MODAL VERBS

TABLE OF MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS

DEFINICIÓN: Los verbos modales son verbos diferentes al resto de los verbos. Tienen una serie de características especiales. Estos verbos pueden expresar: obligación, necesidad, prohibición, ausencia de necesidad, probabilidad, posibilidad, habilidad… • CARACTERÍSTICAS: o Son verbos incompletos. No tienen participio ni infinitivo, y necesitan otros verbos para completar su conjugación: CAN se completa con la perífrasis BE ABLE TO, MUST con HAVE TO, etc. o No llevan -S en la 3ª persona singular del presente simple, excepto HAVE TO (HAS TO) o Todos van seguidos de otro verbo en infinitivo sin TO, excepto OUGHT TO, HAVE TO y NEED TO. o Como no necesitan verbo auxiliar, construyen la interrogativa invirtiendo el orden del sujeto y el verbo, y la negativa añadiendo NOT. ¡¡OJO!! CANNOT

TABLA DE VERBOS MODALES
VERB

USE
- Expresar habilidad - Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad - Expresar o pedir permiso

EXAMPLES

NOTES

PURE MODALS

CAN
(presente)

COULD
(pasado)

- We can drive very well - Be able to - I can't talk, complementa a I've got a very can cuando sore throat indica habilidad posibilidad: - Can I sit y infinitivo, futuro, down? - She can't be present perfect - En negativa at school. It's y gerundio, e.g. I will be able to holiday. expresar play the guitar deducción y prohibición. - You cannot in a year. smoke here. - Expresar - Jane could habilidad en drive before pasado. she was 18. - Pedir algo - Could you educadamente. pass the salt, please?

- Expresar posibilidad o imposibilidad en el pasado. - Hacer especulaciones (posibilidad remota) - Hacer sugerencias. - Remplaza a can en el estilo indirecto - Expresar una crítica.

- It was so hot I couldn't walk in the sand. - This passport could be his. - We could play bingo today. - They said they could do it themselves. - You could have bought some more food. - May I leave the classroom? - You may go to the toilet. - The headmaster may visit the class today. - That may be the thief that was arrested by the police. - They might invite us to the party. - They might have broken the window… - You should do more physical exercise

- Pedir algo. - Expresar permiso. - Expresar posibilidad (presente o futura) - Hacer especulaciones. - Expresar posibilidad (más dudosa) - Hacer especulaciones SHOULD - Dar y pedir consejos (debería)

MAY (PRE/FUT)

- Cuando MAY indica posibilidad indica que algo no es seguro. (quizá, tal vez, puede que)

MIGHT

- La posibilidad es muy dudosa (pudiera ser que)

- Expresar obligación moral - You should o que algo no be more es lo adecuado tolerant que esperabamos - Criticar - She should

have been quiet - I'll carry the - Hacer un suitcase for ofrecimiento you. WILL - Will you - Pedir algo bring me a educadamente coffee, please? - Hacer un - Shall I open ofrecimiento the window? - What shall - Pedir we do SHALL sugerencias tonight? - I shall speak - Tomar to the decisiones headmaster - Would you - Hacer un like some ofrecimiento tea? WOULD - When I was - Rutinas en el a child, I pasado (afirm.) would go (solía) fishing. - Expresar - You must go obligación - HAVE TO to school (autoridad fuerte) complementa a - En negativa: - You mustn't MUST en los MUST expresar smoke in tiempos que prohibición hospitals este carece, (presente) - They must e.g. She had to - Expresar get up early be happy. deducción yesterday. They've won (afirmativa) the lottery - Expresar - Need we go necesidad now? - Con sentido - The trees pasivo need pruning. NEED - En negativa: - You needn't ausencia de get up early at obligación = weekends don't have to OUGHT TO - You ought to do more - Dar consejos physical exercise - Expresar - You ought to

acciones pasadas

obligación moral - Expresar hábitos o rutinas en el pasado - Expresar obligación (+ suave) - En negativa: ausencia de obligación - Dar consejos o sugerencia (sería mejor) - + infinitivo: preferir algo 2 sujetos iguales WOULD RATHER

USED TO

HAVE (GOT) TO

HAD BETTER

MODALS IDIOMS

be more tolerant - I used to play tennis, but now I play basket - You have to be 18 to drive a car - You don't have to wear a uniform in this school - It's getting dark, we'd better go home now - I'd rather stay at home (prefiero)

- + Oración en - I'd rather pasado simple: she studied (preferiría) harder sujetos diferentes - I'd rather - + infinitivo + listen to music than + infinitivo than dance - Expresa "estar acostumbrado a.." - Expresa " acostumbrarse a.."

BE USED TO + -ING GET USED TO + -ING

- I'm used to going to bed late. - I can't get used to his way of cooking.

