Study the rates of fermentation of fruit or vegetable juices

INDEX

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

CONTENTS Objective Introduction Theory Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Observation Result Bibliography

Page No. 4 5 6 8 9 11 12 13

OBJECTIVE
The Objective of this project is to study the rates of fermentation of the following fruit or vegetable juices. 1. i. Apple juice

but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slower fermentation with less loss of delicate aromas. The word Fermentation has been derived from Latin (Ferver which means to ‘boil’). wine making and brewing. Carrot juice (1) INTRODUCTION Fermentation is the slow decomposition of complex organic compound into simpler compounds by the action of enzymes. . such as grape. starch is first hydrolysed to maltose by the action of enzyme diastase. cherry. The cider is ready to drink after a three month fermentation period. though more often it is matured in the vats for up to two or three years. This is low for most kinds of fermentation.As during fermentation there is lot of frothing of the liquid due to the evolution of carbon dioxide. Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4–16 °C (40–60 °F). Sugars like glucose and sucrose when fermented in the presence of yeast cells are converted to ethyl alcohol. Apple based juices with cranberry also make fine ciders. During fermentation of starch. The enzyme diastase is obtained from germinated barley seeds. generally proteins. bread making.2. ii. Examples of fermentation are: souring of milk or curd. Enzymes are complex organic compounds. it gives the appearance as if it is boiling. and many other fruit purées or flavorings can be used. and raspberry.

converting juice into wine. e.USES The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates. grains into beer. carbohydrates into .g..

alcohol. and textures in food substrates Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid.carbon dioxide to leaven bread. acetic acid and alkaline fermentations Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein. essential amino acids. and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids. essential fatty acids. and vitamins Elimination of antinutrients A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements • • • • INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATION: . aromas. Food fermentation has been said to serve five main purposes:[11] • Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors.

water jacket. This process is done in a fermenter.Fermentation is any process where microorganisms use an external food source for energy. Fermenter Below is a diagram of a simple fermenter. these would be very large and would have lots of different pipes and tubes coming out of it for various functions. In industry. conditions are controlled by mixing. .

measurements can be used to adjust the conditions in the fermenter. Must be sterilised so no extra microorganisms contaminate the fermenter. oxygen concentration). Respiration by microorganisms heats it up. they are rotated to evenly distribute the mixture. . all at once in batch culture or bit by bit in continuous. Measures a range of conditions (temperature. pH.Paddles Water Jacket Data logger Products Air supply Inside the fermenter. Cold water is pumped through this to reduce and maintain the temperature. Products are removed. Provides oxygen for respiration.

This view was abandoned in 1897 when Buchner demonstrated that yeast extract could bring about alcoholic fermentation in the absence of any yeast cells.THEORY Louis Pasteur in 1860 demonstrated that fermentation is a purely physiological process carried out by living micro-organism like yeast. Materials from Egyptian tombs demonstrate the procedures used in making beer and leavened bread. Fermentation has been utilized for many years in the preparation of beverages. Enzymes are highly specific. whereby sugar is converted to ethanol by action of yeast. The history of fermentation. Glucose is converted to ethanol by another enzyme zymase Invertase C12H22O11 + H2O Sucrose C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 Glucose Fructose . These sugars on fermentation in the presence of the enzymes invertase and zymase give with the evolution of carbon dioxide. is also a history of chemistry. Van Helmont coined the word iogaslt in 1610 to describe the bubbles produced in fermentation. These biochemical catalyst are called enzymes. He proposed that fermenting activity of yeast is due to active catalysts of biochemical origin. The fruit and vegetable juices contain sugar such as sucrose. Leeuwenhoek observed and described the cells of yeast with his newly invented microscope in 1680. A given enzyme acts on a specific compound or a closely related group of compounds. Maltose is converted to glucose by enzyme maltose. glucose and fructose.

When the fermentation is complete. the reaction mixture stops giving any red colour or precipitate with Fehling solution. .Zymase C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Glucose Diastase 2(C6H1005)n + nH20 Starch Maltose C12H22O11 + H2O Maltose Zymase C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Glucose Ethyl alcohol 2C6H12O6 Glucose nC12H22O11 Maltose Fructose Ethanol Glucose is a reducing sugar and gives red coloured precipitates with Fehling’s solution. when warmed.

6. Shake well the contents of the flask and maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture between 35-40°C. Take 5. 3.0 ml of solution of Pasteur’s salts to the above conical flask. Note the time taken for completion of fermentation . test tubes and water bath. Place the test tube in the boiling water bath for about 2 minutes and note the colour of the solution or precipitate. Apple juice and Fehling’s solution.0 ml of apple juice in a clean 250 ml conical flask and dilute it with 50 ml of distilled water.EXPERIMENT-1 REQUIREMENTS Conical flasks (250 ml). After 10minutes take 5 drops of the reaction mixture from the flask and add to a test tube containing 2 ml of Fehling reagent. 5. 2. 4. Add 2. Repeat the step 4 after every 10 minutes when the reaction mixture stops giving any red colour or precipitate.0 gram of Baker’s yeast and 5. PROCEDURE 1.

Take 5. potassium phosphate 2.EXPERIMENT-2 REQUIREMENTS Conical flasks (250 ml). Repeat the step 4 after every 10 minutes when the reaction mixture stops giving any red colour or precipitate. 2.2g. Note the time taken for completion of fermentation. After 10minutes take 5 drops of the reaction mixture from the flask and add to a test tube containing 2 ml of Fehling reagent. 6. Carrot juice and Fehling’s solution. PROCEDURE 1.0 g. Add 2.0 ml of solution of Pasteur’s salts to the above conical flask. test tubes and water bath. 4. Place the test tube in the boiling water bath for about 2 minutes and note the colour of the solution or precipitate. 3. 5. calcium phosphate 0.0 gram of Baker’s yeast and 5. and magnesium sulphate 0. Shake well the contents of the flask and maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture between 35-40°C.0 ml of carrot juice in a clean 250 ml conical flask and dilute it with 50 ml of distilled water. Pasteur’s Salt Solution – Pasteur salt solution is prepared by dissolving ammonium tartrate 10.0g.2 g dissolved in 860ml of water .

0 ml Colour of reaction mixture on reaction with Fehling Solution in case of RESULTS The rate of fermentation of apple juice is ………… than the rate of fermentation of carrot juice.0 g = 5.OBSERVATION Volume of fruit juice taken Volume of distilled water added Weight of Baker’s yeast added Volume of solution of Pasteur’s salts Time (in minutes) 10 20 30 40 60 = 5.0 ml = 2.0 ml = 50. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful