag Edge of Magnetosphere Mg07 Page 21 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Wavelengths (Lambda) Engineering. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.ppt | 43 .

the radius (Rmag) of the magnetosphere edge is double that 2λ. Also. However.ppt | 44 . All rights reserved. shown is the harmonic distance of the earth’s circumference. Main points: 1) Outer circumference of the earth is lambda (λ) 2) Radius of geosync orbit is lambda (λ) 3) Radius of the magnetosphere edge is 2 lambda (2λ) Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All distances are measured in wavelengths (λ). The radius (Rgeo) of geosync orbit is λ as is the outer circumference of the earth.Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 21) “Wavelengths (lambda)” shows the major harmonic spacing between the earth’s center out to GeoSync orbit and further out to the edge of the magnetosphere. EOT_RT_template.

EOT_RT_template.ppt | 45 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology IONOSPHERE air CRUST Radius(R) = 4194Miles (minimum) Rair = 4013Miles (air) Re = 3963Miles (surface) Re Lambda R Rair ATMOSPHERE SURFACE (Re) CRUST INNER CORE MANTLE OUTER CORE 733Miles 0 4194 Miles 4013 Miles 733 Miles 2160 Miles 3963 Miles 3943 Miles Mg09 Page 21A Copyright © 2009 Boeing.RADIUS ESTIMATES Planet Structure Engineering. All rights reserved.

ppt | 46 . EOT_RT_template.Engineering. All rights reserved. Main points: 1) Radius (R) of the ionosphere is 4194miles 2) Radius (Rair) of the atmosphere is 4013miles 3) Radius (Re) of the earths surface is 3963miles 4) All distances are measured from the earth’s center Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 21A) “Radius Estimates (planet structure)” is a more detailed view of figure 21 showing just the earth harmonics. It show the earth’s circumference wave (λ) completely enclosing the ionosphere and the rest of the planet’s structure. The radius (R) to the edge of the ionosphere extends about 230miles above the surface while the radius (Rair) to the edge of the atmosphere only extends about 50miles above the surface of the planet.

07Hz(max) Using: Fundamental Frequency Second Harmonic Third Harmonic Fourth Harmonic 7. All rights reserved.6*3963(miles) = 186.GRAVITY FREQUENCIES (ESTIMATES) Engineering.12Hz Earth Radius (Re) Freq = C / Lambda Lambda = 2*pi*4194(miles) = 186.1Hz 14.284(miles/sec) / 26.ppt | 47 .2Hz 21.156(miles) = 7.352(miles) = 7.3Hz 28.4Hz Mg07 Page 22 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology GeoSync (Rgeo) Freq = C / Lambda Lambda = 6.284(miles/sec) / 26.

All rights reserved. Taking the mathematical average of these two numbers and rounding the answer gives the initial estimate of 7. First method uses the GeoSync orbit wavelength distance (Rgeo) in the calculation giving an answer of 7.3Hz. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 22) “Gravity Frequencies (estimates)” shows two different ways of estimating the frequency of the acceleration (gravity) waves using the classical equation (Freq = C / λ).2Hz is two times (2x) the fundamental.1Hz for the fundamental frequency.3Hz is three times (3x) the fundamental and the fourth harmonic 28. 14. The second harmonic 14. Second method used the earth’s radius (Re) in the calculation giving an answer of 7.Engineering.4Hz is four times (4x) the fundamental. the third harmonic 21.12Hz. 28.2Hz. Which states that Frequency is equal to the speed of light (C) divided by the wavelength (λ).4Hz Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 48 . 21.1Hz. Main points: 1) Wavelength to frequency conversion equation (Freq = C / λ) 2) Two different methods used to calculate the frequency 3) Acceleration (gravity) wave frequency estimates are: 7. EOT_RT_template.07Hz.

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology OUTER BELT N INNER BELT S BWout (Belt Width) Re BWin Rin Rout (Belt Center Radius) ¼ Lambda ½ Lambda Rout = ½ Lambda EOT_RT_template. Rin = ¼ Lambda .RADIATION BELTS Engineering. All rights reserved.ppt | 49 Mg07 Page 23 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

Engineering. The distance from the center of the inner radiation belt (Rin) to the center of the earth is λ/4. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 23) “ Radiation Belts” is the same data as figure 5 “Van Allen Radiation Belts” only the distance measurements (miles) are converted to harmonic wavelengths (λ). Main points: 1) Inner belt radius (Rin) is λ/4 2) Outer belt radius (Rout) is λ/2 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All measurements are taken on the X-axis (equator).ppt | 50 . All rights reserved. The distance from the center of the outer radiation belt (Rout) to the center of the earth is λ/2. EOT_RT_template.

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Solid Hollow – Thick Crust Hollow – Thin Crust R R R Acc is negative @ R=0 Acc is 0 @ R=0 Acc is positive @ R=0 Mg07 Page 24 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 51 .Planet Core Types Engineering.

hollow-thick crust. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 24) “Planet Core Types” shows the three possible types of planet core data. All rights reserved. The higher the value of positive acceleration the thinner the crust gets. we are talking solid rock! The pictures show the acceleration wave patterns and the resulting structural shapes. hollow-thin crust) Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Depending on what the value of the acceleration (gravity) wave is at the center of the earth (R = 0) the structure would be a solid if the wave had a negative value or it would be hollow with a thick crust if the wave was zero or it would be hollow with a thin crust if the wave had a positive value. EOT_RT_template.Engineering.ppt | 52 . We are not talking pizzas here. Main points: 1) Planet core structure depends on the acceleration waveshape at (R = 0) 2) Three possible types (solid.

Proposed Y-Axis Data Plots Mg07 Page 25 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 53 . All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 25) “Proposed Y-axis Data Plots” the next step in the analysis process is to collect and put together all the previous individual pieces of data that are relevant for the Y-axis (polar) waveshape analysis. Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Engineering. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 54 .

01 Geo Sync= |< 26154. 2 Distance (miles) 2.5 Page 26 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 55 .surface -0.5 1 1.04 Mg07 0 0.02 |< Lamda 0.5 x 10 4 4 EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y-Axis Initial Core Estimates (Acc vs Distance) 0.01 |<.02 Dotted= Hollow Core(thin) Solid= Hollow Core(thick) Dashed= Solid Core -0.Proposed (Radial) Wave Shape(s) Engineering.5 3 3.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + 1Re + 2Re + 3Re + 4Re + 5Re + 9Re + 10Re -0.03 -0.

earth radius (Re) and miles. Note there are three separate composite waveshapes one generated for each core type all superimposed on this plot. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 26) “Proposed (radial) Wave Shapes” this plot shows what the proposed Y-axis (polar) waveshape would be to generate the given field patterns.000miles.ppt | 56 . Distances are shown in harmonic wavelengths (λ). EOT_RT_template.01miles/sec2 at (R = Re). The composite waveshape shows the three different core types at (R = 0) and the earths surface acceleration value of -0. Main points: 1) Displays waveshapes for all three core types 2) Displays earth’s surface marker 3) Displays GeoSync orbit marker 4) Three types of distance measurements Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Also. All rights reserved. shown is the “S” shaped wave pattern (shell) at GeoSync (R = λ) and another smaller “S” shaped wave pattern out at the magnetosphere edge (R = 2λ) but due to MatLab plotting software’s scaling issue it is off page at 50.Engineering.

46Hz 12.37Hz 14.5 Dashed(solid)= 5.11Hz 21.49Hz 2.5 Dotted(thin)= 6.5 -5 Y-Axis Estimate .Frequency Domain (FFT) 1 0.46Hz 3 Relative Power Solid(thick)= 5.03Hz 2 1.5 0 Mg07 Page 27 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology x 10 4.85Hz +/-0.92Hz 13.75Hz 20. All rights reserved.FFT of Proposed Wave Shape(s) Engineering.5 4 3.20Hz 20.ppt | 57 . 0 5 10 15 20 Frequency (Hz) 25 30 35 40 EOT_RT_template.

Engineering. The main differences are in wave amplitude and phasing. All rights reserved. the composite waveshapes are displayed in the frequency domain. 13Hz. Main points: 1) Valid FFT waveshape no discontinuities 2) All three waveshapes are composed of the same three harmonics 3) Only the solid core and hollow core – thick crust waveshapes have decreasing amplitude Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Note a Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that outputs the harmonic frequency content of a given input waveshape. 20Hz). hollow – thick crust) are decreasing in amplitude with increasing frequency. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 27) “FFT of Proposed Wave Shapes” gives the (FFT) Fast Fourier Transform for the three different core types in the Y-axis (polar).ppt | 58 . As can be seen from the plots all three core waveshapes are composed of approximately the same three harmonics (6Hz. Looking a little closer only two of the waves (solid core. EOT_RT_template.

ppt | 59 .Proposed X-Axis Data Plots Mg07 Page 28 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.

EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 28) “Proposed X-axis Data Plots” the following plots collect and put together all the previous individual pieces of data that are relevant for the Xaxis (equator) waveshape analysis.ppt | 60 . All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Engineering.

surface +* 3Re Outer Belt + 4Re ---> + 5Re Geo Sync= |< 26154.Proposed (Radial) Wave Shape(s) Engineering.04 Mg07 0 0. All rights reserved.5 1 1.02 |< Lamda 0.5 Page 29 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.5 3 3.02 Dotted= Hollow Core(thin) Solid= Hollow Core(thick) Dashed= Solid Core -0.01 -0.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re + 9Re + 10Re -0. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology X-Axis Initial Core Estimates (Acc vs Distance) 0.01 |< 1/2 Lamda |< 1/4 Lamda Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + * + 1Re 2Re < Inner> <--Belt |<.5 x 10 4 EOT_RT_template.ppt | 61 4 .03 -0. 2 Distance (miles) 2.