MODALES PERFECTOS: Se refieren al pasado: expresan conclusiones, suposiciones y conjeturas que hacemos sobre hechos pasados y se forman con un modal + have + participio. o MUST + HAVE + PARTICIPIO → conclusiones lógicas en el pasado, e.g. Sheila was absent yesterday. She must have been ill. o COULD + HAVE + PARTICIPIO

→ indica que hubo posibilidad de hacer algo en el pasado pero realmente no se hizo, e.g. He could have helped us, but he came too late. → en negativa, expresa la incredulidad de que lo ocurrido sea cierto, e.g. She couldn't have said those words. → para hacer una suposición en el pasado, e.g. She didn't come to the party. She could have been ill. MAY / MIGHT + HAVE + PARTICIPIO → expresan una suposición sobre el pasado, e.g. Call her again. She may / might not have heard you the first time. o SHOULD / OUGHT TO + HHAVE + PARTICIPIO
o

→ para lamentar que no se siguió un consejo en el pasado, e.g. She looks worse. She should / ought to have seen a doctor last week. → para lamentar que no se haya cumplido lo que esperábamos, e.g. They should have been home by now. → en negativa demuestran nuestra opinión crítica sobre algo que no debería haber ocurrido, e.g. I'm very angry with her. She shouldn't have been so rude.

Expressing Ability
Make a choice by clicking on a button then compare your answer with the correct one hidden under the answer button. 1. Although it contains many difficult words, I ___ read this book now. can could may
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2. But I ___ have read it last year. mayn't

couldn't can't
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3. Because there were many long words which I ___ understand. couldn't can't aren't able to
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4. When you receive the new books ___ try to read one of them? can I could I may
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5. I ___ understand why you won't let me. couldn't can't mayn't
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6. Can you find your way to the hotel? Yes I ___. could am able can
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7.

Can you pronounce my name properly? I ___ if you would speak more slowly. could may can
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8. Are you strong enough to lift that box.? Yes, I ___. could am can
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9. Will you speak more clearly please? I ___ hardly hear you at all. could can can't
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10. I ___ only listen to my radio when my mother was not at home. did can could
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11. Can you fix my car today? Yes, I ___. may could

can
þÿ

12. I ___ do that because I will get a sunburn. can't couldn't can
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13. Is it low enough ___ you to be able to step over it? to for of
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14. I ___ reach that apple, I'll have to use a ladder. don't can't couldn't
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15. ___ you just jump? Can't Don't If
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16. I ___ have known when she was coming home because I didn't have a watch.

can't couldn't won't
þÿ

Modals
Click the answer button to see the answer. 1. ___ you speak any foreign languages? a. May b. Can c. Have
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2. Liz ___ get tired of her job. It is so boring. a. has to b. must c. should
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3. Where's Nick? He ___ be in his office. a. might b. mustn't c. is to
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4. Take an umbrella. It ___ rain later. a. has to b. need c. might
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5. Jack ___ go to hospital yesterday. a. must b. had to c. need
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6. You look tired. You ___ go to bed. a. should b. ought c. are to
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7. You ___ do it. I've already done it. a. must not b. need not c. ought not
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8. ___ it be true? a. Must b. May

c. Can
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9. ___ we stay or leave? a. Will b. Would c. Shall
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10.Jane was so tired. She ___ have worked days and nights. a. should b. must c. need
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EXERCISE 3
Complete the sentences below using must or a form of have to. Example: You _____ light a naked flame near the gas pumps. a) don't have to ---------b) must not - The answer is: b) must not

1. Victoria _____ wake up at 4:00 in the morning yesterday. a) had to b) must

2. I strongly believe that they should _____ ask permission. a) have to b) must

3. Can _____ reliably predict an earthquake? a) anyone b) anywhere

4. When I was young, I _____ do many things for myself. a) didn't have to b) must not

5. While operating a motor vehicle, you _____ drink and drive. a) don't have to b) must not

6. Why _____ a new year come for us to make changes in our lives? a) has to b) must

7. You _____ wear a tie, but you can wear one if you want to. a) don't have to b) must not

8. The weather became so severe that all of the workers _____ be sent home. a) had to b) must

9. Bill _____ see everything at once because he can always visit again. a) doesn't have to b) must not

10. _____ all of the current assumptions about the universe one day be revised? a) Have to ---------b) Must

EXERCISE 4:
Complete the sayings and proverbs below using the clauses in the box. Example: should apologize Jill to Mark for being late. Answer:
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to Mark for being late.

1. Ought Mary to clean up the mess she made.
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clean up the mess she made.

2. opposite the Shouldn't of zero be everything?
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of zero be everything?

3. look should Everyone at the stars from time to time.
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at the stars from time to time.

4. should We have a plan when the going gets difficult.
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when the going gets difficult.

5. turn we whom To should for inspiration and wisdom?
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for inspiration and wisdom?

6. study if ought Dan to more he wants to pass the exam.
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he wants to pass the exam.

7. to ought You worry not about things you can't change.
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things you can't change.

8. schools that Some think should things offer parenting classes.
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offer parenting classes.

9. ought Vegetables to canned be while they're still fresh.
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while they're still fresh.

10. do you Don't say something to ought unless you can actually do it.
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unless you can actually do it.

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