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Definition of Listening, Reading, Writing and Communicating, Barriers in the path of Communication, Signposting, Outlines, Rephrasing, Listening to conversation (Formal and Informal), Techniques of reading, skimming, Scanning, SQ3R technique, Writing skills, Paragraph, Letter Writing, Essay writing, Memo, Circular, Notice, Cover Letter, Resume, Thesis, Summary, Précis, Speaking – How to converse with people, How to communicate effectively.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT 1 COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Importance of English 1.3 English as the First or Second language 1.4 Uses of English 1.5 Other Uses of English UNIT 2 LISTENING SKILLS 2.1 What is Listening? 2.2 Types of Listening 2.3 Objectives 2.4 Active Listening- an Effective Listening Skill 2.5 Note Taking Tips 2.6 Barriers for Good Listening 2.7 Purpose of Listening 2.8 Outlines and Signposting 2.9 Gambits 2.10 Exercise
UNIT 3 READING SKILLS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Importance of Reading Definition of Reading Levels of Reading Requirements of Reading Types of Reading Techniques of Reading Academic Reading Tips Exercise
UNIT 4 WRITING SKILLS 4.1 What is Writing? 4.2 The Sentence 4.3 The Phrase 4.4 Kinds of Sentences 4.5 Parts of Sentence 4.6 Parts of Speech 4.7 Articles 4.8 Types of Sentences 4.9 Time Management Tips 4.10 Test Preparation Tips 4.11 Tips for Taking Exams 4.12 What is a Paragraph?
4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26
Construction of Paragraph Linkage and Cohesion Example Exercise Academic Essay Writing Thesis Procedure for Thesis Approval and Deposit Summary Precis Writing Report Abstracts Letter Writing Memo Cover Letter Resume writing
UNIT 5 COMMUNICATION SKILLS- SPEAKING SKILLS 5.1 Definition 5.2 Barriers of Communication 5.3 Types of Communication 5.4 Know What You Want To Say
Unit 1 Communication skills in English
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction The Importance of English English as the First or Second language Uses of English Other Uses of English
Why Do We Teach English? We are teaching English or studying the teaching of English, but why do we want to teach English, as opposed to other foreign languages? It is useful for us to consider this basic question occasionally.
1.2 The Importance of English
English is not the most widely spoken language in the world in terms of the number of native speakers--there are many more Chinese speakers than native English speakers--but Chinese is spoken little outside of Chinese communities, so English is the most widespread language in the world. It is difficult to estimate exactly how many English speakers there are, but according to one estimate there are more than 350,000,000 native English speakers and more than 400,000,000 speakers of English as a second language (a language used in everyday life, even though it is not the native language) or foreign language (a language studied but not used much in everyday life). However, even these numbers do not really indicate how important English is as a world language, because less than fifteen percent of the world population uses English. The importance of English is not just in how many people speak it but in what it is used for. English is the major language of news and information in the world. It is the language of business and government even in some countries where it is a minority language. It is the language of maritime communication and international air traffic control, and it is used even for internal air traffic control in countries where it is not a native language. American popular culture--primarily movies and music--carries the English language throughout the world.
1.3 English as a First or Second Language
In some countries, English is the sole or dominant language. It has that role in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland. All of these countries are former British colonies. In other countries, English is widely used, particularly among people who have no other language in common, even though it is not the dominant language of the country. For example, English is widely used in Hong Kong, Singapore, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Malaysia. In such countries, it is often used as a means of communication between people who have different native languages.
1.4 Uses of English
English for News and Information English is commonly used as a medium for the communication of information and news. Three quarters of all telex messages and telegrams are sent in English. Eighty percent of computer data are processed and stored in English. Much satellite communication is carried in English. Five thousand newspapers, more than half of the newspapers published in the world, are published in English. Even in many countries where English is a minority language, there is at least one
newspaper in English. In India alone, there are three thousand magazines published in English. In many countries, television news is broadcast in English. Because of the power of television, demonstrators in every country use signs printed in English for the benefit of the international press. English for Business, Diplomacy, and the Professions English is a major language of international business, diplomacy, and science and the professions. It is the language that an Iranian businessman and a Japanese businessman are likely to use to communicate. Important commodities such as silver, tin, and hard currency are traded in English. English is also an official language, or the official language, of many international organizations, including the United Nations and many professional organizations. It is frequently the language of international conferences, and it is the language of international athletics. Throughout the world, many professional papers are published in English. Even papers that are published in other languages often have abstracts in English. English for Entertainment Popular culture. Popular culture has also played an important part in spreading English. American and British popular music are heard all over the world. American movies are seen in almost every country. Books in English are available even in countries where few people actually use English. One reason that students give for learning English is to understand these songs, movies and books. Travel. English is also very important for international travel. Much of the information countries disseminate about themselves outside of their borders is in English. English is spoken in large hotels and tourist attractions, at airports, and in shops that tourists frequent. There are newspapers printed in English, and TV news is available in English. Tours are almost always available in English. Even in countries where few people speak English on the street, people who work with tourists generally speak English. In some countries even drivers of buses or streetcars and sellers at newsstands speak English well.
1.5 Other Uses of English
In many former British colonies, English is still used in government and as a medium of communication among people who do not have another language in common. In some cases, it is a neutral language that is used to avoid giving any one indigenous language too much prestige. English is often used in India, because it is neutral. It is the language of government. People who speak English have a certain status in society. It is used for books, music and dance. In Singapore, English is a second language, but it is necessary for daily life. Many companies there use English. In addition, sixteen countries in Africa have retained English as the language of government. Now standard English is taught in schools in those countries, because it is necessary for careers. English is also studied as a foreign language in countries where it is not generally used as a medium of communication. In China, English language lessons are popular TV programs. Two hundred fifty million Chinese--more than the population of the US--are learning English on TV. English is usually the first or most commonly taught foreign language in many countries, and people understand it a little at least.
UNIT 2 LISTENING SKILLS
2.1 What is Listening? 2.2 Types of Listening 2.3 Objectives 2.4 Active Listening- an Effective Listening Skill 2.5 Note Taking Tips 2.6 Barriers for Good Listening 2.7 Purpose of Listening 2.8 Outlines and Signposting 2.9 Gambits 2.10 Exercise
2.1 What is Listening?
Listening is an active process. The language learner is fully, actively involved in the process of communication which in turn helps him or her to learn the language.
2.2 Types of listening
Level I: Internal Listening – The attention is on us instead of the other person. We listen to the words the other person is saying but our focus is on what it means to us. At Level I, the focus is on me: my thoughts, my judgements, my feelings, etc. The master networker should never be listening at Level I when prospecting. Listening with impact begins at Level II. Level II: Focused Listening The attention is on the other person. You are listening at Level II when you have lazer-focused attention; you're interested in every word; you provide a level of empathy and understanding; you clarify; you probe; you listen for values, expressions, emotions; you discover what makes the person energetic; and you notice how he (she) reacts to your responses. As a network marketing leader you will want to listen to your prospects and your sales organization at Level II. When you listen like that, you become an irresistibly attractive network marketing coach that beckons and keeps a solid sales organization. Level III: The Ultimate Listening Skill – Level III is listening to another person at such a deep level, we pick up information not only from what they're saying but also from what they're not saying. We pick up information from the tone in their voices, their pauses, their emotions and the energy that reveals itself, and even in the interaction of the conversation itself. You are aware of everything that is going on. You notice the force field that begins to surround you at this deep level of communicating.
Key Objectives Identify attitudes and habits that negatively affect message reception Gather information through probing questions Verify assumptions and accuracy Build rapport through attentive body language Interpret feelings that accompany facts Identify distortions and mental erasers
Listen discriminately to persuasive appeals Listening is a skill that is learned. ..Imagine what an impact you can have on your sales organization, your potential prospects and even your personal life by communicating and listening at the deepest level. Eliminate all distractions so you can listen with lazer-focused attention Take your ego, opinions, biases and judgements out of the equation so you can completely focus on the other person Accurately interpret nonverbal messages and hear what's not being said Create empathy and understanding so that others feel understood Discover the ten most common mistakes poor listeners make and how to correct them Test your listening skills and evaluate their effectiveness Become a pro-active listener rather than a passive listener by becoming aware of your own personal limitations Prevent misunderstandings by clarifying what is being said Listen beyond the words for feelings and energy Ask reflective questions that convey you are getting what is being said Identify and overcome your listening blocks Uncover and resolve problems before they reach a crisis point Once you've mastered the art of listening, you will know how to motivate your potential leaders by coaching (not telling) them. They will like you better, trust you more and they'll want to do business with you because you're doing something very special (and rare) for them: You are really listening to them at a very personal and deep level.
2.4 Active listening- an Effective listening skill
Effective listening is an essential attribute for anyone who wishes or needs to understand how to motivate and influence other people. Active listening skill is important when people are asking for advice, it prevents us giving solutions to problems prematurely. Effective listening helps us avoid misunderstandings and wrong interpretations of what people are saying and to clarify what is actually being said to us. Effective listening Effective listening is important when other people are blaming us for something. Effective listening enables us to control our feelings as our thoughts have to concentrate on hearing what another person is saying. Active listening skill
Active listening skill helps to avoid or minimize conflict and gives us confidence in promoting an
argument if we have correctly understood someone else’s argument to their satisfaction. Effective listening is important when other people have ideas or knowledge we don’t have. Effective listening enables us to capture ideas and knowledge and learn new ways of doing things. Effective listening helps us recognize and reward other people for the contributions they make to achieving our aims and objectives.
2.5 Note-taking Tips
1. Be an effective listener.
Avoid judging the speaker; concentrate on the message. Pay attention. Listen for key ideas, main details, and transitional phrases which point to the structure and focus of the lecture. Anticipate the direction of the lecture. 2. Write in shortened form. Use phrases in place of full sentences in most situations. Abbreviate when logical such as writing initials instead of repeating a person's name. Use symbols that are easy to understand such as: > = w/ increase or gain equals or results with def w/i < decrease or loss definition within ex b/c w/o example because without
3. Bealert for both verbal and non-verbal cues. Professors may give cues to indicate structure in the lecture, the relationships among ideas, and importance. These cues include transitional phrases and words, body language, voice tone and pace, repetition of ideas, and the time spent on certain subjects. 4. Be selective. Do not attempt to write everything. Take notes which reflect the interests of the professor, themes of the course, keywords or phrases on overheads or chalkboards. Choose information according to what you need to learn and ideas which need clarification. 5. Takes notes according to an organized format. Find an organized way to take notes. This format should be simple and easy to use to both record and review the notes. Learn about the Cornell method. 6. Notes do NOT need to be perfect. Your notes are not a masterpiece. Do not worry about erasures or misspellings. Make sure your notes are neat enough to read with ease. If you feel you want your notes to be neater, do not use class time to perfect them. 7. Record lectures if needed. Tape recording a lecture allows a student to review ideas that might have been missed. If the discussion is being recorded, the student can concentrate more on what is written on the board or shown to the group. Check with the professor for permission to record. 8. Write on only 1 side of a page. This prevents "bleeding through" of information from the other side and allows for insertion of additional information on the back of a page if necessary at a later time. Most importantly, it saves time by limiting the amount of turning and adjusting required to record or review notes. 9. Review your notes regularly. Reread your notes often. Look for developing course themes and relationships between the ideas of successive lectures. Make additional notes as needed during this review to link the class discussion to assignments and/or readings.
2.6 Barriers for good Listening
The listener may not have paid attention. The listener might be preoccupied with some problem hence he might have heard but not listened However he might have listened and understood too nevertheless he could not succeed in expressing because of the lack of knowledge.
2.7 Purpose of ListeningTo know the gist of the speaker’s speech. To judge other’s opinion For the overall summary of the topic.
2.8 Outlines and SignpostingWhile listening to any talk the listener has to be careful about the outlines and signposts. These things help any one to understand the spoken text in better way. Example: Today I’m going t talk about the four major issues which are affecting our lives these days. First is the population, second is the brain drain, third is the human cloning and the last one is global warming. The markers can be used for listing, to show cause and effect relationship, to indicate the illustration of speaker’s ideas, introduction of an idea, time relationship. E.g: firstly, next, so, therefore, for example, etc.
A ‘gambit’ is a word or a phrase, which helps us to express what we are trying to say. The gambits reflect the attitude of the person to the topic or the people in the context. E.g- I’d like to know, First of all, Don’t forget, Can you explain why?
2.10 Exercise: LISTENING CONVERSATION
Father; Come here, Ramu. Let me know why your Headmaster’s report is so bad about you. Ram: I don’t know. He is against me. Father: That is nonsense. He is a kind and just man. He reports that you have failed in nearly all the subjects and have been punished for breaking hostel rules. You once offended your teacher in the class and had to apologize in front of whole school. Ram: Well he called me bad names. Father: I am highly disappointed with you, Ram. I had great hopes when I sent you to school; but if you go on like this you will be a blot on my name. Ram: I am sorry, father. I know I have been lazy and behaved badly. I’ll get out of the bad set of friends and will work hard. You will have a better report next time. I promise to you. I will succeed and earn a reputation for you.
UNIT 3 READING SKILLS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8
Importance of Reading Definition of Reading Levels of Reading Requirements of Reading Types of Reading Techniques of Reading Academic Reading Tips Exercise
3.1 Importance of reading
Reading is more important today than it ever was — it is crucial to being an informed citizen, to succeed in one's chosen career, and to personal fulfillment. Remember when people thought technology would decrease the need to read? I find I have more access to text than ever, more specialized magazines, more books being published, more newspapers and more articles to read on the Internet, just like we are communicating now. But first thing's first: Children who read well do better in other subjects and in all aspects of schooling and beyond. As the world becomes more complex, reading is increasingly important for children trying to find their place in it. This is the essence of Scholastic's Read for Life campaign: Read for Comfort...Read for Closeness.
3.2 Definition of reading
Reading is something many, who are literate, take for granted. But if you think about it and try to define it, you may have difficulty verbalizing your thoughts. Reading experts have done the defining job for you. What is reading? Reading is an active process (not a product, like history) in which readers shift between sources of information (what they know and what the text says), elaborate meaning and strategies, check their interpretation (revising when appropriate), and use the social context to focus their response. (Walker, p.4) a. Reading is a psycho-linguistic guessing game b. Reading is thinking under stimuli of a printed page. c. "The term 'reading' means a complex system of deriving meaning from print.
3.3 Levels of reading
Authors define reading as the act of simultaneously reading the lines, reading between the lines, and reading beyond the lines (Manzo and Manzo, p. 5). Reading the lines
The first part of their definition, reading the lines refers to the act of decoding the words in order to construct the author's basic message.Reading between the lines The next part, reading between the lines, refers to the act of making inferences and understanding the author's implied message.Reading beyond the lines And finally, reading beyond the lines involves the judging of the significance of the author's message and applying it to other areas of background and knowledge. You should note that neither of these definitions focuses on the sounding out of words. Sounding out words is an important skill but it is very secondary to the act of comprehending and thinking. Comprehension and thinking is what reading is really all about. Vacca and Vacca (1996) offer the following pictorial definition of reading
3.4 Requirements for reading
A complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following: The skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds, are connected to print; the ability to decode unfamiliar words; the ability to read fluently; sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension; the development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning from print; the development and maintenance of a motivation to read. A reader must possess the following qualities for effective reading The skills and knowledge to understand how phonemes, or speech sounds are connected to print. The ability to decode unfamiliar words. The ability to read fluently. Sufficient background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension. The development of appropriate active strategies to construct meaning from print. The development and maintenance of a motivation to read."
3.5 Types Of Reading
1. SKIMMING Skimming is used when you want to glance over the material and "snatch" ideas on the go. You might use skimming when you are reading an interest story, Sunday comics or gossip column; you don't need to memorize facts in this case. Skimming is also used when you want to see if an article is of interest or is relevant for your research. STEPS FOR SKIMMING: Read the title Read the subtitles/subheadings Read the illustrations and captions Read the first sentences in each paragraph (this is usually the topic sentence and contains the main idea) 2. SCANNING Scanning, or quick referencing, should be used when you are looking for specific information to answer questions found at the end of the textbook section/chapter, or those teachers give you. When you scan, you read quickly while looking for specific names or vocabulary terms that attract your eye. Once you spot the term you are looking for, go back to the beginning of the paragraph and read for facts. Look for the author's use of signs and signals such as: use of numbers: 1,2,3.....
Use of Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV..... Use of letters: A,B,C or a,b,c ... Use of Words: first, second, third one, two, three in the first place, for one thing Bold-faced type Italics Notes in the margin 3. READING FOR INFORMATION Oftentimes you will be required to read your textbooks or reference books for ideas and concepts. When this type of reading is required, it is important to: Read one section/chapter at a time. Do not go on to the next one until you understand what this chapter is about. You can organize the information by doing the following: Write vocabulary terms and key concepts in your notes. Write questions that you think the teacher might ask and answer these. Write questions for which you can't find an answer and make sure you ask your teacher to clarify these for you or research further on your own. After you have done all these strategies, you are ready to move on to the next chapter/section. Quite often authors will have SIGNALS that indicate a sequencing of ideas or a summary or a conclusion. These signals will alert you to facts that the author feels are important and worthy of your attention. Furthermore Likewise Moreover Nevertheless In spite of On the contrary However Although Therefore Consequently Thus As a result Finally In conclusion 4. READING FOR PLEASURE When you read for pleasure, you can alternate your reading method to suit your needs. When you are reading a love story or sports article, for example, scanning will most likely be the reading method of choice because you will read quickly to get the ideas, but gloss over the details. If reading a science fiction book with many characters and names of space equipment for example, you might have to slow down your reading pace in order to mentally organize the characters and setting, but will read faster than you would if reading a textbook or operations manual.
Pleasure reading is a great opportunity to try out your different reading techniques.
3.6 Technique of reading
Do you have problems concentrating on your reading? Do you forget what you read the minute you finish? Following the five steps of SQ3R can help you to process and remember what you read! When you read be sure to annotate the text--underline, circle, highlight, write questions and comments in the margins--do anything that will keep you engaged and active in the reading process. The SQ3R Reading Strategy S-Survey Q-Question 3R-Read, Recite, Review. First introduced by Francis Robinson in 1941, this strategy involves constructing an overview of the reading and is known for its question asking step. S-Survey Survey the pages you are assigned to read by skimming and scanning to get an idea of what you will be reading. Survey the piece of writing to establish its purpose (what is it trying to get across to the reader?) and to get the main ideas. Look at: Titles Pictures Introduction and conclusion Bold or italicized print Questions First and last sentences in paragraphs Footnotes Q-Question Turn the headings of each section into questions to direct your reading and thinking. As you are surveying the piece, a good way to decide what you will be reading for when you do read is to question as you survey. Writing down questions keeps you alert and focused on your work. Divide a sheet of paper in half lengthwise. On the left half, write questions as you are surveying the piece. For example: The title may be "Skydiving in Five Easy Lessons". The question that you might write down is "What are the five lessons that a person must go through to learn how to skydive?" An introductory sentence states that, "a parachute is essential in learning to skydive." The question you would write down might be "Why is having a parachute really important when you're learning how to skydive?" A heading for a section could state "How to Fall"; the question might be "Why is it important to know how to fall?" or "What are the specific ways that a person must fall when learning how to skydive?" In addition to forming your own questions, look at any questions that may be posed by the author in sidebars or at the end of a section. It is important that you write these questions in your own words, not simply the words of the author. This will help you process the information more deeply (i.e., you will be able to recall it with more ease). R-Read As you read each section, search for answers to your questions and select main ideas. As you read, read to answer your questions, both in your mind and in writing on the right side of your "Question and Answer" paper. Since you have already selected the material (through your questions) that you know is important, you should be able to read selectively and separate out the
"fluff" that is not as important. Answer the question in your own words, not in the words of the author. This will enable you to understand and comprehend more fully because you will, in essence, be forcing yourself to "translate" the "gobbledygook" that you frequently encounter in writing, especially in textbooks. R-Recite To ensure your recall of the material, make sure you can recite key ideas and important details. After you have read and answered all of your questions, it is helpful to recite the questions and your answers. To do this, you should: Recite each question out loud (one at a time). Answer each question verbally according to the answer you have written down on the right side of the page. R-Review While you read, take breaks to review the ideas presented to that point. Using your notes, mentally go over the material within 24 hours of covering it. Review again after one week. Review approximately once a month until your exam.
3.7 Academic Reading Tips
1. Be a responsible reader. Complete every reading assignment on time. Plan your times for reading so that they are spread out among more active events. Set goals for how much reading you intend to complete in one sitting. Choose a quiet location conducive to study. If you are reading an assignment when you only have a limited amount of time, set an alarm so that you don't keep looking at the clock. 2. Be an active reader. Understand the purpose of the assigned reading (many texts will include objectives at the beginning of each section). Develop an understanding of the way the material is organized. Think about the key ideas and compare them to each idea as it is presented. Question what you read. Audio learners will find it helpful to read out loud. 3. Use a reading strategy. There are many reading strategies that apply these principles: previewing for an overview, questioning, summarizing, recording ideas in key word form, reciting ideas, reflecting about what was read, reviewing learning regularly. One such strategy is the SQ3R method which stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. 4. Skim and Scan. Skimming the contents of a reading assignment (headings, sub-headings, topic sentences etc.) is a common way to preview the assignment. Scanning is used to identify the organization of a reading and then to locate specific information quickly and accurately. Finding a number in a phone book is an example of scanning. 5. Record and review important ideas. Taking good notes will limit the amount of re-reading you will have to do later. Actively taking notes as you read forces you to think about the ideas. Reviewing these notes regularly helps to keep the material fresh in your mind, limiting the amount of study you might have to do later. 6. Apply questions to what you read. Questioning allows the reader to move beyond the process of taking in information (reading) and allows that information to turn into gained knowledge (learning). Ask yourself questions and find the answers. Questions should include recall of simple facts as well as analysis of more complex applications. Many texts include summary questions for you to ask yourself. Questions that you cannot answer should be asked to your professor.
times for reading so that they are spread out among more active events. Set goals for how much reading you intend to complete in one sitting. Choose a quiet location conducive to study. If you are reading an assignment when you only have a limited amount of time, set an alarm so that you don't keep looking at the clock. 7. Be an active reader. Understand the purpose of the assigned reading (many texts will include objectives at the beginning of each section). Develop an understanding of the way the material is organized. Think about the key ideas and compare them to each idea as it is presented. Question what you read. Audio learners will find it helpful to read out loud. 8. Use a reading strategy. There are many reading strategies that apply these principles: previewing for an overview, questioning, summarizing, recording ideas in key word form, reciting ideas, reflecting about what was read, reviewing learning regularly. One such strategy is the SQ3R method which stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. 9. Skim and Scan. Skimming the contents of a reading assignment (headings, sub-headings, topic sentences etc.) is a common way to preview the assignment. Scanning is used to identify the organization of a reading and then to locate specific information quickly and accurately. Finding a number in a phone book is an example of scanning. 10. Record and review important ideas. Taking good notes will limit the amount of re-reading you will have to do later. Actively taking notes as you read forces you to think about the ideas. Reviewing these notes regularly helps to keep the material fresh in your mind, limiting the amount of study you might have to do later. 11. Apply questions to what you read. Questioning allows the reader to move beyond the process of taking in information (reading) and allows that information to turn into gained knowledge (learning). Ask yourself questions and find the answers. Questions should include recall of simple facts as well as analysis of more complex applications. Many texts include summary questions for you to ask yourself. Questions that you cannot answer should be asked to your professor.
3.8 Exercise: Unseen Passage
After the accident, a car from the hospital took Krishna to hospital. The two men carried him to a bed and put him in it carefully. Soon a nurse and a doctor came. The nurse wrote his name and address in a book. The doctor took the bandage off Krishna’s arm, looked at it carefully and put his hands on it. He said, “ The arm is broken.” He said to the nurse,” Give him some tea to drink.” Then he said to Krishna, “ Don’t worry, we’ll do some thing now. You’ll be alright soon!” Krishna was a little cheered up and said, “ Thank you, doctor.” The nurse gave him tea to drink it. The doctor told the nurse to give another injection. After this Krishna could sleep well. While Krishna was in the hospital, many of his friends came to see him. Whenever his father and mother came to visit, they brought some fruit, milk and books. There were several other persons suffering from diseases in Krishna’s room. He was all right within a week and went home after greeting his room –fellows. Write in the brackets the letter of the correct answer: 1. Krishna went to the hospital because he (a) Went carried by two men. (b) Had an accident (c) Had the car from the hospital (d) Wanted to see the nurse (e) Wanted to see his parents 2. ‘Soon a nurse and a doctor came’. Here the word ‘soon’ means :
a. At last b. By and by c. In a short time d. At once e. In a moment 3. ‘a lot’ in the passage means : a. Much b. A little c. Some d. Also e. less 4. The doctor said to Krishna, Do not worry’ to a. comfort him b. praise him c. annoy him d. please him e. make him quiet 5. ‘While Krishna was in the hospital…’. Here ‘while’ means: a. So far as b. Before c. As long as d. By Krishna e. Of the two men 6. Krishna was not alone in his room in the hospital because with him a. Were his father and mother b. Were the doctor and the nurse c. Was only his mother d. Were several other men. e. Were his many friends. 7. In the book was written the name and address : a. By the nurse b. Of Krishna c. Of the nurse d. By Krishna e. Of the two men 8. Krishna came home from the hospital a. After improving b. Before a week c. Many days after a week d. Only after seven days e. The passage does not tell 9. Write below the phrase from the passage which means ‘comforted’.
11. Write below the sentence from the passage which shows Krishna’s warm feelings of good done to him by the doctor.
UNIT 4 WRITING SKILLS
4.1 What is Writing? 4.2 The Sentence 4.3 The Phrase 4.4 Kinds of Sentences 4.5 Parts of Sentence 4.6 Parts of Speech 4.7 Articles 4.8 Types of Sentences 4.9 Time Management Tips 4.10 Test Preparation Tips 4.11 Tips for Taking Exams 4.12 What is a Paragraph? 4.13 Construction of Paragraph 4.14 Linkage and Cohesion 4.15 Example 4.16 Exercise 4.17 Academic Essay Writing 4.18 Thesis 4.19 Procedure for Thesis Approval and Deposit 4.20 Summary 4.21 Precis Writing 4.22 Report Abstracts 4.23 Letter Writing 4.24 Memo 4.25 Cover Letter 4.26 Resume writing
4.1 What is writing?
When we use pen to express our feelings and thoughts it is called writing. The smallest unit of writing is a sentence. This unit will deal with the word ‘sentence’ and its parts. Moreover this block will help the students to understand what goes on making of a sentence.
4.2 The Sentence
A group of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence. She sits on a chair
4.3 The Phrase:
There may be some groups of words that make sense but not complete sense. “under the table, at home. A sentence has a verb but a phrase hasn’t.
4.4 Kinds of sentences 18
There are four kinds of sentencesDeclarative- A sentence that states something is called a declarative sentence. Interrogative- A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. Imperative- A sentence that express a command a request , or a desire is called an imperative sentence. Exclamatory- A sentence that expresses some strong feeling is called an exclamatory sentence.
4.5 Parts of sentence:
A sentence has 2 partsSubject: That part which names the person or thing Predicate- That part which tells something about. Example: A black dog bit the poor beggar A black dog- Subject Bit the poor beggar- Predicate
4.6 Parts of Speech
Noun- All naming words are nouns. E.g: Tom girl, army, happiness, etc Pronoun- Words which are used in place of nouns are pronouns. For e.g- he, she, it. Adjective- Words that qualifies noun e.g- good, black, one, etc Verb: Action words are called verbs. For e.g- sleep, play, work, etc. A verb tells us- what a person or thing does or what is done to a person or thing or thing or what a noun is. For e.g: Shyam laughs, Mala is beaten and the shoe is dirty. Adverb- Words which qualify verb is called adverb. Eg: slowly, first, happily. Preposition- A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun to show the relation in which the person or thing denoted by the something else. For eg- at, on, under, in, etc. Preposition of Time ‘For’ is used when we measure time. E.g- She has lived there for seven years. ‘Since’ is used with specific date or time. For e.g- She has been waiting there since 2.30pm. Conjunction- A conjunction is a word which is used to join words or sentences together. Interjection – Words which are used to denote sudden feelings and expressions. For e.g- hurrah! alas! aah!. A mark of exclamation is used after the words.
There are 2 kinds of articles- Definite and Indefinite. Indefinite Articles- ‘A’ and ‘An’ are called indefinite articles and do not point out any particular person or thing. ‘A’ is used before a consonant or a word which gives out the sound of a consonant. For e.g- a woman, a university. ‘An’ is used before a vowel or a word which gives out the sound of vowel. For e.g- an apple, an hour , an M.A., etc Definite Article- ‘The’ is called the definite article, because it is used when we speak of some particular person or thing. The doctor is out of station. The peacock is a national bird.
4.8 Types of SentencesSimple Sentence- A sentence that has one subject and one predicate with one finite verb only is called simple sentence. The dog bit the cat. He writes a letter. Compound Sentence- When two sentences are joined with coordinating conjunction. Example:- The sun rose and the birds sang. Complex Sentence- When two sentences are joined in such a way that one is dependent on the other then the sentence is called a complex sentence. It has one principal clause and the other is called dependent or subordinate clause. Example:It is certain that he will come tomorrow It is certain: Principal clause That he will come tomorrow: Subordinate clause
4.9 Time Management Tips
Get to Know Yourself Keep track of how you spend your time for one week. Tally your hours into categories such as: eating, sleeping, class time, study time, recreation, etc. Find out when you tend to waste time and on what activities. Identify your temptations to get "off task" such as roommates, telephone, instant messenger, etc. Pay attention to your attention - at what time of day are you more focused? Set Goals Set academic and personal goals for the quarter and long term. Concentrate your time on activities that match your goals. Put these goals in written form posted where you will see them often. Use Planners Use a monthly calendar to record project due dates and upcoming exams. Record the monthly events onto a weekly calendar as well. Keep the monthly calendar posted in your room. Carry your weekly calendar with you. Make "to do" Lists Create a weekly "to do" list. Post this list in your room. Transfer your weekly list into daily things "to do." Carry these lists with you. Review your lists frequently. Cross things off or move things to other days as needed. Budget Your Time Use your planner and "to do" lists to budget your time. Schedule times to study something from each class every day - even if there is nothing assigned.
Plan ahead for large projects. Write goals in your planner. For example, if you have a paper due during 8th week, you might set a goal of having the library footwork completed by 3rd week, all reading of this material done by 5th week, an outline written by 6th week, and your first draft produced by 7th week. Set aside planned time for recreation and meetings. Use Study Time Wisely Study in a quiet, distraction free location. Use your best time of day to be most productive. Begin with difficult or boring material. If you lose interest or have problems, move to something else and return to this task later in the study session. Utilize time between classes for small things such as rereading your notes. Plan your time by breaking assignments into smaller sections. Reward yourself with breaks at predetermined points during your study. Change locations or material when you begin to become unproductive. Get sleep instead of staying up late. Go on to bed and set an early alarm. Your time will be better spent by tackling the material again in the morning. Use Your Resources Use your professors and other campus departments such as the Learning Center. Use your laptop as an effective learning tool. Organize your files to save time later. Form study groups with classmates. Choose students with similar goals and work ethic. Use online resources when possible to save travel time. Use "Down Time" Always carry something with you to do. Photocopy your notes to carry sheets in your pocket to read while waiting in line or before a meeting begins. Tape record yourself reading material from your textbook or record lectures. Play these tapes while doing your laundry or while driving home for the weekend. Be Flexible Do not attempt to schedule something for every time block in your planner. Be realistic that you cannot always know how long a meeting or an assignment will last. Allow for and adapt to changes in your schedule.
4.10 Test Preparation Tips
Before the exam... Organize your notes - beginning on the first day of the quarter Organize your time - set aside blocks of time to study Find out as much as you can about the exam - ask your professor, visit the Learning Center for past exams Anticipate exam questions Study actively – summarize, write, recite, practice problems Prepare needed materials If you can use your laptop organize the files and charge the battery. If you can use a sheet of notes, create the sheet early and use it while studying. Think positively
Get a good night's sleep Arrive on time, but not too early - listening to others cram may confuse or panic During the exam... Get materials organized Listen for last minute instructions Make quick notes about facts you think you might forget Read all instructions and problems carefully Organize your time - don't spend too much time on one problem When finished, go back and read the directions to be sure that you followed them Check and double check your answers Utilize all the time allowed After the exam... Use the exam as a learning experience Go back to your notes and try to answer the exam problems Look for a pattern in the type of problems you do very well (or very poorly) and try to assess why this is true Determine which study techniques worked for you Discuss your performance with your professor Rework problems you missed If you are allowed to keep the exam, keep it to study for finals or for future reference.
4.11 Tips for Taking Essay Exams
Studying for Essay Exams Study as you would for any exam. Stress broad concepts, ideas, and theories. Understand the relationships between elements. Be prepared to think analytically and critically. Practice writing essay answers to questions that you have created or those given in the text. If the exam is open book or notes, highlight information that you might like to cite in an answer. Starting the Exam As soon as the professor hands you the exam, unburden your mind by making quick notes about things you think you might forget. Read the directions carefully. Look for these things: Point values for questions. How many of the questions you need to answer. Time limit for exam. Read through the exam questions. Circle key words that hint at how the answer should be structured. If you are given a choice, decide which questions to answer. Start by crossing out the questions you feel strongly against and circling those that you feel positively towards. If this leaves other decisions to make, follow your "gut feeling." Plan your time for each question A question worth 50% of the grade should probably take 50% of the allotted time. Planning to Answer Start with the easiest question.
Read the question again, paying attention to the key words you circled. Jot down facts that immediately come to mind. Brainstorm ideas including examples you remember from class or the text. Organize by creating outlines, mind-maps, or diagrams. Reread your plan to prepare to write an answer that: Uses facts and logic instead of unsupported opinions or feelings. Completely answers the question presented. Is concise, direct, and straightforward. Contains no grammatical errors. Speaks in a natural voice (avoids phony, super-elegant language). Writing the Answer Write legibly - even if you have to print or write on every other line. Begin with a brief introduction that refers to the question and states your thesis. Do not waste time trying to compose a graceful lead paragraph as you might if you were writing an essay; get to the point quickly and directly. Keep paragraphs short - one idea to each paragraph. Begin the paragraph with the idea. Remaining sentences should support this idea. Include your best ideas early in the essay. Don't save the "best for last." Refer to specific examples from readings and lectures to support and illustrate your points. Demonstrate that you can analyze and evaluate the subject matter; do not merely state information. Use transitions to direct the reader and to make your paper clearer. Stay on the topic. The professor doesn't want to know everything you learned - just everything needed to answer this particular question. Do not ramble. Overly wordy essays may make the reader question the knowledge of the writer. End with a summary statement or two, restating your thesis and the points you made in the opening paragraph. Reread this answer before moving on to another since the thoughts are still in your mind. Reread the question. Make sure your answer fulfills the question. Finishing the Exam Double check that you answered the correct number of questions. Make sure your answers are clearly numbered to match the questions. Proofread, checking for grammatical errors. Pay particular attention to the spelling of words. Clean up any messy looking words or smudges. Rewrite answers if needed. If you use several pages or exam booklets, be sure to number them before handing them in, for example, "1 of 3," "2 of 3," "3 of 3."
4.12 What is a Paragraph
According to Wren and Martin, A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic; or, a group of related sentences that develop a single point.
4.13 Construction of Paragraph
There are some factors which are important for the construction of paragraph Unity- Every sentence in the paragraph must be closely connected with the main topic of the paragraph.
Order: It is concerned with the logical sequence of subject. Events must be projected in the order of their occurrence. Variety: The writing should not be monotonous. To give an ornamental look the paragraphs should vary in length. Moreover different kind of sentences along with lexical resources should be written.
4.14 Linkage and cohesion
To give the best piece of writing the ideas should be linked or glued to form a complete whole. This linking is called cohesion. But when ideas are organized and patterns of movement established in the text as a whole, this type of linkage is called coherence. To glue the information certain linkers are required like Conjunction Reference: It is concerned with marking and identifying items, people and events. E.g.: The file you were searching was lying in the room. ‘the’ identifies a particular file. Lexical Resources: When continuing a piece of writing instead of using pronouns to represent people, objects, events, nouns may be used. E.g.: Sumeeta is a medical student. She is The girl has shown very good results.
Example: A Holiday I Enjoyed Last week was fun. It was a holiday on Friday. My Friends and I went to the river-bank to enjoy ourselves. We took our kites and fishing- rods with us. Our kites went high into the air, for it was a windy day. We also enjoyed fishing in the river, although we were not lucky enough to catch any fish. We took a boat and went up the stream. By afternoon we were feeling rather tired and hungry. So, we unpacked our baskets and had a good feast of cakes, sweets and fruits. The sun was now setting. We enjoyed the beautiful sight of sunset on the river. Everything looked golden in the light of the setting sun. The evening had now come, and we returned home. I’ll never forget this holiday.
4.16 Exercise- Now write a short paragraph
‘Fly-over’ – a nuisance for general public
4.17 Academic essay Writing
What is an academic essay? The English word 'essay' comes from the Old French word 'assaier', meaning 'to test' or 'to try'. We can compare it to the English word 'assay' - geologists and metallurgists perform assays on mineral ores. This means that they test the ores; they perform geological trials to find out how much valuable material is in them - how much gold, how much nickel, and so on. Writing an academic essay involves the same kind of process of evaluating, of weighing up a topic - you examine a statement, or a concept, or a situation to test its value, to find its strengths and weaknesses. When you have weighed up the facts you should come to some conclusion on what you've found. This conclusion is called a thesis.
What an academic essay is not? An academic essay is not a regurgitation of facts. Of course, the facts have to be essay-writing. If, in giving the facts, you want to quote from a textbook, use the quote only to support or to illustrate the point you're making. It should be a supplement to your words and ideas, not a substitute of them. * They allow your lecturers and tutors to evaluate your learning. (This is why it's important to use your own words and ideas. If your essay is full of long quotes from textbooks, your reader cannot tell whether or not you have understood and retained what you have read.) * They give you a focus for exploring and consolidating what you are learning. * They allow you to practise skills that you will be using in a future career: e.g. collecting, analysing, and organising data; writing clearly, concisely, and logically; evaluating and explaining complex material to others. Why do we write essays? They allow your lecturers and tutors to evaluate your learning. (This is why it's important to use your own words and ideas. If your essay is full of long quotes from textbooks, your reader cannot tell whether or not you have understood and retained what you have read.) They give you a focus for exploring and consolidating what you are learning. They allow you to practise skills that you will be using in a future career: e.g. collecting, analysing, and organising data; writing clearly, concisely, and logically; evaluating and explaining complex material to others. Recommended procedure for essay writing Many books have been written on the subject of essay writing. You should try to read some of these to improve your essay writing technique; however, here's an outline of how you might tackle an essay assignment. Unpack the question: Read the essay question carefully, underlining key words, and considering carefully what the lecturer is really asking for in the essay. Pay special attention to words like 'describe', 'evaluate', 'critically analyse', and so on. Gather data: Use the library and the internet judiciously to supplement your lecture and tutorial notes. Do not overload on data - large quantities of information can be difficult to organise. Brainstorm: The data you have gathered needs to be processed in a way that identifies relationships and patterns. Use a brainstorming technique to do this and to generate new ideas. (Mindmapping is a particularly useful brainstorming technique.) Find a focus: The most successful essays have a clear focus, expressed in a thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph. The thesis statement is the most important sentence in the whole essay; weak thesis statements lead to weak essays. In an argumentative essay, the thesis statement should express the position you're taking on an issue; in an analytical essay it should state your finding; in a descriptive essay it should group together the various aspects you describe. Effective essays are organised around the thesis; everything you write in the essay should directly or indirectly relate to the thesis statement. As you develop the middle paragraphs of your essay, you may need to modify the thesis statement to cover all the points you want to make. Structure and organise: Once you're reasonably happy with your thesis statement, you need to structure your essay. The basic structural unit of an essay is the paragraph. A paragraph is a group of sentences which refer to the same basic point, which is developed within the paragraph; each paragraph deals with one point only. Ideally, an essay has an introductory paragraph, which introduces the essay topic and whose last sentence states the essay's thesis; middle paragraphs, which explicate the thesis, one main point for each paragraph; and a concluding paragraph, which begins by restating the thesis, then closes
the essay by summarising, evaluating, or contextualising the essay. (Never introduce a new point of explication in the concluding paragraph - first and last paragraphs frame the essay's explication or argument.) Most student essay-writers find that once they have formulated their thesis statement, it is easiest to write the middle paragraphs first and the introduction and conclusion last. Edit and proof-read: When you have finished drafting your essay, carefully check spelling, grammar, and expression (it saves time to draft your essay directly on to your computer and use its checking tools). Also check for typographical errors and any points which may confuse your reader (remember: s/he is not a mind-reader but has access only to what is written on your paper). Use the Essay Checklist and make necessary changes to your essay. Academic writing practices Non-discriminatory language Curtin University is committed to eliminating discrimination and therefore insists on the use of non-discriminatory language. Non-discriminatory language regarding sex, race, ethnicity, disability and age is also the convention in academic writing. Sexist language can be avoided by using a reference to both sexes, or by using the plural form when possible e.g. they, their. Tone Tone is the "speaking voice" of a piece of writing. In academic writing it should be formal but "reader-friendly". Aim to produce a paper that could be understood immediately by a fellow student in your course, but also keeping in mind that your writing should not be colloquial or personal. Reading published journal articles in your discipline can help you to get a feel for what constitutes an appropriate tone. You could also try reading your writing out loud. Referencing A basic characteristic of any science is that it builds on existing knowledge. As you are expected to draw on other people's work, you are also expected to recognise and acknowledge their help by referencing your sources of information. The Referencing section of Study Skills provides further information on Reference systems. How to Reference In your referencing you should include enough information about each book or article to allow your reader to find it and follow up any point. To assist this purpose, there are referencing systems that must be followed. There are a few different systems that are commonly used, depending on the discipline. Find out which one is required by the School that has set your written assignment. Information about how to reference is often given in your course materials. Additionally, your lecturer may refer you to a guidebook or a particular journal that uses the system they prefer. Quoting Direct quoting means copying down material from a source and reproducing it word for word in your assignment. It is best to avoid overuse of direct quotations and instead paraphrase an idea in your own words (remembering to reference the source!). However, there are times when it may be better to use the exact words from a source. For example, if it expresses the idea more eloquently than your own summary or when it is important for the reader to inspect the precise way the thought was expressed by the author. If you are going to make a direct quote, it must be exactly the same as the original. If you make any changes, or add explanatory material of your own, include it in square brackets [ ]. If you decide to leave out any part of the original use an ellipsis (...). Short quotations should be included within the text of your assignment and enclosed by quotation marks. Quotations that are four or more lines should be included as a separate paragraph from the main text, indented and single spaced.
Plagiarism If you do not carefully reference your work, you may leave yourself open to the charge of plagiarism- passing off other people's ideas as your own. It's the academic equivalent of fraud and is treated very seriously by the University. Offenders may lose marks on their work or in some cases be given a fail grade for the unit. Essay Checklist Have I fulfilled the requirements of the assignment? (Check assignment brief for key words like 'outline', 'compare', 'evaluate'. Make sure you have addressed all aspects of the assignment question.) Are all facts correct, current, and unambiguous? (Make sure you have understood your research material and that you have transcribed details correctly.) Have I correctly acknowledged all formal and informal sources correctly? (Introduce quotations gracefully, use appropriate referencing, and provide a full bibliography. Familiarise yourself with your School's referencing requirements and the policy on plagiarism.) Is my thesis statement clear, concise, and arguable? (The thesis statement is the 'handle' upon which you hang your essay; make sure it functions effectively. Are my paragraphs internally integrated? (Each paragraph should be integrated around one point, expressed in the topic sentence.) Are my paragraphs logically linked? (Establish key concepts, words, and phrases in the introduction, and carry these through your essay. Use 'transition markers', such as 'moreover', 'nevertheless', 'on the other hand', to guide the reader through your essay. Is my explication clear, easy to follow, and logically developed? (Avoid logical fallacies and ambiguous expression. Make your essay 'reader friendly'. Does my introduction adequately introduce my thesis? (The first paragraph should lead up to the thesis statement by gently easing the reader into the topic. First paragraphs should not make points of explication.) Does my conclusion effectively round off my essay? (Final paragraphs should restate the thesis and sum up and/or contextualises the essay. Never introduce a new topic in the last paragraph.) Have I punctuated correctly? (Check in particular for comma splices, run-ons, separation of subject from verb. Check apostrophes. Use semi-colons to join control clauses; use colons to introduce quotations, definitions, and complicated lists. Is my grammar correct? (Check in particular that subjects and verbs, pronouns and antecedent nouns agree and that modifiers are correctly related.) Is my writing clear and unambiguous? (Check sentence structure, choice of words, and word order.) Is my writing concise? (Cut out all unnecessary words and phrases. Avoid cliches, vogue words, and jargon.) Is the tone of my essay rational, authoritative, formal yet 'reader-friendly' and fluent? (Read your essay out loud. This helps you to recognise any awkwardness of language or lapse in tone.) Have I proof-read and run a spelling check over my essay? (Make sure the essay you hand in is as correct and professionally presented as you can make it.) Your Responsibilities Make sure that you keep a copy of the completed assignment when you hand it in to the marker. This provides a "back-up" just in case your assignment is misplaced before it is marked. It would be terrible to have to repeat the assignment from scratch or alternatively getting a fail grade when you have completed the required work.
Most Schools require cover pages to be attached to the front of your assignment. These may be photocopied from your course materials, available at the School Office or you may need to make your own. On the cover page you will be required to give at least your name, student ID number, the date of submission, the title of the assignment and the name of your tutor/demonstrator. Assignments are generally handed in to the marker or at the School Office. Cover sheets may have tear off sections for the recipient to sign as evidence that you have handed in your assignment. Keep this just in case your assignment does get misplaced. Alternatively, some Schools stamp the assignment cover page to identify when it was handed in. Ideally you should ensure that your assignment is submitted on time and reaches the person responsible for receiving it. Each School has their own rules regarding late assignments. If it appears you will not be able to hand in your assignment on the due date, discuss this with the marker before the day it is due. You may be able to arrange an alternative submission date without loss of marks. Read any feedback you are given carefully; this will assist you to improve your writing. If you would like more feedback than the marker has provided, or you don't understand their comments or why they have given you the mark they did, go and see them about it. This will let the marker know that you are keen to get feedback and improve your writing, as well as assist you to understand what they expect for your next assignment. Example: Advertisements- A Bane or a Boon Advertisements have become a part of our lives. We cannot live without them, they attack us from all sides. Step out of the house and they’ll stare at you from all corners, promoting products from needless to C.Ds, from cricket bats to gold watches, At home every five minute T.V. programmes are interrupted to tell us what tooth paste we shoul buy, what kind of salt is good for us or even which toy to give to a new baby! So many kinds of goods are displayed, so many temptations are presented that the poor consumer does not know what to buy or reject. Advertisements are a help because they tell us about a new product, Without them one would not know what advance has been made in the field. We’ll not able to learn about the merits nof a new product. It can be anything – a new medicine, a new book, a new school, a new hospital—the list is endless. Advertisements also lead to competition and better products come in the market. As long as the competition is healthy it is good, but advertisements have become cut throat—see the Cola War. The competition between Coco-Cola and Pepsi has made them spend crores on advertisement. Film Stars are roped in to make the product popular. Films are advertised with huge posters. Sometimes they prove dangerous drivers! Some advertisements are in bad taste. Some of them are so attractive that they persuade people to buy things which they do not need! For example, housewives rush to buy things at sales which they do not need, but buy them because they are cheeper. There should some way to educate the gullible buyer about the quality of the product and its price.
Exercise: Describe a fire that broke out in your neighborhood last night. ( You may make use of the following hints in your answer.) A house on fire—alarm—smoke and flames coming out of the burning house—people removing furniture—fire engine—brave fireman pumping huge jets of water on the shooting flames—fireman saving inmates of the house—a brave deed you witnessed—boy scouts rendering help.
4.18 Thesis 28
The work you have done up to this point in preparing to write your thesis is outside the province of this manual. It assumes that your research is complete, that your final thesis draft has been examined and approved by your major professor and committee members, and that you are now ready to prepare the thesis in final form. This manual sets out the requirements for thesis format established by the Graduate Studies Committee of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. These requirements must be met as a minimum in order to procure the approval of the Director of the Library. Individual departments of the Institute may have various additional requirements or may specify in greater detail those that follow. We urge you to learn first from your own graduate committee what, if any, special departmental requirements apply to you and then, taking these into consideration, to prepare your thesis in accordance with the instructions of this manual. The format approval review of the deposit copy of your thesis is intended to assist you in meeting the requirements of this manual. You are urged to consult the Director of the Library if you have questions. Because there may be problems, do not wait until the deadline periods.
4.19 Procedure for Thesis Approval and Deposit
This chapter presents the required procedure for thesis approval and deposit. A candidate who fails to meet these requirements will not graduate and must register for the following quarter. For regulations governing this registration, you are referred to the Director of Graduate Studies. Thesis Format Approval The deadline for thesis format approval is two weeks before commencement. Following the defense, take the unbound corrected copy of your completed thesis to the Director of the Library. The paper for the format approval copy must be 8 1/2 by 11 inch but does not have to meet quality requirements. The Director of the Library will provide an approval statement that the student gives to the Director of Graduate Studies. Duplication of Thesis After thesis format approval, have the thesis duplicated. Three copies are required by the Graduate Studies Committee. Additional copies may be required by the department or may be produced at the student's option for his or her own use. Duplication costs are the responsibility of the student. Deposit Copy One copy of your thesis, called the deposit copy, is deposited with the Director of Graduate Studies for addition to the Institute Library theses collection and must meet the specifications for quality paper, typing, format, duplication, and the other requirements set forth in this manual. You must pay for binding the deposit copy. Major Professor's Copy You must give one copy of your thesis to your major professor and it becomes his or her property. You must pay for binding the major professor's copy. Stack Copy One copy of your thesis serves as the circulating document. This copy is called the "stack copy." The library will pay for binding the stack copy. Deposit of Thesis No later than one week prior to commencement, deliver all copies to the Director of Graduate Studies accompanied by a receipt from the Director of the Library stating that you have paid for all binding. GENERAL INFORMATION Library Use of Institute Theses
The deposit copy of each thesis becomes a part of the thesis collection of the Institute Library and is available for review. Although you may wish to examine model theses already in the collection as examples, the guidelines in this manual must be followed. Ask the Director of the Library for model suggestions. Use of Copyrighted Material in Theses If you quote extensively from copyrighted material, you should obtain permission from the author or publisher, whichever holds the copyright. Such permission is usually granted on condition that acknowledgment is made. If payment is required, this is your responsibility. Be very sure that you obtain permission to use all such material before you submit your thesis for approval. Copyrighting of Theses If you want to have your thesis copyrighted, you must have a letter from your major professor and the head of your department addressed to the Director of Graduate Studies requesting that the thesis be copyrighted. In this letter they should state the reasons they consider it desirable or necessary.
Confidential Status of Thesis If your thesis is to be placed in confidential status, consult the Director of Graduate Studies for information. Assistance in Preparation of Thesis This manual assumes that you have adequate command of the English language and its constructions, spelling, and usage. Assistance, if needed, should be sought in standard dictionaries and handbooks of composition. See Appendix G. You may submit your manuscript for review at the Learning Center. Manuscript Preparation We suggest that you become thoroughly familiar with the requirements of this manual and with the special publication requirements of your department. It is imperative that the final manuscript adhere to these rules as set down. You bear the responsibility for the appearance, the form, and content of your thesis. All copies must be identical. Duplication Processes Both xerographic copies and copies printed on a letter quality or laser printer are acceptable. In either case, you must use paper which meets the specifications set forth in this manual. The only exception is the listing of a computer program in which case a letter-quality printer need not be used. Typed copies are also acceptable, but not recommended. Any other methods of reproduction must be discussed with the Director of the Library and your duplication service before you begin to prepare your final copy. Note: Preparation and duplication of theses can be expensive. It is suggested that you have a clear understanding in advance of the cost of photographic work, drawings, and duplication before final typing is started. You should consult the Institute Printing and Duplication Center for information about special materials required for the reproducing of the graphics used in illustrating your thesis. ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS
Opening Component Title Page A title page is required. This page is the primary way by which the thesis will be identified. This page is not numbered, but it is counted as the first page (i) of the opening component. The contents of the title page are as follows: Title. This must be the full official title of the thesis. The title should be a meaningful description of the content of the thesis. Information retrieval systems use the words in the title to locate theses. Candidate's name. Your full name is preferable to the use of initials. Whatever form you select, use it consistently throughout the thesis. Degree. Write out the full name of the degree for which you are a candidate. Candidates must be very sure that they use the precise degree name, for example, Master of Science in Chemical Engineering. Date. This is determined by the month and year in which you qualify for graduation. Abstract Page An abstract page must accompany all theses for approval. Along with text of the abstract itself, the abstract page must contain a heading, the candidate's names as it appears on the title page with the last name first, the abbreviation of the degree, the name of the institution granting the degree, the month and year the degree is obtained, the title of the thesis (wording and punctuation to agree exactly with the Title Page) and the name of the major professor. Place the heading ABSTRACT, in capital letters, centered, without punctuation, two inches from the top of the page. The rest of the text begins four spaces below the heading, is double-spaced, and is flush with the left-hand margin. The text of the abstract should include a statement of the thesis problem, a brief exposition of the research, and a condensed summary of findings. Remember, the abstract may be used separate from the main text of the thesis for reference purposes. Therefore, the abstract should not make reference to any tables or figures nor to other works. Also, all nonstandard symbols or abbreviations should be defined and the use of equations should be avoided. The maximum length of the abstract is 350 words not including the first paragraph as described above. The abstract is neither counted nor numbered. Dedication A dedication is optional. If used, it should be brief and centered on its own page. No heading is necessary. Acknowledgments Acknowledgments are also optional, but most theses do include a brief statement of appreciation or recognition of special assistance. If you intend to include them, place them on their own page with the heading, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, in capital letters, centered, without punctuation, two inches from the top of the page. The text begins four spaces below. Table of Contents A table of contents is required. The function of a table of contents is to allow the thesis to be used efficiently. It provides an overview of the thesis' structure and an index for selective reading of the thesis. All materials following the Table of Contents are listed in it. No preceding material is listed.
The titles of parts, sections, or chapters, and their principal subdivisions should be listed in the Table of Contents and must be worded exactly as they appear in the body of the thesis. The heading TABLE OF CONTENTS, in capital letters, is centered, without punctuation, two inches from the top of the page. The listing begins at the left-hand margin four spaces below the heading. List of Tables and Figures You should list any tables or figures used in the thesis on a separate page. The listing begins at the left-hand margin four spaces below the heading. The List of Tables or List of Figures uses exactly the same numbers and captions as appear with the tables and figures in the text or in the appendices. The heading LIST OF TABLES or LIST OF FIGURES, in capital letters, is centered, without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. Lists of Symbols, Abbreviations, Nomenclature; Glossary If needed in your thesis, place these lists after the Lists of Tables and Figures in the Preliminaries. Follow a form acceptable to your field of study. Text There are no specific requirements of the Graduate Studies Committee for the internal organization of your text. The requirements are only that you use some standard scheme of organization and that you use one system consistently throughout the thesis. The recommendations presented here are not intended to be restrictive. You can chose your own system, if your major professor agrees. Introduction The Introduction may constitute either the entire first chapter or only the opening statement of the first chapter. If the introduction is to be included as a separate chapter, the heading, INTRODUCTION, is the title of the first chapter (or major division) and its placement is consistent with that of other chapter titles. If the introduction is included only as an opening statement, it requires no special treatment. Body of the Thesis This is the substance of the thesis, the detailed written statement of your research. The internal organization of this material into chapters, sections, and subsections is up to you and your major professor. Divisions and subdivisions should be introduced by brief descriptive headings which, by variations of format, indicate the relative importance of the text divisions. Summary and Conclusions These are usually treated as the last major division of the Text. Recommendations The Recommendations section follows the Conclusions only if the subject matter permits and if you wishe to include it. Reference Material There is a wide diversity of content and location of notes in the publications of the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. You are strongly encouraged to use the in-text or parenthetical system of documentation which cites the work by its designated number in the List of References and relevant paging. Your reference might look like the following: . . . The evidence for the theory has been widely explained [4: 382-383].
Every thesis makes use of other writings, either in direct quotation or by reference. Your thesis must contain a List of References. Pertinent works that have been consulted but not specifically cited should be listed under the subheading General References, and references specifically cited should be listed under the subheading Cited References.. Place the List of References immediately after the text. See Appendix F. The references begin with a cover sheet bearing the heading LIST OF REFERENCES, in capital letters, centered, and without punctuation. This page is neither counted nor numbered. The heading is repeated on the first page of the LIST OF REFERENCES itself, two inches from the top, centered, and without punctuation. The list of references begins four spaces below the heading. In general, each item consulted in the preparation of the thesis, whether cited specifically or mentioned in general, should be numbered and listed in an alphabetical order. The elements are the following: Author(s), Title, Publisher, and Year. The elements should be given in full form to facilitate easy retrieval by others. Do not abbreviate any useful data, for example an author's first name if given or the journal title in full. The List of References is double-spaced. For additional guidance consult your advisor. See Appendix G for style authorities. Style of Citation Books Single Author Ulrich, Henri. Introduction to Industrial Polymers. Munchen: Hanser, 1972. Multiple Authors Edwin, G., and Thomas Roddam. Principles of Feedback Design. New York: Hayden Book Co., 1964. Colcaser, Roy A., Donald A. Neamen, and Charles F. Hawkins. Electronic Circuit Analysis: Basic Principles. New York: John Wiley, 1984. No personal author, list by sponsoring agency National Semiconductor. Series 32000 Microprocessor Databook. Santa Clara, Calif.: National Semiconductor, 1988. Periodical Articles Single author Grounds, Preston W. "Numerical Analysis of Finite Frequency Selective Surfaces with Rectangular Patches of Various Aspect Ratios." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 39 (1991): 569-575. Multiple authors Kohl, M., and J.P. Harrison. "SQUID Magnetometer Designed for High Temperature Superconductors." Cryogenics 31 (1991): 369-372. Rao, P. Srinivasa, P.K. Aravindan and K. Ramanjaneyulu. "Buckling Safety of Cooling tower Shells: Evaluation of Some Important Code Provisions." ACI Structural Journal 88 (1991): 325-329. Rabitti, Fausto, Elisa Bertino, Won Kim, and Darrell Woelk. "A Model of Authorization for Next-generation Database Systems." ACM Transactions on Database Systems 16 (1991): 88-131.
No author, list by title "Quality Programs Drive Heat Transfer Technology." Chemical Engineering 98 (June 1991): 125-126. Parts of Books Conference paper Chang, J., W.F. Filter, G.J. Lockwood, and B.T. Neyer. "Photonic Methods of High Speed Analog Data Recording." In Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by M. Andre and M. Hugenschmidt, 12-21. Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1985. Article in Book Locke, Doug. "The Ada Programming Support Environment." In The Ada Programming Language: A Tutorial, edited by Sabina H. Saib and Robert E. Fritz, 46-47. New York: IEEE Computer Society, 1983. Chapter of Book Brewster, James H. "Assignment of Stereochemical Configuration by Chemical Methods." Chap. 17 in Elucidation of Organic Structures by Physical and Chemical Methods, edited by K.W. Bentley and G.W. Kirby, Part 3. 2nd ed. New York: WileyInterscience, 1972. Unpublished Materials Conversation or interview Smith, James A. Interview with author, 3 February 1991. Letters Hulbert, Samuel F. Letter to author, 21 June 1989. telephone call Lebaric, Jovan. Telephone call with Donald Morin, 2 February 1991. Thesis Acharya, Mukund. "Veiling Glare in the F411 Image Intensifier." Master's thesis, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 1990. Internet (WWW, FTP, IRC, etc.) Read this: MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources. Appendices Some students will not need to include an Appendix. An appendix contains supplementary material, not immediately essential to an understanding of the subject. This section is separated from the preceding material by a cover sheet with the heading APPENDICES, in capital letters (or if there is only one, APPENDIX), centered, and without punctuation. This sheet is neither counted nor numbered. The APPENDICES may be divided into Appendix A, Appendix B, etc., depending on the kinds and amounts of materials used. These divisions should be treated as first order subdivisions. The letter and title for each Appendix should be shown at the top of the first page of the individual Appendix. If separate sheets are used for the identification of individual Appendices, these sheets
are numbered and counted. Each Appendix with its title, if it has one, should be listed separately in the Table of Contents as a first order subdivision under the heading APPENDICES. See Sample C. Tables and figures in the Appendices must be numbered and captioned and also listed in the List of Figures and List of Tables in the opening component. Appendices must meet the left-hand margin requirement of 1 1/2 inches but not necessarily the requirements for top, bottom, righthand margins, and line spacing. Multi-Volume Thesis The length of the thesis may necessitate two or more volumes. When more than one volume is used, the separations should come at the end of major divisions of the thesis. The Title Page is repeated in each volume and all are identical except for the word "Volume I," "Volume II," etc., just below the title. The Title Pages of Volumes II, III, etc., are neither counted nor numbered. All other preliminaries are in Volume I. In numbering the pages of the text and reference material, numbering is continuous from Volume I through the end of the last volume. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT Paper Your thesis must be typed or printed on one side of 8 1/2 by 11 inch white paper. The deposit copy must be 25%, or greater, rag content paper. All other copies may be on regular 20-pound typing paper. Photographic paper may be used only in special circumstances. See page 22 for information about its use in theses. Oversized Pages Oversized pages up to 11 by 22 1/2 inch are acceptable without special permission as long as the folded edge is at least 1 1/2 inches from the left edge to permit unfolding, and the right edge lines up evenly with the standard 8 1/2 by 11 inch sheets. The page number appears in the upper right-hand corner or in the middle of the sheet as usual. The use of any sheets larger that 11 by 22 1/2 inches require consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies. ---GRAPHIC GOES HERE--High-speed Printer Output High-speed printer output sheets may be included in the text or the appendices, if they meet the requirements for paper and margins as stated in this manual. Appendix sheets do not have to conform to the requirements for top, bottom, and right-hand margins; however, a 1 1/2 inch margin is still required at the left. Each sheet, whether included in the text or in the appendices, must have a page number appropriate to its placement in the thesis. Type All text must be rendered using black ribbon or toner which produces sharp, clear type. Only standard type sizes such as pica, elite, and executive are acceptable, and only one type face may be used throughout the thesis This type face must have all characters needed to complete the thesis. This includes upper and lower case as well as all needed punctuation marks. Italics may be used only when appropriate, for example when rendering book and journal titles, or foreign terms. For the generation of symbols or special characters select appropriate software. Handwritten equations and formulas are not acceptable. Use of any nonstandard type styles must be approved by the Director of the Library. Appearance
The text should be double-spaced throughout with the exception of appendices as noted above using margins of 1 inch for the top, bottom, and right sides and 1 1/2 inch for the left side. Printing should not extend more than a single line below the bottom marginline, and then, only to complete the last line of a chapter, paragraph, subdivision, or figure caption. A new paragraph at the bottom of a page must have at least two full lines of print, or it should begin the next page. The page may be shortened to allow this. The last word on the page should not be hyphenated. The line should be short of the margin and the whole word placed on the following page. Corrections No interlineations or crossing out of letters or words are acceptable. The use of correcting fluid is not acceptable on the deposit copy. Page Numbering Page numbers are placed without punctuation 1/2 inch from the top edge of the sheet, either centered over the text or in the upper right-hand margin. Consistency of treatment of page numbers is more important than choice of position. The opening components of the thesis are numbered in consecutive lower case Roman numerals. The Title Page is considered to be page i, but the number does not appear on the page. Roman numeral ii appears on the first page following the Title Page and Abstract. Every page on which any typing or drawing appears has a number except: The Title Page is counted but not numbered. The abstract page is neither numbered nor counted. Cover sheets preceding the Bibliography and the Appendices are neither numbered nor counted. The Text and all Reference pages, including the Appendices are numbered consecutively in arabic numerals, beginning with 2 on the second page of the text. TABLES AND FIGURES General Instructions In preparing both tables and figures, use a computer wherever possible. Tables or figures should conform to the same regulations governing the text. If the computer printout is columnar output to be used in the Appendices, it may be listed with Appendix letters and headings rather than as tables and figures with numbers and captions. Regardless of the process used to duplicate the thesis, all tables and figures, except the photographs, used in the text must be on paper meeting the requirements. Place the whole table or figure, including the caption, on the page within the prescribed margins. A table or figure too large to fit within margins may be divided and continued on the following page or pages. Tables or figures which are slightly oversized may be reduced to fit within the margins. The bottom of a table or figure usually faces the lower edge of the page on which it appears; however, if its size and format require horizontal placement, the bottom of the table or figure faces the outer edge of the page. Tables and figures of a half-page or less in length should appear on the same page with the text, separated from the text above and below by triple-spacing. Tables and figures larger than half-page are better placed on separate sheets. Two or more small tables or figures should be grouped on a single page. In all cases, tables and figures should follow the first reference as soon as practical to aid the reader. Numbering Tables and figures are numbered in separate series. Each table and figure, including any in the Appendices, must have a unique number in its own series. The numbers in each series must appear in consecutive order in the thesis. Arabic numerals, with capital and lower case letters for the captions, are used for tables and figures. To show unique numbering in a thesis in parts, the numbers of Tables and Figures may be expressed as 1.1, 1.1, 1.3, etc. Tables and Figures in the Appendices may use numbering such as A1, A2, A3, etc. for each series.
Note : Special systems of numbering may be required by some departments. These should be reviewed with the Director of Graduate Studies before the thesis is prepared in final form. Tables The word "Table" (with T capitalized), the table's number and its caption are placed above the table so that one blank line is left between the bottom line of the caption and the top line of the table. If any table continues to the following or subsequent pages, the top line of the page reads, for example, "Table 16, continued." The caption is not repeated. Leave one blank line before continuing the body of the table. Figures The word "Figure" (with F capitalized), the figure's number, and its caption are placed below the figure. Leave one blank line between the bottom edge of the figure and the word "Figure," its number, and its caption. If any figure continues to the following or subsequent pages, on the second line below the bottom edge of the figure, type, for example, "Figure 16, continued." The caption is not repeated. Captions of Tables and Figures Every table and figure must have a caption. Together with the number, the caption may be either centered or may start at the left-hand margin, placed at the top or bottom of the item. There are two ways of centering: you may center the word Table (or Figure), the table number, and its caption on one or more lines, or you may center the word Table or Figure and its number on one line and center the caption on the following line or lines. Horizontal or vertical position of captions and numbers of tables and figures is always the same as the positioning of the tables or figures themselves. Captions should be as short as possible. Caption wording identical to that used above each table below each figure must be repeated in the List of Tables and the List of Figures. Capital and lower case letters are preferred for captions. If a lengthy caption is essential, a brief descriptive statement may be used in the List of Tables or List of Figures. Use the same statement above table or below figure and end it with a period. Continue with the needed additional statement. If the caption is longer than one line, double space between lines. Consistent treatment is required. Photographs Mounting Smaller than page-size photographs should be firmly mounted with either adhesive specially prepared for photographic work or self-adhesive tissue or dry- mounting tissue. If you are uncertain about the correct material or procedures, consult the duplicating printing center. The photographs should be mounted on the same kind of paper used in the thesis in which they are to appear. [Note : Do not permanently mount photographs before you obtain thesis approval.] Photographs should not be mounted to obtain thesis approval. Mount photographs permanently only after the thesis is duplicated. The Deposit Copy must contain the original photographs. Other copies may also have photographs or Xerox reproductions as your committee may desire. Printing Photographs may either be printed photographically on page-size photographic paper or affixed on page-size paper used in the balance of the thesis for the Deposit Copy. Marking
If photographs must be marked, it is important and necessary to use India ink. Typing on the face of glossy prints will not reproduce on microfilm. Unusual Material We urge you to obtain the advice of the Director of Graduate Studies regarding the preparation and presentation of all unusual material and to consult your duplicating service to determine if the duplication of the material is possible and practical. This is especially true with colored materials.