01miles/sec2 at (R = Re). Main points: 1) Displays waveshapes for all three core types 2) Displays earth’s surface marker 3) Displays Inner and Outer belt markers 4) Displays GeoSync orbit marker 5) Three types of distance measurements Copyright © 2009 Boeing. The composite waveshape shows the three different core types at (R = 0) and the earths surface acceleration value of -0. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 29) “Proposed (radial) Wave Shapes” plot shows what the proposed X-axis (equator) waveshape would be to generate the given field patterns.Engineering. shown is the “S” shaped wave pattern (shell) at GeoSync (R = λ) and another smaller “S” shaped wave pattern out at the magnetosphere edge (R = 2λ) but due to MatLab plotting software’s scaling issue it is off page at 50. Also. Note there are three separate composite waveshapes one generated for each core type all superimposed on this plot.000miles. earth radius (Re) and miles. Distances are shown in harmonic wavelengths (λ). Plot is similar to Figure 26) for the Y-axis data but with additional data included for the inner belt located at (R = λ/4) and outer belt located at (R = λ/2).ppt | 62 .

37Hz 14. .Frequency Domain (FFT) 4 3 Relative Power Dotted(thin)= 6.77Hz Dashed(solid)= 5.32Hz 36.49Hz 27.20Hz 20.75Hz 20.ppt | 63 Page 30 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.92Hz 13. All rights reserved.11Hz 32.95Hz 2 1 0 Mg07 0 5 10 15 20 Frequency (Hz) 25 30 35 40 EOT_RT_template.FFT of Proposed Wave Shape(s) Engineering.46Hz 12. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology x 10 -5 X-Axis Estimate .03Hz 25.88Hz +/-0.46Hz Solid(thick)= 5.

EOT_RT_template. hollow – thick crust) are decreasing in amplitude with increasing frequency. 13Hz. The main differences are in wave amplitude and phasing.Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 30) “FFT of Proposed Wave Shapes” gives the (FFT) Fast Fourier Transform for the three different core types in the X-axis (equator). Main points: 1) Valid FFT waveshape no discontinuities 2) All three waveshapes are composed of the four harmonics 3) The radiation belts add an additional harmonic to the three harmonics of the Y-axis data 4) Only the solid core and hollow core – thick crust waveshapes are decreasing in amplitude Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 64 . the composite waveshapes are displayed in the frequency domain. All rights reserved. Looking a little closer the same two waves (solid core. 20Hz) as the Y-axis data but with the addition of a fourth higher harmonic. As can be seen from the plots all three core waveshapes are composed of the same three harmonics (6Hz.

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Erratas Engineering. All rights reserved. shifts due to harmonic(s) phasing • Gives only relative freq. components • Freq. EOT_RT_template. amplitudes • Harmonic(s) phase and attenuation dependent Mg07 Page 31 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology • Does not give phase or sign data • Gives only relative freq. bin width resolution (quantization error) • Freq.ppt | 65 .

the transform assumes all the harmonic components have the same phase therefore all phase data is lost. All rights reserved.ppt | 66 . even with these problems an FFT does a good job of showing the waveshape’s sub-harmonic components. EOT_RT_template.Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 31) “Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) errata’s” like many other things it is not a perfect mathematical operation some data is lost in the process. the amplitude data is only relative to the different harmonics so the absolute amplitude value is also lost. However. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. First. Second.

14.66..ppt | 67 . X-axis wave shapes use FOUR harmonics • Hollow Core(thin) • Hollow Core(thick) • Solid Core • Frequencies are CLOSE to the estimated numbers CORE TYPE • est.46.77. 27.5Hz) • 28. 6.37Hz +/.2Hz (12. 20.5Hz) • 14.75.85Hz +/. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology • Y-axis wave shapes generated by THREE harmonics.11Hz +/.. solid thick thin • 7.92. All rights reserved.95.3Hz (20.03.94.Proposed Wave Shape(s) FFT Analysis Engineering.5Hz) Mg07 Page 32 Copyright © 2009 Boeing... 21. 13. 5.88Hz +/.1Hz (5.5Hz) • 21.4Hz (25. 36. EOT_RT_template.

All rights reserved. As the proposed numbers show good correlation in the first round of analysis there is a high degree of confidence in the original design assumptions. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Y-axis waveshape generated by three harmonics 2) X-axis waveshape generated by four harmonics 3) Fourth harmonic generates the radiation belts 4) FFT generated frequencies close to the estimated ones Copyright © 2009 Boeing. The fourth harmonic mainly appears to generate the crescent shaped inner and outer radiation belts.Engineering.ppt | 68 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 32) “Proposed Wave Shapes FFT Analysis” this figure correlates and summarizes all the proposed X-axis and Y-axis data. FFT analysis of the Y-axis waveshape shows it can be generated by using a fundamental frequency along with the second and third harmonics. The FFT of the generated frequencies is close to the original estimated ones for all three core types. Further data reduction shows the X-axis waveshape is generated by the same three harmonics with the additional fourth harmonic.

3Hz Fourth 28.2Hz) +C*sin(21. EOT_RT_template.Wave Shape Generation Given Engineering.4Hz) cos cos cos cos -sin -sin -sin -sin -cos -cos -cos -cos [phase / freq] [phase / freq] [phase / freq] [phase / freq] Yields 64 possible combinations [phase / freq] Hollow (thick crust) – five (5) combinations (Acc=0 @ R=0) Hollow (thin crust) – six (6) combinations (Acc=+ @ R=0) Solid – seven (7) combinations (Acc= .4Hz Four phases: 0 deg (sin) 90 deg (cos) 180 deg (-sin) 270 deg (-cos) Acc = A*sin(7.1Hz Second 14.1Hz) +B*sin(14.3Hz) +D*sin(28. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Four frequencies: First (fundamental) 7.2Hz Third 21.@ R=0) Random – other 46 combinations Mg07 Equation Page 33 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.ppt | 69 .

Therefore the solution (4x4) matrix would contain four frequencies and four phases producing 64 possible frequency/phase terms. 180deg and 270deg. The frequencies being a 7.3Hz third harmonic and a 28. 90deg. a 14. The conclusion after running all 64 possibilities is as follows: five (5) combinations produced a hollow core – thick crust. EOT_RT_template. Based on all the reduced data this equation will have four harmonic frequency terms. Main points: 1) Acceleration equation contains four frequency terms 2) Amplitude and phase empirically determined 3) Solution matrix contains 64 possibilities Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 33) “Wave Shape Generation (given)” The next step of the analysis is to construct a working equation that will produce or calculate the original proposed waveshape. a 21. The other 46 combinations all produced various random waveshapes. six (6) combinations produced a hollow core – thin crust and seven (7) combinations produced a solid core.2Hz second harmonic.ppt | 70 .1Hz fundamental .4Hz fourth harmonic.Engineering. The phasing would need testing in each of the four quadrants: 0deg. As the FFT does not give wave amplitude or phase data these must be determined empirically by comparing the calculated waveshape back to the proposed one. Assume the equation to have the form: Acc = Amplitude*sin(freq+phase). All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 71 .Calculated Y-Axis Data Plots Mg07 Page 34 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

ppt | 72 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 34) “Calculated Y-axis Data Plots” the following plots compare the calculated acceleration equations for the Y-axis back to the proposed ones. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. with individual plots for each of the different core types. EOT_RT_template.Engineering.

5 1 1.5 Page 35 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 73 .01 |<.07Hz) -1.5 x 10 4 4 EOT_RT_template.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + 1Re + 2Re + 3Re + 4Re + 5Re + 9Re + 10Re -0.20e+001Cos(21.5 3 3.60e+001Sin(14.03 -0.60e+001Sin(7. All rights reserved.02 Solid= Estimate Dotted= Calculation Acc= -1.20Hz) -0. 2 Distance (miles) 2. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y-Axis Hollow Core(thin) Estimate and Calculated (Acc vs Distance) 0.surface -0.13Hz) +1.01 Geo Sync= |< 26154.02 |< Lamda 0.Hollow Core (thin) Data Engineering.04 Mg07 0 0.

As can be seen from the plot the calculated value (dotted line) does not have very good correlation with the estimated one (solid).ppt | 74 . Main points: 1) Planet core is not hollow core – thin crust 2) Acceleration at R = 0 is not positive Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.Engineering. The conclusion being that the core is not hollow with a thin crust or in mathematical terms the acceleration at the center (R = 0) is not positive. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 35) “Hollow Core (thin) Data” plots the best of the six (6) hollow core – thin crust equations back with the proposed hollow core waveshape. EOT_RT_template.

02 Solid= Estimate Dotted= Calculation Acc= -2.surface -0.ppt | 75 .00e+001Sin(7.02 |< Lamda 0.Hollow Core (thick) Data Engineering.01 |<. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y-Axis Hollow Core(thick) Estimate and Calculated (Acc vs Distance) 0.5 1 1. 2 Distance (miles) 2.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + 1Re + 2Re + 3Re + 4Re + 5Re + 9Re + 10Re -0.5 Page 36 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.13Hz) -8.07Hz) -2.5 3 3.00e+000Sin(21.03 -0.00e+001Sin(14.04 Mg07 0 0.20Hz) -0.5 x 10 4 4 EOT_RT_template.01 Geo Sync= |< 26154. All rights reserved.

As can be seen from the plot the calculated value (dotted line) has a very good correlation with the estimated one (solid). Main points: 1) Planet core might be hollow core – thick crust 2) Acceleration at R = 0 is zero Copyright © 2009 Boeing. There is also a good match at the surface and GeoSync markers. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 36) “Hollow Core (thick) Data” plots the best of the five (5) hollow core – thin crust equations back with the proposed hollow core waveshape.ppt | 76 . EOT_RT_template. The conclusion being that the core might be hollow with a thin crust or in mathematical terms the acceleration at the center (R = 0) is zero.Engineering.

0 0.02 |< Lamda 0.5 1 1.02 Solid= Estimate Dotted= Calculation Acc= -2.04 Page 37 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.20Hz) -0.07Hz) -2. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Y-Axis Solid Core Estimate and Calculated (Acc vs Distance) 0.03 Mg07 -0.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + 1Re + 2Re + 3Re + 4Re + 5Re + 9Re + 10Re -0.01 Geo Sync= |< 26154.ppt | 77 4 .5 2 Distance (miles) 2.00e+001Sin(14.surface -0.01 |<.00e+001Sin(21.00e+001Cos(7.Solid Core Data Engineering.5 3 3.5 x 10 4 EOT_RT_template.13Hz) -2. All rights reserved.

