Modular Electronic Handbook
0. Table of contents
1. 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.5.7 Dimmers; Switches and Push Buttons Selection guide for dimmers Theoretical fundamentals Diode and triac Fuses Radio interference suppression Insulation measurement Infra-red remote control The multi-channel-infra-red transmit / receive principle The transmission media "Infra-red light" The switched infra red light used as carrier signal The coding system Electronic switches and push buttons Switches Push-relay switch IR-switches IR-recessed switches Push button IR-push buttons with single pulse IR-push button with permanent pulse IR-extension push button 4channel Eb Phase-cut-on control dimmer Dimmer with rotary or push knob Dimmer for incandescent lamps Low voltage dimmer for conventional transformers Dimmer for fluorescent la mps Speed regulator Dimmer with touch operation Touch dimmer for incandescent lamps Low voltage touch dimmer for conventional transformers IR-dimmer IR-dimmer for incandescent lamps IR-low voltage dimmer for conventional transformers Power extensions Power Booster UP (flush) Low voltage recessed Power Booster Phase-cut-off-control dimmer for TRONIC-transformers Dimmer with rotary or push knob TRONIC-dimmer Dimmer with/for touch operation TRONIC-touch dimmer TRONIC-recessed dimmer Remote control dimmer IR-TRONIC-touch dimmer Power extension TRONIC-recessed Power Booster Protective functions of TRONIC-dimmers TRONIC-light control system Instructions for installation

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1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3

Electronic potentiometer for 10 V control input Principle operation Installation rules Circuit dimension Behaviour in case of installation faults Technical data Additional devices of the remote control system IR-handheld transmitter IR-wall transmitter IR-receiver for flush devices

2. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

Observer General fundamentals Light and sensor Construction of the observers Dependence on the range by means of physical factors Fitting height, sensor inclination, terrain Motion direction Detection at the range limits Environmental influences Summary Function of the observer Electronic circuit, Principle function Influences on the observer by means of the switched lamp Observers (Motion detectors) also used in alarm systems? Single observer for surface mounting (AP) Observer 70 Test setting Observer 110 Specification of the surveillance field Spark absorber Set of blinds Observer 110 Test setting Observer 180/10 Limitation of the surveillance field Test setting Observer 180/16 Observer 240 Sensivity setting Push-on blinds Test settings

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3 3.3 2.5 2.4.1 3.1.5 3.3 2.2.2 2.1 2.3 3.4.3 2.2 3.1 2.1.1 2.4 2.4 3.4 3.6.20m Waterproof construction Insert with triac Insert with relay contact Standard attachment Comfort attachment Operation with extensions Why active extensions ? Extension insert Attachment for the insert (System attachment) Observer system System power units System power unit AP (surface mounting) System power unit REG 1channel System power unit REG 2channel System sensors Connection Set-up of the Observer system Principle construction of the Observer system Powerful features of the Observers 3.6 3.10m Version 2: Surveillance field of an installation height 2.3 3.1.1 2.5 Modular design Observer 180 UP Usage Version 1: Surveillance field of an installation height 1.5 2.3.2 2.1 3. 3.2 2.3 2.2 3.1 3.1.4 Devices with Automatic Time Function Electronic controller for shutter and blinds General Principle function Technical construction Fitting and installation Initial set-up Operation Display and operation elements Programming Types of operation Connection of several motors in parallel Electronic Timer General Installation Graphical presentation of the operating menu Technical Data Contents Page: 3 .2

7 4.1 4. 5.3 7.5 4.3.3 6.3 4.3. 7.3 7.3 Current guard for control of low voltage rope and pole systems Danger and safety requirements of rope and pole systems Current guard Function Operating the current guard Combination of dimmer or TRONIC-transformer 6.2 6.4 7.2 7.3.1 4.1 7.1 5.3 7.2 7. 6.2 7.1 7.3.2 Electronic Ballast for miniature Fluorescent Lamps Physics of the FM-lamp The technology of the FM-lamp Device variants Technical data 7.4 Electronic Transformer Application Principle Specification of the TRONIC-transformer Block circuit Output voltage Secondary wire Switch-on behaviour Connecting TRONIC-transformers together Installation Dimmer operation Operation at DC voltage Overvoltage protection in LV-installations 5.8 5.1 6.3 4.6 4.3.1 7.3.1 5.3.1 7.1 4.4 7.2 4.2 Overvoltage Protection in Electrical Installations General Overvoltages due to lightning strikes Overvoltag es due to electrostatic discharge Overvoltages due to electromagnetic pulses Ascertain the possible overvoltages External overvoltages Internal overvoltages Test pulses Components for overvoltage protection Gas-filled arresters Varistor (VDR-resistors) Suppressor diodes Combination of arc-filled arrester and varistors Devices with overvoltage protection Protection against overvoltage built-in the devices TRONIC-overvoltage protection module Contents Page: 4 .1.2.

4 7.4.8 Socket outlet with surge voltage protection Line filter with surge protection Graduated protection Insulation measurement Notes for installation Coupling of transients Propagation of transients Technical data Supplement Contents Page: 5 .2 7.6 7.7.5 7.7.1 7.3 7.

The binding technical data for the product can be taken from the manual delivered with the product. but there might be changes in the meantime to follow the technical progress. that have influences onto the product then .Specification of technical data: The specification of technical data according to the product is described without guarantee in this handbook. So. Contents Page: 6 . slight differences in the data may occur. The data have been up-to-date at the time publishing the chapter.

So TRONIC-dimmers are very interesting alternatives to dimm incandescent lamps or also low voltage halogen lamps. This procedure is repeated each sine half wave. Phase-cut-on dimmer is designed with a radio frequency interference choke (RFI choke) to reduce the radio frequency interferences in the triac switching moment. Chap. Phase-cut-off principle: The lamps are switched-on in the zero crossing of the sine half wave and are switched-off after a time that is adjustable by the user. fluorescent lamp dimmers and low voltage dimmers are operating as phase-cut-on dimmers and TRONIC dimmers are operating as phase-cut-off dimmers. 1. This current peak is suppressed by switching-on with a phase-cut-off dimmer in the zero crossing point. which gives information about the best dimmer according to its special requirements.on dimmer.: 1. The triac is switched-off with the next zero crossing and the lamp is also switched-off. So the brightness of the lamp can be controlled infinitely variable. A current peak is created in the switch-on moment by means of the capacitive load. The triac (that is the electronic switch within the dimmer) is switched-on after a time that is adjustable by the user and the current flows through the connected lamps.1 The requirements on a modern lighting equipment with special functions become increasingly higher. Incandescent lamp dimmers. for example also to adjust a nice atmosphere in the evening hours. No voltage disturbances can be created when switching-off because the voltage has the voltage zero. TRONIC transformers have an input circuit that is slightly capacitive. These RFI chokes can be recognised by a small noise that can be amplified in bad installations by means of resonance. The user is free to select any kind of dimmers for dimming incandescent lamps. If lamps will reach their end of life it can happen that the filament burns through and a higher switch-on current is created. Phase-cut-on principle The dimmer is blocking the current flow of the lamp at each sine half wave's beginning. and it is non-conductive. Push buttons Selection guide for dimmers This voltage peak is suppressed when switchingoff in the zero crossing point with a phase-cut. The following list provides a selecting guide to the user. TRONIC-phase-cut-off dimmer contains an integrated electronic fuse and because of this there is no need of service. An advantage in many cases is the choice of a phase-cut-off dimmer. To guarantee faultless function. The phase-cut-off dimmers explained in this handbook are therefore called TRONIC dimmers. for example an optimal degree of handling you have to select the correct dimmer for the installed light. Dimming inductive loads as there are low voltage halogen lamps with normal transformers or fluorescent lamps with inductive ballasts. will cause a voltage peak in the switch-off moment. Dimmer type Dimmer for incandescent lamp Dimmer for fluorescent lamp Dimmer for Low Voltage TRONIC-Dimmer suitable for kind of load: resistive inductive capacitive l l l l l l l The above mentioned dimmer types are devided into two different principles of function. Switches. This principle can be used for dimming TRONIC transformers. This is resulting from the ionisation of the lamp gas.1 Page: 1 . In many cases you have to guarantee the high light intensity and. that means 100 times per second. Noise can not occur. TRONIC-phase-cut-off dimmers are staying for a 'soft start' because of its principle a RFI chokes is not necessary. Dimmers.1. and a spark appears. This principle can be used for dimming of inductive loads. Incandescent lamps are resistive loads and are able to be dimmed by both of the above mentioned principles. The fine-wire fuse of the phase-cut-on dimmer can be blown by the higher switch-on current and must be replaced by a new one. as the use of low voltage halogen lamps will create special requirements on a lighting control device. Modern lightning ideas.

1 Page: 2 .Before describing the technology of different types of dimmers in the following chapters a summary is given for the selection of the best dimmer that may control the desired load of lamps: Dimmer Power Load Incandes. flush moun. 500 W l 50-700 W l l 60-500 W 20-500 VA 20-315 W l l l l l 60-400 W 60-600 W 25-1000 W 20-500 VA 10-315 W 25-600 VA 25-1000 VA l l l l l l l l l 60-400 W l LV Halogen lamp Fluorescent lamp l l l l l l l l l l l l Chap.: 1. Incandescent lamp cord dimmer LV cord dimmer Cord dimmer with push pot.HV Halogen cent lamp lamp Dimmer with turn-off switch Incandescent lamp dimmer Dimmer with push-change switch Incandescent lamp dimmer Incandescent lamp dimmer Incandescent lamp dimmer LV dimmer TRONIC-dimmer Fluorescent lamp dimmer Fluorescent lamp dimmer Touch dimmer Incandescent lamp touch dimmer LV touch dimmer IR-TRONIC touch dimmer Recessed dimmer TRONIC recessed dimmers Power booster LV recessed power booster TRONIC recessed power booster Recessed power booster. Incandescent lamp cord dimmer LV cord dimmer LV cord dimmer 60-500 W 20-100 VA 60-300 VA l l l l l 40-200 W 20-100 VA l l l 100-600 VA 100-700 W 25-600 W l l l max. Cord dimmer with rotary pot.

glimm lamps. the thyristor becomes low-resistive in the forward direction. RS causes that the reverse current Is flows. You can imagine a thyristor as a relay in self-holding circuit in series with a diode. but it can not be turned off. The diode is low resistive when a current flows in the direction of the arrow ( the voltage drop at nominal current is 0. capacitors. as shown in figure. In reverse direction ( + at the cathode ) the thyristor has a behaviour as a normal diode. To simplify the thoughts. the thyristor blocks in both directions. so that is the forward direction for a thyristor). Only a low reverse current is flowing through the lamp load what has to be neglected. Figure: Circuit symbol of a diode The direction of the arrow indicates that it allows the current to flow in only one direction. depending on temperature and voltage. The thyristor once " fired " (= switched into low resistive state) by a small gate current pulse stays as long low resistive as a forward current is flowing. Only if you let a current flow into the gate terminal. It is high resistive when a current flows towards the direction of the arrow ("Reverse current". which is generally called thyristor. thyristor function imitation. etc.7 V).2 Theoretical fundamentals 1. This power is completely transferred into temperature.). That means only a small reverse current is flowing. the thyristor itself switches into the reverse direction. the thyristor has additionally a gate terminal G. The thyristor is turned on. chokes. that a new gate pulse has to be applied. In forward direction two states are possible. A power of 1 Watt is generated at a voltage drop of 1 V at R D and a forward current 1A.2. size from nA to mA).: A K G Figure: Circuit symbol of as thyristor Chap. those complex and nonlinear procedures in the diode are shown as resistive loads which influences the current in reverse and forward direction: RS The above figure shows the symbol of a "controlled diode".1 Diode and triac Besides the well-known components as resistors. a new firing is necessary. So its behaviour is then equal to a normal diode in forward direction (including on-state losses. It means. Apart from the anode terminal A and the cathode terminal K. In the following figure an equivalent circuit is shown which is physically not exactly correct. RD is the forward resistance of a real semiconductor diode. reverse resistance is ). if a small current pulse is given to the gate while the positive sine half wave is active (terminal 1 is positive against terminal 2. But if the current I falls under a specified value ("holding current". R D is mainly responsible for the losses and the temperature rise. The simplest one is the diode. At first the thyristor is also "blocked" in off-state. Basically a thyristor can let the current flow into an only direction.1. Thus a thyristor can be turned on by a gate current. The following figure shows a thyristor connected to the mains voltage : 1 I 230 V ~ 2 Figure: Thyristor at the mains IS ID D RD Figure: Equivalent circuit of a diode D is the ideal diode ( forward resistance is zero. A load current I can flow.: 1. potentiometers. temperature.2 Page: 1 . As long as you do not apply a gate current pulse. for example 10mA). The mains voltage is zero at the end of the positive half wave and with that also the current I. R S is its reverse resistance. etc. also so-called semiconductor components are used. If the current should flow again in the next positive half wave.

so you should have two gate terminals that must be controlled alternately with gate pulses of different polarities. thus the relay stays on although the gate current through w1 will suddenly be interrupted. in which a load current has to be switched 100 times per second that will be possible only for a limited time with a mechanical switch. Solely if the current through w2 is too small to hold the relay ("holding current") the switch S will be opened again.A G W2 W1 These components only have one gate (so a triac is not only "two thyristors in one housing".: 1. will attract the relay. A mechanical equivalent circuit is shown in figure Thyristor function imitation in which only the diode is cancelled. It is true. G W2 W1 RD K Figure: Triac function imitation 230 V ~ Figure: Antiparallel circuit of thyristors Because it is very expensive. In this context conventional mechanical switches are also not "ideal".2 Page: 2 . Again the triac is fired by current pulses at the gate (but now with a polarity you like) and it switches off if the load current falls under the value of the holding current. Only with that phase-cut-on controls are possible. The triac then switches without being fired by the gate. see figure circuit symbol of a triac. Because the triac blocks in Figure: Circuit symbol of a triac Chap. triacs are used to switch smaller power (up to some kW) in the mains. In the following equivalent circuit you will find a reverse resistor RP and an on-state resistor because in principle the triac can also be shown as switching diodes (but this is strongly simplified). The switch will close and the load current then will flow through coil w2. which will flow through the relay coil w1. In this you see the differences to the mechanical switch: If the voltage between the terminals A and K will be too high. A short current pulse into the gate. that their reverse current of an opened switch and their voltage drop of a closed switch is smaller than triac. 230 V ~ The triac is no "ideal" switch. A RS K Figure: Thyristor function imitation If the anode has a positive potential against the cathode no current will flow because the switch S is open. A further function typically for triacs can be taken from the figure Triac function imitation. You can see this in the figure Antiparallel circuit of thyristors). We would require from such a switch RD = 0 (so no voltage drop and temperature rise should occur) and RS = (so that really no current will flow in open state). the reverse current through R S allows the "relay" to attract. Alternating currents (in both directions) can only be switched by thyristors if you design for every direction a single thyristor as shown in the following figure. Therefore the triac operates faster than each electromechanical component and above al practically without wear.

The moment. 1. components in plastic housing often with a housing temperature of 90 . The triac would become too hot if too many incandescent lamps are connected to a dimmer and the total amount of power exceeds the nominal power of the dimmer. The semiconductor material is heated in so-called hot spots on temperatures that are higher than the allowed limit. At first. That means that the triac is warmed up very quick. The fuse has to be designed on the other hand.2. Because of the tiny dimensions the thermal capacity is very small. R T 230 V ~ Di C connected triac increases suddenly to extreme high values. the current rises suddenly. the temperature limit will not be reached. To protect the triac from destruction under these conditions. a fuse is connected before which will be blown in case of short circuit before the triac temperature exceeds its limit.they are warmed up by the current flow. The steeper the curves are. The semiconductors are selected by the product manufacturer. current is only flowing for the duration of a mains half wave through the load in such unintentional triggerings. and an arc in the lamp occurs which is practically a short circuit. Changing the fuse. By that. For example a fuse is used in a touch dimmer with the characteristic value T2H250.3 Radio interference suppression Each current or voltage curve being different from a sine wave has current and voltage components with higher frequency. the capacitor is loaded after each zero crossing for the time of the mains half wave. these 4 characteristic values have to be observed absolutely and must fit with the values marked on the product.like all other semiconductor components have a non-neglectable on-state resistor (see figure Triac function imitation) . if for example inductive loads are switched.. The triac is triggered and stays conductive to the next zero crossing. In the following opposite mains half wave the operation is repeated. that means a current of 1500 A can be switched off without any damage at the housing of the fuse. and before a normal fuse element will be blown and a short circuit current is switched-off. Such overvoltage peaks in the mains can occur as a short "flash" by means of incandescent lamps. that means with a high steepness beginning from zero to its nominal value. Breaking the filament. Switch-on currents up to 10 times of the nominal current appear because of the cold resistance of the lamp filament. Otherwise damages of the dimmer or even fire can be generated. the current in the lamp and in the Chap. An unintentional. the diac becomes suddenly low-resistive.2.100°C). Through it the capacitor transfers its charge to the gate of the triac. If a mechanical switch is closed.2 Page: 3 . This sole noise is not be sensed as a troublesome. When the diac break-over voltage is reached. When the product is stressed by means of the permitted load. The component will be destroyed if a specified temperature limit is exceeded (silicon semiconductors approx. but the triac will withstand without any damage. that it withstands momentary overloads by means of switching-on. 100 MHz).: 1. 180°C. Figure: Triac firing The figure Triac firing shows a simple circuit what is used to create current pulses to fire the triac. These different requirements can only be fulfilled simultaneously by a fuse with exactly defined values. whose timing is correctly designed to the relevant dimmer or switch type.2 Fuses As triacs have . In cases of overloading or extreme high ambient temperature a destruction by overheating may be possible. Finally the fuse has to distinguish not only different momentary overloads but also has to behave correctly in case of permanent overloads. So in switches no radio interference suppression is necessary. This is the reason you can hear a "switching click" in a FM receiver (approx. the fillgas is ionised by the appearing spark. when the capacitor reaches the gate trigger voltage can be varied by changing the resistor value R 1. That means: Slow fuse with 2A nominal current 250 Volt nominal voltage and a breaking capacity H. extreme high overload often comes up. For this reason the fuse has to trip early enough to switch-off also due to short time overloads.the next current zero crossing. when a filament of an incandescent lamp burns through. the greater the higher frequencies exist which the curves contain..

The high frequency disturbing voltage U 1 (approx. small class ) have been fixed. but powerful disturbances up to very high frequencies in the switching moment. the load current flows through the choke. At time. 10 mA. for example of an electronic switch is an additional unwanted feature of radio suppression components. generated by the triac so sees in D a high resistance. which can only be displayed by special radio frequency measurement equipment. As the figure shows. in the mains with 50 Hz the triac switches-on and off 100 times per second. The increase of the "leakage current". The iron core of the coil and the copper wire of the winding create losses. A series connection of a choke (inductance) in the circuit is an essential measure. In approximation the disturbing voltage U 1 is set down to U2 according to the ratio of the resistances. normal. because it reduces the current steepness and the cause of the generation of higher disturbing frequencies. The components D and C have simply to be chosen. which only 230 V ~ U2 C Chap.2 Page: 4 . An additional difficulty comes up. as it is shown in the figure Suppression of radio interferences. Otherwise triacs have to be triggered again in every current half wave.: 1. This noise disturbs intensively radio receivers and thus the law requires a wide suppression. A voltage divider is formed by means of this choke D and the anti-interference capacitor C. It is an example of a lamp circuit switched by a triac. This kind of voltage definition is defined as measured value. requirements are designed by the European standardisation committees to limit the radio frequency disturbances in all frequency ranges. 1mV is equal to 60 dB). and so it does not generate a disturbing "click" but a continuos disturbing noise. As shown in figure Suppression of radio interferences. as the following figure will show it: i D 230 V ~ C T D T U1 Figure: Parallel oscillating circuit An alternating current i is flowing in a parallel oscillating circuit with a frequency. A disturbing voltage of 2 mV on the mains wire is permitted in the frequency range 150 kHz to 500 kHz a maximum . The lowest radio frequencies exist at 150 kHz and so the limits of the allowed voltage disturbances of household appliances start at 150 kHz. Generally it is required that products of the house installation have to meet the RFI class N. the more efficient is the voltage divider. The standard DIN VDE 0875 Part 14 (equal with EN 55014) describes radio frequency behaviour of household appliances and has to be applied also for the mentioned dimmers. the anti-interference capacitor is connected in series with the load to the mains. N. 1 V at 150 kHz). The resistance of a choke is rising at higher frequencies. The disturbing voltages are often given as a multiple of 1µV in dB (2 mV are then equal to 66 dB. The current flows along with the triac reverse current through the load and is normally in a range of approx. when the triac is staying in the on-state and the capacitor C forms a so-called parallel oscillating circuit with inductance D. On the other hand C is low -resistive for these voltages. every additional heat source is unwanted because it will decrease the switching power of device. The resistance of a capacitor is falling at higher frequencies. In the difference to a mechanical switch which generates only sole.Figure: Suppression of radio interferences Semiconductor components as triacs do not create such steep current or voltage rise as mechanical switches. K (large. The disturbances generated by them normally do not fall into the FM range. These losses are a wanted heat source which power is normally higher than the power dissipation of the triac itself. This simple circuit for the reduction of the radio interferences contains many difficulties that can technically be solved today only in an unsatisfactory way. So a current is flowing although the triac is switched-off. that U2 stays below the allowed limit of the disturbance limit in all operating conditions. The higher the frequencies are. But the upper limit of the electronic installation device is exclusively fixed by the temperature of the components. In the higher frequency range the limit is fixed with 1 mV. Three RFI classes G.

: 1. The brightness control of fluorescent lamps has another behaviour. but they have some other unfavourable features (for example the "basic ballast" has to be 20% of the maximum load due to the self-attenuation of this cores). with which the parallel circuit is oscillating. It is also flowing through the "resistive load". A resistor defied with a maximum power of 25W may not have a power of 25W at an alternating current of 230V.in the figure marked with i . In no case you should use other devices than incandescent lamps. The frequency spectrum of phase-cut-on circuits has a range from mains frequency (50 Hz) up to the radio short wave . The radio suppression components have no influence on frequencies lower than 100 Hz as it is shown in the following figure roughly: Chap. There are choke cores that have a less magnetostriction. That is a small distortion of the choke influenced by the magnetic field. If the triac is triggered at the beginning of a mains half wave. So they can not be used in every case. This is the reason a troublesome audible disturbance exists.as it is wanted and expected . that are more quiet. If this alternating current . that the attenuation of the oscillating circuit can only be successful by resistive loads. where the energy is transferred into "current heat" and this is taken from the oscillating circuit.2 Page: 5 . apart from the maximum power. The high frequency alternating current is not only flowing between the choke and the capacitor. This noise is also known in the use of transformers or other inductive components. then a premature zero crossing will not occur in the triac and the circuit will operate without faults. It will block nearly just after the half wave of the substantially higher frequency. If L is so lowresistive. Even high power resistors are not suitable. For this a "resistive basic ballast" is always required which is to connect in parallel to load circuit. In parallel to the oscillating circuit C-D only the load is connected as an attenuator. a minimum power is fixed in the data sheet of devices operating with phase-cut-on circuits and having interference suppression components. This magnetic field is alternating by the load current of 100 Hz and so the core is also oscillating with this frequency. This is the reason. You have to guarantee that the load is always sufficiently low-resistive. that the amplitude of i is lower than the current value of mains frequency load current. This problem is caused by the basic harmonic of 100 Hz and by the harmonics generated by the phase-cut-on.block at the end of the mains half. even if we call them a basic ballast. the triac will block automatically (see chapter "Diodes and triacs").depending on C and D and it is substantially higher than the mains frequency. that means its direction will change. In addition. Besides of this. because they are too large or become too hot."falls through zero". Because of that it is only to be observed that the fixed minimum load will not be too low. Incandescent lamps and also halogen lamps directly connected to the mains form such resistive loads. so it will not . For this purpose you should always use incandescent lamps as a resistive basic ballast. We call them " mass cores". It based on the magnetostriction of the core material. They form no pure resistive load with the ballast . It is important. This difficulties are more or less relevant to the designer of the product and to the installer. the radio suppression choke is a special problem to the user by an unwanted audible noise. it is to see that the effective load that can be calculated from the resistor value (Ohm) has a difference to the marked power (Watt) on the resistor.

In both cases. lead no wires being sensitive to interferences in parallel to the wires with the phase-cut-on current. The specific function should be read in the installation instruction.1 100 Hz 1 10 100 kHz 1 10 100 MHz audible frequency radio frequency Interference voltage of a dimmer circuit suppressed to class N Interference voltage of a phase-cut-on circuit Figure: Levels of the interference voltage But this means also. The connection symbols of electronic installation devices are standardised in DIN VDE 0632 Part 501. 2 Normally used for the connection of extensions. but they are not defined in VDE 0632 Part 501 . Connect the phase to this terminal. You may sometimes use the symbol "regulated load" for this terminal. LF measure wires. for example L1. Symbol ↑ L ↓ or Meaning The arrow is pointing at the electronic device. sometimes also N Connect the neutral wire to this terminal. Chap. loudspeaker wires.Envelope curve for line spectrum 100 V 10 1 100 mV 10 1 0. do not install equipments being sensitive to interferences directly close to a phase-cut-on device use screening and earthing measures for the wires being sensitive to interferences. The following table shows an overview. 1. etc. that all disturbances affecting on the low frequency wires (telephone wires. microphone wires. tape recorder wires.: 1. According to this all the well-known suppression measures for low frequency must be taken into account especially for phase-cut-on devices: − − install no ring wires. connect the lamp wire to this terminal.) will still exist without reduction. This symbol is marked on the terminal of a heating transfomer Further symbols.2 Page: 6 . − − − if possible connect devices being sensitive to interferences and devices operating with the phase-cut-on principle to different outer phases. The arrow is pointing to load.

