Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

1

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. 1.2. 1.3.

Introduction to power processing Some applications of power electronics Elements of power electronics Summary of the course

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

2

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Power Processing

Power input

Switching converter

Power output

Control input

Dc-dc conversion: Ac-dc rectification: Dc-ac inversion:

Change and control voltage magnitude Possibly control dc voltage, ac current Produce sinusoid of controllable magnitude and frequency Ac-ac cycloconversion: Change and control voltage magnitude and frequency
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
3

Chapter 1: Introduction

Control is invariably required Power input Switching converter Power output Control input feedforward Controller reference feedback Fundamentals of Power Electronics 4 Chapter 1: Introduction .

6 High efficiency leads to low power loss within converter Small size and reliable operation is then feasible Efficiency is a good measure of converter performance 0.5 1 1.8 1 Ploss = Pin – Pout = Pout η – 1 0.4 0.5 Ploss / Pout Fundamentals of Power Electronics 5 Chapter 1: Introduction .2 0 0.High efficiency is essential Pout Pin η= 1 η 0.

A high-efficiency converter Pin Converter Pout A goal of current converter technology is to construct converters of small size and weight. which process substantial power at high efficiency Fundamentals of Power Electronics 6 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Devices available to the circuit designer Resistors Capacitors Magnetics s s linearswitched-mode mode Semiconductor devices DT + – T Fundamentals of Power Electronics 7 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Devices available to the circuit designer Resistors Capacitors Magnetics s s linearswitched-mode mode Semiconductor devices DT + – T Signal processing: avoid magnetics Fundamentals of Power Electronics 8 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Devices available to the circuit designer Resistors Capacitors Magnetics s s linearswitched-mode mode Semiconductor devices DT + – T Power processing: avoid lossy elements Fundamentals of Power Electronics 9 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Power loss in an ideal switch Switch closed: Switch open: In either event: v(t) = 0 i(t) = 0 + v(t) i(t) p(t) = v(t) i(t) = 0 – Ideal switch consumes zero power Fundamentals of Power Electronics 10 Chapter 1: Introduction .

500W How can this converter be realized? Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 Chapter 1: Introduction . 10A.A simple dc-dc converter example I 10A + Vg 100V + – Dc-dc converter R 5Ω V 50V – Input source: 100V Output load: 50V.

Dissipative realization Resistive voltage divider I 10A + + Vg 100V + – 50V – R 5Ω V 50V – Pin = 1000W Pout = 500W Ploss = 500W Fundamentals of Power Electronics 12 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Dissipative realization Series pass regulator: transistor operates in active region + 50V – Vref I 10A + Vg 100V + – linear amplifier and base driver Ploss ≈ 500W –+ R 5Ω V 50V – Pout = 500W Pin ≈ 1000W Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Use of a SPDT switch 1 I 10A + + R v(t) 50V – Vg 100V + – 2 vs(t) – vs(t) Vg Vs = DVg 0 (1–D) Ts 2 14 DTs switch position: 1 t 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Fundamentals of Power Electronics .

The switch changes the dc voltage level vs(t) Vg Vs = DVg 0 DTs (1 – D) Ts 2 t 1 D = switch duty cycle 0≤D≤1 Ts = switching period fs = switching frequency = 1 / Ts switch position: 1 DC component of vs(t) = average value: Vs = 1 Ts Ts vs(t) dt = DVg 0 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 1: Introduction .

for removal of switching harmonics: 1 i(t) + L C R + v(t) – Pout = 500W Vg 100V + – 2 vs(t) – Pin ≈ 500W Ploss small • • Choose filter cutoff frequency f0 much smaller than switching frequency fs This circuit is known as the “buck converter” 16 Fundamentals of Power Electronics Chapter 1: Introduction .Addition of low pass filter Addition of (ideally lossless) L-C low-pass filter.

Addition of control system for regulation of output voltage Power input Switching converter + Load i vg + – v – transistor gate driver δ(t) H(s) sensor gain dTs Ts t reference vref input Fundamentals of Power Electronics 17 –+ δ pulse-width vc G (s) c modulator compensator error signal ve Hv Chapter 1: Introduction .

2 0.6 0.8 1 D Fundamentals of Power Electronics 18 Chapter 1: Introduction .4 0.The boost converter 2 L 1 + C R V – Vg + – 5Vg 4Vg V 3Vg 2Vg Vg 0 0 0.

A single-phase inverter vs(t) 1 Vg + – 2 + + v(t) load – – 2 1 vs(t) “H-bridge” Modulate switch duty cycles to obtain sinusoidal low-frequency component t Fundamentals of Power Electronics 19 Chapter 1: Introduction .

hundreds. or thousands of watts in power supplies for computers or office equipment • kW to MW in variable-speed motor drives • 1000 MW in rectifiers and inverters for utility dc transmission lines Fundamentals of Power Electronics 20 Chapter 1: Introduction .2 Several applications of power electronics Power levels encountered in high-efficiency converters • less than 1 W in battery-operated portable equipment • tens.1.

A computer power supply system regulated dc outputs iac(t) Rectifier vac(t) – ac line input 85-265Vrms dc link loads + Dc-dc converter Fundamentals of Power Electronics 21 Chapter 1: Introduction .

A spacecraft power system Dissipative shunt regulator + Solar array vbus – Battery charge/discharge controllers Batteries Payload Payload Dc-dc converter Dc-dc converter Fundamentals of Power Electronics 22 Chapter 1: Introduction .

A variable-speed ac motor drive system + 3øac line 50/60Hz Rectifier vlink – Inverter variable-frequency variable-voltage ac Ac machine Dc link Fundamentals of Power Electronics 23 Chapter 1: Introduction .