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

Figure 37) “Solid Core Data” plots the best of the seven (7) solid core equations back with the proposed solid core waveshape. As can be seen from the plot the calculated value (dotted line) does not have very good correlation with the estimated one (solid). The conclusion being that the core is not solid or in mathematical terms the acceleration at the center (R = 0) is not negative. Main points: 1) Planet core is not solid 2) Acceleration at R = 0 is not negative

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

EOT_RT_template.ppt | 78

Calculated X-Axis Data Plot

Mg07

Page 38

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 79

Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology

Figure 38) “Calculated X-axis Data Plot” only has to check the hollow core – thick crust equation in the X-axis as the other two equations hollow core – thin crust and solid core did not correlate in the Y-axis.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

EOT_RT_template.ppt | 80

03 -0.01 -0.02 Solid= Estimate Dotted= Calculation Acc= -2.01 |< 1/2 Lamda |< 1/4 Lamda Acceleration (miles/sec2) 0 + * + 1Re 2Re < Inner> <--Belt |<.02 |< Lamda 0. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology X-Axis Hollow Core(thick) Estimate and Calculated (Acc vs Distance) 0.60e+001Sin(21.07Hz) -4.surface +* 3Re Outer Belt + 4Re ---> + 5Re Geo Sync= |< 26154.00e+001Sin(14. All rights reserved.27Hz) -0.ppt | 81 4 .04 Mg07 0 0.5miles + * + + 6Re 7Re 8Re + 9Re + 10Re -0.60e+001Sin(28.Hollow Core (thick) Data Engineering.5 x 10 4 EOT_RT_template.5 1 1.00e+001Sin(7.13Hz) -2.5 Page 39 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.5 3 3. 2 Distance (miles) 2.20Hz) -2.

outer belt and GeoSync markers though the inner belt marker is a little off. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 39) “Hollow Core (thick) Data” as can be seen from the plot the calculated value (dotted line) also has very good correlation with the estimated one (solid) in the X-axis. All rights reserved. This conclusion confirms the Y-axis data (figure 36) that the core is possibly hollow with a thick crust or in mathematical terms the acceleration at the center (R = 0) is zero.ppt | 82 .Engineering. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Confirms Y-axis plot data 2) Planet core possibly hollow with a thick crust 3) Acceleration at R = 0 is zero Copyright © 2009 Boeing. There is a good match at the surface.

Analysis of Wave Shape(s) Proposed VS Calculated Engineering. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 83 . All rights reserved.0) • Y-axis Hollow Core -Thick Crust data tracks the GeoSync and Magnetosphere points the best • X-axis Hollow Core – Thick Crust data also tracks data – Inner belt location is offset a few miles • Frequencies and Amplitudes – freq domain • All frequency data shows FFT quantization error • All calculated frequencies close to estimated frequencies • Conclusions • Wave shape will change some with a change in feedpoint (dipole) location • Using: “Hollow Core . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology • Wave shape(s) – time domain • Feedpoint for Proposed and Calculated is the origin (0.Thick Crust” Mg07 Page 40 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

Waveshapes could possibly change using dipole feedpoints.Engineering. Conclusion is that the hollow core – thick crust equations tracks both the estimated X-axis and Y-axis the closest.ppt | 84 . EOT_RT_template. In the frequency domain the calculated frequencies are close to the proposed (estimated) numbers in spite of the FFT quantization errors. 0). Main points: 1) Both time and frequency domain data correlate 2) Confirms core type and acceleration value Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 40) “Analysis of Wave Shapes (proposed vs calculated)” summarizes the results of all the time domain estimated vs calculated data plots. Note all these plots were run with a single feedpoint at the origin (0.

ppt | 85 Mg07 Page 41 .0(1.0(1.27Hz (4th) = Lambda/8 @ 7. • Dipole length of Lambda/2 @ 28.Feedpoint (dipole) Analysis Engineering.0 20.0 • A feedpoint dipole in the Y-Axis of Lambda/2 @ 4th Harmonic(28.27Hz Fourth 26. All rights reserved.3x) 0. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Hollow Core(thick) Acc Amplitude • Frequency Harmonic X-Axis Y-Axis 7.0(1x) 21. EOT_RT_template.20Hz Third 26.0 14.0(.4x) 28.27Hz) will zero out that harmonic and also reduce the other two harmonics in Y-Axis.3x) 8.07Hz Fund 20.13Hz Second 40.07Hz (Fundamental) Copyright © 2009 Boeing.0(2x) 20.

13Hz second harmonic has double the gain in the X-axis while the 28.ppt | 86 . 0) positioned in the Y-axis will zero the fourth harmonic term and also reduce the other two harmonics in the Y-axis. All rights reserved.27Hz fourth harmonic is completely missing in the Y-axis. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 41) “Feedpoint (dipole) Analysis” a closer examination of figures 36 and 39 shows that there are some differences in the constant terms for the Y-axis and Xaxis equations. but the 14.07Hz fundamental frequency requires a division by 4 equaling a wavelength of λ/8. Using a half wave dipole (λ/2) feedpoint centered at the origin (0. 0) in Y-axis 3) Fundamental frequency is same amplitude in X and Y axis 4) Second harmonic is reduced amplitude in Y-axis 5) Third harmonic is reduced amplitude in Y-axis 6) Fourth harmonic is canceled in Y-axis 7) Dipole length is λ/8 at the 7.07Hz fundamental frequency Main points: Copyright © 2009 Boeing. To correlate or combine these differences in gains a double (dipole) feedpoint is needed rather then a single feedpoint. Converting the 28.07Hz fundamental frequency has the same gain of 20.Engineering. Comparing the two equations the 7.27Hz fourth harmonic dipole (λ/2) wavelength back down to the 7. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Change from single to dipole feedpoints 2) Dipole centered at the origin (0.

ppt | 87 .X-Axis Dipole Plot Engineering. EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Mg07 Page 42 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

ppt | 88 . The largest effect of the dipole is on the core type which changed from hollow core – thick crust to solid core (negative acceleration at R = 0). it cleaned up the inner and outer radiation belt curves much better than with a single feedpoint. Main points: 1) Dipole feedpoints 2) Same Inner and Outer belt markers 3) Same GeoSync marker 4) Surface gravity slightly less 5) Core type changed to solid 6) X-axis plot now includes magnetosphere 7) More background ripple Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Only the end of the dipole which is labeled “A/B” can be seen as it is located in the Y-axis (polar) however its effect is greatest in the X-axis (equator). Plot scaling was reduced to include the magnetosphere edge (R = 2λ). Also. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 42) “X-Axis Dipole Plot” shows the results of combining the dipole feedpoints with the equations from figures 36 and 39 which are single feedpoint ones.

ppt | 89 . EOT_RT_template.Y-Axis Dipole Plot Engineering. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Mg07 Page 43 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

All rights reserved. The equation constants are now the same as the X-axis (equator) because the dipole arrangement corrected the differences. The Y-axis core type remains a solid.Engineering. 0). The λ/8 dipole feedpoints labeled A and B are clearly marked at the origin (0. Plot scaling was reduced to include the magnetosphere edge (R = 2λ).ppt | 90 . EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Dipole feedpoints visible 2) Same GeoSync marker 3) Surface gravity slightly more 4) Y-axis core also a solid 5) Y-axis plot includes magnetosphere Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 43) “Y-axis Dipole Plot” shows the same dipole results as figure 42 only in the Y-axis (polar).

ELLIPTICAL PLANET SURFACE Engineering. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 91 . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology (Poles) Y-Axis 32FT/SEC2 Lambda/8 dipole < 32FT/SEC2 > 32FT/SEC2 X-Axis (equator) Planet surface is out of round (flattened at poles) because of unequal (dipole) X and Y axis accelerations Mg07 Page 44 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Conclusion the planet’s surface is slightly elliptical rather then a perfect sphere. All rights reserved.ppt | 92 .Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 44) “Elliptical Planet Surface” taking a closer look at figure 42 shows the X-axis acceleration value is a little less then the 32ft/sec2 surface marker. EOT_RT_template. The λ/8 dipole arrangement places the feedpoints closer to the surface in the Y-axis which increases the acceleration value causing the polar region to flatten. While figure 43 shows the Y-axis acceleration value is a little greater then the 32ft/sec2 surface marker everything else being the same. Main points: 1) Greater Y-axis acceleration 2) Flattened polar region 3) Elliptical surface (not a sphere) Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

39Hz) Re = 3963Miles (7. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology IONOSPHERE air CRUST Radius(R) = 4194Miles (7.20Hz) Fourth Harmonic (28.48Hz) Lambda (7. All rights reserved.ppt | 93 3963 Miles 3943 Miles Mg09 Page 44A Copyright © 2009 Boeing.WAVE HARMONICS Planet Structure Engineering.07Hz) [Fundamental] R Rair ATMOSPHERE SURFACE (Re) CRUST INNER CORE MANTLE Re OUTER CORE 733Miles 0 4194 Miles 4013 Miles 733 Miles 2160 Miles 1049Miles 1400Miles 2100Miles Second Harmonic (14.07Hz) Rair = 4013Miles (7.13Hz) Third Harmonic (21. .27Hz) EOT_RT_template.