A channel 2 Addr.5. A channel 3 Addr. Addr. While testing the insulation.gr.gr.5 Infrared remote control 1. A movable handheld transmitter or a fitted IR wall transmitter serves as an external operation unit. The dimming and switching signals generated by them are transformed in a suitable receive electronic. as it was shown in the figure Equivalent circuit of a diode. 1. Further extensions are in preparation..2. It gives the possibility to set the same switching or dimming commands from any place in a room without connection wires. The reverse resistance of these components is not infinitely high. which is assigned by the corresponding channel adjustment.gr.1. switching or pushing commands. etc. The figure Multi-channel infrared remote control shows the principle. So by means of an IR transmitter. These devices have an input circuit that transforms the corresponding signal into dimming. switch or push button.1 The multi-channel-infrared transmit / receive principle Electronic dimmers. that means they are connected in series with load to the mains. They are transferred as a control signal to the dimmer or switch. switches etc. A remote control is possible without trouble. that the electronic components will not be damaged by high voltages generated by a hand generator. A channel 8 Receive electronic Key B C . please ask for the current state..2 Page: 7 .). which can be assigned to 8 different channels by means of a 8fold group switch (A. it is guaranteed. dimmers.gr. as it is possible by an operation "at site". it is possible to control remote up to 64 devices from one place in a room and regardless from each other. A H 1 3 5 7 2 4 6 8 Handheld transmitter Figure: Multi-channel infrared remote control Chap. A channel 1 Addr.2..2. The load circuit should be disconnected in installations with such devices (disconnect the load wire. devices containing no additional mechanical switch can simulate an insulation fault by means of the reverse current of the semiconductor components and in addition by means of the current of the perhaps existing suppression components. The receiver only reacts on the operation of a defined transmit key. that is equal to the signal of the operation key. unscrew the lamp. In this chapter a wireless infrared remote control will be explained. With that.: 1. switches and push buttons offer the advantage not only to be operated by means of the integrated manual operation elements but also by means of electrical signals. The keyboards of the IR transmitter are existing of up to 8 separate operation keys (depending on the transmitter type).4 Insulation measurement The semiconductor components are located in the load circuit of electronic installation devices. We can assign an electronic circuit to the dimmer.e.H). from a radio frequency or infrared remote device and transforms them into electric signals. which can receive signals Lamps Electronic devices i.

The relevant switch or dimm command is then connected to electronic device. the visible light that lies in the range of 400 . Nevertheless also visible light can contain considerable infrared parts. comes partially through glass.: 1. The intensity of the infrared signal is alternating to make a better distinction. Many reasons are found for that: − − − infrared light is not visible so that no visual adverse effects exist. light. the transmitting diode generates a wave length of 950 nm (nanometer).780 nm has no influence on the function of the remote control.2 Transmission media "Infrared light" To design a wireless transmission of signals. dimmer) Figure: Function of the remote control 1. As a reaction it produces a current being proportional to the incidenting light. The duration of the signal marks the kind of command and is corresponding to the operation time of the transmit key. The optoelectronic semiconductor diodes used in the transmitter and receiver fit together.2.5.e. which is necessary for the channel interpretation. At artificial light.000. The ratio of the pulse and break times is therefore 1:1. while it is observed for a relatively short time. as it occurs usually in the undesirable infrared parts of the visible light.2 µs (22/10.important for a handheld transmitter ! A small time is used for the transmission of a coded signal. Because of the selective behaviour of the receiving diode.2. When the transmit keys are operated. an electrical signal is recovered and evaluated and interpreted by the following circuit. The infrared light is most suitable to control remote dimmers and electronic switches in one room. these parts have to be separated from the transmitted signal. it alternates very more quickly and powerfully. because advantages and disadvantages depend on the special application. − − The figure Function of the IR remote control shows the transmission way from the physical view. However. i. a signal pattern is created that is translated into infrared light by the semiconductor diode.and so it behaves exactly as the visible light. So that they do not affect the function. can not be answered in general. infrared light is spreading out only in a single room. The figure Pulse width modulation shows the timing of the intensity.2 Page: 8 .1. Generation of the electrical signal Transformation of the electrical signal in an IR signal IR transmission distance Recovery of the electrical signal Interpretation of the electrical signal (sensing of the channel and command) Key to the electronic device (e. but the human eye does not notice these variations because it acts too inertly). is almost constant. whereupon the receiving diode reacts very sensitively on that. different media can be selected. specially artificial light. This corresponds to a switching frequency of 1/2.2 µs =455 kHz. for example at lamp bulbs' light. that means also which key. The receiver also contains an optoelectronic semiconductor diode. When an electric voltage is applied. The infrared light sent out by the transmitter crosses the distance to the receiver. The infrared light used for the remote control lies on the long-wave side of the visible light (in contrast to the ultraviolet light = short wave side) near to the beginning of the thermal radiation.g. influences by disturbances are on the lowest level using infrared light transmission the optoelectronic components used for transmission and reception of the infrared signal (semiconductor diodes) have small dimensions and they are very resistiant against mechanical shock .3 The switched infrared light used as the carrier signal The intensity of the infrared part contained in the visible light. is well reflected by bright areas. has been operated. The transmitted signal is continuously switched on and off. In the following interpretation circuit it can be read out which channel.000 seconds). e.5. it moves in the 100 Hz rhythm (as well as the visible part.g. The question what transmission media may be the most suitable one. whereby a cycle lasts 2. Chap. which transforms the light signal back into the original electrical signal pattern. sound or electromagnetic waves.

59 ms. 16.It is ensured by means of suitable circuit measures in the receiver. Firstly a pulse with 8 oscillations of the 455 kHz IR carrier signal is transmitted. This pattern must be known by the transmitter and receiver. e. The total pulse lasts 15 x 1. i.1 µs. that only these high frequent information signals will arrive for further processing. Each numeral of this binary number can only assume the value "1" or "0" and is called as a bit (binary digit) Each load that is remote controlled gets an address.06 ms. But the operating current may be essentially higher if it only flows shortly and is then interrupted . While the data are transmitted each address is added by some accompanying bits. However the possibilities are limited by the maximum allowed operating current of the transmitting diode. that belongs to an information transmission. to each device that will be remote controlled. Consequently the sensivity of the receiver does not need to be increased unnecessarily.1 µs.06 ms Bit "0" Figure: Pulse width modulation By means of that procedure. a person runs through the IR beam the IR receiver can recognise by means of the toggle bit of the next following telegram that a transmission gap has occurred or if the transmit key was pressed again. It is composed of 8 Chap.5. Thus the most occurring low frequent or constant infrared parts of the visible light have no influence on the functional safety of the remote control. even if the address of the new telegram has changed.: 1.g. a complete address is transferred bit by bit from the transmitter to receiver. they are also called "addresses". whereby the influence of the disturbing light will be decreased.59 ms Bit "1" 5.2. 1. So the maximum achievable light intensity is depending on the current. see figure Pulse width modulation.1 µs. How does a telegram look like? A telegram is composed of 12 bit. How is the coding in IR light managed? A pulse width modulation with a carrier is used. many loads can be addressed independently on each other by one transmitter.4 The coding system The coding system serves to assign an exactly specified IR light pattern to each channel. When the next pulse of 8 carrier oscillations follows now in a distance of 7. the intensity of the transmitted signal should be as high as possible. While pressing the key continuously telegrams with the same contents are sent out by the IR transmitter in intervals of 132 ms. For that the transmitted signal carries further information and therefore it is called as carrier signal. This IR light pattern is designed by means of coded numbers of the binary number system. It starts with 2 "toggle bits" T0 and T1.this is the case by means of the transmitted signal. the transmitter interprets this as a bit with the value "1". is called "telegram". as it is shown in the figure Pulse width modulation. The IR receiver installed in the room read this encoded IR light and only trigger a process in the following load. In this way.1 µs 455 kHz 7. separated by 7 breaks of 1. The toggle bits change their state at each new key operation. If a telegram should be lost in a telegram sequence. Still another further advantage is given by means of switching-on and off the transmitted signal: To achieve a sufficient range.1 µs 1. if the IR light will contain the assigned address. A complete bit sequence. and the IR receiver switches the load accordingly. the transmitter will interpret this as a bit with the value "0". so a special bit sequence is assign to it.e. The intensity of a light pulse is therefore essentially higher as it should be at a continuous operation.5 µs 1. The channel decoder electronic serves mainly to sense and to make a difference among the eight channels.2 Page: 9 . If the next pulse will already follow in a distance of 5. active cycles of 1. This address is coded in the infrared signal that is radiated by the transmitter. as shown in the figure Complete telegram.

This function can however only be realised in remote control systems with pure switching operations. If bits are missing in the telegram or also only one oscillation of the 455 kHz of a pulse is missing. By means of the 8fold group switch of the 64 channel handheld transmitter the address bits A3 to A5 can be set differently whose further content is determined by the keys 1 to 8. The IR receiver filters frequencies under and above the 455 kHz carrier frequency using a band pass. In normal use the group switch is set on position "A".SA0 follow. If a transmit key is pressed continuously.06 ms) = approx. If IR light parts with 455 kHz from another source (for example other remote control system) should interfere a telegram. the address bit A0 and A1 are set differently. It has been defined internationally that telegrams of IR remote control with the applications of the area "switching and dimming light" should work under the subsystem addresses 14 or 15. i. the receiver can get telegrams with gaps.A0" follow. the transmission duration is always completed by a break of 132 ms. That is also the range of fluorescent lamps operating with electronic ballasts. According to the key operation of the 4 channel transmitter. Four "subsystem addresses" SA3. 90 ms . because the mentioned carrier frequency is not used in other light applications. since 8 different addresses are required. Theoretically the telegrams can be long from 12x bit "0" (5. Here the advantage of this remote control system is visible. In systems with switching and dimming operation this decoding would create malfunctions. Chap. For this reason the toggle bits are not evaluated in the receiver of the remote control system described here .59 ms) = approx. shall not be decoded. that have a constant distance of t w = 132 ms.2 Page: 10 . 60 ms up to 12x bit "1" (7. the telegram is not decoded. since here a special code is designed). telegrams are always sent. since this covers 4 different possibilities.. because it is not distinguished between small switching and long dimming telegrams. Now 6 address bits "A5. is essentially reduced by the light of fluorescent lamps.e. They serve for the distinction of every load. We can say as a result of this. The key operation of a 8 channel transmitter changes additionally the address bit A2. The transmission range of traditional remote controls which are operating with 20 to 50 kHz. The number 15 is realised as the binary sequence "1 1 0 1" (it is not identical with the 15 of the binary code 1111. While a bit with the information "1" needs a longer transmission time than a bit with the information "0". that the mentioned procedure of a telegram transmission is extremely resistant against disturbances. the telegram length is variable. t W = 132 ms T1 T0 SA 3 SA2 SA 1 SA0 Subsystem-address bit A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 T1 Toggle-Bit Address bit Figure: Complete telegram Resistance against disturbances: If a signal is transmitted at the limit of the range.: 1. This is the reason they are not decoded. For this reason the subsystem address 15 is used in this telegrams. it is not switched unintentionally because telegrams containing more pulses as needed for the transmission..

If the current natural brightness in a room is not sufficient. the brightness control is cancelled. if the mains fails. which is attracted by the switching transistor T1. only low heat is created in the IR-switch and that was the reason of the maximum power limitation.1 Switches 1. An electronic memory in the push-relay switch. In this cases it is possible to prevent the light "burning" unnecessarily by means of central switching-off the mains for a short time.3.2 IRswitches).: 1.1 Push-relay switch The push-relay switch serves to switch-on and off manually electrical loads and has with it the known functions of traditional light switches.1000W can be switched. By means of the figure Principle circuit of an IRswitch the function of the IR-switch is explained. otherwise the electronic of the IRswitch will not be supplied with voltage.3. No operating voltage will exist consequently. The device needs the connection of the neutral conductor. The load switch S is a part of the relay Re.that is also the flip flop voltage return. Therefore loads within the range of 0 . 1.3 Page: 1 . Switching-off the mains can be performed repeatedly within the day and it can be controlled automatically by means of clock switches and an outdoor brightness sensor. Chap.1. if the switch S is closed. so no suppression components are necessary. saves the respective switch state (further information in chap. Moreover the correct dimmer has to be selected to the corresponding kind of lamp. so it finds applications that are not suitable for mechanical switches. where the remote control is the main aspect. in which it will stay after the mains voltage return . since they can both switching as well as dimming. Nevertheless in contrast it owns an important additional feature.1. Missing the triac and the suppressing choke. This feature (which by the way is also implemented in the touch-dimmer and the relevant devices of the IR-system) is used for central controls to save energy: In example in office rooms. In that case the flip flop loses its memory and falls back into the "Off" switching position. Because IR-switches do not contain RFI suppression components. In case of short mains failures with a duration less than 0. Then a new manual operation is necessary to switch-on the device . the light can be switched-on immediately after the short mains interruption. a so-called flip flop. 1. Following advantages are resulting without the dimming function: Replacing the triac used in dimmers. Thereby no radio frequency interferences are generated. In this cases the mentioned disadvantages of the IRdimmer no longer applies by using the IRswitches. The flip flop can only save the switch state "On" or "Off".1.3 Electronic switches and push buttons 1. In some situations.2 IR switches If a remote control is installed to control comfortably the lighting. IR-dimmers are normally used.3. Push-relay switches may be used for this purpose. It is our experience that considerable energy costs can be saved due to this process. if it is continuously supplied with the operating voltage.2 sec the switch state "On" remains however .3. The maximal power rating is limited to 500W due to the use of semiconductor components as switches in IR-dimmer and due to the heat generation of them in the devices.1. because in this time the capacitor of the operating voltage is sufficiently supplied with voltage. it very often seen that the lighting is not switched off at sufficient daylight. which is for this device not generated from a battery but from the mains . The current "On"-switching position is deleted certainly after more than 2 seconds . a mechanical contact takes the function of the load switch. a minimum load as well as the usual basic load for the control of fluorescent lamps is not required.

the charging capacitor C1 and the diode D1 serve for the power supply of the control circuit.L N La N D1 R3 R4 R5 T2 1 UB T1 Z C1 R2 IRK recei. the flip flop takes over the storage of switching position. a falling slope does affect the output. It essentially exists of an integrated circuit with a flip flop function. t Figure: Operation of a flip flop Chap. UB In this case the operating voltage is negative and so the input and output voltages appear with the relevant polarity. since T1 is only able to switch that. The control voltage of T1 for holding the corresponding switching state is created by the control electronic. to further K extension units R1 A S Re FFIC E Debounce logic 1 Si Figure: Principle circuit of an IR-switch The resistor R1 limits the energizing current of the relay onto a maximum allowed value.3 Page: 2 . Switching commands ac can either be set by the remote control or be set by manually pressing the key or be set by an external push button. so that a bouncing of the key K in the receiver does not lead to a multiple setting. The diode D1 allows solely a negative energizing current.: 1. which is completed by attaching the IRreceiver onto the IR-switch. UA falls back to it initial state. when a second input voltage step appears with a rising slope. the Zener diode Z. The current limiting resistor R1. so that the switching contact is also closed at the positive mains half wave (10 ms). By means of suitable measures the fall-out delay time of the relay is increased. The fundamental operation of a flip flop is shown in the following figure. It filters the very fast bouncing pulses of the key and allows only one switch procedure per keystroke. Since it can take two stable states. FF UE UA UE t UA The entire circuit is built in a flush mounting device. A debounce logic is connected in series to the flip flop . altough no energizing current is flowing. In this way. it is also called "bistable multivibrator". The typical behaviour of a flip flop is that the output voltage UA only changes if the input voltage UE changes with the slope rising from OV to -UB.

i.3.3 Page: 3 . The corresponding channel and transmit key respectively will then be evaluated.7. Chap. see figure Principle circuit of an IRrecessed switch.5 V brown white Voltage supply L N Pre.e.e. The flip flop stores the switching state of the decoder output and gives it durably to the "driver stage with relay" (see in the same figure). the decoder in the power unit evaluates the input telegram and activates the decoder output corresponding to the telegram.1. which is visible as the sole component in the ceiling after the installation. The channel switch S1 is adjusted during the installation. which will be set depending on the telegram. 5V (brown core) ground. As the IR-receiver. as a special housing variant was designed. approx.: 1. see figure Principle circuit of an IR recessed switch.7.3 IR recessed switch In principle the IR-recessed switch contains the same function as the IR-switch. as described in chapter 1. IR-receiver and power unit are connected by a four-core wire: − − − − voltage supply of the receiver. that switches the lamp load directly.amplifier IC green Decoder (Processor IC) 1 2 3 4 S1 Flip flop Channel switch Driver stage with relay Emergency key yellow IR-receiver 1 MHz Oszillator Power unit Figure: Principle circuit of an IR-recessed switch. only the address bit A0 and A1 are variable. Since the device was designed for the use with the 4channel IR-wall transmitter (chapter 1. this Recessed receiver is operating with 4 channels. the IR. each key stroke will set the flip flop into its reverse state and the load can be switched on and off alternately. Thus. The filtering. the IR radiation can be evaluated from all directions.1. The IR-receiving diodes are mounted in a small mushroom-shaped receiver housing.3. 0V (white core) information signal of the pre-amplifier (green core) signal of the emergency key (yellow core) As in 1.1. i. Receiving diodes 120° angle approx. In case of an emergency (for example empty batteries in the transmitter device) the load is also able to be switched. By means of its contact at the output terminal "â" the relay switches the power supply of the connected load according to the state of the flip flop. decoding and control of the input telegram is set by the preamplifier IC built in the receiving housing. the decoder has 4 outputs.3. Since each receiving diode has also a receiving angle of 120°. the relevant decoder output will be switched to the following flip flop. The receiving housing is designed as a key.e.2).3 mentioned.2.7. The device operates in toggle mode i. 3 receiving diodes are assembled in an angle of 120°.recessed switch reacts also on telegrams with the subsystem address 15 and address 1 to 4. But it is possible to use it in the ceiling. described in chapter 1. the reception of the radiation from 360° around is guaranteed.

but a small power triac. 8. that only the latching relay has to switch the load current. Therefore no mechanical contact is used as a "load switch".2. In this installations. With it. If the 8 channel handheld transmitter is used. Latching relays are suitable in bigger lighting installations. The pulse generator is designed to a maximal power rating of 40VA. it must be guaranteed. This combination has the advantage. (As you know there are also latching relays with low voltage.3. so the total voltage supply of the control electronic may be designed with very small means. push buttons working as a latching relays are installed at the operating places. However it is absolutely sufficient to trigger the latching relay SSR. B. The lengthened wire shall not be installed in parallel to mains wires or load wires. As the wire signals are on mains potential. Information: IR-recessed switches with other addresses . an IR-push button must only replace a mechanical push button. neutral wire is required for the voltage supply in the IR-push button.1 IR-push button with single pulse In bigger rooms it is very often useful to install a so-called latching relay circuit instead of a 2-way or 4-way circuit.42 Volt) The IR-push button is not suitable for this applications. a distance of some centimetres is required. which is known from the IR-push dimmer and IR-switch.2 Push buttons 1. That one requires a very small gate current.24.3 Page: 4 .D are offered on inquiry. because the latching relay ( also called step relay or pulse relay ) stores itself the switching state.14mm is mounted by the manufacturer and is also recommended to the lengthening. 10m. 1. you have to follow the creepage distances and clearances according to DIN VDE 0100. Chap. e. but push buttons.So the IR-recessed switch can operated by both with the wall transmitter as well as with the 4channel and 8channel handheld transmitter. latching current circuit are well used. The triac becomes conductive. The IR-push button is composed of an electronic pulse generator ( flush mounting device) and the attachable IR-transmitter. Therefore no switches are used as operation unit in latching relay circuits. Finally.e. as soon as it gets a control voltage from the monoflop (MF) IC and it will hold the state until the control voltage falls back to its initial state and the following sine zero crossing of the mains will switch the triac off. while the push buttons have to be designed for the power which is necessary to trigger the latching relay. The wire between the IR-receiver and the power unit is allowed to be lengthened to max.3. as the connection of the By means of the figure IR-push button with single pulse we explain the function of the unit.: 1. The wire type LIYY 4 x 0. that the 8fold group switch of the transmitter is set to position "A". the duration of the IR-push button output signal is independent of the duration of the key stroke.g. because they are designed up to nominal currents of 63 A according to type. The duration is only determined by the time constant in the monoflop-IC as well as by the time which is running from the start of firing the triac to the end of the current mains half wave. It requires only a short pulse to change the position . since it is an easier installation work.g. The IR-push button is only suitable for a latching relays with an operating voltage of 230 V.similar to the flip flop in the IR-switch. To use the advantages of a remote controli n these cases .C. The IR-push button should be installed preferably nearby a socket outlet.

Through it. Ct (Figure Principle circuit of an IR push button with single pulse). so that the latching relay is sure to change over. The components choke Dr and capacitor C1 serve mainly to protect the triac against mains voltage peaks as to suppress radio interferences. 60 ms and is in each case sufficient. that the neutral conductor has to be connected to every device. the retrofitting using this device is simple. which filters these debounce pulses UA τ τ τ t Figure: Operation of a monoflop The output generates pulses of always same length independent on the length of the input signal. where the start of an output pulse is coincided with the end of the input signal. By means of the mentioned switching mode only very less radio interferences are created. Chap. Its value is approx. a debounce logic is connected in series.: 1. External mechanical push buttons may be not connected to terminal 1.L N SSR N D1 R1 Rt Ct T MFIC 1 UB Si 1 IRK recei. but you have to notice. The rectifier diode D1. Because of that the monoflop is also called monostable multivibrator. the charging current limiting resistor R1. The output only persists shortly in the new switching position and then changes automatically back to its stable state. to further K mechanical or IR push buttons Dr C1 Z C2 Debounce logic Pulse generator Figure: Principle circuit of an IR-push button with single pulse The fundamental operation of a monoflop is shown in the following figure: UB MFIC UE UA UE t The duration of the output pulse is designed by the corresponding calculation of timing element Rt. So the bouncing of the attached key will not cause a multiple triggering of the monoflop IC. but in parallel to the IRpush button.3 Page: 5 . the Zener diode 1 and the charging capacitor C2 serve for the voltage supply of the triac. It is allowed to connect up to 15 push button in parallel. IR push button with permanent pulse The IR-push button with permanent pulse is used as remote extension unit for power controller, which have an extension input "1". Power controllers with extension inputs are the following devices: • • • • • • • • • • Push button relay switch, IR-switch, IR-push button with single pulse Touch dimmer for incandescent lamps LV touch dimmer IR-touch dimmer IR-LV touch dimmer TRONIC- touch dimmer TRONIC recessed dimmer IR-TRONIC- touch dimmer Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap.

connected maximum power will not be exceeded. Otherwise a relay has to be connected. The construction of the IR-push button with permanent pulse complies with the IR-push button with single pulse, as described in chapter The only difference is that the monoflopIC with the circuit Rt, Ct is replaced by a nontime dependent amplifier stage, to switch the triac only for the duration push button operation. IR extension push button 4fold Eb The IR-extension push button 4fold Eb is a 4channel push button with permanent pulse in a housing that is most suitable for ceiling mounting. The function of the four outputs independent controllable complies with the function of the mentioned IR-push button with permanent pulse (flush mounting). They are closed only for the duration of push button operation, as shown in the figure Switching operation of an IR push button with permanent pulse. They serve also for the control of all dimmers, switches and push buttons, which possess an extension input "1". Because of the different housings of these power controllers, the TRONIC recessed dimmer is suitable for the common operation with an IRextension push button fold Be in one false ceiling. However, flush mounting devices can be installed in a housing and put into the false ceiling. The attached short-stroke key of the flush mounting devices is not needed. Such an operation of the push relay switch has no problems, but using flush mounting devices the maximum connected power has to be reduced because of the smaller heat dissipation (see dimmer installation guidelines)

The output of the IR-push button with permanent pulse closes only for the time the attached key or an IR-transmit key is pushed, as shown in figure Switching operation of an IR push button with permanent pulse. Short delays of the switching time caused by the IR telegram transmission are insignificant . By means of the IR-push button with permanent pulse the mains voltage is applied to the extension input "1" of the power controller for the duration of the push button operation. Short pulses at the extension input (approx.60-400 ms) are identified by the power controller as On/Off commands, as longer pulses (> 400ms) are identified as dimming commands, if the power controller is not only designed to switch. Also other loads, which may be switched only for the duration of the push button operation, for example an acoustic signal generator, can be controlled by the IR-push button with permanent pulse. However the requirement is that the

Output signal push button

load on load off

Push button operation

key pressed key released

Figure: Switching operation of an IR push button with permanent pulse

Chap.: 1.3 Page: 6

The output contacts of the IR-extension push button 4fold Eb are built as potential-isolated contacts. It is possible with it, to distribute the controlled load circuits on any phases. In one load circuit the devices should always operate on the same phase, because potential difference of 400 V will cause the damage of the devices. The control of several dimmers by one output is not allowed, because in the time range from the switching command to the dimming command, the dimmers may interpret the commands differently. To increase the power, the power extensions must be installed. Further extension units can be connected in parallel to the control wires of the single dimmer or switches (for example flush mounting push button or extension unit type A), which will allow an additional manual operation of the corresponding load. Construction of the device: The IR receiving module, known from the IRrecessed switch (Chap., is also used in this IR-extension push button Eb. The following figure with the principle circuit shows clearly the differences of the decoder part of both devices: One of the address groups A to H is set by the address group select switch and the decoder would evaluate these corresponding telegrams. As described in chapter, the telegrams with different address group are different have different values in the address bit A3 to A5.

The decoder sets it's 8 outputs with the evaluated signal of all 8 channels of an address group. By means of the channel select switch it is chosen whether channel 1-4 or channel 5-8 is transferred by the multiplexing element to the 4 channel driver stage with relay. In contrast to the IRrecessed switch the IR-extension push button does not contain any memory components. The relay of the driving stage is only switching the corresponding output for the time current telegrams are existing. The emergency key that is integrated in the IR receiving module offers the possibility to switch manually the decoder output of channel 1/15, if for example the battery fails. So the lighting that is connected to this output, can be set to desired state. By means of the mentioned possibilities of selecting at the device, all 64 possible channels of the handheld transmitter with 8fold group switch can be used in the application. If the devices is controlled by a 4fold IRhandheld transmitter or a 4fold IR-wall transmitter the IR-extension push button Eb is to set on address group "a" and channel "1-4". The information about wire lengthening that is mentioned in chap. is also applicable to the IR-extension push button.

receiving diodes 120° angle

approx..5 V brown white
1 MHz oscillator

voltage supply
driver stage with relay Chan.4/8 Chan.3/7 Chan.2/6 Chan.1/5 1-4 5-8 channel select switch



emergency key yellow IR receiver

group select switch




8 4 7 3 (processor IC) 6 2 5 group 1 A B C D E F GH


power unit

Figure: Principle circuit of the IR extension push button 4fold Eb

Chap.: 1.3 Page: 7

potential isolated outputs



Phase-cut-on control dimmer

1.4.1 Dimmers with rotary or push button In the simplest case a dimmer circuit is composed of the four components: Triac T, diac Di, potentiometer R and capacitor C2.

reduced by the firing delay time t Z. Because of that the power in the load is reduced corresponding to tZ (lamp is shining less brightly, motor is tuning less slowly). The triac blocks again at the end of the mains half wave (see chapter "Diodes and triacs") and the just described process starts from the beginning by means of charging C2 up to the diac firing voltage. Because the charging procedure of C2 can be delayed by R or increased, t Z can be set as you like and with that the power can be changed when required. If the RC path is interrupted, the triac will fire no more, the load L stays switched-off.


D R T Di C2 UT
UC2 UZ t a t

Figure: Simplest dimmer circuit The components D and C1 are required to suppress RFI (RFI = radio frequency interferences) additionally. The diac is an assisting component to fire the triac and can be seen as a triac without a gate terminal with a breakover voltage of only approx. 30...40V. (Looking onto the equivalent circuit in figure Triac function imitation of chap. 1.2.1, the gate winding is missing on the relay. The relay switches just at a voltage of 30..40 V by means of R s). As long as the triac T is blocking, a small current is flowing through the load L and the RFI suppression capacitor C1. A current with approximately the same value is flowing through R and C2. No voltage drop appears at the inductance L. The full mains voltage is applied to the dimmer terminals ↑ and ↓ (triac voltage U T in the figure Voltage curves at dimming a). The diac Di is also blocked. The current through the potentiometer R is charging the capacitor C2 (figure Voltage curves at dimming b). If the firing voltage U z of the diac is reached, the capacitor C2 is suddenly discharged with a current through the diac and the triac gate. The triac switches on by means of that firing pulse, so that the voltage U z falls onto a residual voltage (voltage drop at D and T) and the full mains voltage is applied to the load L(figure Voltage curves at dimming c). The load is not applied to the complete mains half wave (10 ms at 50 Hz), but only for a time that is


t tz 10 ms c

Figure: Voltage curves at dimming Nevertheless a current of about 10...15 mA is permanently flowing through the load (current through C1 and reverse current through T). If working at the load current circuit of such devices, which are not disconnected from the mains by a mechanical switch, one have to be carefully! As long as the load is connected, only a small voltage is applied to L, as it will be shown in the following: For example L may be a lamp with a cold resistance of 100 Ω and the switched-off dimmer has a "leakage current" of 10 mA, then only 100 Ω x 0,01 A = 1 Volt is applied to the load terminals. But is the lamp is broken or is unscrewed from the lamp holder, no current will flow through the dimmer, and no voltage drop will occur by it. So the full phase voltage is connected to the load terminals and to the lamp holder respectively!.

Chap.: 1.4 Page: 1

With it no triac firing is resulting. Using dimmers for incandescent lamps. The trimmer resistor is once adjusted on a value that one can see the lamp shining also on a higher resistor value R (dark position) and the user is remembered to switch-off the dimmer by the switch S and not by an extreme dark position. Electrically the dimmer is a normal 2-way switch. figure Dimmer in 4way circuit). the load is really disconnected galvanically by the opened switch S ("leakage current" is zero). "in which way" it is connected (phase to ↑ or load to ↓ or reverse). The potentiometer construction is designed in a way.: 1. in a 2-way or 4-way circuit it does not matter. For simplicity in the following the complete electronic part of a dimmer is presented as a variable resistor. if the fuse is replaced. power is consumed! L1 Dimmer Intermediate switch 2-way switch Figure: Dimmer in 4-way circuit A special form of the dimmer for incandescent lamp is the dimmer with a rotary switch. a switch S and a trimmer resistor Tr as sown in the following picture L1 N L If the lamp is shining with only half the power. It is installed like a mechanical 2-way switch in a 2-way or 4-way circuit. dimmers. It is a circuit according to the figure Simplest dimmer circuit. Load side Phase side P N Figure: Extended dimmer circuit The switch is very often a push-switch or a turnswitch and is fixed mechanically to the potentiometer. but one should always keep in mind.1. that the wiper can be moved out of the resistive path. Chap.4 Page: 2 . It is presented in a simplified form. that has an electronic variable resistor at its common terminal (terminal P. the higher part of the "saved" power of the lamp is lost in the resistor as heat! The figure Extended dimmer circuit is reduced to the circuit shown in figure Switching circuit Dimmer. it is all the same to the dimmer. So in accordance to that you have to be carefully.1. so the load L is switched-off. Connecting the dimmer as shown in the figure. The fuse serves to protect the triac (see chapter Fuses). you only have to note. really constructed.C2 is completely interrupted. It is possible to save power only by means of these switches: Only for the time the triac is switched-on.1 Dimmers for incandescent lamps Additionally to the basic circuit shown in figure Simplest dimmer circuit. As seen in figure Extended dimmer circuit. so that the current path R . that in reality a dimmer is a switch operating with 100 Hz. If the dimmer is switched-off. then half the power is taken from the mains. that the dimmer replaces the 2-way switch on the load side or on the phase side. are normally completed with a fuse Si. If the power is controlled by connecting a resistor in series.4. even if the switch S is opened. 1 S Si D R T Di C2 Tr S C1 2 Figure: Switching circuit Dimmer The switch S is very often constructed as a 2-way switch and so the dimmer can be used in conventional 2-way and 4-way circuits. that the phase voltage is always applied to the fuse.

that an operation of the dimmer connected to the transformer can lead to radio frequency interferences or even damages. In principle the dimmer could be inserted into the primary or secondary wire of the transformer. If a brightness control shall be is planned. is reduced considerably. These dimmers are working with the phase-cut-on principle. toroidal core transformers. Behaviour of transformers The inductances of a transformer create reactive currents. That leads to a high current and heat stress of the electronic switch in the dimmer. In actual practice it is found.4. Transformers with a high efficiency (less stray magnetic field). In the lamps a switch-on current is flowing for a time of 300 ms (15 mains voltage periods). That can be a danger to the dimmer because resonances resulting from voltage peaks up to 1000 V can damage the triac. So a transformer can be overheated and then it will break (reason: magnetic saturation . That results in flickering and acoustic noises. Controlling the light of LV-lamps with conventional transformers connected in series. It can occur. Usually used dimmers for incandescent lamps are only designed for resistive loads. because the triac holding current is not able to follow at the firing point.e. So that in general a switch on the secondary side of the transformer is forbidden.1. Moreover the standpoint can not be defended. in general only special designed LV-halogendimmer are suited. which can reach 10 times that of the rated current. The switch-on behaviour causes that slow-blow fuses are used in dimmers of LV-lamps. Because of these features some toroidal core transformers are not suited to be dimmed. The current is lagging the voltage.2 LV-dimmer for conventional transformers In the lighting installations lamps of different supply voltages are used.g. The firing and switching-off are not unambiguously defined. Rs and Cs in the figure Circuit of LV-halogen-dimmer) and are well calculated for this purpose. e. a phase shift appears between current and voltage. That causes firing problems in the dimmer for incandescent lamps. On the secondary side in halogen lamps higher currents are flowing than on the primary side. We will rapidly go into it. can create extreme high currents. L N Mains 230 V The difficulties at dimming result from the inductive behaviour of the transformer. LV halogen dimmer Transformer LV-lamp Figure: Series circuit of dimmer . iron core transformers with E/I or M cut. i. The current rush is so high. Transformers serve to adapt them to the mains voltage. i.: − flickering in some dimmer positions − blowing the fuses.fuse of the house connection will be blown. supposed it is the same power. According to the construction or type of connected transformer varying high switch-on currents will appear. the switch-on current reaches 10 times that of the rated current. Technically the series circuit of the dimmer with the primary side is a success. contain a special network (i. Incandescent lamps have a switch-on duration of approx. Chap.: 1. Even the 16 A . To define the requirements of this dimmer it is appropriate to study the transformer concerning − open-circuit − rated current − short-circuit An open-circuit is occurring if all lamps are blown or the secondary connection is interrupted.high self-heating) As LV-lamps have a special switch-on feature. It is more favourable.e. additionally a dimmer must be connected in series. direct current parts will flow through the transformer in addition.transformer There are many causes for it.1. that the transformer is operating if the dimmer is switched-off. But the current rush of transformers with more losses.g. especially at switching-on − breaking of the transformer. If unsymetries will appear due to the firing problems.e.4 Page: 3 . to switch a high voltage at low current. e. 40 ms (2 mains periods). that each fuse will trip.

4 Page: 4 . A correct calculation of a fuse value is not possible. The transformer can be operated in a definite load range. More and more transformer manufactures offer dimmable toroidal core transformers. We have to take into account also the shortcircuit because the LV-dimmer can also be installed for dimming incandescent lamps witch 230V. In the transformer the series circuit of L1 and L2 with Ra* in parallel to M is effective. It is the meaning: L1. no current i2* is flowing. Dimmer fuses will be blown. Only the not drawn winding resistances are effective on the limitation. Now we will regard the 3 cases open-circuit. Rated load: The resistance Ra* has a finite value. Transformer with E-. That is the reason because toroidal core transformers with a low stray magnetic field are not suited to control lighting. but the short-circuit current can reach 20 times the rating current. u2* = output current/voltages referred to the primary side C = capacity of the dimmer S = triac as a switch. M and C is effective. Because M is 100 times higher than L2. If the switch S is open. If these lamps burn through. thinking Ra* is jumpered. The short-circuit mechanism is also effective at the switching-on. The values are 10 times the rated current. The diverse requirement lead to a design of a dimmer with following features: Chap.2 M Ra* = leakage inductances = mutual inductance = lamp resistance referred to the primary side i2*. the switch-on behaviour causes problems. which fault-fire or destroy the triac in the dimmer. Open-circuit: Supposing there is no Ra* (Ra* = infinite). and short-circuit (switch-on behaviour). The current is mainly determined by the low cold resistance of the lamp. the phase angle changes also. that these problems do not appear.In case of the rated current the definition is unambiguously. Construction of the dimmer The requirements of the dimmer result from the behaviour of the Lamps and of the transformer. which is practically a short-circuit.I-. Explaining the transformer behaviour: A clear description is possible by means of the equivalent circuit of the transformer. To protect the dimmer against such high short-circuit currents. only L2 is effective in the parallel circuit. as Ra* is constant. Because almost no attenuation will happen (the resistances of the wires are very small). the series circuit of L1. resonance step-ups can appear in the transformer and in the dimmer. As mentioned before. The short-circuit current is only limited by the leakage inductances L1 and L2. or M-cut contain such a high stray magnetic field. while they can not distinguish between a short-circuit and a switching-on current. in which the switching-on current is limited by a special construction. L1 is in series with the parallel circuit of M and L2. Toroidal core transformers have a low stray magnetic field. Short-circuit: That means Ra*= 0. a spark appears for a short time. If Ra* varies. fuses are inserted. So their power-factor is very convenient. rated load. Transformer i L1 L2 i2* u1 M u2* Ra* u Dimmer u2 C S Figure: Equivalent circuit of a transformer The equivalent circuit presents roughly a transformer and a dimmer. The inductances of the transformer and the capacity of the dimmer form a series resonant circuit. so the dimmer is defined for this case. A definite phase angle is resulting between i1 and u1.: 1.

P.. if a minimum current (the latch current) flows through the triac. By means of the inertia of the filament and of our eyes we recognise only integrally the change of brightness. largely independent from the type of transformer wide load range (20 . so the dimmer for incandescent lamps is created. At first the phase shift being not constant must have no influence onto the dimm process. The dimmer switches-off without any problems at mains zero crossing. These features are added by the positive features of the dimmer for incandescent lamps. We assume. energy. The time duration is defined as phase angle and we speak from phase-cut-on. The firing current is generated from the mains voltage. 500 W) faultless function in the completely allowed load range of the transformer no destruction of the dimmer or transformer in the case of open-circuit a fuse protects the dimmer and transformer against short-circuit the high switch-on current does not blow the fuse. which interrupts the current and electrical energy within each sine half wave a definite time duration.: 1. For that circuit measures are necessary. C) L N L1 Circuit measures: The following figure shows the principle of a LVhalogen lamp-dimmer. a faultless switching-on is guaranteed.− − − − − − universal suitable. − − low acoustic noise radio frequency interference suppressed − Technical realisation: In contrast to the dimmer for incandescent lamps there are listed 2 special features. The dimmer serves as an electronic switch.. because it is the identically with the current zero crossing. A conductive state exists only. Secondly the switch-on current may not blow the fuse.4 Page: 5 . Chap. which is supplied to the gatecontrol input. The triac is used as a switching component: This one possesses special features: − The switching-on is caused by means of the firing current. that it is known how a dimmer for incandescent lamps operates. the firing time is selected by a time circuit (in figure Circuit of the LV-halogen lampdimmer: Rv. Rapidly repeated: A change of brightness happens by the control of the supplied electrical As long as no phase shift appears between the triac current (load current) and the mains voltage (and with it the firing current. So slow-blow fuses are fused. Only if a definite current value (the holding current) is fallen below the triac blocks itself. The switching-off is not caused by means of the control circuit. L N Mains 230 V C1 RS iC L RV CS iT Tr P RH Di iB C iC Si iZ Figure: Circuit of a LV-halogen lamp-dimmer Figure: Principle of the LV-halogen lamp-dimmer If we remove the current source ic and replace the transformer by a 230V-lamp.

In every case the fuse has to trip faster than the triac.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I/I N Figure: Fuse characteristics Fuses trip at different times although the same current is flowing. On the other hand the fuse should not trip at switching-on. 5. Flickering. 10-1 10 -2 10-3 1 1. L and C1 serves for radio frequency interference suppression. At the correct time it supplies the current to switch-on and leads the lagging current until the triac is switched-off.: 1. if replacing the fuse. humming and fuse damages caused by high switch-on currents will occur. The only way is to compensate the effects of the lagging current. 4. Please ask in doubtful cases the dimmer or transformer manufacturer which can confirm the ability for dimming. slow-blow fuses have to be planned at equally high current. because of that fuses are marked as described below. e. Please note the permissible minimum and maximum load. C. A switching-off of the load on the secondary side should be avoided. Only use the permitted fuse. Fuses: Fuses should protect the dimmer. In doubtful cases you have to measure the primary current of the transformer. the light flickers. Di.By means of a phase shift between current and voltage he triac switches at indefinite time periods. that the supplied energy and not the current damages the components. Cs and Rs realize the desired current source function ic. Also for fuses this value is the main factor.halogen lamp-dimmer. Instructions for use: 1. In each cases the dimmer has to be connected in series with the 230 V . T 2/ 250D Chap. It is crucial. This is defined as current-timebehaviour (I²t value). That means: T = slow-blow fuse 2 = 2 A rated current 250 = 250 V voltage D = breaking capacity Solely the marking of the permissible current value is not sufficient.4 Page: 6 . For that a current source ic is inserted in the figure Principle of LV. which is time-controlled. The function of the current source iz is guaranteed by means of the components Rv. Not all transformer can be dimmed. The figure: Circuit of a LV-halogen lamp-dimmer shows a realized circuit of a LV-dimmer with rotary potentiometer and push-change switch. toroidal core transformers often create problems. The fuses are exactly calculated to the used triac type and so only fuses with the same values are allowed to be replaced. 3. especially the triac. As using LV-halogen lamps instead of incandescent lamps the switchon duration is 7. RH.g. The exact tuning of dimmer and load is possible at rated load.primary winding of the transformer. P. dimmer and transformer are humming. The phase shift can not be prevented. 2. against too high currents. the product I²t has to be smaller. if a transformer is connected.5 times (300 ms:40 ms) longer. t/s 103 quick-acting F medium slow MT T slow-blow fuse 10 2 10 1 10 0 6.

1. This arc drop lays below the ignition voltage of the gas in the starter. the induced voltage of the ballast is added to the mains voltage. The initial heating (Figure Fluorescent lamp circuit) is normally supported by a starter (bimetallic switch filled with inert gas): If it is closed. 50. electrons can escape from the filament (electrode and thermal emission). consequently two terminals. Mains voltage I3 V I1 I2 V Starter Figure: Fluorescent lamp circuit If the starter opens. If a high and sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes.are always attracted by the positive electrode. The current is interrupted. the lamp turns off. The result is that all negative charge carrier (electrons) will be collected at the positive electrode and the positive ones (ions) at the negative electrode. which has two windings and which are installed in the two lamp wires. To control brightness it is then necessary to create the electrode temperature independently from the operating current. the gas is ionized (the electrically neutral molecules are separated into positive ions and negative electrons. Mains voltage V Figure: Fluorescent lamp with symmetrical ballast Using symmetrical ballast the required suppression according to radio frequency suppression degree N can be achieved more easily. the two filaments are connected in series and current is flowing. Netzspannung have only one winding. so that a sufficiently high voltage able to start is staying across the electrodes. The voltage across the lamp is practically zero and a start (gas ionization) can not appear.. If the ballast is connected in only one lamp wire as shown in figure Fluorescent lamp circuit we are speaking about unsymmetrical ballast. So the filaments will reach a sufficient temperature.. The current through the lamp is limited by the ballast.150 V). so the temperature of the electrodes is not sufficient for thermal emission. which is limited by the ballast V (choke). Just until the electrodes are heated up to red heat. which are heavier in comparison. hit the negative electrode and heat it furthermore to red heat. If the current is decreased by any external influences (less current = fewer ions = smaller electrode temperature = current interruption). so they run through the incandescent lamp and allow an electric current through the lamp. In the following figure the connection of a symmetrical ballast is shown. Then the voltage across the lamp falls to the socalled "arc drop" (depending from the tube length approx. An electric current will not occur.3 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps Basically a fluorescent lamp is tube filled with an electrically non-conductive gas and with two electrodes isolated from each other. The ions. These electrons "supplied" from the heated electrons . which Figure: Additional heating of a fluorescent lamp Chap. So the conductivity of the lamp survives if the procedure once has started.4 Page: 7 .4. The filaments in the lamps are in such way designed that they keep a sufficient temperature at rated current to hold the current flow. A control of the brightness in this standard circuit is consequently not possible.: 1. So that it will stay opened.1. because if falling below the operating rated current the filament will become to cold. The gas becomes conductive and a current flows through the lamp. as no electrons are additionally supplied.

According to the above figure it is realized that the filaments are connected to voltage sources (illustrated as a battery).: 1. This additional heating is an important prerequisite to control the brightness of fluorescent lamps. It is not possible to control the brightness of these lamps with the current devices. which only serve to hold the filaments on a sufficient temperature. different lamp types. Installing such a circuit. In the meantime so-called electronic ballast (EVG) is offered. Mains voltage W1 D V W2 W3 Figure: Fluorescent lamp with heating transformers The primary winding W 1 is applied to mains voltage and can be turned off by a switch in the dimmer D (which adjusts the current I 3 in figure Additional heating of a fluorescent lamp). the special lamps of Group I.. the two can not be supplied by one voltage source.RS by Philips. type series TLM. To achieve a better ignition of the lamp.6). TL-D Super 80 by Philips and 100/ES by Sylvania. which lay quite above the lamp arc voltage. see figure Voltage curves . Since then the standard series with 38 mm changes to the lamp type of group II.. so-called ignition assistance is required in transformers operation. the so-called energy saving lamps with type names Lumilux by Osram. is presented in details. because then the voltage across the lamp would be shorted (the two filaments should be connected with each other). So complete new ways had to be gone. note. to build special constructions by means of modifications. if they are combined with dimmers for fluorescent lamps or with 1-10V interfaces (see chapter 1. In the operation of fluorescent lamps with heating transformers you must have a look onto extremely clean lamp socket connectors. A special construction of these lamps is no more necessary. As the heating currents I 1 and I 2 are totally independent of the lamp current I 3. that the primary winding W1 of the heating transformer has to be connected absolutely to the total mains voltage. Tubular fluorescent lamps are divided into two groups because of their different behaviour in the brightness control.IrS by Sylvania.4 Page: 8 .g. so that the control behaviour should be equal to those lamps of group I. are largely depending of the construction and the physical features of the lamp.. Group I: Group II: Lamps with a tube diameter of 38 mm Lamps with a tube diameter of 26 mm As the fluorescent tube carries a filament at every end.. By means of an interruption in the heating circuits voltages only small more than 5V are available (see figure Additional heating of a fluorescent lamp). Goals of the lamp manufacturers./.Fluorescent lamp Chap. which easily breaks through small oxide or dust layers. At first the brightness control of the 38 mm lamps. the electrodes have even then a sufficient temperature. By means of dimmer operation the lamp must ignite (in dark position) at voltages. as shown in the following figure. In the standard circuit (Figure Fluorescent lamp circuit) the complete mains voltage is applied to an interruption. That are special constructions of the standard fluorescent lamp with a tube diameter of 38 mm that are used up to 1980. regardless of the currently available. Further operating conditions required to brightness control.DS by Osram or F. It is generally required. e../. so the complete heating voltage is applied to the electrodes independent of the dimmer position. L. Practically special heating transformers with separated secondary windings W2 and W3 for the electrode heating are used. Figure: Voltage curve . to control a wide range of brightness and to guarantee a faultless ignition behaviour even at the lowest brightness value./.Fluorescent lamp U Mains voltage Arc voltage The lamps of group I have been developed since times and are well known. had not success.. if the current I 3 is controlled up to zero. This is the conventional method of brightness control of fluorescent lamps. which make it possible to control brightness of a 26 mm standard-lamp.

: 1. But it is only applicable to lamps.1. You can take from the figure Voltage curve Fluorescent lamp. The total tube length lies between the two electrodes without auxiliary electrodes.In comparison to the dimmer for incandescent lamps it is not unimportant. since the .1). 1. the difference to a dimmer for incandescent lamps is mainly the terminal for the heating transformer (Figure Terminals of a dimmer for fluorescent lamps). Since the arc voltage and the ignition voltage are mainly depending of the gas pressure. to start the ignition. Consequently a tandem-circuit can not be really installed. cleanness of the fill-gas. sufficiently high intensities of field (V/cm) are created.While this has to process hundred times per second without flickering (without cuts).4. If necessary it has to be earthed according to the manufacturers information due to safety reasons or it has to be connected with an auxiliary-potential terminal of the ballast provided for that. it is easy to grasp. Practically this requirement is only fulfilled by 20 W lamps. that the operation below the arc voltage is no more possible. where the load wire enters.terminal is required to connect the heating transformer to the "not-dimmed "phase. and on the one hand these features are varying in lamps of different manufacturers and on the other hand it will change during the lamp life time and these features are decisively depending of the lamp tube length and construction. Figure: Terminals of a dimmer for fluorescent lamps and on what position the dimmer is inserted into the installation: It has to be installed. that bent or coloured fluorescent lamps are not suitable to brightness control. U 2 U 2 The so-called "Tandem-circuit" is possible in principle. If a dimmer for fluorescent lamps is mounted on the phase side. how U Figure: Fluorescent lamp with auxiliary electrode Since at least half the lamp voltage U is now effective on the short distance between the filament and the auxiliary electrode. After the above mentioned items and by means of the simplified presentation as shown in figure Switching symbol Dimmer (Chap. that the lamp will not be deleted in the dark position and will not flicker. but they are not offered as 38 mm special lamps. that you can expect the similar "dimming behaviour" only from similar lamps (same tube type of the same manufacturer. which twice the arc voltage is less than the difference of the mains voltage and the voltage drop U V. the terminal is not applied to the total phase voltage. In case of the 38 mm special lamps the auxiliary electrode is already mounted or burned in respectively by the manufacturer. So it is easy to recognize. since a correct Chap. That the auxiliary electrode forms a capacity to the two mains electrodes (filaments). as shown in the following figure: false N L1 Two-way switch Four-way switch Dimmer Figure: False installation of a dimmer fluorescent lamps Installing dimmers for fluorescent lamps you absolutely have to plan the "resistive basic load" with a corresponding value according to the manufacture's information. It is visible by means of the following figure. The so-called "Duo-circuit" can never be applied in brightness control. appearing across the ballast. By means of the trimmer Tr (Figure Extended Dimmer circuit) the dimmer has to be just adjusted. an auxiliary electrode is mounted on the outside of the tube. same life time) Basically you have to note.4 Page: 9 . but to the controlled ("dimmed") voltage. that the ignition assistance is more important the longer the lamp will be.

5V is supplied by the heating circuit. number of lamps (pcs) Rated power of the lamp (W) Lamp length (mm) Apparent power Total apparent of a lamp power (VA) (VA) Basic load (W) 600 VA Dimmer 6 40 3 65 1200 1500 95 150 570 450 +25 +25 1000 VA Dimmer 10 40 1200 95 950 +25 6 65 1500 150 900 +25 Table 1: Load the dimmer with the rated power only in case of ideal conditions. the load and phase connection shall not be exchanged. • Using lamps for fluorescent lamps. and you are well advised. They operate with the best dimming behaviour in the lower range of the brightness. Because of this in lights that are pre-wired for brightness control. Basically only rod tubes with 38 mm diameter shall be used! Installation: • Use for each dimmer fluorescent lamps of the same length and type. i. It has always to be removed refurbishing the lights. which can cause heating current reduction due to an oxidation or even an interruption. • A faultless brightness control is only possible at ambient temperatures above 10°C. Otherwise look for power reduction. • Serial compensation is not allowed. • Only so-called VA-dimmers are suitable Dimmers for incandescent lamps cannot be used.operation of the circuit can not be achieved (see for details in "radio frequency interference suppression"). but parallel compensation of the mains wire.The resistive basic load must be taken into account.4 Page: 10 . Possible faults and its removal Chap. A compensation of the control circuit is not allowed! • Tandem circuits are no more recommended. The lamp holder contacts of lights are designed for starter with 230V. To sum it. Above all this apply to the contacts of the lamp holder of the fluorescent lamp. • An optimum brightness control will be reached with the fluorescent lamps designed for this case. planning and installing of a continuous brightness control of fluorescent lamps with a diameter of 38mm it is to note: Conditions: • An additional heating transformer is required. Other devices that are called "basic load" are not allowed to be used. Principally a lead-lag circuit is not possible. the maximum load value of the dimmer manufacturer is to note! The apparent power consumption (and only this is important to the dimmer power) of suitable special lamps for brightness control is: 40 W / 120 cm = 95 VA 65 W / 150 cm = 150 VA These values have a wide deviation. • It is to note on good contacts of all terminals. contacts are used. • The brightness of the incandescent lamp is also controlled. This load always should be an incandescent lamp. not to load the dimmer with the calculated value. The starter is dropped. the so-called "basic load". But a voltage of approx. because dimmer damages will appear. Not to overload a dimmer. Doing this the heating voltage will be dimmed! Maximum permissible number of fluorescent lamps for a dimmer Max.: 1.e. but to keep a power reserve due to lamp deviations and mains overvoltage (and with that a higher power consumption of the lamp). thus a different dimming behaviour occurs. use 40W lamps. • If required in table 3. • Each dimmer for fluorescent lamps requires a resistive minimum load of 25 W. which has contact with aged surfaces and higher contact pressure. since it is connected in parallel to the fluorescent lamp. the ignition assistance of the fluorescent lamp must be connected to the neutral or protective conductor. brightness differences • If possible.

if: • the room temperature. whether the lamp fro basic load is brightening Brightness can not be reduced sufficiently or lamp turns off in the dimmer's dark position Lamp only reaches the half brightness or Check the adjustment of the minimum brightness is not able to be dimmed Table 2: It no one of these measures will be successful. Chap.e.e. Power reduction Dimmer can be loaded up to the mentioned rated power only in case of ideal mounting conditions. Calculating the power of fluorescent lamps the rated power of the lamp is not the basis. a triac damage may be the reason of the fault Attention: Dimmer repairs shall only be performed by the manufacturer! • 20 % for internal devices in combinations with 3 or more dimmers. but the apparent power. Clean the lamp contacts (Use contact spray. i. e. so either a device with a higher rated power or a power booster must be used.: 1. false and hollow walls. exceeding the room temperature of 25°C • 15 % for installation in wooden. if it is required Check.4 Page: 11 .20% = 480W Power extension If the solution of a calculation shows a total load being too high. if necessary) Check interruption of the winding of the heating transformer. the maximum permissible load must be reduced of: • 10 % per 5°C.Kind of fault Removal Lamp is flickering or goes out in the lower brightness range or does not ignite when turned on At first installation: Lamp does not ignite or goes out in the lower brightness range Different control behaviour after lamp replacement Lamp can not be turned on Lamp is flickering Check interruption of the heating filaments. which may be possible. Power reduction for • ambient temperature exceeding of 5°C: 10 % • stone wall: 0% • 2fold combination (only "external" devices): 10 % Sum: 20 % Thus a maximum load per device: 600W . i. the dimmer ambient temperature does not exceed 25°C • the dimmer is mounted into a plaster or stone wall • The dimmer is installed as a single device (combinations with socket outlets or mechanical switches are also accepted as single installation) The rated load of dimmer.g. which may be possible Check dimmer fuse Check the earthing of the ignition aid. Ideal mounting conditions exist. • 10 % for external devices in combination with additional dimmers Example: 600 W-Dimmer in combination with a 600W power booster in a stone wall at 30°C ambient temperature.

7 3. more power boosters can be connected.5 6. Power boosters are suitable for incandescent lamps as well as fluorescent lamps.7 3.7 3.7 3. Standard lamps with a tube diameter of 38 mm are replaced by fluorescent lamps with tube diameter of 26 mm and are no more recommended for use in brightness controls.4 Page: 12 . TL-D Super 80 (Philips).: 1.5 3.5 6. that in one installation up to maximum 1700W incandescent lamps or maximum 3400 VA fluorescent lamps can be dimmed connected to one phase. Brightness control is only possible with special devices. In Germany it is laid down today in TAB (TAB = Technische Anschlußbedingungen.7 3. If the total power of dimmers and power booster are still not sufficient. 6 V can be used for all fluorescent lamps. Each Dimmer and power booster require one basic load of 25 W.44 Power booster).7 Osram Osram Osram Osram Philips Philips Philips Philips Philips Philips Sylvania Sylvania Sylvania Sylvania Table 3 L40 W/21 DS L40 W/31 DS L65 W/21 DS L65 W/31 DS TL-M40W/33 RS TL-M40W/83 RS TL-M40W/84 RS TL-M65W/33 RS TL-M65W/83 RS TL-M65W/84 RS F40 W/CW/IRS F40 W/CWX/IRS F65 W/CW/IRS F65 W/CWX/IRS 95 95 150 150 95 95 95 150 150 150 95 95 150 150 Earth the foil Earth the foil Earth the foil Earth the foil Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Do not earth Heating transformers with a secondary voltage of approx. If the power calculation results in an excess of these limits.4.Using power booster the lamp circuit must be separated into two different circuits (see chap. Chap. Recommendations for fluorescent lamps used in lighting controls Manufacturer Type Light colour Colour Length lumirendering (mm) nous index flux (lm) Weiß Warmton Weiß Warmton Weiß Warmton Weiß Weiß Warmton Weiß Hellweiß Weiß Delux Hellweiß Weiß Delux 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1200 1200 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 3000 3000 5000 5000 3100 3200 3200 5000 5000 5000 3200 2000 5100 3300 Apparent Ignition power (VA) assistance required min.7 3.7 3.7 3. Herausgeber VDEW 1991 = Technical conditions of connection. 1. the corresponding number of symmetrical load circuits must be planned.7 3. by means of an application the electricity board can permit a special approval. Fluorescent lamps with a tube diameter of 26 mm with the marking Lumilux (Osram). publisher VDEW 1991). In case of power extension please take notice of the technical conditions of connection of electricity board/power stations.5 6. However. 100/ES (Sylvania) are counted as type series of group II. heating voltage (V) 6.

the new installation of the luminaire is not saved. It is known since long times. So. while the current installation can be used without changes.Brightness control of lamps with tube diameter of 26 mm (Group II) The advantages of a higher efficacy or a better colour rendering index respectively of the socalled energy saving lamps with a tube diameter of 26 mm (group II) have been reached with concessions to the ignition willingness. The limitation of the lamp current is performed by the electronic ballast. An additional advantage is low power dissipation of the electronic ballast compared with a copperiron-choke. 230 V Mains ~40 kHz Electronic ballast Lamp heating Figure: Principle of electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps At first a direct current is generated from the mains.: 1. Dimmer Rectifier Inverter It is transparent. The electronic required for that is composed in a so. 40 . If installing new installations a further important advantage appears.100 kHz. A separate heating transformer is also no more required. With that the ignition willingness is considerably improved at the same time. But they offer some additional advantages apart from possibility to control also the 26 mm energy saving lamps. So energy is saved and the device does not become too hot. With that the retrofitting from the switching to the dimming operation is very simple.4 Page: 13 . i. that the efficacy of fluorescent lamp increases by means of an increasing frequency of the operating voltage. and is almost operating as a resistive load (power factor cos ϕ > 0. The operating frequency. This effect is used to control the brightness of 26 mm energy saving lamps of the group II. High frequency operating voltages of the lamp can not be taken from the mains and have to be created from the 50 Hz mains by a suitable device. an electronic ballast hardly create reactive current.95). which is then transformed into a high frequency lamp operation voltage by an electronic inverter. so compensation capacitors are no more applicable. is set to approx. Naturally. that electronic ballasts are more complicated than conventional copper-iron-ballast. the frequency of the lamp voltage.e. The brightness control is not possible with conventional measure used for 38mm lamps. an additional installation of the non-dimmed and only switched phase from the dimmer to the luminaire is not necessary. Chap. In table 4 the advantages of a brightness control of the 26 mm lamps using electronic ballasts are presented and compared with the conventional methods of controlling the 38 mm lamp. The following picture shows the principle method. while the frequency lies above the audible range (< 15 kHz) and is selected not too high to avoid disturbances and heat.called electronic ballast (German: Elektronisches Vorschaltgerät (EVG). more lamps may be connected than in a conventional brightness control. so that a conventional copper-iron-ballast is replaced. since the electronic ballast also offers the heating voltage. Finally. Because the lamp heating voltage is fixed constantly by the electronic ballast and is independent of the brightness.

Brightness control of Lamp type Devices for a double luminaire

true power consumption for 2 lamps with the same brightness Apparent power Power factor max. permissible number of lamps per e.g. 600 W dimmer Heating of the ballast Operating noise Amount of installation - luminaire - supply wires to the dimmer Table 4

38 mm lamps Special lamp 2 ballasts 2 heating transformers perhaps. 1 compensation capacitor e.g. lamp type L65DS 180 W ∼ 300 VA cos ϕ ∼ 0,58 e.g. lamp type L65 DS 3 lamps considerable 50 Hz hum

26 mm lamps Standard lamp 1 electronic ballast 2 filter chokes

e.g. lamp type L58W/21 113 W ∼ 118 VA cos ϕ >0,95 e.g. lamp type L58 W/21 10 lamps less none equal no change necessary

refitting the not-dimmed phase is necessary

Note: As a result of the better light efficiency in the high frequency operation with electronic ballasts, the true power consumption is reduced e.g. of 2 lamps of the type L 58 W/21 with 116 W at 50 Hz to 100W at 40 kHz (same maximum brightness). The true power consumption of an electronic ballast with 2 pieces 58 W lamps of 113W is separated in a) lamp power (100 W + heating power + electronic ballast power consumption + losses in the suppression filters.

disappears again. The triac then returns immediately into the blocking state. The RCelement, connected in parallel to the triac, is existing to supply the current after the firing until the load current exceeds the triac holding current. So, a normal incandescent lamp dimmer is not suitable to control motors. A small difference is given between the speed regulator and a LV-dimmer That difference concerns the smallest adjustable output voltage: Using LV-dimmer, the manufacturer has to guarantee that the adjustment of the minimum allows a remaining brightness of the lighting, that will be visible. Otherwise someone could work at live parts, because he is thinking, the installation is switched-off and could run into danger of an electrical shock. Thus, relatively high minimum output voltage of the LV-dimmer is not necessary for speed regulator and it is unwanted, because the motor is not able to reach the lowest speed. Due to that, speed regulators are equipped with potentiometer in its mounting plate. the customer can adjust the basic speed by means of this potentiometer . Fundamentally all one-phase motors can be controlled by means of that principle of phase-cuton control applied to speed regulators (induction motors, split-pole motors, universal motors). But a control is only sensible, if power must be controlled, e.g. ventilators (small speed = small air flow = small desired power), but not in case of drilling machines, which power must be Speed regulator In principle speed regulator are constructed similar to dimmer for LV-lamps with inductive conventional transformers (see figure Simplest dimmer circuit, chap. and Circuit LV halogen dimmer, chap. In speed regulators a suppression capacitor C1 is also connected in parallel to a series circuit of a resistor and capacitor, which on the one hand attenuate the radio frequency suppression circuit (see "Radio frequency interference suppression"), so that in spite of the inductive load no "resistive basic load" is required and on the other hand it is caused just by the RC-circuit, that the triac is switched-on at all. Due to the inductive motor load, the current in the load circuit increases with a delay. Often the triac holding current is just not reached, when the short firing pulse at the gate

Chap.: 1.4 Page: 14

independent of the speed (power = torque x speed, reduced speed = reduced power). This is in the opposite to mechanical switching gears, whose torque is increased equally to the reduction of the speed). The speed regulator is offered with a rated power of 600 VA. The rated power corresponds to a mounting in wall boxes. If the device is mounted in surface-mounting housings, the rated power has to be reduced due to the unfavourable conditions of the heat dissipation.
L N Mains 230 V Adjustment of basic speed Speed regulator Motor


Load switch e.g. triac

Control electronic

1 External electronic control unit


Figure: Block circuit of a fully electronic installation device The load switch, for example the triac, is triggered by the control electronic. It is influenced by means of an operation element, for example short-touch button K or also by means of an external electronic control unit. Since this can act onto light, sound or other physical quantities, completely new effects can be reached with fully electronic installation devices. However, already the special construction of the internal control electronic enables device functions with high convenience in operation, which can not be realized with mechanical dimmers.


Figure: Series circuit of speed regulator and motor Touch dimmers for incandescent lamps The touch dimmer contains a control electronic, which takes different functions. Solely by means of different long operations of the short-touch key, both switching instructions and dimming instructions can be set. A short touch switches the lamps. A longer touch changes the brightness automatically. If a dimming procedure is interrupted, the brightness remains on the value reached at last. The control electronic has to notice: 1. Switching instruction "Off" means: The triac will not be supplied with firing pulses. 2. Switching instruction "On" means: Switch onto full brightness, i.e. the triac has to be supplied continuously with a firing pulse just at the beginning of every mains voltage half wave. 3. Switching instruction "Dimming" means: The position of the firing pulse varies automatically with a suitable time and runs through the whole control range from minimum and maximum brightness

1.4.2 Dimmers with touch operation The brightness is depending from the position of the potentiometer, if dimmers with rotary knob are used. That is also the time when the triac becomes conductive in a mains half wave. To change the brightness, the knob must be turned and so the position of the potentiometer wiper is adjusted. Consequently, a mechanical equipment serves for saving and changing the brightness value, For this reason dimmers with rotary knob are often called "mechanical dimmer". In contrast to this, fully electronic installation devices form a group of dimmers or switches, in that the function of the potentiometer is taken over by an electronic circuit. The advantage of this control circuit is, that the switching and dimming process can not only be started with manually operated elements, but also with electrical signals. The following picture shows the principle construction of a full electronic installation device.

Chap.: 1.4 Page: 15

4. Hold the brightness on a constant value: Firing pulses must switch the triac with the corresponding delay in each mains half wave. The figure Block circuit touch dimmer control circuit shows the function. The signal recognition detects either a switching or a dimming instruction set by the short-touch key. While the type of the instruction is depending on the period of touching, the signal recognition must get an information after which time it should decide for either the one or the other instruction. This times are generated by the clock frequency generator from the mains frequency. Three time slots can be distinguished: 1. Short touches within 0 to 0.06 seconds are ignored because they could be created by mains disturbances. No change of the dimming or switching state will occur in this period. 2. A touch period of 0.06 to 0.4 seconds is a switching instruction. This information is

transferred to the brightness memory, which stores the new switching state and informs the comparator to create or not to create trigger pulses. 3. If the key is touched for a longer period (> 0.4 sec), the brightness memory gets the instruction to vary the brightness. For that, a counter is started which runs across a loop in approximately 7 seconds. At the same time the cycle counter receives a count enable signal. It has the same counting range, but it will run faster, i.e. within a mains half wave (10 ms). If the information in the brightness memory and the cycle counter fit, an instruction is given to the trigger pulse generator. The trigger pulse output logic serves, the brightness is not falling below a just well-visible minimum basic brightness during the dimming procedure. By means of the memory switch, which can be operated through the mounting plate, the control behaviour of the brightness memory is influenced.

Memory switch ON OFF


Trigger pulse Output logic and driver Comparator Cycle counter

Brightness memory Step counter

Signal evaluation + Recognition Switching/Dimming



Clock frequency generation

Control circuit IC

Figure: Block diagram of the touch dimmer - control circuit

Memory switch = Off If the dimmer is turned off, a switching instruction leads to switch-on to maximum brightness. In this case, a dimming instruction causes a dimming function starting from the minimum brightness level. The control direction remains, when the dimming is repeated.

Memory switch = On Switching-off by means of a switching instruction, the preceding brightness is stored and set again, when switching-on again by means of switching instruction. If the dimmer is switched-off, a dimming instruction leads to a dimming function, which takes care of the preceding brightness. By means of repeated dimming the control direction is reversed.

Chap.: 1.4 Page: 16

It requires a direct voltage of typically 5 V. A dimming process is faster at 60 Hz (approx. The touch dimmer should replace a mechanical switch without changing the installation wires. which has to be formed from the mains voltage. The rectifier diode ensures. Figure Current supply with missing neutral conductor shows clearly. that the charge of the capacitor will not flow back into the mains and solely can be used for the current supply of the control circuit during the remaining mains voltage. So a switching process is started when the short-touch key is released. The Zener diode serves for voltage limitation. which is not sufficient for the control electronic. the mains voltage must reach a minimum value to generate the required holding current of the triac. the voltage U T is decreasing to the residual voltage less than 2 V. to charge the capacitor onto a value. if the triac is fired very early in a mains half wave. So no connection of the neutral conductor was allowed. This is the reason.: 1. resistors. Such complicated control circuits could not be designed with discrete components (transistors. This process has to work also. the control circuit possesses a "softstart". Figure b shows that always a residual voltage stays across the triac. At switching-on. above all. In off-state the IC control input S is connected to the direct voltage supply by the protection resistors R.The signal evaluation can decide after the corresponding touch period. the dimmer blocks (dashed line figure b). when the triac is in the switched-off state. the mains voltage is applied to the dimmer terminals A and B. which are necessary in a phase-cut-on control circuit. A dimming process is started with a delay of 0. the complete control circuit was summed up in an integrated circuit (IC). To guarantee the triggering of the triac. which is sufficient. Chap. electronic and. Naturally also the touch dimmer includes the components C and Dr for the radio frequency interference suppression. Hence the mains voltage is not directly offered to the dimmer and to its current supply of the control circuit. the dimming cycle time (for a dark-bright-dark process) of 7 seconds is only valid at 50 Hz. 5. The figure Extended a) A Touch dimmer UT IC B 1 UT +UH b) t -UH Figure: Current supply at missing neutral conductor control circuit is showing. When the triac is conductive. If a switching instruction follows a dimming instruction. Lamps. the touch dimmer is always switched-off. Reducing high currents at switching-on the cold lamps. The time to maximum brightness takes 380 ms. the brightness is continuously controlled starting from the minimum brightness to the end value. capacitors).4 seconds.8 seconds). An installation device does not supply enough space for these components. that it can supply the voltage of the control circuit for the remaining time. whether a switching or a dimming instruction is desired. the integrated fuse of the dimmer are protected. Consequently.4 Page: 17 . that only a negative residual voltage is necessary for charging. the control terminal 1 is connected to the mains wire. some additional external components are required to complete the touch dimmer. Simultaneously the mains voltage is the reference potential of the direct voltage supply of control IC. These signals are derived from the mains frequency. If the short-touch key is operated to set switching or dimming instructions. for example the power supply of the control circuit. The speed of the brightness variation is determined by the pulses of clock signal generation. Nevertheless.

the existing 2-way or 4way switch circuit can be easily refitted without installation changes.4. are realized and it possesses all features and the comfortable operation of the touch dimmer.2.2.4. while it can not be adjusted for a basic brightness and it has also no connection for a heating transformer.2 LV touch dimmer for conventional transformers It is also desired to control the brightness of LV halogen lamps. 1. These firing pulses are extended in an additional circuit to avoid. The touch dimmer is suitable for incandescent lamps and mains voltage halogen lamps (high voltage halogen lamps). described in chapter 1. Explanations to the figure: Principle circuit of the touch dimmer The components D. a LV touch dimmer is to use which has been developed for this application (Chap.1. R. it is possible to set both switching and dimming instructions from different parallel -connected push buttons.: 1.4. that are supplied by winded transformers.4. to save the previous switching state. In case of mains interruptions the charge of the IC operation voltage capacitor CL stays for 1 sec. Chap. Because the internal required counter pulses are generated from the mains frequency.2. In its construction all basic ideas for dimming of inductive loads mentioned in chapter 1. They can be added to the zero crossing. If the rated power of the touch dimmer is not sufficient. It can not be used in brightness control of fluorescent lamps. but they will disappear then. the zero crossings of the mains are taken as reference.CI and Z form the direct current supply of the control electronic.4 power extension. 1.2.2). that the short touch key is built in the touch dimmer or is an external one. so nearly no interferences occur in that time by means of switching operations of other mains operated devices. To ignore mains disturbances.1. In this cases wrong counts will be born in the IC. that has been developed for this application. it is possible to connect Power boosters. But centralized multi-purpose pulses with high energy are used for remote switching purposes by the electricity board. that it does not matter. By means of this construction. For dimming of LV halogen lamps. The control IC gives pulses of varying duration to the triac that are depending on the operation time of the attached key K.4 Page: 18 . an undisturbed 50 Hz rhythm is necessary to guarantee a faultless operation of the touch dimmer. Undesired triac firings results and can be seen as a flickering. After that time the touch dimmer is in off-state. Information is given in chapter 1.4. A LV touch dimmer can be used. Since only two connection wires are necessary to the external push buttons.L N D R ON R OFF Memory Control IC CZ R 1 Dr T RZ CL Z C K Si Touch dimmer To further keys L Figure: Extended touch dimmer circuit Figure Extended touch dimmer circuit shows.

L N Th D R ON Dr RZ C T Firing pulse extension CZ CL Z Memory Control IC R 1 R OFF K to further keys Si LV touch dimmer L Figure: Principle circuit of the LV touch dimmer that oscillations of the switching-on current will turn the triac off by means of high load impedances The components C and Dr serve for radio interference suppression of the device. since the control IC monitors the switching state of the triac and with it the current of the transformer by the circuit Rz and Cz (see figure Principle circuit of the LV touch dimmer). heating and possibly with a damage on direct current portions in their primary current. transformers react with humming.: 1. compared with a touch dimmer for incandescent lamps: 1. So the IC recognizes a possible mal-firing of the triac and generates new firing pulses. It returns to its initial state. which turns the device off in case of overheating. if highly inductive transformers with small lamp load are switched-on. The dimmer can be set in operation by means of switching-off and switching-on then.4. 2. This is necessary to guarantee the triac will not return to the blocking state again due to the delay time of the load current.4. If it is not successfully. 3. If a direct current portion is detected. The LV touch dimmer contains the following additional circuits. the control IC tries to remove the direct current portion by new firings. The triac firing pulse supplied by the control IC is extended in time by the circuit block "Firing pulse extension" (see figure Principle circuit of the LV touch dimmer). the control IC turns off. So the lighting is switched-off. if it is cooled down. By means of the path Rz/Cz. Information can be read in chapter 1. Chap. As it is well known. The power of LV touch dimmers can be extended by Power boosters. This problem is prevented. This may be possible.4 Page: 19 . An additional protection against thermal overload of the LV touch dimmer is reached by means of the bimetallic switch in the load current circuit. the control IC gets information about the triac's switching state. the thermal switch Th turns the dimmer off in case of overheating and turns it on automatically if it is cooled down.

it can be explained. information about the kind of load.4. but that does not indicate any defect in the product.3.4. The influences by means of centralized multiservice pulses (control pulses) which are Memory switch Contact socketsBuchsen Contact pins Channel switch 8 76 ON OFF Memory 1 2 5 4 3 Dimmer Figure: Modular assembly of the IR-dimmer IR receiver Chap. malfunctions may occur.3). so that they form one unit.1).1. If transmission gaps will exist in the limit range.1 and 1. In most cases even a signal transmission "round the corner" is enabled by means of the high sensitivity of the receiver. which allows the operation by an IR remote control. The range is reduced by a radiation from the side or the receiver is mounted in the shadow of the furniture. These devices have either received or not received the command. Similar effects are not known using IR-switches or IR-push buttons. that is according to the key of the IR transmitter.3. if necessary.1 IR-dimmer for incandescent lamps See general product description IR-dimmers 1. By that.4. IR signals are often reflected intensively enough by the opposite walls.4. the results are interruptions in the dimming operation and on/off switchings. may occur also in IR-dimmers.2. So these IR-dimmers are composed of the respective IR-dimmer (Insertion for flush mounting) and the IR receiver for flush mounting devices. are offered as a variant.e.2.2.7. They are influencing directly the control electronic of the dimmer and can not be suppressed by the IR receiver. They serve for the inserting of the contact pins of the IR receiver of the flush mounting devices (see chapter 1.2. as they need an essential shorter transmission time.2 IR-LV-dimmers for conventional transformers see general product description IR-dimmers mentioned in chapter 1. the connection of additional external push buttons. switching commands can be better transmitted. that have been described to the touch dimmer (chapter 1.3 Remote control dimmer 1.: 1. Before plugging-in the IR-receiver.4. These variants are electrically and functionally not very differently. as shown in figure Modular assembly of the IR-dimmer.1. but the mounting plates of the remote controlled devices have 3 contact sockets in addition.4. In the same way all other possibilities and special features are applicable to the IR dimmer.4.2. The range of an IR handheld transmitter is very depending from the place in relation to the receiver. the desired channel has to be set on its back. so the switching command has to be repeated. Working on the limit of the range. Both parts are plugged together. A telegram has to be detected for a longer period of the transmission of a dimm command. General product description of the IRdimmer: The touch dimmers for incandescent lamps and touch dimmers for LV-halogen lighting with conventional inductive transformers that are described in chapter 1. This is well known from the TV remote controls.4 Page: 20 . i.

In no case it is allowed to disconnect the load circuit. L2 is switched with the same frequency as L1. that is shown together with an electronic installation device ( dimmer or switch) in the figure Power booster with dimmer . It is similar to a relay.4 Power extension General: The Power booster is an auxiliary device. That is not allowed. The reason is the short time delay of the dimmer and the Power booster when switching-on.: 1. lamp 1 (L1) and lamp 2 (L2). Consequently. To avoid this unwanted operation state. if the loads L1 and L2 will contain different cos ϕ. 1 i I Figure: Principle of the Power booster We must enable fast switching (e. because the control conditions of the Power booster are disturbed. The switching-off is performed by the triac features in the zero-crossing of the current I (see chap. 1. that means cos ϕ1 = cos ϕ2). respectively is always fired just after blocking). no control current is flowing into the gate of T2. If a separate possibility of a switch-on and off of the Power booster load is desired.4 Page: 21 . As long as the triac T1 is blocked in the controlling device. So the requirement of a "resistive basic load" is also applied to the Power booster ( see "Radio frequency suppression"). The Power booster itself contains radio frequency suppression components. no voltage is applied to L1. A fluorescent lamp will shine always brightly ( because L2 is permanently switched-on. Even when T1 is switched-off shortly after that.that is the wire from the load terminal of the controlling device to the terminal 1 of the Power booster. a symmetrical separation has to be ensured in case of inductive loads (L1 = L2.2. you have to note that the switch is fitted in the control circuit . because mains voltage is still applied to L1 and a gate current i is flowing.g. dimmer with 100 Hz) and have designed an electronic circuit. L1 N different times of the zero crossings of the load currents. Using that. The dimmer would be loaded with the total lamp load of the lighting installation for the time until the Power booster has fired. If T1 is fired and L1 is applied to the mains voltage. in this moment T2 is fired by means of i. So L2 is switched-off. but then it is fired immediately again. The operation becomes critically.4.1 "Diode and triac"). that means L Controlling device (e. dimmer) Power booster T1 1 T2 i Lamp 1 N I Lamp 2 Figure: Power booster with dimmer Chap. that allows to increase the switched power of electronic or mechanical switches.1. as shown in the following figure. it is possible to switch a high load current I by a small control current i.g. A corresponding switching-off is generally not possible. It is not allowed to connect the load wires of the dimmer and the Power booster . even if L1 is "dimmed". T2 switches-off for a short period. When the current I flowing in the load L2 is just zero and the current is still flowing through L1. because a switching-off is only possible in a current zero-crossing. The total load is separated into two partial loads. T2 stays conductive for a complete current half wave.