3 Elements of power electronics Power electronics incorporates concepts from the fields of analog circuits electronic devices control systems power systems magnetics electric machines numerical simulation Fundamentals of Power Electronics 24 Chapter 1: Introduction .1.

2 0.Part I.1 Discontinuous conduction mode Transformer isolation Fundamentals of Power Electronics 25 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 0.02 0.7 0.01 t η 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 0.8 0.3 0.9 1 D Chapter 1: Introduction .6 0.002 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.05 RL/R = 0. Converters in equilibrium Inductor waveforms vL(t) Vg – V DTs D'Ts –V switch position: 1 2 1 Averaged equivalent circuit RL D Ron D' VD + – D' RD D' : 1 + V – R t Vg + – I iL(t) I iL(0) 0 Vg – V L iL(DTs) –V L DTs Ts ∆iL Predicted efficiency 100% 90% 0.

Switch realization: semiconductor devices The IGBT gate iA(t) collector Switching loss transistor waveforms Qr Vg vA(t) 0 iL 0 t emitter Emitter Gate diode waveforms iL 0 iB(t) vB(t) 0 t n p n n p n area –Qr –Vg np minority carrier injection pA(t) tr = vA iA area ~QrVg Collector t0 t1 t2 area ~iLVgtr t Fundamentals of Power Electronics 26 Chapter 1: Introduction .

Converter circuits Fundamentals of Power Electronics 27 Chapter 1: Introduction . The discontinuous conduction mode 6. Principles of steady state converter analysis 3. Switch realization 5. Converters in equilibrium 2. and efficiency 4. losses.Part I. Steady-state equivalent circuit modeling.

Converter dynamics and control Closed-loop converter system Power input Switching converter + vg(t) + – v(t) – transistor gate driver δ(t) δ(t) Averaging the waveforms Load gate drive R feedback connection actual waveform v(t) including ripple t vc(t) voltage reference vref t dTs Ts t Controller Small-signal averaged equivalent circuit vg(t) + – I d(t) Fundamentals of Power Electronics –+ compensator pulse-width vc Gc(s) modulator v averaged waveform <v(t)>Ts with ripple neglected t 1:D L Vg – V d(t) D' : 1 + I d(t) + – C v(t) – R 28 Chapter 1: Introduction .Part II.

9. Ac modeling Converter transfer functions Controller design Ac and dc equivalent circuit modeling of the discontinuous conduction mode Current-programmed control 11.Part II. 10. 8. Fundamentals of Power Electronics 29 Chapter 1: Introduction . Converter dynamics and control 7.

switching frequency 3622 0.04 0.Part III.02 0 25kHz 50kHz 100kHz 200kHz 250kHz 400kHz 500kHz 1000kHz Switching frequency Fundamentals of Power Electronics 30 current density J Bmax (T) Rk Chapter 1: Introduction .1 0.06 0.08 Pot core size 2616 2213 1811 1811 2213 2616 0. Magnetics n1 : n 2 transformer design i1(t) iM(t) LM R1 R2 i2(t) the proximity effect layer 3 3i –2i 2Φ 2i –i Φ layer 2 ik(t) layer 1 i d : nk 4226 transformer size vs.

Part III. Basic magnetics theory Filter inductor design Transformer design Fundamentals of Power Electronics 31 Chapter 1: Introduction . Magnetics 12. 13. 14.

Modern rectifiers.Part IV. percent of fundamental 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% THD = 136% Distortion factor = 59% iac(t) + Ideal rectifier (LFR) p(t) = vac / Re Re(vcontrol) 2 i(t) + v(t) – dc output Model of the ideal rectifier vac(t) – ac input Harmonic number vcontrol Fundamentals of Power Electronics 32 Chapter 1: Introduction . and power system harmonics Pollution of power system by rectifier current harmonics A low-harmonic rectifier system boost converter ig(t) iac(t) vac(t) + vg(t) – vcontrol(t) multiplier i(t) L + D1 Q1 C v(t) – ig(t) Rs PWM va(t) R vg(t) X v (t) +– err Gc(s) vref(t) = kx vg(t) vcontrol(t) compensator 100% 100% 91% 73% 52% 32% 19% 15% 15% 13% 9% 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 controller Harmonic amplitude.

Power and harmonics in nonsinusoidal systems Line-commutated rectifiers The ideal rectifier Low harmonic rectifier modeling and control Fundamentals of Power Electronics 33 Chapter 1: Introduction . Modern rectifiers. 17. 18. and power system harmonics 15. 16.Part IV.

35 0.5 5 10 Q = 20 1 1.1 0 0 0.5 2 3.2 0.7 M = V / Vg 0.5 5 10 Q = 20 Dc characteristics 0.75 conducting devices: Q1 Q4 turn off Q1.6 0.4 1.4 0.8 1 1.2 Q = 0. Q4 X D2 D3 commutation interval t 0.5 2 3.5 0.2 0.9 Q = 0.4 0.35 0.8 2 F = f s / f0 Fundamentals of Power Electronics 34 Chapter 1: Introduction .2 0.8 0.Part V.6 0.5 0.3 0.75 1 1.2 1.5 0. Resonant converters The series resonant converter Q1 D1 Q3 L D3 C 1:n + Vg + – Q2 Q4 R V – D2 D4 Zero voltage switching vds1(t) Vg 1 0.6 1.

Part V. Resonant converters 19. Resonant conversion Quasi-resonant converters Fundamentals of Power Electronics 35 Chapter 1: Introduction . 20.

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