Engineering. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Fundamental wave encloses entire structure 2) Higher harmonics reside in the outer core 3) Wave mixing causes heat and motion Copyright © 2009 Boeing. the mantle material is more plastic or pliable. viscous is the technical term. Second. all the higher harmonics (second. the core material is composed of mostly iron and some nickel. This brittleness is what earthquakes fracture making mountains and valleys. When the heat generated equals the heat lost and spin power equals drag the system becomes stable. if you can think of a granite rock frame as being flexible! This is also the molten material (igneous rock) that volcano’s spew out as lava. the crust material is solid and brittle. As the core’s rate of rotation (revolutions/hour) is much higher than the earth’s rotation (revolutions/day) there is a friction line generated in the region of the outer core to mantle interface. If the crust moves out of alignment it causes internal pressures to build up in the mantle correcting it. that when too much pressure builds up some volcano will pop (erupt) making a vent. Also has a built in safety valve. being made of iron it will certainly be influenced by an electromagnetic one. the outer region being in the liquid state. Its composition is mainly silicates with some traces of iron. Second. Third. First. Because it pliable the mantle functions as the earths dynamic spin balancer. As the core temperature is above the Curie point it can not maintain a magnetic field of its own but. It is this friction that causes the planets internal heat. It also conducts electricity as all the world’s power grids are “grounded” to it . works just like the motor armature it is. As can be seen from the figure the fundamental harmonic completely encloses the entire system including the ionosphere.ppt | 94 . The mantle is under both high pressure and high temperature. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 44A) “Wave Harmonics (planet structure)” is a more detailed view of the earth’s interior core. All rights reserved. In spite of the high temperatures the acceleration spike generates enough pressure to solidify the inner region making it a spherical iron center. It is all these wave harmonics mixing in the middle of the liquid outer core that cause it to rotate (spin). third and fourth) reside in the liquid outer core region. This is the same planet structure data in figure 21A only with the four acceleration wave harmonics (gravity) superimposed on it.

All rights reserved.Corresponding X and Y 3D Dipole Gravity Plots 1) Space normal orientation 2) Rotated to show harmonic detail 3) FFT harmonic plot Mg07 Page 45 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 95 .

EOT_RT_template. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 45) “Corresponding X and Y 3D Dipole Gravity Plots” the following figures are the same dipole X and Y-axis equations only now they are combined in 3D color plots. All rights reserved.ppt | 96 .Engineering.

3D Dipole Plot (normal) Engineering. All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Mg07 Page 46 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 97 .

Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 46) “3D Dipole Plot (normal)” is the space normal view with the dipole positioned vertical on the polar axis. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 98 .5Re and outer belt at 3Re. Also visible is the big acceleration spike generating the solid core.Engineering. Just visible but difficult to see because of plot scaling are the inner belt at 1. Main points: 1) Earths gravity field pattern 2) Surface and radius markers 3) Core generation spike Copyright © 2009 Boeing. It shows the spherical acceleration (gravity) waves radiating out into space from the dipole along with the earth surface and radius markers.

All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Mg07 Page 47 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.3D Dipole Plot (rotated) Engineering. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 99 .

Engineering. The contour map enhances some acceleration wave details. This is a MatLab software requirement to be able to plot the additional contour map below it (all wave data is the same). All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 47) “3D Dipole plot (rotated)” is the same Dipole plot in figure 46 only rotated 90deg with the acceleration spike vertical.ppt | 100 .

EOT_RT_template. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Mg07 Page 48 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.ppt | 101 .FFT of 3D Dipole Plot Engineering.

This waveshape is very similar to the estimated FFT for the proposed solid core waveshape in figure 30. All rights reserved. EOT_RT_template. Main points: 1) Four harmonic frequencies 2) Wave amplitude in descending order Copyright © 2009 Boeing.Engineering. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 48) “FFT of 3D Dipole Plot” shows the four acceleration (gravity) wave harmonics in the frequency domain. It has two high peaks at 7Hz and 14Hz and two small peaks at 21Hz and 28Hz all in descending order.ppt | 102 .

EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.TESLA MEASUREMENTS Colorado Springs Experiments (1899 – 1900) Mg07 Page 49 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.ppt | 103 .

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. They are relevant to this “Study of Gravity” as he measured the electromagnetic frequency spectra of the earth. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 49) “Tesla Measurements” the following is short tutorial on Tesla’s Colorado Springs experiments preformed back around the turn of the century. All rights reserved.ppt | 104 .Engineering. EOT_RT_template.

1 Hz @ 0.10mW/Hz 20.0 Hz @ 0. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Electromagnetic frequency spectra of earth: 7.06mW/Hz 25.ppt | 105 .0 Hz @ 0.Tesla Measured Data Engineering. EOT_RT_template.05mW/Hz FFT Plot: Plot data (four freqs) using 180deg phase (-sin) Mg07 Page 50 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.12mW/Hz 14.8 Hz @ 0.

Main points: 1) Measurements made a 100 years ago 2) Tesla’s numbers still valid 3) Four electromagnetic frequencies Copyright © 2009 Boeing. The frequencies that Tesla measured were a 7.1Hz second harmonic.ppt | 106 .Engineering.8Hz fundamental. a 14. a 20.0Hz third harmonic and a 25. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.0Hz fourth harmonic. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 50) “Tesla Measured Data” shows the four frequencies and power levels he obtained from his electromagnetic experiments.

46Hz 0.50Hz +/-0.0Hz) 0.Tesla Measured Data FFT Engineering.ppt | 107 Copyright © 2009 Boeing. . All rights reserved.08 0.06 0.0Hz) -0.04 0.1 Power (mW/Hz) Mg07 0.238Sin(7.1Hz) -0.12 Pwr= -1.867Sin(20.8Hz) -1.83Hz 13.58Hz 25.867Sin(25.238Sin(14.66Hz 19.02 0 Page 51 0 5 10 15 20 Frequency (Hz) 25 30 35 40 EOT_RT_template.Frequency Domain (FFT) Data: 6. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Tesla Data .