Summary Writing From Reaching Across the Curriculum, copyright 1997, Eva Thury and Carl Drott. All rights reserved. Starting with an overview. In writing a summary, you usually start with an overview that states the whole point of the source, even though the source you are basing it on did not start that way. For example, let us take a look at "In Alaska: Where the Chili is Chilly," an article written by Gregory Jaynes about Fran Tate, who started a Mexican restaurant in Barrow, Alaska. Even though Gregory Jaynes does not put his point as bluntly or as directly as we do, it is probably a good idea to start our summary of his article as follows: For Gregory Jaynes, Fran Tate embodies the astonishing independence and toughness that is typical of Alaska at its best. Tate has opened a Mexican restaurant-- an unlikely enterprise-- in Barrow Alaska. This direct way of starting is often effective because of a difference between how readers are likely to use the summary and the source. In some situations, the summary can substitute for the source, while in others it cannnot. People will use a summary for general information, even when they don't want to read the whole article. After reading the summary, you know more than you knew before. If you have learned as much as you needed to know, you may not go on to the whole article. However, the summary by itself is not usually considered evidence enough for you to change your views. Readers are likely to use a summary to add detail to parts of their mental map, as this will not affect their overall thinking greatly. They are less likely to use a summary to change the shape or structure of their mental map. For an important function like this, they would be more likely to seek out the source as a whole. They would want to see the author's whole view, with all of its evidence, before going to all the trouble of reorganizing their thinking. As a result, a source is more likely to lead up to its argument gradually. It is usually written for the reader committed enough to the issue to read all of it in order, and to spend some time thinking about it. Summaries, on the other hand, are documents that people usually want to deal with quickly. They use the summary for reference, or for extra bits of information. Because it is often used by readers who want to save time, a summary should usually start with a quick overview of the source as a whole. This will allow readers to quickly determine if they want to read the rest of the summary or not. (That, in turn, may help them decide whether they want to look up the whole source or not!) Also, a summary is not going to reflect all the subtleties of evidence or style that the author put into her argument. Therefore, it is less likely that your reader could come to the same conclusions from a brief recap of the author's evidence as you could from the full version of his argument. So you, as the reader who has experienced the source itself, should spell out for your reader the main point that you saw the author making. This will not convince your readers, but it will guide them in determining the usefulness of this source.
Kinds of summaries. There are at least two kinds of accounts which are called summaries. It is important for you, before you start to write a summary, to find out which of these two kinds is called for. One is called the analytic summary and the other the paraphrase summary. The major difference between these two kinds of summaries is in the perspective from which you write them. In the analytic summary, you speak in your own person, explaining what the author of the work you are summarizing said, and speaking of the author as a separate person. In a paraphrase-summary, as in a paraphrase, you pretend to be the author of the work and speak from her or his point of view. In the previous section, when we explained the importance of starting with an opening overview, we gave you an example of one from an analytic summary of the article about Fran Tate: For Gregory Jaynes, Fran Tate embodies the astonishing independence and toughness that is typical of Alaska at its best. Tate has opened a Mexican restaurant-- an unlikely enterprise-- in Barrow Alaska. From the opening overview, you can see that the summary will take the perspective of a writer who is reading or analyzing an article written by another writer. The two major techniques to use in writing such an analytic summary are: 1) classification of your source's arguments and 2) giving examples. In a paraphrase summary you would adopt a wider range techniques from your source. The beginning of a paraphrase summary would still convey the same idea as the analytic summary, but would express it more indirectly, by presenting the author's arguments in the same way as the author does. A paraphrase summary of the same article might begin with this overview: In the fall of 1978, Fran Tate wrote some hot checks to finance the opening of a Mexican restaurant in Barrow, Alaska. All the banks she had applied to for financing had turned her down. But Fran was sure that Barrow lusted for a Mexican restaurant, so she went ahead with her plans. Here the writer of the summary is writing as if she were the author of the article about Fran Tate. The summary writer jumps right in and starts talking about Fran Tate, and does not speak of Jaynes at all. The summary starts the same way as does the article, with an account of what Tate did to open her restaurant. This shows what the writer (of the summary and of the article, since they are being treated as one and the same) admires about Tate: her determination and her independence. From these examples, you can see that the paraphrase summary differs from the analytic summary in the perspective you must take as you write it. The steps needed to write an analytic summary are, however, the same as the steps in writing a paraphrase summary. Going beyond the topic. Notice that, when we explained how to start a summary we did not recommend an opening like this, "This article is about a woman named Fran Tate who moved to Alaska." Although this sentence is an accurate statement of the topic of the article, it is not informative enough. It would help the reader of your summary to know not just the topic, but what the author is trying to show about it. Below, we will provide you with a set of questions to ask yourself to help you write a good opening for your summary. Benchmarks: understanding the meaning of a source. Sometimes you will read a source and immediately understand it, even if you don't necessarily like it. We started this chapter with an example of such a source: the article about Fran Tate is for a general reader, and most people will not have much trouble figuring out what it shows. However, looking at this article will let us analyze what we mean by "what a source means." That
is, if we can identify the aspects of the Jaynes article that contribute to our understanding of it, we will be able to look for these same aspects or elements in sources whose meaning is less clear. Typically, the meaning of a source includes the following elements. In this book, we will use them as benchmarks to indicate understanding of a source: what is the subject of the source? (Subject) what audience is it written for? (Audience) what assumptions does the source suggest about the audience? (Audience Assumptions) what style of writing does the source suggest is appropriate for the audience? (Style of Writing) what kind of evidence does the source present? (Kind of Evidence) what are some attitudes, beliefs, actions that the text encourages? (Attitudes/Beliefs/Actions Encouraged) In discussing the article about Fran Tate, we did not formally answer any of these questions. We just assumed that the article was pretty clear. If we backtracked, and answered the above questions about this article, we would come up with the following: Benchmarks for Meaning in "In Alaska: Where the Chili is Chilly" Subject -> Fran Tate, a woman who has several successful business enterprises in Barrow, Alaska Audience-> written for TIME magazine; general readers Audience Assumptions-> no specific technical knowledge or interests; some focus on business themes, general culture; interest in people Style of Writing-> journalistic article, more or less in chronological order Kind of Evidence-> uses anecdotes, quotes, detail to make the point; focus on Tate's personal characteristics as much as on her business sense Attitudes/Beliefs/ Actions Encouraged-> enthusiasm for Alaska's "frontier spirit"; admiration for an unusual entrepreneur How to use the benchmarks. It may help to think about the meaning of a benchmark in athletics. Benchmarkes are training goals: an athlete may run a certain amount each day, or perform certain number of exercises to prepare for a contest or event. However, the exercises are only a preparation: the actual athletic event will involve performing activities quite different from the training exercises. The benchmarks or elements of meaning introduced above are guides to the meaning of your source. They represent a preparation for writing the opening, and they will also help you in tying the author's points together, as we will show below. By answering the benchmark questions, you will be ready to write the opening: In other words, the benchmarks actually help you to analyze the meaning of your source. If you put them directly into a summary, you will turn it into a kind of analysis, and confuse your reader about what yu are writing. So, don't put them directly into the summary: Expressing the meaning of your source. As we said above, summaries are written to present as well as possible the "meaning" found in their source. The meaning of the source is reflected in at least two aspects of the summary: the opening the proportions or scale Meaning has to do with what is discussed, and with how much emphasis it is given. For example, if I present arguments for two sides, but devote one sentence to one side and two pages to the other, it would be fair to conclude that I am more interested in the side that I devote more space to. Thus, an article's meaning also has to do with the percentage of its argument that is devoted to a particular topic.
So, to write an effective summary, you need to perform some steps to determine the scale of your writing. Scale will allow you to represent your original in a shorter account without distorting its argument. It is easy to take one example or one argument from your source and to present it in full as your summary. This might be all right if your source consists of many instances of the same argument and you have presented the best example. But most of the time, this is not the case. So, if you present only one example, you are likely to distort your original, because you are leaving out an account of many of its points. In your summary you want to represent all the arguments of your source, and you want to present them in the same proportion as the source you are summarizing does. If you do this, your summary will preserve the scale of the original. Writing a summary. To write a summary, you need to read and understand the source, as well as to write about it. Thus, the process of summary writing consists of both reading steps, and writing steps. We present them here in what seems to us a logical order, but different writers will find that their writing process involves rearranging the steps or revisiting some of them more than once Reading steps for summary writing: 1) Identify the source's meaning. Read the source document through until you can determine what you take to be its meaning. If you are unsure of this after reading the whole article or essay, look for the benchmarks mentioned above: Subject Audience Audience Assumptions Style of Writing Kind of Evidence Attitudes/ Beliefs/ Actions Encouraged. Remember, you will not represent these benchmarks directly in your summary, but you will use them to provide an introductory overview of the source in step 4, below. If you have trouble determining the meaning of the source, then go ahead and perform the next step, which involves going carefully through the article, but don't forget to return to the issue of meaning sometime before you begin to write your summary. 2) Break the source you are summarizing into regions. Regions are the major areas of the argument. Techniques for finding the regions of the source are explained below. 3) Consider the audience for whom you are writing: what language will its members regard as useful? what will they use the summary for? what kind of summary are they expecting, an analytic summary or a paraphrase summary? Writing steps for summary writing: 4) Provide an introductory overview. That is, represent the meaning of the source in the beginning of your summary, in a sentence or two. 5) Complete the body of your summary. This means writing the fraction of your summary which corresponds to each region of the source. For example, if the summary is to be one hundred words and your source has three regions, you can write, for each region, about two or three sentences (about 30 words) which explain the main argument presented in that part of the source or the kind of evidence used there. 6) Show the connections between the ideas of the source. Tie the ideas in your summary together with transitions that reflect the meaning you determined in step 1. Finding the regions in your source. The arguments or the exposition of most articles has parts, steps, or stages. Perhaps you have produced outlines of articles for other courses. In an outline, you need to show the main arguments of a source and to identify which arguments are
subordinate parts of a main argument. Looking for regions is easier than writing an outline. When you look for regions, you are searching only for the broadest groupings of subject area which an author has made. And it is usually possible to find more than one way to divide up an article correctly. If I am looking for the regions into which I can divide a map of the continental United States, I can divide it into the areas East and West of the Mississippi River. Or I can divide it according to the states with similar geography and history: the New England States, the Middle Western States, and so on. There are hardly any articles which need to be divided into more than ten areas; most are arranged into only four or five regions. Occasionally, an entire article or essay will consist of only one region, but that actually makes your job a little harder rather than a little easier. Sometimes the regions into which an author has grouped his or her material are very easy to find. We will list here a series of steps for finding regions, proceeding from the easiest ways to determining where the main areas of the article are to some of the harder ones. 1) Headings may indicate the location of regions. If the source is divided into a few major sections which are set off by headings, those areas are probably the main regions. You may be finished with your search right away! You do, however, need to be careful of headings, because they sometimes do not represent the main point of the section below them. Sometimes authors or editors use headings as "hooks" to pull you into reading the article. The headings may just point to the most exciting points made in the next group of paragraphs. So if you have an article with headings, skim through it to make sure that the headings really indicate the subject matter contained beneath them. In some cases, a source will have so many headings, one for every other paragraph or so, that you can't use them for regions. If the headings don't indicate the subject matter or if there are too many of them, you will want to try another technique for locating the regions in your source. 2) The major regions of the source may be obvious. You may spot the regions of your source while you are working on step 1, figuring out the meaning. You may locate the regions while you are considering the types of evidence used, because the source may use one main form of evidence in each section or region. For example, the early part of an article may consist of a lengthy account of previous research on a topic, to show why the particular position investigated in the article is worthwhile. The rest of the article may be divided into an account of the experiment or study performed and a statement of conclusions which can be drawn from it. In fact, this kind of obvious and consistent organization is a characteristic of many kinds of academic writing especially in science. We will talk more about standard forms of organization in later sections of this text. The report on Twinkies presented above derives some of its comic effect by using a standard scientific form of organization to report on some acts that are not really of interest to scientists. But, even if the article is not organized according to types of evidence, its regions may still be easy to find. Skim through the article, with an eye toward where the topics change. Keep asking yourself, "Is the article talking about the same thing here as it was on the previous page?" If not, what is the difference?" As you skim through, jot down for every page what you think the major topic is. Or if you notice a subject break in the middle of the page, just jot down the earlier and the later subject category. When you are done, look back at your notes and skim the article again to see if it "falls into regions" as you look at it. 3) Locating regions paragraph by paragraph. Much of the time, it will take more effort than just a fast skimming to locate the regions of the source. You will have to go through the source paragraph by paragraph to find what the regions are. This may take a while, but it is usually not difficult. There are two major ways to proceed. A. Finding regions by looking at opening sentences. You can look at the opening sentence of each paragraph, comparing it to the opening sentence of the next paragraph. Compare the opening
sentence of the first paragraph with that of the second, the second with the third, and so on. Are the two paragraphs about the same thing? What is that thing? Write down what you think the topic is on your note pad and keep going until you hit a paragraph with an opening sentence that suggests a new topic. If the opening sentence by itself does not help you see a pattern, go back and look also at the last sentence of the paragraphs in question. B. Finding regions by taking notes on each paragraph or group of paragraphs. There are instances in which the method of looking at the first sentence of each paragraph does not work very well. This means finding the regions by writing one sentence or phrase about each paragraph. Let us apply this method to the first few paragraphs of "The New Realism," an article by Susan West. First let's be sure we understand the main point of the article. Here is an explanation of the basic elements or characteristics of the article: Subject computer graphics, as developed in several academic laboratories Audience written for The Chicago Tribune; general readers Audience Assumptions no specific technical knowledge or interests; some interest in science, general culture; interest in people Style of Writing journalistic article, describes several scientific techniques by comparing them to everyday things Kind of Evidence uses anecdotes, quotes, detail to make the point Attitudes/Beliefs/Actions Encouraged excitement about computer graphics; doubt about the ability of computer graphics to replicate reality successfully This article is about using computers to draw lifelike pictures. A quick reading suggests that West is excited about this discipline, but cautions her readers against thinking that computer graphics will soon meet the challenges which confront it. To do a good job of summarizing this article, we need to determine how much of it is devoted to skepticism and how much of it focuses on enthusiasm. Thus, we will look for the regions of the article. However, this turns out to be an article whose first sentences are not very helpful to understanding it. To determine emphasis in this article it is better to use the running summary approach. This means finding the regions by writing one sentence or phrase about each paragraph, like this: Charles Csuri shows picture of cloud over rock Csuri, head of computer graphics research at Ohio State, says soft things are hard to draw with computer graphics Examples of successful graphics which we have all seen: Star Trek. But scientist want to use computers to draw natural phenomena perfectly, not just artistically Fractal geometry helps a variety of scientists to describe the real world accurately; But it is not yet perfected. Hard to give computers instructions (which are routine) to draw a picture accurately, especially when the picture includes random elements. Csuri's lab described
With paragraph 8, we begin to see that groups of paragraphs discuss the same thing. 8-24 explain the work in Csuri's lab. This section shows the reader how computer graphics are done. Paragraphs 25-29 describe the shortcuts taken by those who work in computer graphics to produce realistic pictures that fool the eye but aren't accurate. Figures produced with these shortcuts look right from some angles but not others. 30-33 describe procedural or mass modeling, another shortcut technique used develop a basic tree, for example, which can be varied to produce unique trees. 34-40 describe fractal geometry, a method which produces computer graphics which have infinite detail, no matter what scale at which they are viewed. Paragraphs 40-41 conclude, pointing toward work which still needs to be done. As we look at the notes we took, we can see that paragraphs 1-7 constitute one region, in which the problems confronting computer graphics are introduced. The key to understanding this turns out to be in paragraph 7, which explains that producing accurate models of the natural world is difficult. Once West has spelled out the problem, she shows us different ways of dealing with it. The major regions of the article are: It is hard to imitate nature accurately with computer graphics Csuri's lab shows how to work with computer graphics Shortcuts can make your graphic realistic and accurate Fractal geometry can help produce infinite detail Conclusion: but a lot of work still remains Considering your audience. The first two steps in writing a summary, looking for meaning of the article, and for regions, are actually techniques of analysis to help you understand the essay or article you are summarizing. Once you understand why the author wrote the article and how the article is structured, you are ready to begin writing your summary. Or almost ready. As we said above, whenever you write anything, you need to consider the members of the audience for which you are writing: what can you expect them to know about or care about? what are their needs? what length summary are they expecting? will they enjoy reading about the content of the source from the point of view of the author, or will they benefit from maintaining a critical distance from the source? 1) Use of technical terms in a summary. Unless you are told otherwise, it is usually a good idea to begin with the assumption that our audience does not consist of specialists. So, if you use technical or scholarly terms in your writing, you will want to explain them. You will, however, remember from the chapter on the characteristics of academic writing that in scholarly prose, writers do not usually explain technical terms which are widely known throughout their field or discipline. So you will want to decide before you start to write what, if any, are the terms and ideas which you need to explain to the members of your audience, and what you can assume they know. Much of the time, you will be writing for a "general" audience. That means that you can assume that your audience is of average intelligence, but you shouldn't assume that its members have any special training in any scholarly or technical field. You should be especially careful not to assume that your audience knows all the details which your source has just explained to you. 2) Determining the length of a summary. If you have not been given a specific length limit, examining the use to which your summary will be put will help you to develop one. Will your summary serve as an introduction to key concepts or does it cover ideas long familiar to your readers? How much detail will your readers be interested in? Will they need to be able to see some of the evidence in the original, so they can form an independent judgment from it or about it? Will your audience use your summary as a guide for further work? Will they need mention of the sources of evidence which the author presents? You will want to consider these and other, similar questions before you begin to write.
3) Selecting a point of view for a summary. Finally, you will need to decide before you write whether you will produce a paraphrase summary or an analytic summary. As we explained above, the paraphrase summary presents the material without saying "I." In it, you pretend to be the author of the article you are summarizing, while in the analytic summary you speak as yourself and discuss the author as a separate person. Your reader is likely to be distracted by your writing if you switch back and forth from one of these styles of writing to the other. You will need to descide on a point of view right from the overview of the source's meaning that you include as your introduction. Overview of Summary Writing Reading steps: Identify the source's meaning. Break the source you are summarizing into regions. Consider the audience for whom you are writing. Writing steps: Provide an introductory overview. Complete the body of your summary. Show the connections between the ideas of the source. Checklist: Avoiding Plagiarism In writing a summary: List the source in a reference list at the end of your summary. Give your paper a title that shows it is a summary. Keep direct quotes to a minimum: rephrase points in your own words. If you use any exact quotes from the source, inlude a parenthetical reference to the page the quote is located on. Do not include a parenthetical reference for every piece of information you got from your source, if you have put the information into your own words.
4.21 Précis Writing
Précis writing is one of the most useful skills you can acquire for your work both as a student and as a professional (the 'executive summary' of a report is an example of a précis). Précis writing involves summarising a document to extract the maximum amount of information, then conveying this information to a reader in the minimum number of words. In reducing the number of words, it is usually necessary to paraphrase from the original document. Paraphrasing simply means the expressing of ideas from the original document in your own words. When you paraphrase, you should try to write as concisely as possible, cutting out all the unnecessary verbiage, but you must always be very careful not to lose or distort the original meaning. Guidelines for writing an effective précis
Identify the reader and purpose of the précis Read the original document Underline the key ideas and concepts Write a note-form summary of each paragraph Write a précis Review and edit Example of précis writing
4.22 Writing Report Abstracts
Types Of Abstracts There are two types of abstracts: informational and descriptive. Informational Abstracts communicate contents of reports include purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations highlight essential points are short--from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the report (10% or less of the report) allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report Descriptive Abstracts tell what the report contains include purpose, methods, scope, but NOT results, conclusions, and recommendations are always very short-- usually under 100 words introduce subject to readers, who must then read the report to learn study results Qualities Of A Good Abstract An effective abstract uses one or more well-developed paragraphs, which are unified, coherent, concise, and able to stand alone uses an introduction-body-conclusion structure in which the parts of the report are discussed in order: purpose, findings, conclusions, recommendations follows strictly the chronology of the report provides logical connections between material included adds no new information but simply summarizes the report is intelligible to a wide audience Steps For Writing Effective Report Abstracts To write an effective report abstract, follow these four steps: 1. Reread your report with the purpose of abstracting in mind. Look specifically for these main parts: purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations. 2. After you have finished rereading your report, write a rough draft WITHOUT LOOKING BACK AT YOUR REPORT. Consider the main parts of the abstract listed in step #1. Do not merely copy key sentences from your report. You will put in too much or too little information. Do not summarize information in a new way. 3. Revise your rough draft to correct weaknesses in organization and coherence, drop superfluous information, add important information originally left out, eliminate wordiness, and correct errors in grammar and mechanics. Carefully proofread your final copy. * They allow your lecturers and tutors to evaluate your learning. (This is why it's important to use your own words and ideas. If your essay is full of long quotes from textbooks, your reader cannot tell whether or not you have understood and retained what you have read.) * They give you a focus for exploring and consolidating what you are learning.
* They allow you to practise skills that you will be using in a future career: e.g. collecting, analysing, and organising data; writing clearly, concisely, and logically; evaluating and explaining complex material to others.
4.23 Letter Writing
Man is a social animal. To live in society we need to keep in touch with each other. Writing Letters is the most common way to communicate. These days the form of basic letter has taken the shape of fax and e-mails. In this unit we are going to discuss the format of formal and informal letter. Informal letter; the letters which are sent to the known persons, relatives, friends, etc are called informal or friendly letters. The format of friendly letter is as follows: Margins Heading- name & address The Salutation The Body of Letter ( with different paragraphs of varying lengths) Conclusion with salutation Signature Letter Writing Example 3, Mall Avenue Simla – 1 20th March, 2003 Dear Pooja, I must thank you for the wonderful time I had with you and your family in Delhi. Your family in Delhi. Your family was so affectionate and so good to me. I cannot forget my visit to Qutub Minar, Red Fort and Jantar Mantar. I had no idea that Delhi is so big and so crowded! Driving in Delhi is really very dangerous. My parents send their regards and thanks to your parents. They want me to invite you for a visit to Simla in May-June. You’ll really likeit. Do come! Give my regards to Uncle and Auntie and love to little Bunty. Give a pat to Snowy on my behalf With lots of love Yours affectionately, Aarti Exercise: You are Ravi Verma studying in St. Margret school, Dehradun. You have received a letter from your mother who has asked you to describe your new school. Write a letter in rely in about one hundred words. Parts of a business letter Date
The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. However, if your letter is completed over a number of days, use the date it was finished in the date line. When writing to companies within the United States, use the American date format. (The United States-based convention for formatting a date places the month before the day. For example: June 11, 2001. ) Write out the month, day and year two inches from the top of the page. Depending which format you are using for your letter, either left justify the date or center it horizontally. Sender’s Address Including the address of the sender is optional. If you choose to include it, place the address one line below the date. Do not write the sender’s name or title, as it is included in the letter’s closing. Include only the street address, city and zip code. Another option is to include the sender’s address directly after the closing signature. Inside Address The inside address is the recipient’s address. It is always best to write to a specific individual at the firm to which you are writing. If you do not have the person’s name, do some research by calling the company or speaking with employees from the company. Include a personal title such as Ms., Mrs., Mr., or Dr. Follow a woman’s preference in being addressed as Miss, Mrs., or Ms. If you are unsure of a woman’s preference in being addressed, use Ms. If there is a possibility that the person to whom you are writing is a Dr. or has some other title, use that title. Usually, people will not mind being addressed by a higher title than they actually possess. To write the address, use the U.S. Post Office Format. For international addresses, type the name of the country in allcapital letters on the last line. The inside address begins one line below the sender’s address or one inch below the date. It should be left justified, no matter which format you are using. Salutation Use the same name as the inside address, including the personal title. If you know the person and typically address them by their first name, it is acceptable to use only the first name in the salutation (i.e., Dear Lucy:). In all other cases, however, use the personal title and full name followed by a colon. Leave one line blank after the salutation. If you don’t know a reader’s gender, use a nonsexist salutation, such as "To Whom it May Concern." It is also acceptable to use the full name in a salutation if you cannot determine gender. For example, you might write Dear Chris Harmon: if you were unsure of Chris's gender. Body For block and modified block formats, single space and left justify each paragraph within the body of the letter. Leave a blank line between each paragraph. When writing a business letter, be careful to remember that conciseness is very important. In the first paragraph, consider a friendly opening and then a statement of the main point. The next paragraph should begin justifying the importance of the main point. In the next few paragraphs, continue justification with background information and supporting details. The closing paragraph should restate the purpose of the letter and, in some cases, request some type of action. Closing The closing begins at the same horizontal point as your date and one line after the last body paragraph. Capitalize the first word only (i.e., Thank you) and leave four lines between the closing and the sender’s name for a signature. If a colon follows the salutation, a comma should follow the closing; otherwise, there is no punctuation after the closing.
Enclosures If you have enclosed any documents along with the letter, such as a resume, you indicate this simply by typing Enclosures one line below the closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are including in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many documents and need to insure that the recipient is aware of each document, it may be a good idea to list the names. Typist initials Typist initials are used to indicate the person who typed the letter. If you typed the letter yourself, omit the typist initials. A note about format and font When writing business letters, you must pay special attention to the format and font used. The most common layout of a business letter is known as block format. Using this format, the entire letter is left justified and single spaced except for a double space between paragraphs. Another widely utilized format is known as modified block format. In this type, the body of the letter is left justified and single-spaced. However, the date and closing are in alignment in the center of the page. The final, and least used, style is semi-block. It is much like the modified block style except that each paragraph is indented instead of left justified. Business Letter 69, East End Road Attica, Indiana 54798 February 2, 2005 J.C.Larson Company 820, North City Guraegaon-64787 Dear Sir I’m in buying some leather dresses from your store. Please send me a copy of your Leather craft Catalogue. I understand that this catalogue is free Thank you very much Yours truly David Dhawan Exercise: You have seen an advertisement for a Sales Person in a Fast Food Restaurant. Write a letter, applying for the job, giving details of your qualifications.
4.24 Memo Writing – Refer Page No. 74 4.25 Cover Letters: How to Sell Yourself
Your application letter is one of your most important job-search documents. An effective letter can get you a phone call for an interview, but a poorly written application letter usually spells continued unemployment. The difference can be a matter of how you handle a few key points. The following are some tips to help you develop effective application letters. Individualizing Your Letter
Give your readers some insight into you as an individual. In the example below the writer chose to describe particular experiences and skills that could not be generalized to most other recent graduates. Draft your letter to show how your individual qualities can contribute to the organization. This is your letter, so avoid simply copying the form and style of other letters you've seen. Instead, strive to make your letter represent your individuality and your capabilities. Addressing a Specific Person Preferably, the person you write to should be the individual doing the hiring for the position you're seeking. Look for this person's name in company publications found at the University Placement Service, the Krannert Business Library, or the Reserve Desk in the Undergraduate Library. If the name is unavailable in these places, phone the organization and ask for the person's name or at least the name of the personnel manager. Catching Your Reader's Attention Your introduction should get your reader's attention, stimulate interest, and be appropriate to the job you are seeking. For example, you may want to begin with a reference to an advertisement that prompted your application. Such a reference makes your reason for contacting the company clear and indicates to them that their advertising has been effective. Or you may want to open by referring to the company's product, which you want to promote. Such a reference shows your knowledge of the company. Whatever opening strategy you use, try to begin where your reader is and lead quickly to your purpose in writing. First Paragraph Tips Make your goal clear. If you're answering an advertisement, name the position stated in the ad and identify the source, for example: "your advertisement for a graphic artist, which appeared in the Chicago Sun Times, May 15, 1998,..." If you're prospecting for a job, try to identify the job title used by the organization. If a specific position title isn't available or if you wish to apply for a line of work that may come under several titles, you may decide to adapt the professional objective stated in your resume. Additionally, in your first paragraph you should provide a preview of the rest of your letter. This tells your reader what to look for and lets him or her know immediately how your qualifications fit the requirements of the job. In the example letter, the last sentence of the first paragraph refers to specific work experience that is detailed in the following paragraph. Highlighting Your Qualifications Organize the middle paragraphs in terms of the qualifications that best suit you for the job and the organization. That is, if your on-the-job experience is your strongest qualification, discuss it in detail and show how you can apply it to the needs of the company. Or if you were president of the Marketing Club and you are applying for a position in marketing or sales, elaborate on the valuable experience you gained and how you can put it to work for them. If special projects you've done apply directly to the job you are seeking, explain them in detail. Be specific. Use numbers, names of equipment you've used, or features of the project that may apply to the job you want. One strong qualification, described so that the reader can picture you actively involved on the job, can be enough. You can then refer your reader to your resume for a summary of your other qualifications. If you have two or three areas that you think are strong, you can develop additional paragraphs. Make your letter strong enough to convince readers that your distinctive background qualifies you for the job but not so long that length will turn readers off. Some employers recommend a maximum of four paragraphs.
Other Tips Refer to your resume. Be sure to refer to your enclosed resume at the most appropriate point in your letter, for example, in the discussion of your qualifications or in the closing paragraph. Conclude with a clear, courteous request to set up an interview, and suggest a procedure for doing so. The date and place for the interview should be convenient for the interviewer. However, you're welcome to suggest a range of dates and places convenient to you, especially if you travel at your own expense or have a restricted schedule. Be specific about how your reader should contact you. If you ask for a phone call, give your phone number and the days and times of the week when you can be reached. Be professional. Make sure your letter is professional in format, organization, style, grammar, and mechanics. Maintain a courteous tone throughout the letter and eliminate all errors. Remember that readers often "deselect" applicants because of the appearance of the letter. Seek advice. It's always good idea to prepare at least one draft to show to a critical reader for comments and suggestions before revising and sending the letter.
4.26 Resume writing Developing a Winning Resume
A resume is a written document that is used to market your background to potential employers. The purpose of a resume is to obtain an interview with a prospective employer. Therefore, it is important that you have a resume that is organized, well written and highlights your education, experience, skills, and accomplishments. Specific sections of the resume Resume Sections Overview Name and Address Objective Statements Objective Statements Exercise Education Education Section Exercise Experience Experience Section Exercise Activities and Honors Resume Design Why is the design of my resume so important? Employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to look at this one-page representation of yourself before deciding whether to keep or discard it. To insure that you will make it past that initial screening, you should design your resume in such a way that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. One way to do this is to conform to the conventional format of a resume, since employers know how resumes work and where to locate certain information. In addition, you should keep certain design principles in mind that will increase your chances of getting your resume into the "keep" pile. Designing your resume can be a challenge and requires you to take a closer look at how readers read. Here are some tips to help you make your resume a winning experience. The Quadrant Test Readers typically read from left to right and from top to bottom when information is "balanced" (about an equal amount of text and white space) on the page. Being able to anticipate the reader’s
response to a resume in this way will allow you to manipulate information according to the quadrant test. First, divide your resume into four quadrants, as seen in the example below. Each one of your quadrants should have an equal amount of text and white space (empty space where there is no text). When your page is balanced, the reader will typically read anything in quadrant 1 first. So, you should put your most important information -- anything you want the employer to see first -- in this quadrant. Using Columns to Lay Out Your Resume One way to create a balanced page is by using columns to format your text. However, keep in mind that since employers spend so little time reading a resume, you want them to read through it with few stops. The reader’s eye will stop when it reaches the end of each column. Although you might want to use columns to create a balanced page, you wouldn’t want your reader to have to make too many stops and miss important information. Therefore, you should use no more than three columns on your resume. Remember that the first place your reader looks at will be located in quadrants 1 and 2, so the most important information should go here. Also keep in mind that when indenting information you might create extra columns, so be aware of your column count. Here is an example of a resume section with three distinct columns. The first example has the columns marked in red so that you can see their placement.
Power Verbs for Your Resume
accelerated accommodated accomplished achieved acquired acted activated adapted added addressed adjusted administered admitted advanced advised aided alleviated allocated allowed altered ameliorated amended analyzed appointed apportioned appraised apprised approved eased eclipsed edited educated elevated elicited employed empowered enabled encouraged endorsed engineered enhanced enlarged enlisted enriched enumerated envisioned established estimated evaluated examined excelled executed exercised expanded expedited explained performed persuaded pioneered planned polished prepared prescribed prioritized processed procured produced programmed projected promoted publicized purchased queried questioned raised rated realized recommended reconciled recorded recruited rectified
approximated arbitrated arranged ascertained assembled assessed assigned assisted attained attested audited augmented authored authorized balanced bolstered boosted brainstormed budgeted built calculated catalogued centralized certified chaired charted clarified classified coached collaborated collected commissioned committed communicated compared compiled composed computed conceptualized concluded confirmed consented consolidated constructed contracted contributed converted
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Resume Do's and Don'ts
Your resume should be an outline of your career and qualifications. It is a place for bulleted points— items easily read with a quick scan. You can expound upon things in your cover letter and go into detail in interviews.
Quantify your on-the-job accomplishments. Show the reader how you cut costs, increased revenue, developed products/procedures, etc. For example, “Designed the audio module for the company’s state-of-the-art virtual reality simulator” sounds more impressive than “Assisted in the production of” Also, where you can use figures, do so. Cut costs by how much? Increased revenue how much? Managed department of how many?
Create a resume that fits the job you’re after.
Especially important for career changers, you should highlight your skills that are pertinent for the job you want. For instance, a librarian with strong computer programming skills who set up a research database might want to explore work in information systems. On his resume, his computer expertise would get lost using a chronological format. Instead, a functional resume emphasizing his information systems skills would better present this information. Remember, there is nothing unusual about having two or three resumes on hand targeted for different types of jobs.
Carefully proofread and edit your resume.
Take the time to read your resume at least twice and read it aloud to help catch awkward phrasing. A tip:After you’ve read your resume, get away from it for a while before reading it again. Reading it over and over makes you more prone to skim over sections and overlook mistakes.
If you do not have access to a personal computer, don’t rely on your typewriter; make a trip to a copy center. Most chains offer computer and printer rentals for minimal cost. With a draft of your resume prepared before you go in, you should be able to create your resume and get multiple copies on high-quality paper (ask at the counter for paper) for less than $15. It’s a small investment when you consider the long-term return.
Keep your resume up to date.
You might be comfortable and happy in your current situation, but you never know You never know when you might learn of a more ideal job; You never know when your department might be reduced or restructured; You never know when your personal situation might dictate the search for a new job (i.e., your spouse gets an attractive offer in another city). It’s rare that anyone has lifetime contentment and security in a job. Always be prepared. Especially as you get promotions and new responsibilities, you should note these in your resume, purging outdated material. Also, if you develop outside interests that might make you more marketable (new computer skills, published articles, learning a foreign language), be sure to add these. DON’T
Don’t be cute or fancy when it comes to layout and presentation.
Desktop publishing programs can be dangerous things. Even the most basic word processing programs on the market today offer users great flexibility to create. A variety of fonts, point sizes, and special characters are at your fingertips as is the ability to bold, italicize and underline words. When it comes to your resume, however, use restraint. Save the flashy stuff for your party invitations and holiday newsletters. Your resume is one of the first impressions you give an employer. You want to show that you are a viable candidate for the job. Your ability to use multiple fonts and graphics is irrelevant. For a clean, professional-looking resume, it’s best to err on the conservative side (a good font: Times New Roman).
Don’t use passive phrases.
Outlining your work history by stating “Duties included” or “Was responsible for” takes away from
what you actually accomplished. Show action in your statements with words such as developed, designed, generated, sold, wrote.
Padding your resume is not acceptable. You should be able to tell from a job description whether or not you are qualified.And even if you’re not a perfect fit, it’s likely that few others are, either. Don’t try to make up qualifications for a specific job. Employers’ want ads are often wish lists, and they don’t necessarily expect every applicant to have all the desired qualifications.
Don’t overlook non-work experiences.
Your time organizing a charity fund-raiser, presiding over a cultural organization or even participating in groups such as Toastmasters not only looks good on resumes, but also gives you legitimate professional experience.
Don’t include frivolous information.
Photographs, marital status, high school information, salary requirements and even references should not be included.
Don’t label the document “Resume”.
It is readily apparent what you are presenting. Some make the mistake of using “Resume” at the top near his/her name. It is not needed. Proofreading & Editing Tips A compilation of advice from experienced proofreaders and editors General tips for proofing Read it out loud and also silently. Read it backwards to focus on the spelling of words. Read it upside down to focus on typology. Use a spell checker and grammar checker as a first screening, but don't depend on them. Have others read it. Read it slowly. Use a screen (a blank sheet of paper to cover the material not yet proofed). Point with your finger to read one word at a time. Don't proof for every type of mistake at once—do one proof for spelling, another for missing/additional spaces, consistency of word usage, font sizes, etc. Keep a list of your most common errors (or of the writers you are proofing) and proof for those on separate "trips." If you are editing within Word, use the "track changes" or "mark changes" function to make your comments apparent to other reviewers (additions and deletions can be set to appear in different colors). Print it out and read it. Read down columns in a table, even if you're supposed to read across the table to use the information. Columns may be easier to deal with than rows. Use editor's flags. Put #s in the document where reviewers need to pay special attention, or next to items that need to be double-checked before the final proof print. Do a final search for all # flags and remove them.
Give a copy of the document to another person and keep a copy yourself. Take turns reading it out loud to each other. While one of you reads, the other one follows along to catch any errors and awkward-sounding phrases. This method also works well when proofing numbers and codes. First, proof the body of the text. Then go back and proof the headings. Headings are prone to error because copy editors often don't focus on them. Double check fonts that are unusual (italic, bold, or otherwise different). Carefully read type in very tiny font. Be careful that your eyes don't skip from one error to the next obvious error, missing subtle errors in between. Double check proper names. Double check little words: "or," "of," "it," and "is" are often interchanged. Double check boilerplate text, like the company letterhead. Just because it's frequently used doesn't mean it's been carefully checked. Double check whenever you're sure something is right—certainty is dangerous. Closely review page numbers and other footer/header material for accuracy and correct order. Editing for content Ask yourself who, what, when, where, why, and how when reading for content. Does the text answer all the questions you think it should? Highlight the sentences that best answer these questions, just so you can see if the facts flow in logical order. Do the math, do the math, and then do the math again. Somewhere between the screen and the printer 2+2 often becomes 3. Make a list of "bugaboo" words and do a search for them before final proof. Include every swear word, words related to product terminology, and other words that pop up on occasion. Then do a "find" for all these words. Actually do every step in procedures to make sure they are complete, accurate, and in correct order. Count the number of steps a list promises to make sure they are all there. Check that figure numbers match their references in the text and are sequential. Check that illustrations, pictographs, and models are right-side up. Preparing yourself to proof or edit Write at the end of the day; edit first thing in the morning. (Usually, getting some sleep in between helps.) Listen to music or chew gum. Proofing can be boring business and it doesn't require much critical thinking, though it does require extreme focus and concentration. Anything that can relieve your mind of some of the pressure, while allowing you to still keep focused, is a benefit. Don't use fluorescent lighting when proofing. The flicker rate is actually slower than standard lighting. Your eyes can't pick up inconsistencies as easily under fluorescent lighting. Spend a half-hour a month reviewing grammar rules. Read something else between edits. This helps clear your head of what you expect to read and allows you to read what really is on the page. Make a list of things to watch for—a kind of "to do" list—as you edit.
UNIT 5 COMMUNICATION SKILLS- SPEAKING SKILLS
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
Definition Barriers of Communication Types of Communication Know What You Want To Say
Communication is a process through which the sender sends his message to the receiver. The process of communication is said to be complete when the receiver of the message is able to decode, understand and provide the required feedback to the sender. Communication linked people together in an organization to achieve a common purpose. Process of communication
MESSAGE SENDER IDEA THEORY FACT FEELINGS RECEIVER
5.2 Barriers of communication
Barriers are obstacles to the process of communication. Barriers of communication can be divided into three major categories. Physical Barrier: There are several physical barriers likeNoise: It is one of the most common barrier to communication. If there is too much noise in the enviorment we cannot hear what others are saying to us, nor can they hear us. Therefore to
ensure clarity in communication noise must be reduced or minimized. In other words we must identify barriers to communication and try to remove them to make the messages more clear. Lack of Planning: Sometimes you are supposed to send a file and if you don’t plan the time the file will not reach to its destination on time and the sender can’t get the feedback. Barriers like postal strike or an incomplete application form comes under this category. Unclarified Assumptions: Sometimes we don’t clear the things and imagine on our own that the other person will understand it. These kind of unclarified assumption create problem. Semantic Barrier: Because of multilple meanings for words communication can get distorted resulting in a misunderstanding of the actual message.These distortations can be accidental or deliberate. One of the examples of a deliberate distortion of a message can be an advertisement slogan, which says “SALE upto 50%”. These kinds of advertisements generally give a wrong picture as the customer can only concentrate on 50% only and not on the word ‘upto’. These are Semantic Distortions Psychological Barrier: There are a few barriers which come under this categoryEmotions: Sometimes we are attached to a particular thing very much and we expect the same kind of response from others. But others may not be that much emotionally attached to that thing. This can create misunderstanding among people. 0Premature Evaluation: “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing”. Generally people tend to take decisions without listening to the speaker. As a result problems arise a lot.
5.3 Types of Communication
Communication with words: Speaking or Writing comes under this category. Communication without words: Eye expressions, gestures, body language, shaking our head, And even staring at someonme to express anger or displeasure are called body language. Oral Communication: Most of the communication in our life is oral as we learn to speak first then to write. Advantages: There are some advantages of oral communication. First is Speedy Interaction. Second is Immediate Feedback. The last is that the speaker can observe the listener’s reaction. Disadvantages: However there are advantages of oral communication yet we cannot overlook the disadvantages too. First is that it is not possible in every situation. Second it is very costly and time consuming too. For E.g.- It is not so easy to talk to the President of India or to arrange a speech ceremony by the President as it will cost lot of money and other important resources. Written Communication:- There are several modes of written communication like letter writing, notices, memo, circulars. Advantages: It is helpful in keeping records for the future reference. Single message can be sent through mass mailing to many people. These days emails are helpful in this. Disadvantages.: No matter the advantages are many nevertheless we cannot leave the disadvantages unnoticed. It is costly as it uses the paper extensively. Sometimes the messages are poorly expressed as the writing skills of the writer are not effective. There are some effective ways to improve communication. Short, simple, words sentences and phrases help communication. Active voice in sentence construction is preferred. Messages should be personalized as much as possible. There are certain important things which everyone must take care while communicating. Since communication is important in our work and life let us learn some important and basic features related to communication. 5.4 KNOW WHAT YOU WANT TO SAY
By listening thinking and formulating your thoughts before you speak, you will increase your effectiveness as a powerful communicator. Think before you talk. Know your message. Get to the point quickly. Then, it is easier for the listener to remember what you said. Know the outcome you want from your conversation. Practise the power of persuasion. Almost everything you say is an attempt to persuade the other person to accept your point of view. For successful networking, plan in advance what you want to say and what you want to accomplish. Know something about the people you’ll be talking to. CONTROL FEAR Fear is a defence mechanism to protect ourselves. We fear destruction of our self-esteem. Who we are is precious to us. Others’ words about us can seem like building blocks either supporting us or crashing in on us. Fear focuses on the worst thing that can happen. I’II fail. I’II forget what I’m going to say. I’II be humiliated. I’II panic. I’II stop breathing.” Instead, shift your focus with the following tips: Focus on the Listener, (not yourself.) Message, (not the words.) Success, (not the alternatives.) Visualize a positive outcome. Take a deep breath, relax, and be yourself. Do your homework, know what you want to say. Control your negative self- talk. Speak from the heart rather than the ego. STOP TALKING AND LISTEN Conversation should be like a tennis match, each person having a turn to give and receive. The true art of conversation is talking and listening. Allow your conversation partner to speak. Respect the other person’s point of view. Concentrate on the conversation. Only hearing (while thinking about what you will say) rather than actively listening will cause you to miss vital information. Help individual (s) resolve their own problems with problems. Listening, Individuals have the ability to solve their own problems.
THINK BEFORE YOU TALK If you give attention to what you will say, you increase your chances of persuading the other person to your point of view. You will also decrease the chances of making a mistake or social blunder. Pause, think and consider what you want to say. Choose appropriate words that clearly express your message. Decide on the tone you want in your conversation.
Determine the outcome you want from your interchange. Know your audience, and if possible, their viewpoint and level of understanding about the subject matter. Shape your message to be easily understood. BELIEVE IN YOUR MESSAGE Believe in your message because this is the crux of any successful communication. When you passionately believe in your message, your verbal and nonverbal communications will flow freely. Speak with passion and conviction. Allow your feelings, delivery, body language and voice to flow naturally. Show your enthusiasm. REPEAT MAJOR POINTS Repetition reinforces the speaker’s main points and aids in listener’s retention. Know your audience, and if possible, their viewpoint and level of understanding about the subject matter. Shape your massage to be easily understood. BELIEVE IN YOUR MESSAGE Believe in your message because this is the crux of any successful communication. When you passionately believe in your message, your verbal and nonverbal communications will flow freely. Speak with passion and conviction. Allow your feelings, delivery, body language and voice to flow naturally. Show your enthusiasm. REPEAT MAJOR POINTS Repetition reinforces the speaker’s main points and aids in listener’s retention. Know your major points. Paraphrase, as needed, in different ways throughout your conversation to re-emphasize. Tactfully ask your listener for feedback. Ask questions that will indicate the listener understands your main points.
FIND OUT WHAT YOUR LISTENER WANTS To gain the most from any conversation, focus on your listener. Ask questions and listen to the responses. Ask questions, lots of questions. Use open-ended questions. Rephrase questions or responses for the listener to ensure shared understanding. Offer alternatives/suggestions for the listener to evaluate. Define terminology so there is less chance of misunderstanding. ASK QUESTIONS Whether you are the speaker or a listener, asking questions facilities an exchange of information. Ask questions of your listeners to: Clarify your message.
Improve understanding Get deeper into the issues. Discover motives Show interest by asking questions of the speaker’s ideas and experiences. Avoid questions that pry into personal matters. Be senstitive. When asking questions, frame them tactfully. Avoid challenging the listener’s questions and recognize the consequences if you do. You may: Stop flow of information. Offend or hurt feelings. AVOID DAYDREAMING Daydreaming is normal because of listener’s spare time. We process information at about at about 400-600 words per minute while the average speaking range is form 125 – 150 words per minute. The difference is listener’s spare time. To avoid daydreaming: Focus on your speaker. Listen to your speaker and interact by actively giving the speaker verbal and nonverbal feedback. Use such nonverbal cues as nodding or smiling. Concentrate on the speaker’s point of view; review or mentally check to see if you Are in agreement. As a speaker, reduce listener’s spare time by use of vocal and visual cues as well as use of stories, anecdotes, humour, and metaphors. USE MIND MAPPING Mind Mapping is a system of recoding our thoughts so that we employ both left brain and right brain thinking, i.e., whole brain thinking. In order to do this, we use key words, symbols and colour. Mind Mapping allows us to generate and organize thoughts at the same time.
Write down a main point, central thought or idea. Circle the main thought, then use interconnecting branches to show associated ideas. In note taking, mind map things you are thinking about, you will generate more ideas, see relationships among key words, write less than in conventional note taking ; and have more fun ! In making telephone calls, mind map who you are going to call, your purpose for calling, when you intend to call, what questions you want answered or what comments you want to make, and what information you want to share. INTERVIEW Whether you are the interviewer or the interviewee, you will have a stake in the successful outcome of the encounter. Think ahead. Prepare for the interview by gathering information about the topic and the other person (s) who will participating in, or affected by, the interview. Make a list of questions you want to ask and information you need to acquire during the interview. Listen carefully for points you didn’t think of before. Look pleasant; smile when appropriate.
Stay actively engaged in the interview; guard against distractions. Take notes; use mind- mapping techniques.
COMPLAINTS When we’re not satisfied with products or services, we can improve our chances for satisfactory results by using effective communication techniques. State the problem. Supply supporting evidence. State the remedy you seek. What do you want done about it? Hold your temper. Avoid attacking the person listening to your complaint. Ask to see the supervisor or the manager when the person you are speaking with is unable to help you. As a last resort, tell them other approaches you plan to take to get resolution of the problem, such as taking your complaint to the manufacturer or getting media attention. WRITE A PURPOSE STATEMENT A purpose statement helps you to think through what you are going to say and stay focused on the essential message. It sets your parameters. Write a one-sentence purpose statement before you begin to write, whether it is a letter, thesis or speech. Use the who, what, where, when and how format to keep your message focused and brief. Write and rewrite until you are able to capture the idea in one sentence. USE AN OUTLINE An outline helps you to organize your thoughts before speaking or writing. As the creative juices flow, jot down ideas, then go back and sort them. Make notes of what you want to say in outline form. List all major points or topics you want to address or cover. List supporting points. Give necessary details. Provide examples or anecdotes. Repeat this process until your entire message is covered. Arrange in a logical sequence, such as order of importance. Review and reshuffle points until they make the best impact. TRANSFER NEGATIVE EMOTIONS TO PAPER Writing out your negative emotions on paper releases some emotional stress. Write out what to you want to say especially when strong emotions are involved, or when there is the potential for a lasting negative impact. Sort out your issues and emotions. Keep your emotions under control.