A softstart of the LV recessed Power booster of approx. Dimmers for LV halogen lamps are not allowed to be connected since the Power booster UP is not designed for strongly inductive loads. Using Power boosters. these limits may only be exceeded by an approval of the power stations. But it is required to use dimmers operating with the cuton principle. because then flickering and malfunctions will occur. Open circuit: The device is protected against open circuit. remote control) is insignificant to the LV-recessed Power booster. • LV halogen lamps( max. as this is an additional feature of the LV insertion in the Power booster. minor differences in brightness between the dimmer load and the load at the Power booster may occur The technical connection conditions of the power stations are limiting the connection without any application of phase-cut-on devices operating at one phase to 1700 W for incandescent lamps and to 3400 VA for fluorescent lamps. To compensate minor.4. 250 ms) and the lamps of the LV recessed Power booster is to be expected. The operation principle of the used dimmer (turn knob. it is suitable to use it for the power extension of standard incandescent lamps. Depending on the mains voltage and the chosen lamp. No fuse replacement is required. Because of that a small time delay in switching-on the lamps of the dimmer ( e. The minimum load may not be smaller than 100 W/VA. 1. You have to note the output voltage of the transformer to ensure a long lifetime of the lamps.4. 500 W) or • a mixture of the loads specified above Large lighting installation with inductive transformers and standard incandescent lamps and LV halogen lamps can be controlled by up to 10 LV recessed Power boosters. • standard incandescent lamps. So a delay in firing is adjustable and the re-firing of T2 is avoided. However. But all Power boosters should be loaded equally. the resistor in the Power booster is designed as a trimmer. If the trimmer is set to higher firing delay times (to correct higher unsymmetry). 1-2 sec was necessary due to the electronic circuit. push button. Protective features of the device in case of critical operation conditions: Short circuit: Permanent disconnection by means of an electronic fuse. You have to avoid the mixture of different lamp types. since differences in the brightness will appear. It is allowed to connect • inductive transformers with toroidal core or Ecore. touch dimmer with softstart approx.1 Power booster UP The Power booster UP serves for power extension of the dimmer for incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps by 600 W/VA. This total power may not be exceeded.2 LV-Recessed Power booster The LV-recessed Power booster was designed for the power extension of all LV phase-cut-on dimmers for conventional transformers.: 1.4 Page: 22 .g.4. So the inductive transformers may be loaded as you like.4. To avoid unsymmetry you should pay attention to same load distribution of the controlling device and the Power booster.When using Power boosters. 46 212 48. Attention ! You have to pay attention on the efficiency of the transformer when calculating the total power. unavoidable unsymmetry of the inductive loads L1 and L2. the lamp L2 is forced to be noticeable darker than L1. because a small load of the Power booster is not sufficient for faultless operation. Chap. 1. Both lamps L1 and L2 shine with the same brightness in case of a minor firing delay. The short circuit has to be solved and the corresponding dimmer has to be switched-on again. the dimmer must be connected always directly to a lamp load according to the dimmer specification. and so it is well suitable to be pushed into false ceilings or to be surface mounted. The device has a built-in housing which is known from the TRONIC-transformer product range.5 Figure: Housing LV recessed Power booster The power extension of each LV recessed Power booster is 600 W.

It is not allowed to exchange L and N at the Power booster. the LV recessed Power booster switches-off. 70 °C Technical date: Rated voltage: Connecting load: stand. 600 W L1N max. the LV recessed Power booster monitors the output voltage and regulates the DC parts. see figure Coupled MCBs used with Power boosters HV-halogen lamps: Mixed load with specified kind of load without HV-halogen lamps: Mixed load with specified kind of load with HV-halogen lamps: Softstart: Short circuit proof: 100-500 W 100-600 W 100-500 W approx. 100 ms max. 1-2 seconds Disconnection within approx. 45 °C max. The circuit breakers of these circuit have to be coupled mechanically to ensure a switching-free of voltage of all poles of the lighting installation. 600 W N N LV1 recessed power booster max.Overtemperature: Disconnection in case of thermal overload. An automatic re-start is expected after cooling. the installation may be set in operation. The example presents a LV touch dimmer and an extension unit. In this case you have to check the installation for a defect and after removing the defect.4 Page: 23 . Mains 230 V Extension 1 LV touch dimmer max. One possible installation of the device is shown in figure Example of the LV recessed Power booster. L N For LV dimmer and LV Power booster you have to use one phase.. If they are not able to be regulated. 500 W 1 N LV1 recessed power booster N max.: 1. incandescent lamps: LV-halogen lamps with inductive transformer: 230 V AC Ambient temperature (Ta): Housing temperature (Tc): 100-600 W 100-500 VA Chap. 10 Figure: Example of a wiring with LV-recessed Power boosters Lighting installations with a load greater than 3500 W have to be separated to 2 circuits on one phase. as it does not galvanically separate the load in case of a the dimmer being switched-off. Otherwise malfunction will occur. DC voltage parts: As conventional transformers may be destroyed by DC parts in its supply voltage. The LV recessed Power booster is not suitable for a switching-free.

: 1.4 Page: 24 . 600 W N L3 ind. transformers N L3 ind. 600 W max. 3500 W per 16 A MCB Figure: Coupled MCBs used with Power boosters Chap.16A I> 2 pole MCB- I> LV . 600 W max. 6500 W max. transfomers max.L1 L2 L3 N max.Dimmer LV Power booster max. 3500 W per 16 A MCB max.16A max. 500 W max. 600 W max.

After this time a sudden switchon occurs. a connection of more transformers cause new conditions. if switching-on with steep edge in a 50 Hz half wave. Triacs are used as these switches. The changes in the amplitude of the operating voltage being generated by this lead to different firing and interruptions of the operating frequency and so to flickering of the lamps. Even if the interworking of dimmer and one transformer is designed very well.R1 L1 R3 L3 R4 L2 transformer Triac C1 R2 C3 C2 Mains Dimmer TRONIC-transformer Figure: Connection of a dimmer for incandescent lamps and a TRONIC transformer 1. i a) phase-cut-on Electronic transformers of other manufacturers are also able to be connected. The following figure shows the differences of the two dimming principles. The same is evident for the output of the dimmer (R1. Chap. R2. C2). which are necessary for the interworking of dimmers and transformers.e. the radio frequency suppression or the protection against spikes may not be guaranteed.16 kHz) and are registered as an unpleasant "humming". these components form an oscillating circuit with different resonant frequencies. some resonance points are in the range of audibility (16 Hz . Because of this the above mentioned oscillations and additional interference voltages are created at each mains half wave. C3). i. Humming and flickering shall become evident. An attenuation of the oscillation according to the radio frequency suppression will be unsatisfactory because the input impedance of each transformer type is designed in a different way. L2. In the zero-crossing of the mains half wave it is switched-off. Not all types of transformers contain quality features. L1. The best way to avoid this problems is possible by means of the usage of a dimmer operating with the phase-cut-off principle. The transformer contains an input network (R3. The reason should be explained by means of the figure Connection of a dimmer for incandescent lamps and a TRONIC transformer. which leads to high voltage respectively current peaks. Attention: Inductive loads (50 Hz transformer) are not allowed to be connected! Conventional phase-cut-on dimmers are mainly not suitable for dimming of electronic transformers. but we require to consult us previously. R4. which can lead to undesired resonances.5 Phase-cut-off dimmer for TRONIC-transformers TRONIC-dimmers are specially designed for TRONIC-transformers. By means of the series circuit of the dimmer and transformer. C1. They enable the brightness control of: − − − LV halogen lamps which are connected to TRONIC-transformers standard incandescent lamps for 230V halogen lamps for 230 V If the inductivities have been chosen too high. tz 10 ms t i b) phase-cut-off t Figure: Timing diagram of the dimmer principles No current is flowing at the time tz in the phasecut-on dimmer. which is required for the radio frequency suppression.: 1. L3.5 Page: 1 .

A field effect transistor (MOSFET) is used for the switching function. Special features: − Short circuit protection (without wire fuse): automatic restart after solving the short circuit. The resonance points with the unpleasant humming respectively flickering phenomenons. − − − − − − − In addition all normal features of the conventional dimmers are effective. Inductive loads (conventional 50 Hz transformers) may not be connected to. The switching-off is created by means of an extended edge.In contrast to this. They can be used for electronic transformers and for high voltage incandescent lamps. The control circuit serves for switching-on in the zero-crossing and for switching-off after the chosen time tz. which is provided by the rectifier bridge. 1. The MOSFET and the control circuit need a DC voltage. will not occur. because the total load of the transformer is effective. automatic load reduction Overtemperature protection Load limitation in case of the arc generation of lamps Softstart (gentle switch-off of lamps) Protection against mains spikes Radio frequency suppressed.: 1. not suddenly Additional networks are not required for the suppression of inference voltages. which we are being afraid of.1 TRONIC-dimmer (315 W) TH TRONIC-Dimmer FET Control circuit TRONICTransformer N Halogen lamp TRONICTransformer Figure: TRONIC-dimmer: Principle circuit In the previous figure the principle circuit of a TRONIC-dimmer and the connection of an electronic transformer can be seen. To avoid an overloading of the dimmer. see figure Timing diagram of the dimmer principles.5. It disconnects the dimmer from the mains in case of overload or overtemperature. at the switch-on moment no interference voltages can occur.1 Dimmers with rotary or push knob 1.5. So it is possible to change the effective value of the lamp voltage and also of the brightness. a temperature switch is connected before. TRONIC-dimmers operate with the phase-cut-off principle. At the switch-off moment possible resonance points are heavily attenuated. permanent disconnection until new switching-on at short circuits longer than 7 seconds less noisy operation (no suppression choke required) Overload protection. Dimmer and transformer must be connected in series and several transformers may be operated in parallel. Switch-off delay to the rectifier MOSFET with control Timing stage Zero point detection Voltage supply Short circuit protection Figure: TRONIC-dimmer: Control circuit Chap.5 Page: 2 .1. because the voltage has the value zero. a phase-cut-off dimmer is switched-on in the zero-crossing of the mains half wave and switched-off after the time tz. Control circuit: The following figure shows the structure in blocks.

In the block MOSFET with control the switchingon and -off is ensured within each mains half wave. Additional components protect the MOSFET against overvoltage and spikes. The timing stage controls the MOSFET and supports the adjustment of the time tz by a potentiometer and with that it controls the brightness. The component that is mostly used is a monostable multivibrator (monoflop). The zero point detection serves for a correct switching-on in each half wave. A short circuit protection guarantees the switching-off in case of short-circuit or overload. A wire fuse is not necessary. The appearance of an arc in case of "burning-through" of the lamp filament is avoided by the current limitation. A gentle softstart will be generated automatically solving the short circuit, if the short circuit is not staying longer than 7 seconds. Otherwise the load is switched-off until the mains is disconnected. A switch-off delay prevents oscillations, which occur at switching-off and are visible as flickering. The block voltage supply supports all stages with the required voltages. Information: The adjusting regulation of the TRONIC-dimmer (which is accessible after removing the frame) shall not be adjusted! It designed to adjusted the zero point in the factory and can not be seen as the adjustment of the basic brightness in conventional dimmers

Mains voltage


Internal procedure

DC voltage adjustable by the push button funct.

MOSFET on off on off

load voltage


Figure: Operating principle TRONIC-touch dimmer If the amount of the voltage ramp is zero, the MOSFET is switched-on. If the amount of the voltage ramp is equal to the amount of the generated DC voltage the MOSFET is switchedoff again. However, the user does not recognize the differences of the TRONIC-dimmer and the TRONIC-touch dimmer. Because the device contains a memory function, the switching-on onto max. brightness or onto the previously set brightness can be selected by a switch in the mounting plate of the flush mounted housing. So a previously chosen light scene can be immediately called again. Installations with several operating points can be realized by means of extension units. These are push buttons, which connects the mains voltage to the extension input "1" of the TRONIC touch dimmer, when the push button is pushed. The TRONIC touch dimmer analyses this pulse and responds with the corresponding switch or dimming procedures. Extension units contain the same amount of function as the push button of the dimmer itself. Commercially used push buttons or extension units of the type A from the switch program and remote IR-push buttons with permanent pulse may be used as extension units.

1.5.2 Dimmer with/for touch operation TRONIC- touch dimmer (315 W) The TRONIC-touch dimmer operates by means of the principle of the TRONIC-dimmer described in chapter However it is not operated by a rotary potentiometer, but by a push button. A short touch switches-on or off the lamps, a long touch causes continuos dimming. Because there is no turn potentiometer offered in this device, the internal timing stage is not designed by a monoflop, as it is described in chapter A control IC generates pulses of different positions depending from the push button operation time and the pulses are transformed to a constant DC voltage. This constant DC voltage depending on the position of the pulses, is compared by the device with a voltage ramp controlled by the mains, see following figure.

Chap.: 1.5 Page: 3 TRONIC-recessed dimmer (700 W) We can realize circuits with TRONIC-dimmers up to a connected power of maximum 315 W in a flush-box due to the generated heat. The TRONIC-recessed dimmer was designed to be able to dimm power up to 700W with one device. The device has a built-in housing that is known from the TRONIC-transformers and in the installation, it is laid to the transformers into the false ceiling or it is surface mounted. The operation of the TRONIC-recessed dimmer is realized by the flush mounting extensions, which have been mentioned in the description of the TRONIC-touch dimmer. Short touch switch-on or off the connected lamps, long touches cause continuos dimming of the lamps. Additionally to the terminals phase, load and extension, the TRONIC-recessed dimmer contains four further terminals, which are marked as "control wires for Power boosters".
L N 1 L Memory ON OFF Control wires for power boosters

which is suitable to plug-in the IR receiver. By that means, after plugging-in the IR-receiver, it can be remote operated with the IR handheld transmitter as well as with the push button integrated in the IR-receiver. The operation is also possible with all kinds of extensions, mentioned in chapter Since using this device, the dimmer and the IR-receiver have to be supplied with voltage, a neutral wire connection is required. Please note this, when installing the cables and wires.

1.5.4 Power extension TRONIC-recessed Power booster (700 W) All mentioned phase-cut-off dimmers (TRONICdimmer, TRONIC-touch dimmer, IR-TRONICtouch dimmer, TRONIC-recessed dimmer) are able to be extended at each 700W by means of the use of TRONIC recessed Power booster! Also this TRONIC- recessed Power booster is suitable for laying into false ceilings or for surface mounting. In order to supply the dimming power of 700W, the power booster contains an own connection for phase and neutral conductor, as shown in the following figure.

Figure: Circuit TRONIC recessed dimmer These are output terminals that are set to the potential of the load terminal, however they can not carry high currents. The load is not allowed to be connected directly, the device is then overloaded. These four terminals serve for the connection of the power boosters, since these will load the dimmer output only with a small power (less than 1 W). Also the TRONIC-recessed dimmer contains a selectable memory function. The corresponding memory switch is mounted in the cover of the housing, see figure Circuit TRONIC-recessed dimmer.


LN TRONIC-recessed Power booster N 1

max.315 W

max.700 W

Figure: Circuit TRONIC-recessed Power booster Because the dimmer and the power booster can operate in synchronism, it is strongly required to connect both devices to one phase. The output of the dimmer being amplified must be connected to the control terminal "1". This control terminal "1" is high-resistive and loads the dimmer being controlled only with less than 1W.

1.5.3 Remote control dimmer IR-TRONIC-touch dimmer (315 W) A special variant of the TRONIC touch dimmer, described in chapter, is the IR TRONIC touch dimmer. It contains the same amount of functions, however a modified mounting plate,

Chap.: 1.5 Page: 4

The power booster acts onto switching edges of the controlling dimmer by a corresponding regulation of its power output. The power that is necessary for this is taken from the mains. In figure Circuit TRONIC-recessed Power booster the circuit is shown once more. Because of the very small load of the dimmer by the power extensions, it is not possible to connect only Power boosters to the dimmer The rule is: At first load the dimmer with a fully loaded TRONIC-transformer, then connect the Power boosters. Up to 10 power booster may be connected to each TRONIC dimmer type. If we have a look on the circuit, the block structure can be identified in following figure:
N N L Supply voltage

of the device is effective as described in chapter 1.5.3. When required, the TRONIC-recessed transformer can be switched-off, not depending on the dimmer. Then a switch (normally closed contact) has to be installed in the control wire from the dimmer to the Power booster, that means before input "1" of the Power booster. If it is opened, the Power booster does not get a control signal from the dimmer and the output of the power booster is switched-off reliably.




2 FETTransistors

Protection functions of TRONICdimmer Each system component of the TRONIC-light control system described in the chapter 1.5.1. 1.5.4. contains protection functions, which are realized by electronic and have been yet presented partly in block circuits: The electronic short circuit protection identifies from approx. twice the rated current on , that a short circuit has occurred in the load circuit and turns off the output in some microseconds, that is faster than all wire fuses. If the short circuit is solved within 7 seconds, the dimmer or the Power booster will restart automatically. The devices will be permanently switched-off at longer short circuit times. After solving the short circuit the dimmer must be switched-off and on, to operate again. All devices contain a temperature switch. If the danger of overheating occurs, the temperature switch turns off the device until it cools down. Then the re-switching-on is automatically active. By means of this features you are protected against defects that will create overtemperature and overload.

Short circuit protection





Figure: Principle circuit of the TRONIC-recessed Power booster The block "Voltage supply" shows the supply voltage that is required for the operation of the electronic independently on the sine wave of the mains. In the block "Decoupling" the output signal of the dimmer is taken nearly without power, it is attenuated and then it is led to the "Control electronic" for evaluation. The control electronic turns on one of the field effect transistors according to the applied mains half wave and sets the power output to the switching state, which is also applied to the control input "1". The temperature of the transistors is monitored by a temperature switch, which switches-off the supply voltage of the electronic, if a heat limit is exceeded and so the output of the device is blocked, until it is cooled down. If the current through the transistors exceeds the set values, the "short circuit protection" identifies it. The control electronic is blocked, the transistors are no more turned on and the output of the device is blocked. With that the behaviour

Chap.: 1.5 Page: 5

the mechanical extensions and the IR-push button with permanent pulse.5. instead of a mechanical push button an IR push button with permanent pulse can be installed. The correct installation can be taken from the following wiring diagrams. Installing the devices.: 1.recessedPower Booster 700W TRONICTouch dimmer TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans Perman. It transforms at the same time the push button operation into 230 V output signals and so it takes the function of the mechanical extension. TRONIC .recessed dimmer.Light control system for LV-halogen lamps alternatively only TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans to further TRONIC transformers IR-push but.5 Page: 6 . however both protection circuits are connected. pulse. to further TRONIC transformers Extension Type A TRONIC . Perman. which form together the TRONIC light control system.recessedPower Booster 700W TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans to further power boosters 700 W Dimmer to further TRONIC transformers IR-push but. There are limitations for the connection of the maximum power without any application for devices per phase using phase-cut-on or phase-cut-off Chap.315 W . IR-TRONIC-Touch dimmer Extension Type A TRONIC . By means of the described TRONIC-dimmer. max.6.recessedPower Booster 700W TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans max. if this limit is exceeded. you have to pay attention that the dimmer and the following power boosters are connected to one phase. as it is seen in the figure MCBs in the Light control system This is the reason. TRONIC-Light control system If also a TRONIC-dimmer extension should be remote controlled. a second MCB has to be installed. 7700 W to further TRONIC transformers TRONIC . the TRONIC.recessedPower Booster 700W TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans flush area surface mounting area to further power boosters 700 W to further TRONIC transformers Figure: Presentation of the TRONIC-light control system 1. the load is not consequently free of voltage. Installing a TRONIC-light control system. 700W TRONIC -Trans TRONIC -Trans Perman. Because you are able to connect a maximum power of 3680 W (16 A x 230 V = 3680 W) to 16 A miniature circuit breaker (MCB).dimmer IR-push but. Please take note of the technical connection conditions of the regional power stations. 7700W (that means one TRONIC recessed dimmer with 10 TRONIC recessed power booster) are able to be controlled by one operating device. TRONIC . pulse. that the MCBs used for TRONIC light control system must be replaced by a multiple MCB or must be coupled by a common operating bow to ensure a switching free of all poles. complex light control system can be installed individually.recessed Power booster. pulse. if you install a TRONIC-Light control system. If only one MCB is opened. The figure Presentation of the TRONIC-light control system shows the possible combinations. 7315 W to further TRONIC transformers Extension Type A TRONIC- TRONIC .

7 Instructions for installation TRONIC-dimmers and TRONIC-Power boosters are designed to be used with TRONICtransformers. Normally it is also possible to connect electronic transformers from other manufacturers. ask us. 3680 W per 16 a MCB max. that many transformers are able to be dimmed. The zero point detection is not guaranteed because of the phase shift between voltage and current.5. if you comply with the three features (Dimming. The operation without humming is impressing. Other manufacturers also give information.: 1.16A I> I> 2 pole MCB TRONIC-dimmer TRONIC-transformer TRONIC-recessed Power booster N L3 TRONIC-transformer N L3 TRONIC-transformer max. However inductive loads may not be connected. 3680 W per 16A MCB Figure: MCBs in the TRONIC-Light control system 1. And do not care about a fuse change! The features of this device are shouting for the usage as a dimmer for incandescent lamps.5 Page: 7 . Up to now our experiences show.16A max.L1 L2 L3 N max. The light flickering would be the result. Please. You have to check in each single case. radio frequency suppression. We guarantee apart from the dimming without problems the radio frequency suppression and the protection against spikes. The result is an optimum tuning. Chap. protection against mains spikes).

since overtemperature leads to device defects. the total lamp load may not exceed 315W any standard incandescent lamp or halogen lamp up to a total power of 700 W. It is allowed to connect to one UP-TRONICdimmer: − − − − − *: − − − max. 3* 150 W TRONIC transformer max. Mixed operation of TRONIC-transformers of different power or of TRONIC-transformers with 230 V incandescent lamp or halogen lamp up to a maximum of 700 W total power. Wiring plans of the TRONIC-Light control system can be taken from the following pages. 3 105 W TRONIC transformer max. 2* 200 W TRONIC transformer max. installation in a solid stone or plaster wall. The devices switch-off.: 1. 10 TRONIC-recessed Power booster Mixed operation of TRONIC transformers of different power or of TRONIC transformers with 230 V incandescent lamp or halogen lamp up to a maximum of 315 W total power. 20 35 W TRONIC transformer however. 5** 150 W TRONIC transformer max. It is allowed to connect to the recessed devices: − − − − − **: − − max.5 Page: 8 . 7** 105 W TRONIC transformer max. Chap. if the temperatures are essentially exceeded. dimmer is installed as a single device Installation of Recessed Dimmer: The installation rules are applicable for the TRONIC-recessed dimmer 700 W and the TRONIC-recessed power booster as for the TRONIC-transformer: Suitable for installations in false ceilings with minimum opening of Ø 63mm and surface mounted applications. The housing temperature tc = max 70 °C is reached in this case. 10 70 W TRONIC transformer max. 45 °C. 5* 70 W TRONIC transformer max.Installation of UP TRONIC-dimmer (flush): The installation rules for the UP TRONIC-dimmer (flush) and for the phase-cut-on dimmer is similar: − − − Use in 2-way or 4-way circuits (TRONICdimmer) or the use of extensions (TRONICtouch dimmer or IR-touch dimmer) is possible Mounting in standard flush-box Rated power in an ambient temperature of 25°C. 4** 200 W TRONIC transformer max. false or hollow walls -10 % for external devices in multiple combination with dimmers -20 % for internal devices in multiple combination with dimmers. If the conditions are different the normal information of power reduction is applicable: − − − − -10 % per 5°C exceeding the ambient temperature of 25°C -15 % for installation in wooden. The devices are operating up to an ambient temperature ta = max. the total lamp load may not exceed 315W any standard incandescent lamp or halogen lamp up to a total power of 315 W max. 9 35 W TRONIC transformer however.

select the cross section according to the total load of all power boosters (perhaps distribute on cables) and protect by a n-pole MCB L TRONIC-trans. max 315 W L Extension Type A 1 * TRONIC*touch dimmer 1 to further TRONIC-transformers N L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² N N L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² 150 W: 2x2. TRONIC-transformers LV area Figure: Wiring diagram of the TRONIC Light control system with TRONIC-recessed dimmer Chap. max 700 W 4 terminals only for the further TRONIC recessed Power boosters to terminal "1" N TRONICNo connection of further TRONIC transformers possible! 1 recessed Power L booster N 1 L TRONIC recessed power booster N N L TRONIC-trans.5 Page: 9 . 12 V N to further TRONIC-trans. 12 V N min 60** W. 12 V N min 100 W. 12 V N min 100W.5 up to mm²150 W: > entspr. 12 V N **: Minimum load installing TRONIC-recessed power booster to further extensions 2x1.5 mm² 1 TRONICrecessed dimmer **: Minimum load connecting TRONIC-recessed Power boosters to further extensions 2x1. replace the extensions by a 2-way 4-way switch! or 1 L TRONICrecessed Power booster 2x1. select the cross section according to the total load of power boosters. 12 V N min 60** W. N L Extension Type A 1 2x1.5 up to mm² 150 W: 2x2. max 700 W 3x1. TRONIC-transformers LV area Figure: Wiring diagram of the TRONIC Light control system with UP TRONIC-dimmer (flush) L N 2x1.5 mm² 3 core 250 V cable.0 up to mm² 105 W: 2x1.L N 2x1.5 mm²150 W: > entspr. aufteilen. max 700 W L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans. aufteilen. 12 V 2x1.5 mm² N L 1 N to further TRONICrecessed Power booster L N to further N L up to 60 W : 2x1. 12 V 2x1.0 up to mm² 105 W: 2x1.: 1.5 mm² N L 1 N to further TRONICrecessed Power boosters L N to further N L up to 60 W : 2x1.5 mm² N *: If aTRONIC-dimmer with push/change switch is installed.5 mm² 3 core 250 V cable. all (perhaps distribute on the cables) 2x1.

the electronic ballast supplies a constant current I ST from the control input „ . -“ The voltage U ST.6 Page: 1 . fluorescent lamps). If the 10V control inputs of several electronic ballasts are connected by means of one control wire..e. So the brightness of all lamps can be set by means of one potentiometer at one central place. It is analogously designed to the well-known dimmer construction with push button and rotary knob and can be installed in the standard flush switch box. which is +“ flowing across the electronic potentiometer to the control input „ of the electronic ballast.N 230 V ~ L Electronic potentiometer + - Current source IST UST + EVG L N Electronic for controlling the lamps Figure: Principle function of the 1-10V interface 1. For it.e.10 V (because of that this control is also called 1-10 V interface). It sets the corresponding brightness of the lamps.6 Electronic potentiometer for 10 V control input In the lighting technology electronic ballasts are increasingly used for the operation of lamps (i. is in +“ -“ direct proportion to the resistance of the electronic potentiometer. 1 . fluorescent lamps) depending on the voltage applied to control input U ST (see figure Principle function of the 1-10V interface). The Electronic potentiometer for 10 V control input serves both for switching-on and -off the mains voltage of the electronic ballast and for the adjustment of the control voltage without troubles N 230 V ~ L L N + - at the 10 V control input of the electronic ballast. which is then set at the control input at „ and „ of the electronic ballast. Mains wire Electronic ballast 1 IST2 L N + - Electronic ballast 2 Further ballasts UST IST1 Control wire Electronic potentiometer + IST = IST1 + IST2 + . which are equipped with an 1-10V control input.6. These electronic ballasts measure the voltage applied to the 10V control input. 1.. UST - Figure: Wiring of the Electronic potentiometer Chap. which lies in the range of approx. the voltage of the 10V control inputs can be adjusted.1 Principle operation Electronic ballasts with 10 V control input control the brightness of the connected lamps (i. Larger lighting installation can be realized by that means.: 1.

the rotary knob has to be fixed on its left limitation (see figure Electronic potentiometer). By means of an exponential characteristic of the potentiometer it is achieved. if the connected electronic ballasts are designed for the operation of either one or two fluorescent lamps. Circuit dimension). If you are adjusting the minimum brightness. -“ Fine-wire fuse.6 Page: 2 . The control behaviour of the electronic ballast depends on the manufacturer and the fluorescent lamps show a different behaviour depending from the type and the manufacturer.. that the angle position of the rotary knob will slightly change to certain brightness values. The sum of all constant currents from the 10 V control inputs I STΣ = I ST1 + I ST2 + . Use only fluorescent lamps of one manufacturer and one type. the dark position may not be mixed up with the mains disconnection of the electronic ballast. This brightness must be well visible by the human eye. Use only electronic ballasts of one manufacturer. 1 x 36 W or 2 x 36 W or 1 x 58 W or 2 x 58 W) 3. it is possible to switch the supply of the electronic ballast by means of other electrical equipment. The Electronic potentiometer is then only used for the adjustment of the control wire. type F 500 H 250 Figure: Electronic potentiometer 1. e.g.6. mains voltage could be applied to the control inputs „ and +“ „ and the fine-wire fuse will trip.3.6. In this case the terminals L and N of the Electronic potentiometer are not connected. e. are flowing through the Electronic potentiometer. Because of this reason. if the current I ST through the Electronic potentiometer is changed by. 2. Use only electronic ballasts with a unique power. separate 2-way circuits. please note the following installation rules to achieve an optimum continuos firing and dimming behaviour of all connected lamps Chap. So a common UST is set for all electronic ballast. In case of an installation fault. e. a minimum brightness is adjusted by means of a trimmer in the Electronic potentiometer after the installation of the lights.2 Installation rules It is insignificant to the control function. The 10 V control wire is galvanically separated from the mains and is not allowed to be wired to L and N.g.g. So.: 1.If more than one electronic ballast should be controlled simultaneously. Since according to the VDE requirements.. Information: The control function of the Electronic potentiometer is not supplied by the mains terminals. only the 10V control inputs are connected in parallel by means of one control wire (see figure: Wiring of the Electronic potentiometer).. 1. − − − Switching of further electronic ballasts Retrofitting with other types of electronic ballasts or other measures Turn potentiometer with push switch Adjustment of the minimum brightness + - The maximum number of electronic ballast that can be controlled simultaneously is determined by the switching capacity of the mains switch and by the maximum allowed current flowing through the Electronic potentiometer (see 1.