All rights reserved. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 51) “Tesla Measured Data FFT” is the Fourier analysis plot in the frequency domain using Tesla’s frequency data from the previous figure. Note the similarities to the FFT of 3D dipole plot of figure 48.Engineering. It has the same two high peaks at 7Hz and 14Hz and two small peaks at 20Hz and 25Hz all in descending order. Main points 1) Four harmonic frequencies 2) Amplitude in descending order Copyright © 2009 Boeing. it has a much smoother waveshape. Also. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 108 .

Schumann Resonance Data Engineering.4 Hz Fourth Harmonic 32. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Electromagnetic frequencies: 7.4 Hz Fifth Harmonic Mg09 Page 51A Copyright © 2009 Boeing.83 Hz First Harmonic 14. EOT_RT_template.1 Hz Second Harmonic 20.3 Hz Third Harmonic 26.ppt | 109 . All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. electric motors). He never got much credit for any of his work (power grid. All rights reserved. Tesla’s numbers disappeared for many years only to reappear in the late 1950s under a different name. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 51A) “Schumann Resonance Data” is essentially the same data as Tesla measured much earlier only with an additional fifth harmonic. EOT_RT_template. At the time I started this study I knew nothing about “Schumann Resonance” only had Tesla’s data.Engineering.ppt | 110 .

ppt | 111 . EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved.GRAVITY CONCLUSIONS What it is Mg07 Page 52 Copyright © 2009 Boeing.

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.Engineering. EOT_RT_template.ppt | 112 . The following figure summarizes the major points of this study. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 52) “Gravity conclusions” this is the wrap up of the “Study of Gravity” (part1).

14 Hz • Third: 21.Gravity Engineering. third) harmonics generate the outer magnetosphere (shell) • Fourth harmonic generates the radiation belts (donuts) • Frequency determines Scale Factor (SF) .21 Hz .Fourth: 28.ppt | 113 .07 Hz . Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology • Generated by long (low freq) standing waves of radial acceleration • Composed of a fundamental and three harmonics • Fund: 7.28 Hz • Y-Axis dipole feedpoint – Lambda/8 • Solid core (Acc = negative @ R=0) • Dipole shifted Acc @ origin from 0 (hollow) to negative (solid) • Solid means .not hollow (might be liquid) • Acceleration at surface not the same in X and Y axis • Dipole flattened polar (Y) axis • First three (fund. All rights reserved.Size • Works for atoms (high Ghz) • Electromagnetic origin (Tesla data) Mg07 Page 53 • Similar FFT plots Copyright © 2009 Boeing. EOT_RT_template. second.Second: 14.

The analysis of this electromagnetic connection is the subject of the “Study of Gravity” (part2). The first three harmonics primarily determine the planets structure. They track or correlate with the earth’s electromagnetic waves discovered by Tesla and Schumann in both frequency and amplitude much too close not to be connected to them.14Hz for the second harmonic. forces and rotation of the planet. If this is true then atoms would have a similar type structure only much smaller in size (very high frequency – GHz). The dual feedpoints cause a number of modifications to the system. it causes a flattening of the polar region changing a round sphere to egg shaped or an ellipsis. dipole distance being λ/8 at the fundamental frequency. This wave mixing causes the internal heat. Second.ppt | 114 . it changes the core type from hollow (thick crust) to solid. Looking the other way towards the center of the earth the fundamental frequency determines the outer edge of the ionosphere while the three higher harmonics reside in the planets outer core region. First. it appears that frequency determines the size or scale factor of a structure. The gravitational system of earth is composed of an accelerating force generated by long (low frequency) standing waves which do far more than just make the 32ft/sec2 surface acceleration commonly called gravity. it generates the crescent shaped inner and outer radiation belts. These waves extend out some 60.28 for the fourth harmonic.Engineering. 0).21Hz for the third harmonic and 28. First. This waveshape is composed of four frequencies a fundamental and three higher harmonics.000miles (2 wavelengths) into space generating the complete Magnetosphere. Third. 21. pressure. 14. In doing the data reduction and number crunching two other facts were uncovered that are not directly related to the gravity study but need to be documented as well. Solid meaning not a hollow structure could be liquid or a combination of liquid and solids. the waves of accelerating force seem to be of electromagnetic origin. Operations & Technology | Boeing Research & Technology Figure 53) “Gravity” compiles and lists all the data and information obtained from the research and number crunching done in taking a detailed look into this subject. Copyright © 2009 Boeing.07Hz for the fundamental. The numbers being 7. GeoSync orbit and the magnetosphere while the fourth harmonic contributes the two radiation belts. EOT_RT_template. All rights reserved. These waves are sourced or concentrated at dipole feedpoints located on the Y-axis centered about the origin (0. Second. a stable GeoSynchronous orbit and both the inner and outer Van Allen radiation belts.

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