Put your anger on paper or into the computer but do not send the document. This gives you an opportunity to vent your hostility without doing permanent damage. Ask yourself, “ If the intended recipient had this information, would it be to my advantage?” Set aside your writing and return to it after a “ cooling off” period. Consider asking someone else who is not involved in the issue to listen to you, read what you wrote and provide objective feedback before a confirmation. Destroy anything you have written in anger. Let some time pass and begin again. GET TO THE POINT QUICKLY Know what you want to say, say it quickly and get to the point. Rambling is a barrier to effective listening. People will not listen to you unless you get to the point quickly. Answer the question, “What is my point?” Put your major point or request, your “bottom line,“ first. Avoid the risk that your listener or reader will be interrupted or simply tune you out before you get to your major point or request. In closing, reiterate your point(s). EXPLAIN ABSTRACT WORDS When using abstract words make the idea more tangible. For example, “strong as an ox.” Use a metaphor e.g., “ he plows through his work.” Restate the idea using different words. Paint a picture to clarify the abstract term such as the word “conversation,” e.g., “ A conversation is like a tennis match where the listener and speaker are the players.” Use a simile, e.g., “ Her teeth are like pearls.”
USE ABSOLUTES AND GENERALITIES SPARINGLY Absolutes and generalities are difficult to explain or defend. Generalities weaken our statements; absolutes are dogmatic statements which often cannot be proven. These terms have exclusive properties which are barriers to effective communications, e.g., “I never … We always ….” The use of these terms may indicates a lack of understanding or may show poor preparation for discussion a particular topic. Avoid using absolutes and generalities. Explain why you are using absolutes or generalities. It shows you are aware of the word’s properties and are using them for a specific purpose. When using absolutes or generalities, avoid assuming that your listener agrees with your statement. ASK FOR WHAT YOU WANT Ask for what you want, thoughtfully and tactfully. Begin by making small requests. Success builds on success. Every success reduces the fear of rejection when you next ask for what you want. Make your requests as specific as possible. Ask for information. Ask for help first from those closest to you. They are more likely to give a positive response. Guard against feeling rejected when the request you make is not granted. Expect a favorable reply.
Visualize yourself receiving what you ask for. Formulate positive affirmations and repeat them aloud to yourself to develop a belief that you shall have what you ask for. Remember to say “ Thank you.” USE ACITVE VERBS Active verbs add more power and energy to your communication. State the doer of the action before the action is done. Add clarity to your sentence. Use passive voice only occasionally, for variety. Assign responsibility for action. SUPPRESS EMOTION There are appropriate times to express your emotions and times to suppress your emotions. It is important to remain in control of your emotions to maintain objectivity. Know when to express and when to suppress emotion. To regain control of your own emotions, take deep breaths, exhaling slowly. Express strong emotions such as anger with discretion. Avoid expressing intense emotions which tend to cloud reasoning and decrease credibility.
WRITE PERSONAL NOTES Unexpected notes to friends acquaintances, and family member uplift your spirits and those of the recipient. Keep in touch. Periodically say “hello” with a quick note. Set aside time to write. Early morning works well for many. Usually there is no interference and thoughts flow freely. Find a good place to write and use it consistently. Keep a supply of stationary and note cards at hand. Plan to write three to five notes daily. Tell how you feel about situations and events. Acknowledge gifts and favours with a thank you mote sent within a week of the occasion. Use postcards occasionally except for information which should be kept private. USE SHORT SENTENCES Shorter sentences pack more power. They are also easier to read and understand. Avoid run-on, rambling sentences. Review your written work and see if conjunctions can be deleted to form two sentences. COMMUNICATE ONLINE Electronic mail (e-mail) is a quick way to send a message to one or more people if you have a computer. The receiver, however, may not open the e-mail for several hours or days. Anything you send in e-mail or on the internet should be considered public information. Subscribe to an online service.
Learn to use e-mail. You can also communicate through news- groups, chat rooms, and bulletin boards. Compose letters for e-mail with salutation and complementary close. Compose and edit off line. Be concise; get to the point quickly. Learn about “ netiquette,” the customs and manners involved in using on line services. For example, the use of all capital letters indicates that you are shouting. KEEP UP TO DATE WITH CURRENT EVENTS There are many sources to keep you informed : newspaper, magazines, television, radio, the internet, as well as the people and events around us. Question the intent of the reporter. Over time you may learn of a reporter’s bias towards various topics. Thinks as you read or listen. You are not required to accept everything as factual. Find another article or programme about the same event and see it from another reporter’s point of view. Discuss current events with your acquaintances. Do not expect everyone of interpret events in the same way. Scan even the section of newspapers and magazines that you are not particularly interested in eg., sports, finance, arts. Let us dare to read, think, speak, and write… Let every sluice of knowledge be opened and set aflowing. READ SOMETHING INSIPIRATIONAL Books like the Bible and the Gita not only give us guideline for living; they also sooth the soul. They provide resources to draw upon for information or consolation. Read inspirational books. Subscribe to newsletters or pamphlets which provide regular readings to lift the spirit. Begin to form a habit of regularly reading inspirational thoughts and verses. Carry an inspirational verse with you to reflect upon during spare moments when you are caught in traffic or are standing in line. Check internet sources for inspirational messages. Read or write poetry that inspires you. PRESENCE Presence signals an individual’s personal power. It exudes strength, awareness and confidence. Be aware of who are, the role you play, and who your audience is. Be”in the moment” and in tune with your inner self. Exude strength and awareness through confidence and poise. Sit and stand erect. Let your nonverbal cues reflect the message you want to convey. Signal your self-esteem and power. Draw attention to yourself in a positive way. Let your body language agree with your spoken words. Realize that others are getting an impression of you during the first visual or verbal contact.
DRESS APPROPRIATELY When you know you look good, you feel good about yourself. When you dress appropriate to the occasion, you are not drawing attention to yourself. Your listener will think, consciously or subconsciously, that you are “one of us”. This aids communication. Find out what dress is considered appropriate. For example, attire that is acceptable in a certain city may not be appropriate in the same situation in another one. Be sure your clothing sends the message you intend. Before you say a word, what you wear affects first impressions. Wear clothing that is congruent with your verbal message. If, for example, you are a business woman in a business situation, sheer, lacy blouses will not advance a serious message. Similarly, when everyone in the office is dressed in business attire and you show up in jeans and a T-shirt, you are not in appropriate attrite unless it’s a day designated as “casual.” Read a book on how to dress for various situations such as public appearances or business meetings. SMILE A smile is the most effective means to establish effective communications. It is a facial expression that signals you are pleased or happy. The corners of the mouth turn upwards, the teeth are often seen as the lips are parted, and the eyes sparkle. Use a smile to signals that you are in a pleasant mood, positive, and approachable. Practice smiling in front of a mirror to gain confidence. See how you look with a broad smile showing your teeth, a smile with lips together, and a smile with teeth parted, possibly leading to a soft laugh. Smile to indicate a positive attitude: Respect for the other person. Friendliness Openness Touch is another sensory input which can aid communication. However, it must be done respectfully and with the other person’s permission. Be sensitive to the fact that when you touch someone, you are in-vading their space. Use to indicate warmth, caring and understanding. Develop the techniques of proper touching: Gently place your hand on the other person’s arm between the elbow and the wrist in a friendly conversation. Break contact immediately if there is any resistance. Never use touch to enforce your will upon another person. That’s against the law. VISUALIZE Visualization is a technique of using your imagination to create what you life. Find a restful place and become comfortable. Free your mind from worry and extraneous thoughts. Think about the outcome you want from reading this book. Create a clear picture in your mind. For example, see yourself as an effective, interesting communicator. Think positive thoughts about your communication skills.
See yourself having already accomplished what you are starting out to do. Focus frequently on that idea or picture. Your subconscious mind cannot distinguish between what is real and what is vividly imagined. Embellish your thoughts with sounds, colours, smells, and textures. Develop positive statements or affirmations indicating that what you want already exists. This is similar to virtual reality in the business and military environments. Lets yourself feel the exhilaration of success. BE FLEXIBLE Being flexible is part of the give and take of everyday living. It means bouncing back after being disappointed ; being able to “get over it!” and move on. Be willing to relinquish control of the conversation. Listen to the other person’s point of view. Be willing to change your mind. Be willing to compromise (if it’s not a matter of principle). Be ready to state your point in a different, perhaps simpler, way to help th eother person understand.
BE LIKABLE On first contact, the listeners will instantaneously make a judgment as to whether they like, trust, and believe the speaker. If listeners like the speaker, effective communication begins. The speaker’s ideas immediately become more acceptable. Smile. Lower your defences. Be aware of the other person’s perception of you. How do you “come across?” To get what you want, look for points of agreement upon which you may argue. Don not argue. Check your disposition. Are you predisposed to agree with the person with whom you are conversing? Or are you someone who instinctively tends to play Devil’s Adovacate? COMMIT TO BEING TRUTHFUL Credibility, once lost, is hard to regain. Your reputation may be at stake. Cultivate your image as morally trustworthy. Beware of half-truths, hidden agendas and ulterior motives. Be sensitive. Use tact. ELIMINATE NEGATIVE EFFLIGNS Negative feelings drain our energy. While they may be unavoidable at times to face injustice or for self-preservation, you should decide when such negative emotion is necessary. Generally, people tend to avoid those who have habitually negative attitudes. Gain control of your feelings. Be aware of your “self-talk.” What are you silently saying to yourself?
Negative feelings often carry over into conversations in the form of nonverbal signals which may be incongruent with what you are trying to get across. When negative feelings affect your self-confidence, practice positive self-talk. Develop a list of positive affirmations, with statements like I will….. I can …. I am…. BE RECEPTIVE TO NEW IDEAS Often we concentrate so hard on getting our message across that we miss vital signals provided by the person with whom we are speaking. Relax and allow time for input. Listen attentively. Mentally examine what the other person is saying. Consider how the ideas might apply to things you already know. They may add to your knowledge, encourage you to study further, or change your mind. Process information with an intent to find agreement. Yield control. Think before you speak. RECOGNIZE THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON COMUNICATION If you live or work in a high –stress environment, personal frustrations may block effective communication. Recognize the impact of frustration or stress on effective communication. Control your frustration level when surrounded by shouting, yelling, and screaming (for example, in a restaurant where several employees who are trying to be responsive to each other, and to the customers, get into a shouting match). Guard against being curt, impatient, or defensive. When people around you seem to lose control, be the “eye of the storm,” and attempt to remain calm. USE GOOD MANNERS Good manners are always appropriate and may give you a competitive edge. Say such things as “please, thank you, excuse me” with sincerity. Show respect for other people. It improves your communication. Pay attention to good manners. They create the right environment for effective communication. They help us to establish rapport. RECOGNIZE MANIPULATIVE BEHAVIOUR To influence without manipulation is an art. To manipulate or control artfully or by shrewd use of influence especially in an unfair or fraudulent way. ( paraphrasing Webster’s Definition) Be direct Treat others with respect. Give convincing arguments. Let others decide for themselves.
Realize that manipulative behaviors can backfire. AVOID WORDS THAT HURT A measure of one’s stature is consideration for others. But truthfulness can be turned into a hurtful weapon. Provide feedback or evaluations only when requested. Think of your role in the relationship before providing criticism. Are you teacher, parent, peer, or friend? Phrase your criticism to include something positive along with specific suggestions for improvement. Don’t get personal. Allow the other person to save face. Avoid embarrassing the other person. HANDLE DISAGREEMENTS WITH TACT It is unrealistic to think that everyone will always agree with your opinions and go along with what you request. What do you do when the other person says”no”? Stay calm. Weigh the importance of agreement. If it is a matter of principle, you may decide to end the conversion, or even the relationship. Be certain you clearly understand the issue. Ask questions until you are satisfied that you have a mutual understanding. Accept the response as a difference in opinion, rather than a personal rejection. Respect the other person’s right to their opinion. Work at finding an acceptable compromise unless it is a matter of principle.
What Is a Memo?
When you think of a memo, what do you think of? Is it a little piece of paper with a cute letterhead that says something like: "From the desk of ..." or "Don't forget ..." or "Reminders ..." The message itself may be very simple--something like: "Buy more paper clips" or "Meet with President at 2:30" or "Mom, we're out of fudge pops." While these memos are informative or persuasive, and may serve their simple purposes, more complex memos are often needed in an office setting. But don't let that worry you. Even though business memos may be more formal and complicated, the intention in writing one is still the same. You want to achieve your purpose with your reader effectively. This handout will show you how.
Basic Memo Plans
Standard office memos can be approached in different ways to fit your purpose. Here are three basic plans: 1. The direct plan, which is the most common, starts out by stating the most important points first and then moves to supporting details. This plan is useful for routine information and for relaying news. 2. The indirect plan makes an appeal or spews out evidence first and arrives at a conclusion based on these facts. This plan is best used when you need to arouse your reader's interest before describing some action that you want taken. 3. A combination approach can be used for the balanced plan. This plan is particularly useful when relaying bad news, as it combines information and persuasion.
Parts of a Memo
Standard memos are divided into segments to organize the information and to help achieve the writer's purpose.
The heading segment follows this general format: TO: (readers' names and job titles) FROM: (your name and job title) DATE: (complete and current date) SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way) Troubleshooting hints: • Make sure you address the reader by his or her correct name and job title. You might call the company president "Maxi" on the golf course or in an informal note, but "Rita Maxwell, President" would be more appropriate for a formal memo. • Be specific and concise in your subject line. For example, "Rats" as a subject line could mean anything from a production problem to a personal frustration. Instead use something like, "Curtailing Rat Extremity Parts in our Product."
The purpose of a memo is usually found in the opening paragraphs and is presented in three parts: the context and problem, the specific assignment or task, and the purpose of the memo.
1. The context is the event, circumstance, or background of the problem you are solving. You may use a paragraph to establish the background and state the problem or simply the opening of a sentence, such as, "In our effort to reduce rat parts in our product...." Include only what your reader needs, but be sure it is clear. 2. In the task statement you should describe what you are doing to help solve the problem. If the action was requested, your task may be indicated by a sentence opening like, "You asked that I look at...." If you want to explain your intentions, you might say, "To determine the best method of controlling the percentage of rat extremities, I will...." 3. Finally, the purpose statement of a memo gives your reason for writing it and forecasts what is in the rest of the memo. This is not the time to be shy. You want to come right out and tell your reader the kind of information that's in store. For example, you might say: "This memo presents a description of the current situation, some proposed alternatives, and my recommendations." If you plan to use headings for your memo segments, you can refer to your major headings in this forecast statement to provide a better guide for your reader. Troubleshooting hints: • Include only as much information as is needed by the decision-makers in the context, but be convincing that a real problem exists. Do no ramble on with insignificant details. • If you are having trouble putting the task into words, consider whether you have clarified the situation. You may need to do more planning before you're ready to write your memo. • Make sure your purpose-statement forecast divides your subject into the most important topics that the decision-maker needs.
If your memo is longer than a page, you may want to include a separate summary segment. This segment provides a brief statement of the key recommendations you have reached. These will help your reader understand the key points of the memo immediately. This segment may also include references to methods and sources you have used in your research, but remember to keep it brief. You can help your reader understand your memo better by using headings for the summary and the discussion segments that follow it. Try to write headings that are short but that clarify the content of the segment. For example, instead of using "Summary" for your heading, try "New RatPart Elimination System," which is much more specific. The major headings you choose here are the ones that will appear in your purpose-statement forecast. Troubleshooting hint: You may want to wait until after the report is drafted and all conclusions and recommendations have been decided before writing the summary.
The discussion segments are the parts in which you get to include all the juicy details that support your ideas. Keep these two things in mind: 1. Begin with the information that is most important. This may mean that you will start with key findings or recommendations. 2. Here you want to think of an inverted pyramid. Start with your most general information and move to your specific or supporting facts. (Be sure to use the same format when including details: strongest--->weakest.) Troubleshooting hints: • For easy reading, put important points or details into lists rather than paragraphs when possible. • Be careful to make lists parallel in grammatical form.
Now you're almost done. After the reader has absorbed all of your information, you want to close with a courteous ending that states what action you want your reader to take. Make sure you
consider how the reader will benefit from the desired actions and how you can make those actions easier. For example, you might say, "I will be glad to discuss this recommendation with you during our Tuesday trip to the spa and follow through on any decisions you make."
Make sure you document your findings or provide detailed information whenever necessary. You can do this by attaching lists, graphs, tables, etc. at the end of your memo. Be sure to refer to your attachments in your memo and add a notation about what is attached below your closing, like this: Attached: Several Complaints about Product, January - June 1997 Good luck on your memo. If you look at this handout closely, you will see that, except for the heading segment, it follows the guidelines and hints presented here. These hints will also help you make your memo more successful. Example
Date: February 11, 2005 To: The Chairman From: Mohit Sood Head, Documentation Department Subject: Meeting of February 13, 2005 Thank you very much for meeting with me despite your busy schedule. I am happy that you agree with our suggestion and will be supplying Handicraft items from Kids Plaza for the fete in our college on February 18. This will definitely be a very good proposal and it will also help our students to buy the things in their means.
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