8 mA 1. the mains voltage of the electronic ballasts must be switched with a separate relay. If the resulting total power exceeds 1380 VA.2. which is specified for the corresponding switching capacity.4 Behaviour in case of installation faults Exchanging the mains terminals „↑" and „ of ↓" the Electronic potentiometer is insignificant.: 1.5 Technical data (The technical data have been up-to-date at the time publishing the chapters. Here are two examples: IST per HELVAR ballast: IST per SIEMENS ballast: max. switching capacity of the mains switch: 1380 VA ( 6 A) Fine-wire fuse: F 500 H 250 As the Electronic potentiometer can carry control currents ISTΣ up to 40 mA. . regarding the power losses of the electronic ballast and others.7 V max.6 Page: 3 . and slight differences in the data may occur. The brightness can not be adjusted. Exchanging the mains inputs „↑" and „ with the ↓" control inputs „ and „ will damage the +“ -“ Electronic potentiometer. control voltage UST min: 0. control current IST Σ: 40 mA max.6. 1. that the maximum switching capacity of the mains switch in the Electronic potentiometer of 1380 VA (6A) will not exceed.6. Chap.1. the lamps will remain in off-position or will shine very dark. 2. Exchanging the control outputs „ and „ of the +“ -“ Electronic potentiometer.6.) max. 0. This influences the products. it possible to control simultaneously 20 HELVAR ballasts 50 SIEMENS ballasts But you have to ensure. the function becomes still effective. It can be tested by adding the power of all connected lamps and then the total power is multiplied by the factor 1. but there might be changes in the meantime to follow the technical progress.3 Circuit dimension Unfortunately the amount of the constant currents IST supplied by the control inputs is different.0 mA max. The binding technical data can be taken from the manual delivered with the product. control voltage UST max: 12 V min. Each manufacturer offers Electronic ballasts with different current. A danger of fire is avoided by the tripping of the fine-wire fuse. however defects will not appear.

which is oscillating at 455 kHz. type 1. that switch and dimming command are different because of the differently long operation of the push button.7. as it is described in chapter 1. as it is described in the chapter "The coding system" 4 batteries. If the IR-receiver. At each key stroke the transmit IC identifies.5. In this position only the address bit A3 to A5 are set in a way (see figure Complete telegram in chapter 1.1 IR-handheld transmitter The above figure shows the principle circuit of the 8channel handheld transmitter with a group switch. if no key is pressed. So an additional on-off-switch is cancelled. will be used.7 Page: 1 .: 1. The transmission of a telegram takes only a time of approx.3. serve for the voltage supply of the handheld transmitter. this signal is transferred to the IC input (called key sensor). Each key in the keyboard is fixed to a signal by means of the IC output (called key driver). An oscillator circuit serves for the clock generation of the transmit IC. The receiver must be able to win back an equivalent continuos operation signal from this telegram sequence. In order to save the battery energy. All pulses and breaks of a telegram are derived from this oscillation.7. the electronic falls into a standby mode.5. described in chapter 1.2. So it must be able to create short and long signals. The base of the 4channel handheld transmitter is the Principle circuit of IR-transmitter. To achieve the required signal length.7 Additional devices of the IRremote control system 1. The transmit IC then selects the telegram corresponding to the key stroke and to the switch position and the telegram is transmitted by means of the transmitting diodes. The keyboard is designed only with the keys 1 to 4.4. 60-90 ms. It is known. When a key of the keyboard is pressed. The 8fold group switch is not available.1 2 3 4 8 A B C D Key driver Transmitting diodes Key sensor H Voltage supply (Battery) Keyboard 8fold group switch Transmit IC 455 kHz Oscillator Figure: Principle circuit of IR-transmitter 1. the 8fold group switch is to set on position "A". The 4channel handheld transmitter can only make a distinction among 4 keys and sends only 4 different telegrams. the devices provided with IR-receivers will respond. The handheld transmitter must be able to generate the same commands.2. The use of the key sensor input is depending on the position of the 8fold group switch.5 V Micro. Chap. which key was pressed and knows the position of the 8fold group switch. the telegrams of the key operation duration are repeated frequently.4). Only a very small current is required in that mode. But in many applications this is still sufficient. you can imagine that the output of the keyboard is permanently fixed with the transmit IC's input A. They can be inserted into the back of the transmitter after removing the battery cover.

seen from the mounting place of the wall transmitter. corresponding to the address. The preamplifier filters the 455 kHz carrier frequency and offers the telegram to its output without the carrier frequency. If only one 455 kHz pulse is lost or added on the way to the preamplifier.7 Page: 2 . The keyboard contains the keys 1 to 4. it operates like a current source and supplies the following circuit with current. A very small leakage current is flowing through the diode in the darkness.2 IR-wall transmitter The electronic circuit of the wall transmitter is nearly similar to the circuit of the 4channel handheld transmitter. The intensity of the arriving 455 kHz signals vary. Now the telegram has an electric representation. The geometrical relations of the mounting place of the transmitter. A2 A1 45° Figure: IR-wall transmitter radiation You should pay attention. The decoder is a microprocessor with 1 MHz clock. but 4 transmitting diodes are transmitting the telegram. The diode generates current deviations.: 1. the radiated IRlight must reach a large area of the ceiling. The preamplifier regulates the signal onto an amplitude of 4-5 V and transfers the telegram to the decoder.1. that the distance between the mounting place of the receiver and the wall of the transmitter (A2) is higher than the distance between the mounting place of the receiver and the ceiling (A1). The current supply is ensured by means of a 9V block battery. ° 40 Chap. because it depends on the transmission distance and on the radiation angle. decodes the transmitted address and switches the decoder output into the active mode. the Principle circuit of the IR-transmitter is also effective. The decoder recognizes a faulty telegram and it will not be evaluated.7. which correspond to the intensity of the IR-light In that way. the so-called dark current. Thus. The decoder contains 8 outputs and it is able to distinguish 8 different telegrams that have a difference in the bit A2-A0.7. because then the IRreceiver is not installed in the badly radiated area above the wall transmitter. the radiation angle IR-light and the mounting place of the receiver can be taken from the following picture: 1 MHz Oscillator Figure: Principle circuit of an IR-receiver The IR receiving diodes are operating in reverse direction. It evaluates the address and sets one output. as it is shown in the figure Principle circuit of an IR-receiver. The 4 transmitting diodes are mounted in small angle to one another and upwards to reach a maximum radiation angle. Thus. group A is fixed permanently. but with minor changes: − − − The 8fold group switch is cancelled. reads all 12 bit of the telegram. The microprocessor senses the telegram supplied by the pre-amplifier. the next amplifier receives current pulses that are in direct proportion to the arriving light. at the output of the preamplifier the telegram is strongly damaged. This feature is called "photo electric effect" or in short words: photo-effect. 1.3 IR-receiver for UP devices (flush mounting) Current supply Reset circuit Attached key Preamplifier IC Reiceiving diodes Decoder IC (Processor) S1 OUT The wall transmitter was designed to operate the receiver in the ceiling area. When IRlight hits the diode. Not 2.

The connected loads should respond to this channel. The receiver circuit is assembled in a unit and thus it can be used as a remote attachment for several full-electronic installation devices. the switch command appears with a maximum delay of 100 ms at the receiver output because the complete telegram must be transmitted. The channel number corresponds to the key number of the transmitter. It is evaluated by means of the connected load. To be able to transmit also dimming commands. This short delay is not noticed in current practice. after the receipt of a telegram the decoder output is set as long as a next telegram is evaluated and this sets the decoder output furthermore. Chap. So. It has always the same construction and different functions. Thus it is ensured.The channel number of the receiver was set at the installation of the receiver. an output signal is generated which is continuos and in proportion to the key stroke of the transmitter. If the transmit key is pressed.7 Page: 3 . the desired decoder output is switched to the load by means of the select switch S1 (see figure Principle circuit of an IR-receiver).: 1. if the corresponding key is pressed. If no more telegrams with the same contents are arriving. that a load gets only a signal. For this purpose. the decoder output is reset.

if rooms are entered very often and for a short time. The possibilities of application are nearly unlimited: − − − − − − − − − Switching on demand in passages. however they are also emitting an essential part of their radiation in the IR range. a power stage connected afterwards closes the load circuit and switches-on the installed consuming device. optical filter FET The body heat of a person which is moving in the surveillance field is detected as a heat difference. halogen lamps and discharging lamps) are designed to emit radiation in the visible range about 0. D S Gate resistor Sensor crystals G Sensor housing Figure: Construction of a sensor Chap. These crystals generate an electric voltage in case of heat changes (positive or negative temperature change). There is an essential benefit.1 Observer General fundamentals Heat radiation i -ntensity / Kelvin visible Infrared 3000 K Passive infra-red motion detectors become more and more an element of a good electric installation in the private and commercial area.1 Hz) To suppress influences from the environment. The heat radiation of the human being has its maximum in the infra-red range between 9 and 10 µm.1 Page: 1 . on lofts. 2. 0. It is able to be reflected and focused by lens. Lithium-tantalite crystals are the basis of such IR detectors. The infra-red spectrum starts above the visible light. 2. from 0. The wave length of this IR radiation is dependent on the temperature of the body. entrance areas on terraces in stockrooms on parking places and garages to achieve light effects in entrance halls and exhibitions Lighting of stairwells Access protection Detection of persons in elevators 1 300 K 10 100 1000 Wave length / µm Figure: Intensity of the heat radiation This fact is used to detect persons by means of pyroelectric IR-detectors that have a high sensivity at the infra-red long-wave range.555 µm.1 Light and sensor Explanation of the principle: Heat radiation that triggers a surveillance process. Motion detectors belong to the fully automatic installation devices. that means light sources will be switched-on. different moisture) − The distance between the heat source and the IR sensor − The moving motion and the moving direction of the heat source − The sensivity of the PIR element (behaviour like a band-pass filter dependent on the frequency with a maximum at approx. The voltage generated by the crystals is in the range of some µV (µV = millionth volt) and depends on following conditions: − The intensity of the heat source (temperature and amount) − The environment media (temperature. garage drives. two crystals in the sensor are connected antiparallel and unwanted switching is avoided.: 2.1. Lamps (incandescent lamps. if a person enters the detection field and it will be switched-off again.2. is in the infra-red range of the wave spectrum. backyards. cellars. This switching-on demand respectively a convenient switching helps to save current.780 µm on. The infra-red sensors send a switch pulse to the electronic. The infra-red radiation behaves similarly to the visible light. if a person leaves the detection field (after a pre-set delay time). The human body emits heat radiation in this range.

The construction of the PIR-sensor / lens system that is used in surface mounting observers is covered by a protective foil.When heat radiation hits the crystals. This optical filter limits the analysed range to the medium infra-red of 7-14 µm. the triggering is impossible by means of heat changes of the environment. Figure: Surveillance rays In case of fast moves the process is different. Please. it is of great importance before installation. These observers are designed for a rough outdoor use and are weatherproof. The lithiumtantalat crystals generate their pulses with a delay time corresponding to the created heat change. Protective foil Lens system Figure: Weatherproof observer Further more the protective foil is designed as an UV-filter for the lens system. 180° or 240°). They are according to protection degree IP 55 (splash water protected). Thus. The sensor element is covered by means of filter glass to reduce the surveillance area. Dependence on the range by means of physical factors The range and so the area of the surveillance field of a PIR motion detector depends on various physical factors. The number of rays and the density of the detection is a direct feature of the response sensivity and of the quality of the PIR observer. So the lens system would not be transparent for the IRradiation.1. and it is used to trigger the detection process in the observers. think about the most suitable observers (70°. The lens system has the task to concentrate the arriving heat radiation to the PIR-element by means of focusing.: 2.1. A sufficient sensivity is then achieved. A small air gap between the protective foil and the lens system prevents the steaming of the lens by means of condensation. 2.240°) and to survey in different levels. Sensor element Optical filter Sensor crystals Lens Figure: Ray focusing A surveillance field is designed which is detected by an enormous number of surveillance rays (surveillance fingers). the crystals are protected against electrostatic discharge. The change of one of these factors results in reduction or even enlarging of the range in some cases. which is fixed to ground potential.1 Page: 2 .2 Construction of observers A metal housing contains the sensor crystals.180°. Thus. select the fitting place and note the following physical conditions. Both pulses are added to an alternating size with a high signal amplitude. because they delete one another. that you have an idea about the area that should be detected. they do not trigger a detection process. This foil is glued with the observer housing to be waterproof and the electronic is completely sealed against moisture.3 Chap. This output signal is in proportion to the heat change. 110°. 2. one crystal generates a positive and one crystal generates a negative voltage pulse.110°. If heat changes occur at the same time and with the same intensity. Thus. They are formed to a lens group to get a wide angle (70°. A lens system is used in the observer to focus the IR energy on the sensor area. as UV-light may destroy the material of the lens system if it is shined intensively for a long time. The lens system is called "Fresnel-lens" adapted from the inventor.

You have to calculate a range reduction by means of this motion direction. when entering or leaving the surveillance ray. 2. The longest ray hit the ground − − − at given fitting height not inclined sensor head flat terrain The sensors transfer maximum voltage pulses to the electronic. the heat radiation is worse transmitted to the sensor. sensor inclination. 2. In addition.1. In the figure a person moves from the surveillance ray (1) to the surveillance ray (2). if he enters a surveillance field due to the optical adjustment of the surveillance rays. 2.: 2. In the figure a person moves onto the observer in the surveillance ray (1).3 Detection at the range limits At first a person is detected at the feet.g.3. the range is reduced.3. Deviations from the above listed parameters lead to a change of the range: Range higher lower X Fitting height ↑ X Fitting height ↓ Sensor turned up X Sensor turned down X Falling terrain X Steep terrain X Parameter 1. the range is reduced. 1. fog. In the worst case a person moves directly onto the observer in one surveillance ray (radial motion direction). That means.4 Environmental influences Fog Snow He at r ad iati on Rain Figure: Reduction of the heat energy The human heat radiation is transmitted to the sensor using the media air. Figure: Worst case of motion direction The optimum motion direction is a crosswise motion to the observer (tangential motion direction).1 Page: 3 .3. the person has to walk closer to observer. Chap. on cold days heat-isolated clothes are worn and thus the radiated heat energy is essentially reduced. e. By means of this influences.2. 2. This so-defined range is published in the technical documentations of observers. which ensures the detection of the motion. terrain The PIR motion detectors "watch" through the optical lens from the fitting place towards the bottom. Figure: Best case of motion direction 2. A person is detected.1. when he is leaving the ray (1) and when he is entering the ray (2). snow or rain (absorption of the heat radiation) will affect the range.1. So environmental influences as. Doing this. only minimum voltage pulses are generated due to the small temperature changes. The temperature difference between the body and the environment is an essential term to achieve a good detection.2 Motion direction The observer electronic detects a change of heat. at the rated range. This does not lead to a detection in each case and the lamps are not switched-on.1.3. If the temperature difference entering the surveillance field has no sufficient amount.1 Fitting height.

: 2. − the light shall be able to be switched manually In most cases the detected motion has to be converted to a switching-on a light. High currents can be switched by means of such contact material. While switching-on. The measured quantity of the brightness is the illuminance in lux. e. used in high-quality observers.3.g. Following requirements are present to realize a switching: − in case of detection. In the figure you can see a real observer application with reduced and increased ranges: Active range Rated fitting height Sensor head not tilt Lawn 19 °C Favourable motion direction Lawn 16 °C Falling terrain Rated range Stone plates or asphalt 24 °C 24 °C Unfavourable motion direction Figure: Real installation of observers 2.1 Page: 4 . The dependence of the switch process on the ambient brightness is realized by means of a light depending resistor (LDR). Chap.2. Its so-called dark resistance is up to some megaohms. fog) the motion direction of the person the active range is determined for the given application.1. The load contact of a relay. silver-tin-oxide alloys. as well as in the pre-set delay time. the electric resistance is falling to 1/1000 of the dark resistance.1. the motion detector is active and a motion is converted into a "switchon the light". If the desired value is reached or exceeded. This is achieved by an integrated twilight switch. Such a photo-resistor is high-resistive in the nonilluminated state. is built of material that is resistant against burn-up.5 Summary: Depending on − the inclination of the sensor head − the terrain (steep or flat) − the fitting height − the current temperature of the person (depending on the clothes) − the current ground temperature in the surveillance field − − the current ground moisture (rain.4 Function of the observer The observer has the task to translate a detected motion into a switch command. the consumers are supplied with mains voltage by means of the power switch. if the brightness is falling below a minimum value (twilight switch). A high resistance is guaranteed against short circuits in the connected consumers. snow. Another requirement to a powerful PIR observer is. If the illumination increases. By means of electronic components the current through this resistor is measured and it is compared with the pre-set desired value of the twilight switch (lux tuner). Contact material is used. the "On-state" shall be stored. light should only be switched-on. So the PIR signal has to be amplified to control a power switch (relay or triac). − the switching-on shall depend on the ambient brightness.

the consumer stays in on-state for a pre-set time (potentiometer time). It is sensible to note. triac) & >1 & 6 Brightness adjustment 12 Release Power unit Figure: Principle circuit Chap. In the indoor area the flush-boxes are mounted in a fitting height of approx. if motion is detected.1 m and so it may happen.: 2. Principle of function To get a better knowledge about the function of a PIR motion detector.R MOHM 1.9 0. Brightness with values more than 80 lux appear at the daylight mode.g.5 0. that a switching at daylight and a switching at the twilight is continuously adjustable. To avoid a switching in case of a sufficient room illumination. that the upper brightness range (between 10-80 lux) supports a wide range of regulation at the lux tuner. then the light is switched independently on the brightness. Thus.6 0.5 Electronic circuit.4 0. the electronic circuit is shown by means of the flowing figure and in a block structure: Sensor head IR rays 1 PIR sensor 2 Filter 3 Amplifier Sensivity (only in 240° device) 4 Threshold detection 5 Brightness sensor 10 230V AC N Current supply 9 Detection of mains failure Switch indication Lamp N TIME 8 7 11 Timing stage LUX 13 Switching stage ( relay. so the twilight switch is not active.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 E LUX The twilight switch of indoor observers (e. an electronic delay time was realized. 1.3 0. although the person has left the surveillance field.1. It ignores short dark phases and a faulty switching is extensively excluded.7 0. that means each new motion in the surveillance area starts the switch-on time again. flush mounting observer) should be provided with an additional sensivity delay (hysteresis).1 Page: 5 . 2.2 0. The observers operate in a retriggering mode during the switch-on process.8 0. that the brightness sensor gets dark by means of a shadow of a body who is moving across.0 0. Figure: LDR characteristic The range of regulation of the twilight switch is designed.

The sensors generate an alternating voltage of some µV. This component changes its resistance depending on the received light density. the observer can detect a negative change of heat in the case of switching-off .g. the brightness sensor will detect a sufficient illuminance and the device does not evaluates the motion. The power switch is designed as a relay or as a triac . By means of this circuit a problem of re-switching-on is extensively excluded. a new switching-on can appear. leaf moved by wind) 3. The brightness is adjusted in the power unit. are not locked respectively the locking time of 3 seconds is over. Lamps take the energy from the mains and. Chap. 11. The brightness sensor is realized by means of a light sensitive resistor. standard incandescent lamps. 2 1 Figure: Re-switching-on If the lighting is switched-off. 5. 12. If in this case the light of the switched lamp shines onto other observers. Thus. Only after that time a motion can be detected again. 13.1 Page: 6 .to switch the load circuit also. this component applies an H-level to the input of the following AND gate. Filter circuit. emit a high part of energy as heat.6 Influence on the observer by means of the switched lamp As above described.The switching stage closes the load circuit. 7. 2. So a H from ˆ and a H from the release stage is required for starting the timing stage. Observers. 8. if the brightness is fallen below the pre-set minimum value † and the threshold value „ has exceeded a defined value. If such a lamp is fitted in the surveillance field of the observer. The threshold detection stage gives a defined High level to the output. This locking time turns the device into the inactive mode after a switching-off for approx.g. 4. Otherwise a Low level (low voltage) is given. 3 sec. if a H-level is applied to ‰ or ‡. The timer is realized by means of a 14stage frequency divider and sets the switch-on time (time tuner) of the lamp load.1. If the brightness falls below the pre-set value. PIR sensor elements. The reason is. An H-level is only generated. detection ‰ and to the current supply 10 This enables 10. PIR motion detectors switch electrical consumer depending on the heat difference in the surveillance field. OR logic. that have not detected a motion ( in the figure device ‚). 2. AND logic. ‚ measures a sufficient ambient brightness and the detected motions will not switch the lamp. In the following figure the device • is active. the observers are provided with a locking time. Slow processes are filtered. Unwanted switching is avoided by means of temperature changes of the nature (e. the lamps are detected (cooling down and with that a heat change appears) or the lamps heat is reflected or the distance between the observer and the lamp is too small. The lamp is cooling down at this moment and the observer switches again. Observers are provided with a twilight sensor. when heat changes have been detected. if no motion was detected orthe minimum brightness was not reached ( manual operation). single devices or devices in parallel. it is possible to switch the lamps depending on the ambient temperature.The release stage blocks the timing stage for a short time after the switching-off to suppress an oscillating before the next switching-on (locking time). This stage gives a H-level (switch command) to the output.The input of the timing stage forms another AND gate. In many cases lighting is switched.1. To avoid this. The signal of the PIR sensor is amplified by operation amplifiers for a further evaluation. if the limit is exceeded. In many cases a switching of the lamps and a detection of the motion is only desired at the beginning of the twilight.: 2. The OR logic is connected to the mains failure 9. e. 6.It is depending on the observer type.

observers as a component of an alarm system trigger in case of an unwanted detection and a fault alarm would be occur.7 Observer (Motion detector)suitable for alarm systems? Passive infra-red motion detectors are suitable for automatic switching-on and -off various light sources and for switching on demand and for switching for convenience. that a PIR motion detector is able to frighten an 'undesired visitor' by means of the surprise light switching. Because of the clothes. As described in the above chapters. as it is required in combination with an alarm system. We can summarize. ventilation etc.2 1 Figure: Brightness sensor and room light of the body ( face and hands ) emit sufficient heat rays to trigger a switching-on. Observers are able to trigger a circuit. we understand. if animals or warm and cold air currents enter the surveillance field (heating. In case of disconnection.: 2. Thus. If we think about that. those heat sources with small energy nearby also have to be detected.1. air-conditioning. at first not the human motion. 2. But safety is not supported. but the heat change in the surveillance field is detected.1 Page: 7 . Sensors. only some parts Chap. Devices being suitable for alarm systems have a contact against sabotage.). it turns the device on and an alarm is set. being sensitive on very small heat changes. are able to detect human motion high distance away (up to 16 m). Furthermore important features are a protection against drilling and a VdS approval (Verein deutscher Sachversicherer) to integrate an observer into an alarm system.

1. Single devices contain a sensor head. 2. If the Observer is mounted in height of 2. 10 seconds.4 m min.50 m on a vertical wall. Chap. 110. Observer 70° Move direction ~11 m ~8 m Figure: Surveillance field Observer 70 ~8 m Fresnel lens Electronic PIR sensor ~11 m Figure: Top view Surveillance levels Observer 70 minimum medium range maximum Figure: Principle of the range adjustment Observer 70 If moving.1 Test setting The observer 70 contains a test setting to adapt it quickly to the local conditions.1 Observer 70 The Observer 70 is designed for mounting on a flat wall and contains an adjustment of the range in 3 levels.2. the width of the surveillance field is approx.2. 11 m and the depth is approx. min. 3min Test 1min L 5min 10sec max. This is realized by moving the sensor in relation to the lens. power switch). 2. lens system) and an isolated power unit (power supply.40 m and the adjustment is on maximum range. (sensor crystals.2. operating elements.2 Page: 1 . The inclination of the observer head is 14° to achieve the rated range. 8 m. All required components are built in one housing. The observer 70. The minimum switch-on time is approx. even at daylight.2 Single observers for surface mounting Single observers are devices that form a complete unit. The 'surveillance rays' leave the Observer with a variable angle of inclination.2 Observer 110 The rated range of the Observer 110 is defined on a mounting height of 2. 180/16 and 240 are single devices for surface mounting. Figure: Test setting Observer 70 Figure: Position notches in Observer 70 Through this the maximum range can be adapted individually to the local conditions 2. max. 180/10. The surveillance field is being separated into 5 fan-shaped areas.2.: 2. The brightness tuner is set to the symbol 'sun'. the housing snaps into three positions notches: Notch top: Notch center: Notch bottom: maximum range medium range minimum range N DISTANCE 2.

that the capactive leakage currents are added. it is possible to adjust individually the surveillance radius. The Observer 110 provides a separate tuner for the test setting. In the following picture. Chap.2.5 m 0.2. If other Observers 110 are connected in parallel you should note.5m 2. 1 sec). By walking through the surveillance field and changing the sensor head inclination.: 2. 0 m to approx. In the test setting mode the twilight switch has no function and the switch-on time is independent on the setting "time".2 Spark absorber Malfunctions may be created. the sensor head should be tilt into the best position to achieve the desired surveillance field. 5 m 5 m to approx. 0. which also flows through the connected load.2. Possible sources of interferences may be eliminated by means of these specific measures. The supplied blinds limit the angle of surveillance from 110° to 90°. 0. it may happen that the relay triggers although the contact is opened. To exclude this.2. Figure: Dimensions of the surveillance field 2. these components lead a leakage current (approx. Extended range: from approx. 16m Figure: Top view Surveillance levels Observer 110 Three levels are defined as follows: Close range: from Intermediate range: from approx.3 Set of blinds Observer 110 It is possible to limit the surveillance range of the Observer 110. When the contacts are opened.Electronic relays act very sensitively on small energizing currents. if inductive loads are switched.4 Test setting After installing the Observer 110.2.2. It is limited to approx.2 Page: 2 . So there is a possibility to adapt the Observer 110 to the local conditions by means of moving and stopping in the surveillance field (the Observer switches-off after approx.5m 2. If you use the following relay. A mechanical relay should be always used to avoid these disturbances. 16 m 5m 0.8 mA).5 m to approx. 1 second. you may connect 4 Observer 110 in parallel: Schupa relay type Schupa built-in types NFR-4 s/220 NSH 21 and NSH 22 Figure: Presentation Surveillance field Observer 110 The surveillance field is separated into 3 surveillance levels to achieve the best dense detection. these levels are illustrated in a diagram: Eberle installation relay types ISCH 21 and ISCH 25 to ISCH 27 25m If an incandescent lamp 15 Watt is connected in parallel to the relay coil of the mechanical relay. They can permanently hold a mechanical relay. you may operate up to 10 Observers in parallel. If an electronic relay is connected to the Observer 110. 16m 2. 60° or 25°. the contacts of the Observer 110 are bridged by a series circuit with capacitor and varistor.

Figure: Dimensions Surveillance levels The Observer 180/10 is designed for mounting on a flat house wall and is a low-cost alternative.2 Test setting The test setting of the Observer 180/10 is started by adjusting the time tuner to minimum time (approx. 16x32 m and 3 levels. semi-circular surveillance field of approx. Figure: Surveillance field Observer 180/10 20m Figure: Surveillance field Observer 180/16 10m Figure: Top view Surveillance levels Observer 180/10 The size of the surveillance field is defined by the lens geometry and a range of 16 meters is realized. This distance is effective in the total semi-circular area.2.2.3. 10m 6m 0 m to approx.40 m and the sensor head is not tilt 3 surveillance levels are effective: Close range: from Intermediate range: from approx. Extended range: from approx. 80 lux = day operation).4m 32m 16m Figure: Top view Surveillance levels Observer 180/16 If the Observer 180/16 is mounted in a height of 2.40 m and the angle of inclination is 0°. 20 m and the depth is approx. If the Observer 180/10 is fitted in a height of 2. 2. if a high range or switching capacity is not required.2 Page: 3 .2. 10 m 3m 2. Three levels are defined as follows: Close range: from Intermediate range: from approx. the angle of surveillance can be reduced by means of using the blinds.2. interference sources are eliminated from the surveillance field.3 Observer 180/10 A semi-circular surveillance field of the Observer 180/10 consists of 3 levels.: 2. 3 m 3 m to approx. Extended range from approx. 2. 3 m 3 m to approx. 0 m to approx.4 Observer 180/16 The Observer 180/16 has a dense. 6 sec) and adjusting the brightness tuner to maximum brightness (approx. Potential Chap.3.2.1 Limitation of the surveillance field If required. 16 m 2. 10 m. then the width of the surveillance field is approx. 9 m 9 m to approx. 6 m 6 m to approx.

Due to its semi-circular surveillance field the Observer 180/16 is suitable to be fitted onto flat walls.4m Figure: Dimensions Surveillance levels Two PIR sensors are in operation.: 2.40 m and the sensor head is not tilt. If motions appear behind the mounted Observer these are not detected due to the angle of surveillance of 180°.5. Figure: Surveillance field Observer 240 The size of the surveillance field is 22m x 20m. rectangular field consisting of 3 levels. Extended range: from approx. 0 m to approx. That is the so-called 'guard against attempts to crawl under the ray'. Chap.2. which are mounted on the printed wire board.2. Undesired switchings are excluded. Also this opening of the guard against attempts to crawl under the ray is equipped with a lens system that is described in chapter 2. 16 m Figure: Dimensions Surveillance field Two PIR sensors in the Observer 180/16 detect the heat radiation. If the Observer 240 is inclined to reduce the range. Higher heat changes are necessary at reduced sensivity to trigger a detection process in the threshold stage. Motions directly underneath the Observer are detected by means of an optic. if heat radiation of the mounted wall itself is detected. 1 m 1 m to approx. In the close range a special guard against attempts to crawl under the ray is realized.4m Close range: from Intermediate range: from approx. 2. which is being turned to the bottom.1. 3 surveillance levels are effective: This is achieved by increasing the required switch level in the threshold detection stage (see chapter 2.2. 22m 20m 16m Figure: Adaptation of range / sensivity Figure: Top view surveillance field Observer 240 If the Observer 240 is mounted in a height of 2. 9 m 9 m to approx.2 Page: 4 .5).1 Sensivity setting A special feature of the Observer 240 is the possibility to adjust the sensivity according to the inclination of the sensor head. you are able to attenuate respectively reduce the sensitivity by means of a potentiometer.5 Observer 240 The Observer 240 has a dense. 16m 9m 1m 2. 2.16m 9m 3m 2. A dense surveillance field is formed which closes with the house wall.1.

2 Page: 5 .In the close range a super-sensitive triggering is avoided using a tilt sensor.5. The burning of the glow lamp is tantamount to the switching of the power relay. 4 sec) and the day operation (maximum brightness) by means of the 2 potentiometers. Smallest heat changes are not detected. A switch-on process (that means. 2 1 Figure: Excluding of sources of interferences in the extended range Figure: Cutting out the blinds An example with an Observer 180/16 for excluding lateral sources of interferences: • : unmonitored area ‚ : monitored area 2.2. interference sources close to the house can be excluded from the surveillance field. The Observer 240 has an additional blind for the guard against attempts to crawl under the ray.2.2 Push-on blinds The push-on blinds supplied with the Observer 180/10 and Observer 240 can be used to eliminate sources of interferences by limiting the angle of surveillance. 1 2 Figure: Excluding lateral sources of interferences Chap. With that.3 Test settings The single units 180/16 and 240 are equipped with a test system. To exclude the extended range the lower blind lamella are cut out. The switching process is visible without connected the lamps and the Observer can be adjusted to the desired monitoring area.: 2. the set brightness value is falling below the threshold level and a heat source is detected in the surveillance field) is being indicated at the housing of the Observer by means of a burning glow lamp. For that purpose the blinds are cut out and pushed onto the sensor head. It is sensible to set the minimum switch-on time(approx.5. they are created by little animals or moving branches. • : unmonitored area ‚ : monitored area 2.

if devices will be combined.20 m Load is not switched on Active extension. that have not been designed for a common operation (see table). Indoor observers may be assembled according to the individual requirements.2. 2. • the convenience of operation. Incomplete device ! Load switches permanently on Incomplete device ! Load switches permanently on Incomplete device ! Extension transmits no signal to the main station Incomplete device ! No signal to the system power unit Table: Possible combination of inserts and attachments Chap. The possible combinations of the components of the modular system Observer 180 UP are presented in the following table. 2. no attachm. • the number and type of extensions. Each flush-insert can be installed in a 58mm flush-box and can be combined with an attachment. Observer Insert with triac Thus. You may only combine the devices with same colour dot. • the performance of the surveillance field. an attractive solution can be found for almost every possible local condition or installation situation.+ 1. They can be combined to build a complete Observer 180 UP. Standard device with factory settings 2. • the installation height • the protection class and • the program of the covers.20 m Comfort device with individual settings.10 m ! false ! No operating combination ! þ ¡ þ ¡ System attachm. For different loads (see specification) 1.10 m þ l þ l ! false ! No operating combination ! Extension transmits no signal to the main station ! false ! No operating combination ! Attachment transmits no signal to the system power unit Standard attachm. Only for resistive loads Comfort device with individual settings and extension input.3 Modular system Observer 180 UP The Observer 180 UP attachments and inserts are components of the modular system.: 2. Depending on the requirements devices can be assembled that may have differences in: • the allowed load to be connected. Inserts and attachments are marked with a colour dot. l ¡ marked with red dot marked with blue dot no operation in this combination Insert with relay contact Extension insert System insert 1 N 1 N Lx S . Specific problems will occur. . For different loads (see specification) ! false ! No operating combination !! Load switches permanently on 1. The components of the inserts or attachments will not be damage in the case of a wrong combination.20 m Only for resistive loads Standard device with factory settings and extension input.3 Page: 1 . only for controlling relay inserts System sensor for the operation in the Observer system.10 m þ l þ l ! false ! No operating combination ! Extension transmits no signal to the main station ! false ! No operating combination ! Attachment transmits no signal to the system power unit Comfort attachm.

Only other Fresnel lens are fitted in front of the sensor system (see chap.1 Usage Observers 180 UP are ideal to use if a load would be switched depending on the demand and on motion.g. 2.10m 10 m Figure: Top view Surveillance field Version 1 Installation height 1. The entered radiation is reflected directly to the sensor system by means of a mirror system. It is possible to design a typical indoor Observer only by means of the upper surveillance fan.3 Page: 2 1. In public buildings and commercial plants Observers are often mounted in the entrances on the walls. The installation height differs very clearly from this of a normal light switch.3. The light switches are normally installed in a height of 1. If the observer is installed in a height of 1.2.10 m.2 Version 2: Surveillance field for an installation height 2.20 m The surveillance field is similar to the Observers for outdoor use. the size of the surveillance field is 10 m x 12 m. e.2 m Figure: Presentation Surveillance field Version 2. Persons should be detected correctly and pets normally should not be detected. The heart of every attachment is a doublesensor. 2. if the observer is installed in a height of 1. To guarantee an ideal detection.1 m Figure: Presentation Surveillance field Version 1.10m A detection.50 m.1 m . IR rays arriving from other directions are lead to the mirror system.4) to realize two different versions of surveillance fields. 1. 2.1 Version 1: Surveillance field for an installation height 1.10 m in existing buildings.10 m (standard height of flush-boxes) and so a correct detection can not be guaranteed in all cases (see also chap.20m Chap. So a good solution is offered for many applications.3. there are two differently designed surveillance fields for the Observer 180 UP. 2.: 2. in the face area would not be possible with a fan only in the direction to bottom. If the Observer 180 UP will be retrofitted.1. Installation height 2. a PIR sensor with two 'windows'. 12 m Figure: Sectioned illustration Surveillance field Version 1 2.20 m. Possible interferences should be kept as small as possible just at the planning phase. the surveillance field of the Observer 180 UP must be adapted to this conditions.10 m The surveillance field is separated into two levels that are adjusted in an angle of 5° out of the horizontal line.1 Light and sensor).1.3. No matter which combination of insert and attachment has been chosen.1.1. Installing in a height of 2. the surveillance field must be designed differently to the application described above. a field with a depth and width of 12 m and with two levels is detected. 4. The close range has a distance of approx. In a high number of cases the indoor lighting is switched. Installation height 1. Thus.

2 Insert with triac The flush mounting insert with triac is designed as a two wire device and it can replace a conventional on/off-switch or a 2-way or 4-way switch. Pushing them. In detail.20m No upper surveillance fan is existing and this is different to the version described before. 1. The remaining switches are replaced by normally-closed (NC) contacts.10m 6m 2. it is a series circuit with any number of NC contacts and an insert with triac.5 m 12 m Figure: Top view Surveillance field Version 2 Installation height 2. e. However. since all three Observers can be switched-on at the same time. bathrooms. By this. 2. Figure: Triac insert The insert with triac can be installed at any place in a given installation.12 m 2. it is avoided that the PIR sensors are destroyed by means of the energy of direct sun radiation. also if the neutral is not available. This is necessary.: 2. The Observer is then able to be installed in wet rooms. In the following figure the installation in a height of 1.3 Waterproof construction It is planned to extend the modular system Observer 180 UP by a waterproof variant.g.10m is presented.10m The differences to the above described version appear transparently in the following figure. Because of this reason.25 m 6m Figure: Top view Surveillance field Version 2 Installation height 1.1 m 2. 4. Figure: Presentation Surveillance field Version 2.3.3 Page: 3 . the circuit will be interrupted and the load is then manually switched. The value of a triac-switch is 92% due to the necessary remaining phase-cuton of 2 ms. it possible to allow other installation heights and to permit also outdoor applications. The number of the NC contacts in the circuit is not limited.2 m 1.1 m If several switches of a given 4-way circuit are to be replaced. which will comply to protection degree IP 44. the devices may be connected in parallel.1. The device is suitable for resistive loads (standard incandescent lamps 400 W and HV halogen lamp up to 200 W) with a minimum load of 40 W. The maximum connected load will not be increased due to the connection in parallel. Figure: Sectioned illustration Surveillance field Version 2 with different installation heights Chap. a minimum load of 40 W is required per insert. The maximum brightness of a triac-switch is less than that brightness switched in a circuit by a mechanical switch. both levels are adjusted to the bottom. In this case every Observer needs its "own" minimum load of 40 W. The surveillance field and the range will change depending on the installation height. Installation height 1.3. that means the minimum load for 3 inserts is 120 W.

: 2. Again. the attachment sends a signal to the insert and the connected load is switched-on. The attachment evaluates the ambient brightness by means of a LDR (light dependent resistor. Figure: Adjustment of the brightness threshold value Adjustment of the minimum switching-on time: The minimum switch-on time can be adjusted from approx. because the Observers are installed in the height of the light switches. The setting of the potentiometer to the marking "sun" (= 80 lux) means daylight operation. can be installed instead of existing Off. These are in detail: Adjustment of the brightness threshold value: Figure: Insert with relay contacts This insert. 10 lux. if the neutral is found in the flush-box. safer and even cheaper by using an active extension. also fluorescent lamps or motors may be connected. e. since the ambient brightness has be changed anyway by means of the switched lighting. but not sensible because the desired functionality can be achieved more comfortable.3 Insert with relay contact If higher loads will be switched and active extensions will be connected. However.3. the light will remain on.5 Comfort attachment The functionality of the comfort attachment is as equal as the standard attachment. 3-80 lux by means of a potentiometer in the attachment. It has an extension control input `1` . if the lighting is switched once. If a motion is detected and the value is falling below the factory setting of approx. when the sensor is lighted up directly by means of other light. see chapter 2.3. if motion is detected. In addition to standard incandescent lamps and HV halogen lamps (up to 1000W).g. in the test mode a setting onto daylight operation is convenient. 2 minutes in the factory. If the Observer controls a lavatory lighting or a ventilator. too. 2.4).extension push buttons and conventional push buttons (normallyopened) may be connected to this terminal.2. This is sensible in situations. The minimum switch-on time is also set to approx. lighting close to the Observer or windows. in short passages. although the brightness is sufficient. as it is necessary. The device is designed in 3-wiretechnology (neutral connection is required). If there is a permanent motion in the surveillance range. Chap. it is possible to reduce the switching-on time of the lighting to a minimum. Active extensions (see chapter 2.6. In addition it is possible to set some features individually. The power switch in this flush mounting insert is a relay contact. The brightness threshold value can be changed continuously in the range of approx. that a short dark time of the brightness together with a motion in front of the sensor will cause a faulty switching.3 Page: 4 . Then the lighting is not longer in operation.3. The threshold value of the brightness of 10 lux is no more relevant.4 Standard attachment The standard attachment may be combined with an insert with triac and relay contacts. It is recommended to set the test setting on 10 seconds at setting-up. it is possible that the shadow of a walking person covers the LDR in the device.2) and/or IR. far away from the flush mounting Observer. e. With that. but the area to be lighted is always in the dark. A connection in parallel is possible.1. the minimum switch-on time is reset by each new motion and is running again (retriggering).3. 1 N 2. It provides the complete voltage to the lamp. the flush mounting insert with relay contact will meet these requirements. The lighting is switched independent on the ambient brightness.and 2-way switches. the switching-on time has to be increased essentially. conventional and TRONIC transformers (up to 750 VA).g. 10 sec to 10 min by means of a potentiometer. A trigger delay is realized in the attachment to avoid. Just using of the Observer 180 UP.

3 Page: 5 .g. • and. These processes are.g. conv. Besides the financial advantages using the extension insert instead of an insert with triac or with relay contacts. If the switching on demand should be disabled (e.6. push button) or active extension (see figure Principle circuit Extension identification) If a pulse of a passive extension is identified.1 Why active extensions? You may not agree immediately to the necessity of active extensions. that processes are unintentionally detected. But some arguments shall quickly display the transparency and show the advantages using active extensions instead of connecting Observers in parallel. Any desired number of extensions may be connected to the Chap. • IR-extension push buttons 4fold Eb. In this case it may happen. e. Permanent light is useful for works as cleaning or renovation. Although every device has the same set brightness threshold value. which is perhaps recognized as a heat change. though at the first sight the same functionality can be achieved by switching Observers in parallel. Very often flush mounting Observers are used in small passages and corridors that have a width of only 2 m.10 min 5 min 10 sec 1 min extension input "1" of the insert with relay contacts.3. Figure: Adjustment of the sensitivity Operation mode switch: By means of the operation mode switch the Observer can be set into Permanent-Off. so that the load is only switched. Switching the light frequently would be felt troublesome. walls with glasses or mirrors or perhaps they are created by the lighting switched by the Observer itself. The brightness value is exclusively evaluated in the attachment of the main station and it is independent on the ambient brightness at the extensions. the brightness evaluation is active in every device. The main station is able to identify whether the pulse is sent by a passive (e. Using this both extension types. Suitable extensions are: • Conventional push buttons with normally-open contacts (non-lighted). 2. the active Observer 180 UP extension. • IR-push buttons with permanent pulse 40 VA. when the brightness is below the threshold value of the attachment. which is composed of the extension insert and a system attachment (see the following chapter) An extension does not switch a load. The reduction of the sensitivity gives a possibility to attenuate this interferences. one device can be active while the others are still locked.6 Operation with extensions A switch respectively main station is created by combining an insert with relay contacts with a standard or comfort attachment. It is not required to operate the device with the 100% sensivity. The time constants of the cooling of the lamps are in the range of seconds. So an adaptation to the room condition is possible.: 2.g. it only sends a pulse to the main station. Figure: Adjustment of the minimum switch-on time Adjustment of the sensivity: The sensivity can be reduced from 100% to approx. Permanent-ON or Automatic operation. 2.g. So only. light effects during presentations) you can meet this request by using the operation mode switch. The Automatic operation can be locked to avoid a switching-on or -off by mistake. there are also very well reasons due to the functions. Connecting in parallel. A LV lighting contains a very high red light part. a combination of the main station and the extension support the evaluation of one sole brightness value. heat reflection from light walls. of course. A signal of an active Observer 180 UP extension is linked to an AND in the attachment. e. the lighting is switched-on for the time that has been set in the attachment. 20%. the main station is switching independently on the ambient brightness.3. Then it may happen that a light situation occurs which is different at every device.

switch-on time and locking time are realized exclusively in the main station.6 these possible problems are described in detail. There. The positive half wave applied to OK by D1 is added to a complete sine wave by means of Th1 and R1. In chapter 2. a signal between High and Low is formed from the 50 Hz rectangular signal. The locking time was integrated to exclude a sudden re-switching of the lighting because of the detection of heat reflection (see chapter 2. The minimum time of a correct identification at the extension insert of the attachment is 200 msec. Chap. for the time the push button is pressed. the active one generates a High-signal. A 50 Hz square signal occurs at the output of the OK with a duty cycle of 1:1. if a signal arrives from the active extension.3 Page: 6 . All other devices connected in parallel are not locked. Of course. Figure: Principle circuit Extension identification If the Observer is in steady state (no extension signal is existing). the applied half wave is lead by D2 and the push button to ground. Brightness evaluation.1. The passive extension generates a Low-signal. it is possible that one device detecting motion switches-on the light and then the other devices in the lighted area are locked.: 2. The main station recognizes the kind of output signal and then it knows the type of attachment. A window comparator evaluates the signals. Principle circuit Release). These problems do not occur due to the interworking of the main station and the extensions.A synchronisation of the threshold values is almost impossible due to the component tolerances in addition. R4 Push button Passive extension (Push button) L Insert with relay contacts L L The ground potential is the mains phase. If the extension is not active. the locking time that is realized in the insert with triac and with relay N N contacts is only active in that device. Sensors of the extension Th1 D1 R1 Extension insert (active extension) 1 1 R2 U0 D2 Extension input R3 OK Signal to the attachment: No insert Active ins. The thyristor Th1 is in on-state. Practically the OK is shorted and has a low-signal.1. that switched the light. the other devices identify a "Bright" and do not switch. if a motion is detected. they are calculated by means of an integrator. The three minimum signals are possible for the support of the attachment. It activates either no output or the output of the passive extension depending on the input signal.5. The active extensions send only a signal. If the push button is pressed. only one sine half wave is applied to the optocoupler OK by means of the diode D1 and the resistors R2 and R3. Furthermore. Passive ins. In parallel circuits.

it can not be used as a single device.3.3. The previous model of the system attachment had not the implemention this feature. but it is not evaluated.2. A pulse serves to control the extension insert or system insert. The signalling pulse is transferred to the main station by means of the connection to the extension terminal `1`. Chap.: 2. This is the sensor signal. if you use the combination with the extension insert. • 1 N Figure: Sensivity adjustment of the extension attachment The ambient brightness is detected.6. which is applied for the time of detection. You are able to adapt the range to the local conditions by means of the sensivity adjustment (1).3 Page: 7 .6. This is similar to the comfort attachment.3 Attachment for the insert (System attachment) The system attachment is used as the attachment for the extension insert. Figure: Extension insert 2. It is possible to connect any desired number of active extensions in parallel.2 Extension insert The extension insert is designed to control actively the insert with relays. The devices are connected to the neutral conductor and to that phase conductor to which the insert with relay is also connected to.


Observer system

Everywhere the Observer system is ideal to use in, when the local conditions make several PIR sensors necessary and one common load has to be switched. The difference to the single device described in chapter 2.2 is the device construction. The Observer system consists of two separate components. These are the system sensors detecting the heat radiation and the system power unit processing the switching commands. Up to 8 system sensors can be connected to one channel of the system power unit by means of simple connection technology

2.4.1 System power units The centre of an Observer system installation is the system power unit, which is available in different constructions. Besides a variant for surface mounting (AP), a variant for fitting into distribution boards (REG) is existing and they contain one channel (to install maximum 8 sensors) or two channels (to install maximum 2 x 8 sensors) System power unit AP (surface mounting) The 1-channel surface mounting version is very suitable for the easy retrofitting of existing installations. For this purpose, it is recommended to install it near to the lamp that will be switched. So, the mains wires are as a short as possible, and the system sensors can be controlled by means of the fine wire JY-(ST)-Y (or similar) which is easy to fit (see chapter 2.4.3) The power unit has a green control lamp, which informs about the switching state of the device, even if no load is applied. The switched lamp may be not installed in the visible area of the user - however an operation test is possible at any time.

Figure: System overview The use of the Observer system offers extensive advantages: • Financial advantage, if more than two single system sensors are connected and compared with two single devices connected in parallel. • Functional advantage, i.e. brightness evaluation by means of one reference sensor • Reduced expenditure of installation by using a wire with small cross-section • up to 8 system sensor switch one common load • it is possible to combine weather-proof outdoor Observers and flush mounting indoor Observer • Easy to maintain and to change by means of one only time and brightness adjustment for up to 8 system sensors • Small, discreet system sensors by means of a separate power unit with high switching capacity • Additional safety by the supply of low voltage • The power unit may be installed 'invisibly' in the distribution board (REG)



. .

Figure: System power unit AP, illustrated with opened connection area System power unit REG 1-channel The power unit REG 1-channel contains a potential-isolated contact, which switches the control circuit and the load circuit. The control circuit is connected to the mains by means of the terminals 'L1' and 'N'. A normally-open contact is realized for the load terminal at the terminals '4' and '1'. If the control and the load circuit are to be supplied by one phase, an isolated wire jumper between the terminals 'L1' and '4' must be installed. This wire jumper must have a minimum cross-section of 1.5 mm 2 due to the high switching capacity up to 2500 W. The potentialisolated contact is also suitable for low voltage.

Chap.: 2.4 Page: 1

N c




S- + Lx




In this case, the wire jumper is not allowed to be installed, the contact can be connected separately. This device, too, indicates the switching state of the relay contact by means of a LED. So, a quick test of the Observer system installation is possible.

1. System sensor 180/16 The surveillance field is similar to the Observer 180/16, described in chapter 2.2.4. The system sensor 180/16 contains a LED, which indicates detections. The real switching procedure (dependent on the brightness) is displayed in the system power unit. 2. System sensor 240 Also this device contains the surveillance field that is known from the Observer 240 and which is described in chapter 2.2.5. The indication of a surveillance process is similar to the system sensor 180/16. 3. System sensor 180 UP The system sensor 180 UP is composed of two components, which are used in the modular system Observer 180 UP: the system insert and the system attachment. According to all Observer 180 UP attachments, two versions with different surveillance fields exist (see chapter 2.3.1).





Lx S

- +


Figure: System power unit 1-channel REG System power unit REG 2-channel The 2-channel power unit REG contains two relay contacts, which operate independently from one another and both have a separate adjustment of the minimum switching-on time and the brightness threshold value. You are able to connect up to 8 sensors (see chapter above). Each channel has a LED that indicates the switching of the load. Channel 1 is connected to potential, e.g. the device is connected to that phase, and by means of that phase, the load of channel 1 is also switched. Channel 2 is designed to switch any desired phase by means of a potential-isolated contact. It not allowed to use low voltage, because the device does not follow the requirements of the minimum contact gaps. This results from the small housing (2 channels in on housing).
N L1

Lx S - +

Figure: System insert Up to 8 sensors per channel of a system power unit may be combined, independently on their construction and their surveillance field.


2.4.3 Connection The installation work is small, as a 4-core wire with a small cross-section is used to connect the system sensors to the system power unit. We recommend using the telephone wire JY-(ST)-Y 2x2x0.6 or JY-(ST)-Y 2x2x0.8, which is well known in the telephone installation. The sensors are switched in parallel and a starshaped, a line-shaped wiring or a mixture of these may be used.



Lx 1 S 1



Lx 2 S 2



Figure: System power unit 2-channel REG

It is important, that the Lx-terminal is connected only to one sensor per power unit (in the following figures it is marked with an "x")

2.4.2 System sensors Three different system sensors comply with almost all requirements:

Chap.: 2.4 Page: 2

L N +


S Lx

S Lx Lxo



S Lx Lxo


1 max. 100 m 2


S Lx Lxo





S Lx

S Lx Lxo



S Lx Lxo



S Lx Lxo


Figure: Line-shaped wiring

max. 8

mx 8 a.

Figure. Connection of system devices This allows the user to adjust the brightness threshold value of the whole system by one reference sensor. The brightness signal Lx of the reference sensor is transferred to the system power unit by means of the terminal Lxo of the other system sensors. The terminal Lxo has no connection to the electronic and only serves for distribution. By that means, a simple and quick installation is guaranteed. This terminal is not available in the Observer 180 UP system, due to the small construction. Pay attention to the reference sensor. It may not be fitted in the shadow of plants or walls. The voltage drop on the wire should be small to guarantee a faultless operation. For that in the case of a star-shaped installation, keep a maximum length of 100m between the power system unit and each system sensor. So, there are 8 system sensors allowed and each is connected with a wire of 100m length to the power unit.
max. 100 m 1

2.4.4 Set-up of the Observer system All variants of the power unit have an adjustment for the brightness threshold value and the minimum switching-on time. While setting-up the Observer system, it is recommended to set the installed power unit to the minimum time and maximum brightness (day operation). This is similar to all set-ups of PIR Observer. For this purpose, all necessary sensors are connected one after another. The function and settings are tested by walking. The surface mounting (AP) sensors have a LED in the lower part of the housing, which indicates a detection by flashing. A test by walking is also possible without any connected load. Additionally the test-LED, which is integrated in the system power unit, shows the switching state of the relay contact, independently on the load. If all sensors are mounted and adjusted according to their detection area, the adjustment potentiometers are set to the desired time and brightness. Then the system is in operation.


N L1 L1 4 Lx S - + 1

Principle construction of the Observer system The power unit is the centre of an Observer system installation. Loads, mostly lighting, are switched, and the system sensors are supplied with voltage by means of this device. A direct voltage of 15 V is used, which can be taken from the terminals '+' and '-' of the system power unit. An additional safety is guaranteed by means of this small supply voltage, as the system sensors are separated from the mains. Moreover the power unit evaluates the analogue signal (approx. 5.8 V bright to 8.5 V dark) of the ambient brightness, which is applied to the Lxterminal by a sensor. The threshold value can be adjusted to approx. 3 - 80 Lux, using the potentiometer.

max. 100 m max. 100 m


Figure: Star-shaped wiring In the case of a line-shaped wiring, the maximum length of the wire between the system power unit and the final system sensor may not exceed 100m.

Chap.: 2.4 Page: 3

Chap. The power unit evaluates the detection process.The switching signal of the connected sensors is transferred to the power unit by means of the 'Sterminals'. It supplies the sensors. links the motion signals in a logic and switches the connected load for the adjusted time. Functional faults and undesired switching of the installation would be generated. We can summarize: All connected sensors have only the task to detect reliably motion and to transmit this to the power unit.4 Page: 4 . The potentiometers for the brightness threshold and the minimum switching-on time can be found in the power unit. one sensor only transmits the brightness value.: 2. The mains voltage of the power unit and the signal wires of the system sensors (Lx and S) are not allowed to be installed in one common cable. In addition. A coupling of the switching procedure onto the signal wires would result.

5 m 3 0 m to approx.1.1 m 1 m to approx.1.4 m 3 0 m to approx. have been up-to-date.5 Powerful features of the Observers The technical data.5 m 0.1. transformers TRONIC transformer Fluorescent lamps not compensated parallel compensated lead-lag circuit Starting current Switching time Brightness sensor Brightness value continuously adjustable Sensivity reduction Recommended fitting height Surveillance levels Close range Intermediate range Extended range Size of the surveillance field Observer 70° 230 V. 4 sec to approx. 1. 16 A approx.2.5 Page: 1 . 50 Hz approx. We reserve the right to change the technical data and so. 50 Hz approx. 20 A approx.3 m 3 m to approx. As the technical data are always up-to-date in the operating instructions.6 m 6 m to approx. 50 Hz approx. 10 sec to approx.5 m to approx. 50 Hz approx. Technical data Supply voltage Power consumption Ambient temperature Switching capacity Incandescent lamps HV halogen lamps LV halogen lamps conv. 5 min LDR yes --2. 15 min LDR yes --2.9 m 9 m to approx. 4 sec to approx. max. 12 min LDR yes --2. in important cases the operating instruction should be taken for decision.: 2. 4 sec to approx.10 m 20 m x 10 m Observer 180°/16 230V. 50 Hz approx. 20 A approx. 15 min LDR yes --2. 20 A approx.16 m 25 m x 16 m Observer 180°/10 230V.1 W -25°C / +50°C 1000 W 500 W ----------max.12 sec to approx.16 m 32 m x 16 m Observer 240° 230V. which are delivered with the product. 15 min LDR yes yes 2.1 W -25 °C / +55 °C 1000 W 1000 W 750 VA 750 W 500 VA 400 VA (47µF) 1000 VA approx.4 m 3 0 m to approx.1 W -25°C / +55°C 2500 W 2500 W ----1200 VA 920 VA 2400 VA max. when the Electronic Handbook was published. ~11 m ~8 m ~8 m 22m 25m ~11 m 20m 32m 16m 10m 16m 20m 16m Chap.3 W -35°C / +50°C 2200 W 1000 W ----------max.4 m 3 0 m to approx.3 m 3 m to approx. the technical data are no mores valid in case of changes. which serve the technical progress. described here.0.5 m 5 m to approx.1.16 m 20 m x 22 m 2.4 m 5 adjustable 8 m x 11 m Observer 110° 230V.9 m 9 m to approx.4 m min.1 W -25°C / +55°C 2500 W 2500 W ----1200 VA 920 VA 2400 VA max.

1 m 1 m to approx.6 W -25 °C / +55 °C operation only with system power unit ------------------LDR ----2. 0. 20 A approx. 4 sec to approx.1 W -25 °C / +55 °C Power unit REG 2fold AC 230 V. 15 min --yes ------------- 2500 W 2500 W ----1200 VA 920 VA 2400 VA max. 20 A approx.6 W -25 °C / +55 °C operation only with system power unit ------------------LDR --yes 2.4 m 3 0 m to approx. transformers TRONIC transformer Fluorescent lamps not compensated parallel compensated lead-lag circuit Starting current Switching time Brightness sensor Brightness value continuously adjustable Sensivity reduction Recommended fitting height Surveillance levels Close range Intermediate range Extended range Size of the surveillance field System sensor 180/16 DC 15 V approx. 4 sec to approx.16 m 32 m x 16 m System sensor 240 DC 15 V approx. 15 min --yes ------------- 2500 W 2500 W ----1200 VA 920 VA 2400 VA max.8 W -25 °C / +55 °C 2500 W 2500 W ----1200 VA 920 VA 2400 VA max.3 m 3 m to approx.16 m 20 m x 22 m Power unit AP AC 230 V. 50 Hz 1. 50 Hz 1. 4 sec to approx. 15 min --yes ------------- --- --- --- 22m 32m 16m 20m 16m Chap.: 2.Technical data Supply voltage Power consumption Ambient temperature Switching capacity Incandescent lamps HV halogen lamps LV halogen lamps conv.1 W -25 °C / +55 °C Power unit REG 1fold AC 230 V.9 m 9 m to approx.9 m 9 m to approx.5 Page: 2 .4 m 3 0 m to approx. 20 A approx. 0. 50 Hz 1.

50 Hz -25 °C / +55 °C Extension insert AC 230 V. --------1.1 m Incandescent lamps HV halogen lamps LV halogen lamps conv. --------1.1 m System insert DC 15 V -25 °C / +55 °C operation only with system power unit ------------------------1.200 W ----------max.1 m ------T 1.Technical data Supply voltage Power consumption Ambient temperature Switching capacity Insert with triac AC 230 V.: 2. transformers TRONIC transformer Fluorescent lamps not compensated parallel compensated lead-lag circuit Starting current Switching time Brightness sensor Brightness value continuously adjustable Sensivity reduction Recommended fitting height Surveillance levels Close range Intermediate range Extended range Size of the surveillance field 40 .3 H 250 --------- --------- --- --- --- --- Chap.400 W 40 .6 H 250 ------T 6.1 m 1000 W 1000 W 750 VA 750 W 500 VA 400 VA 1000 VA max. 50 Hz -25 °C / +55 °C operation only with insert with relay contacts ------------------------1. 50 Hz -25 °C / +55 °C Insert with relay contacts AC 230 V.5 Page: 3 .

: 2.80 Lux + day operation yes approx.1 m 2 ------10 m x 12 m 10 m 12 m 10 m 12 m 10 m 12 m 12 m 12 m 10 m 10 m 10 m 12 m Chap. 3 . approx.1 m 2 ------10 m x 12 m --1.1 m 2 ------10 m x 12 m --------- Comfort attachment by the insert System attachment by the insert ----------------LDR --- --------approx. 10 Lux (permanent) --1.5 Page: 4 . 100 . to approx. 10 sec.20% 1.Technical data Supply voltage Power consumption Ambient temperature Switching capacity Incandescent lamps HV halogen lamps LV halogen lamps conv. LDR yes. 10 min. transformers TRONIC transformer Fluorescent lamps not compensated parallel compensated lead-lag circuit Starting current Switching time Brightness sensor Brightness value continuously adjustable Sensivity reduction Recommended fitting height Surveillance levels Close range Intermediate range Extended range Size of the surveillance field Standard attachment by the insert -25 °C / +55 °C ----------------approx. 2 min (permanent) LDR approx.

If Astro Mode and Random Mode are activated. the desired function is executed independently on the program. At present. By means of the then arbitrary executed shutter moves. a presence of person is simulated and possible undesired visitors are frightened. the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds has also two switch outputs. Devices with automatic time functions Electronic Controller for shutter and blinds 3. Thus an often re-programming is cancelled by means of the different sunrises and sunsets in the year.1.1. The programmed switch times will vary. The controller switches-off itself after 2 minutes. The move is interrupted immediately at manual stop.1 Page: 1 . the following convenience is offered: − Display of the current time. to reach an execution of the switch times at the time of the beginning day's or ending day's brightness. − Manual operation is possible at any time. blinds and moving doors to get the advantage of a comfortable automatic operation. In the Automatic modes switching is executed at the daytimes and weekdays. − Automatic Mode − Automatic Mode combined with random generator. when the random generator is switched-on.6.1 3. The switching-"OFF" always happens in that way.: 3. by which the programmed switch times will be varied.3 Power unit (Flush mounting insert) Control electronic (attachment module) Display Driver UP Relay Relay DOWN L N Power supply Auxiliary supply Fuse Microprocessor ROM RAM EEPROM Keyboard Clock Timer quartz Figure: Block structure Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds Chap. otherwise it is interrupted by the limit switch. − Automatic Mode combined with Astro Mode − Automatic Mode combined with random generator and Astro Mode. independently on the program.3. The random generator calculates a time. As motors contain an own switch input for every direction. Additionally a manual operation is possible. which are programmed before by the user. These electronic controls are programmable and switch automatically the drives at desired times. The manual operation has priority. to prevent damages by means of jammed shutter. Detailed descriptions of the operation modes can be seen in chapter 3.1 General Increasingly mechanical push buttons and switches are replaced by electronic controls that operate motor driven shutter. one for the function "UP" and one for the function "DOWN". switch times are adapted to the times of the relevant sunrise and sunset.4).1. It is shown in the figures Block structure Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds and Connection diagram Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds (see chapter 3. The Astro Mode adapts the programmed switch times to the sunrise and sunset. either the function "UP" or the function "DOWN". weekday and the summertime respectively wintertime. The Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds has always the task to switch "ON".

The processor can both read and write. If they match. Thus a coil of the connected shutter or blind motor is applied to voltage. 2. which is pushed onto the power unit. it needs no maintenance and less space. if the neutral conductor is available in the flushbox. A high-precise clock quartz is available. For this reason. the processor writes the switch times into this memory that are defined by the user. So. The signal processing is digital. which oscillates exactly 32. A liquid crystal display LCD is used for displaying. and the corresponding move is executed. In the case of an unlimited voltage loss.1 Page: 2 . The controller is equipped with 9 memory switch time registers free programmable for one "UP" and one "DOWN" time each. the processor can hold its most important internal functions and a loss of RAM data is prevented.: 3. 2. So the function of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds is defined. It is read by the microprocessor permanently and is executed. 4 MHz.3. Internal processor RAM (Random Access Memory): The processor stores all data in this memory which are generated during operation. able to be mounted in a standard flush-box or a surface housing.768 times per second. the processor determines permanently the new current time by means of evaluation of the input signal of the clock quartz. This auxiliary supply can be ensured in principle by means of a buffer accumulator or buffer capacitor. 3. The power supply supplies all components with voltage. Internal processor ROM (Read Only Memory): The program. is stored in this memory in the factory. a data saving against loss for 2 hours is very absolutely sufficient 3. The current time is not calculated from this clock circuit. By means of the keyboard the user enters directly the command to the processor. which are described as following: 1.3 Technical construction: The Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds contains of the two following modular parts: 1. the current time that is always changing. these times can be assigned to any desired combination of weekdays Existing mechanical switches may be replaced. An accumulator saves the data for longer times (some months). Afterwards the contents of the memory can not be changed anymore. which is used to amplify the signal. It saves the data in the range of hours (maximum time = 2 hours). 3. e. An auxiliary power supply supports the voltage supply of the electronic in case of short mains failures. which has been created for the microprocessor by the developer. When the user has entered once the current time. Chap. which oscillates in the range of approx. For execution. As longer mains failures occur extreme rarely. the processor switches the relays in the power unit by means of a driver stage.g.4 Fitting and installation: 1. programmed by the user. they are stored until a reprogramming. The control circuit is free of maintenance.1. The RAM contents is deleted by means of a voltage loss at the processor component. but it has a short lifetime and it requires more space.2 Principles of function: The principle function of the device is visible in the figure Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds . External processor EEPROM (Electrical Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory): The EEPROM combines the features of the RAM and ROM. and stores all information.1. The speed of the processor is defined by a clock circuit. a buffer capacitor is implemented in the device described here. The ROM stores its contents also in case of a voltage loss. Control electronic with microprocessor and peripheral components. The processor directly drives the segments. In every case. The control electronic contains a microprocessor with three different memory types. The data are processed depending on the program in the ROM. Power unit with relay technology.1. The processor always compares the current time with the switch time. Connect and fit the power unit according to figure Connection diagram Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds . Both methods have advantages.

5 Initial set-up: After applying the mains voltage for the first time. It is recommended to create a table as shown on this page. Thus. (Symbol: Skier is shown) Calendar week: 1. two switch times are preprogrammed ex works (switch time 1 and switch time 2).2. If it is used for other purposes creating danger (e.1. Power unit (Flush mouting insert) Control electronic (Attachment module) During this time.g. If the capacitor is loaded. Switch time 1: mon-fri N Figure: Connection diagram Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds Attention. light barriers).6.1. (readable in the main display. The programming is realized by means of the keys. Chap. AUF AB M 7. 1 Motor 1000VA If the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds should not react on any key stroke (due to a false operation). pull of the attachment unit for minimum 30 seconds.00 h 22.1 Page: 3 . The programmed data are not affected. to ensure the data saving.00 h UP DOWN 3. the activation of the LCD takes up to 60 seconds. (Dot over the text "Manuell") − Figure: Mounting drawing L1 N max. a reset of the internal microprocessor is ensured. information about safety: The Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds is designed for automatic operation of window shutter or blinds. is showing: − − − − Weekday: Monday.30 h 22. moving doors). At any time the user may change them individually.00 h UP DOWN Switch time 2: sat-sun 8. described in chapter 3.: 3. the internal buffer capacitor is charged.1. Activating the Automatic Mode. before entering many different switch times at different weekdays. Please note the operating instructions in special cases. the Random generator and/or the Astro Mode.g. To simplify the set-up of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. (Presentation in the main display) Season: Wintertime. after the first operation) Operation mode: Manual. Push the frame with the control electronic module onto the power unit and snap into position. the corresponding symbols will appear in the display. the user has to exclude this danger by means of installing additional safety measures (e. the display. (Mark next to the weekday abbreviation "Mo") Time: 00:00.

The setting mode will automatically be left.2 Programming Transition to setting mode: Touch key Einstellen (1. By means of key Einstellen the setting mode can be left at any time. if no key stroke is detected within 5 minutes. The device switches into the previous operation mode (Normal mode). Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ù 08.1.). and the desired switch times can be programmed.6./automatic mode DOWN Random mode on Astro mode on Man/Auto UP Einstellen Enter Selection of adjustment mode Figure: Display and operation elements Enter 3.30 Ú 22. If values have been changed before leaving the setting mode.6 Operation 3.: 3. Now the Controller is in the mode for adjusting the current time. as only by operating the Enter-key the values are written into the memory.1. DOWN Manual mode Automatic mode on Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Adjust weekday Woche Tag Adjust time Prog Program switch times Display Weekday Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Display Wintertime Display Summertime Time Selection of man.1.1 Display and operation elements Adjust calendarweek Summer-/wintertime adjustment UP Switch time no.Planning aid Switch Time No.6. but they have not been confirmed by Enter. Chap..). In general it is mentioned: Chosen values must be confirmed by Enter.1 Page: 4 . they will not be stored in the memory.00 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat X Sun X 3. then touch the key Enter within 2 seconds (2.

3 seconds. Confirm with Enter Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Figure: Setting the weekday Setting the present time: The dot is moved forward to " »". Einstellen 2.Man/Auto 1.3 Setting the present weekday: The dot is moved forward to "Tag" (day). Confirm the setting with Enter Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Man/Auto Man/Auto Einstellen Einstellen Enter Enter Figure: Setting the calendarweek Figure: Setting the time Chap. For rapid motion press the key for approx. Set the weekday by key Ù or Ú. see calendar for the current calendarweek (KW). Enter Please.6. 3 seconds. Confirm with Enter. Confirm the selection by Enter.1 Page: 5 . the time flashes. the adjusted symbol flashes. Set the present time with key Ù or Ú. For further explanation see figures Times of sunrise and Times of sunset in chapter 3.1. the mark at the right display margin is flashing and indicates the weekday. For rapid motion press the key for approx. the adjusted calendarweek flashes. Set the calendarweek by key Ù or Ú. Set summertime/wintertime by key Ù or Ú. Figure: Calling the setting mode Setting of summertime/wintertime: In the display a dot appears under the symbol .: 3. Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Man/Auto Man/Auto Einstellen Einstellen Enter Enter Figure: Setting of summertime/wintertime Setting the present calendarweek The dot is moved forward to "Woche" (week). as this date may vary from year to year by few days.

with the key Ú an alteration of the set weekday is started. Do (Thursday). For rapid motion press the key for approx. Fr (Friday). Confirm the "Auf" (Up) time with Enter Figure: Programming the "Ab" (Down) time Programming the weekdays: If no day is active. the weekdays Mo (Monday). For rapid motion press the key for approx. Mi (Wednesday). Note a time of 2 minutes between all programmed shutter movements! . the programmed switch times of all other switch times remain unaffected. Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Man/Auto Man/Auto Einstellen Enter Einstellen Enter Figure: Setting the switch time number If the switch time of any desired switch time number is changed or set. They must not be entered again.Calling a switch time number: The dot is moved forward to "Prog".1 Page: 6 .: 3. Calling further switch time numbers with Ù or Ú. 3 seconds. 3 seconds. So (Sunday) flash in exchange with Di (Tuesday). Woche Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Man/Auto Man/Auto Einstellen Einstellen Enter Enter Figure: Display of the weekdays Figure: Programming the "Auf" (Up) time Chap. the symbol for "Auf" (Up) time 1 flashes. confirm with Enter . For changing the "Auf" (Up) or "Ab" (Down) time of a switch time number. Programming of the "Auf" (Up) time: The "Auf" (Up) time of the corresponding switch time number flashes and can be changed by pressing Ù or Ú . Sa (Saturday). The settings are stored with Enter without a change. Programming the "Ab" (down) time: The "Ab" (Down) time of the corresponding switch time number flashes and can be changed by pressing Ù or Ú . The switch time is executed on these days. these flash continuously. No execution of the corresponding switch times is effected! But when days are active. Confirm the "Ab" (Down) time with Enter .

You are able to change between Manual Mode and the previous set Automatic Mode by the key Man/Auto. The relevant symbol appears in the display. a quick check of switch times is possible by pressing Ù or Ú .1. Chap. This function is left after 2 minutes or by touching any key. but they will not be executed.6. Pressing Enter. When the keys Ù or Ú are being pressed for approx. Ú leaves the day out (after that it is indicated no more). Now the device is in the Setting mode again. After an interruption the normal time appears. this can be re-called by means of the key Ú. Deleting of switch times If programmed switch times shall be deleted. the next switch time can be programmed. as the device falls back into the previous operation mode (normal mode). An automatic interruption occurs after switch time 9. all weekdays are left out by touching the key Ú. For that. Automatic Mode: Figure: Programming the weekdays Checking the set dates: Touch Einstellen (Adjustment). The shutter can be moved up or down by touching the keys Ù or Ú. programs the day (it is indicated permanently). In case of programming errors of the previous switch time. A change of the position of the lamellas is possible by touching the keys Ù or Ú (Touch operation Woche Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro Man/Auto Man/Auto Einstellen Einstellen Enter Enter Figure: Operation mode "Manuell" (Manual) Using this operation mode. A further touching on key Enter shows all dates without altering them. Now the selected mode is started and the switch times will be executed according to the programming. the setting can be interrupted by Einstellen. programmed switch times will not be executed.: 3. the random generator and/or the Astro Mode can be selected by the key Ù or Ú Confirm selection with Enter. 3s. If no further switch times will be programmed.1 Page: 7 . then touch the key Enter within 2s.The switch-on and switch-off times remain. By pushing the key Enter after Man/Auto within 2 s.3 Types of operation Manual Mode: The dot indicates "Manuell" (Manual). Afterwards the flashing mark moves a day further. When So (Sunday) is programmed or left out. the corresponding weekdays must be deleted.If the alteration of the set weekdays is started by means of the key Ú. By reaching the first switch time number. when programming the weekdays (see "Programming of weekdays). the function is started after releasing the key. the flashing mark moves forward to Mo (Monday). An interruption of the checking is always possible by pressing the key Einstellen or automatically after 5 minutes without any keystroke. 3.

08 h. it is prevented. Astro Mode: If blinds are requested to be opened at sunrise (SA) and to be closed at sunset (SU).00 h Man/Auto Einstellen Enter Figure: Selecting the operation modes Random generator: The programmed times will vary up to ± 15 minutes. CW 2: executed UP time: 8.g.42. if the random generator is switched to the Automatic Mode. switch time "UP" =2. By starting the Astro Mode. at 22. For that purpose all times of sunset and sunrise are stored permanently in the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds (see figures Times of sunrise and Times of sunset in chapter 3. It will be executed later with 8 minutes. Switch times programmed within the dark period of the evening are executed at sunset (SA). if the home is not occupied. for example that shutters and blinds are opened at the beginning of the day's brightness. The reason is. switch time "DOWN = 23. that two switch times that follow just one after another (interval less than 15 minutes) shall not overlap.30 h CW 9: executed UP time: 7. A switch time programmed at 7.Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuell Auto Zufall Astro With it. This time is exactly executed in the calendarweeks 12 .6. e. With that.: 3.50 h CW 44: executed DOWN time: 18.e. do not program more than a maximum of one pair of switch times (i. as switching times of different switching time numbers within one half day may delete themselves.00 h will be executed at 7. The sunset starts earlier in the remaining weeks of the year and the blind moves down according to the permanently stored times. CW 2: executed DOWN time: 16. A switching at 22.30 h CW 9: executed DOWN time: 17. all switch times of the day will be changed to the same random time to avoid an overlapping of the shutter movements.1 Page: 8 . A programmed DOWN-time of 19. Note: If Astro Mode is started. In the remaining calendarweeks the sun rises later.3) Switch times programmed within the brightness of a day remain unchanged by the Astro Mode.00 is programmed at the same day. as the sunset has not appeared (day's brightness).1.00 h. which are stored permanently in the memory. the user has to set only one switch time. it is reached.10 h is adapted similarly: The programmed command (DOWN at 19. 1 DOWN) per half day (morning/afternoon).e. In this period the shutter is opened at the times.30 h and the Astro Mode is started.10) is exactly executed in the calendarweek 16-36. i.10 h Note: If it is required to move shutters and blinds in the whole year according to the astronomical calendar.08 h. In this case the programmed switch times in the Automatic Mode have to be adapted continuously to the astronomical calendar. Additionally shutter and blinds will be closed at the end of the day's brightness. that the blinds will be open before sunrise. Example: A random time of + 8 minutes has been determined for the present day. Example of an Astro Mode: An UP-time (AUF) is programmed at 6. as the sun has risen at this time.20 h CW 44: executed UP time: 7. 1 UP. A presence of persons can be simulated in that mode.00 h By means of the activated Astro Mode. Chap. which is in the darkness in the whole year. but not before the morning's "getting-up time" that is set by the user program. switch times programmed within the dark period in the morning are executed at sun rise (SA). but no later than the "sleeping time" that is set by the user program.

30 h Executed UP-time Daylight Executed DOWN-time 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Darkness 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Programmed DOWN.19.1 Page: 9 . 4 Figure: Times of the sunrise Chap. 20 25 30 Jul.: 3. 10 15 Apr. 45 50 Dec.4 5 6 7 8 9 Time 10 Darkness Programmed UP-time 6. 35 40 Oct.10 h Calendarweek Figure: Example of an Astro Mode Wintertime 9 Summertime 10 8 9 7 8 6 7 5 6 4 5 3 CW 5 Jan.

45 50 Dec.1. switching times are adapted to the corresponding times of sunrise and sunset and varied with a random time of up to ± 15 minutes. when the roll-up gate has been moved down before.00 h 1 Ù/Ú activate on Monday. Some times an additional movement is desired at lunchtime.55 h 2 Ù: 21. In this case the common weekdays of the two connected switch times are objectionable.: 3. Programming over the days Normally a shutter or blind is moved up once per day and moved down once per day.g.4. (1 Ú is before 1 Ù!) 2 Ù/Ú activate for Friday The following program is then executed: The roll-up gate is moved up during the working period. Example: A company wishes to use a roll-up gate by means of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds.00 h.1. that for this both connected movements different weekdays are required. 10 15 Apr. see chapter 3. That is the reason.1 Ù and 1 Ú) and only allows one weekday for both switch times.00 h to Monday morning 6.00 h 1 Ú: 05. the Controller offers a combination of one UP and one DOWN time (e. In this example the Controller has to be programmed as in follows: 1 Ù: 06.1 Page: 10 .6.Wintertime 21 Summertime 22 20 21 19 20 18 19 17 18 16 17 15 CW 5 Jan. 20 25 30 Jul. 35 40 Oct.55 h 2 Ú: 22. the roll-up gate has to be closed at the weekend from Friday evening 22. If the connected load of the gate motor exceeds 1000 VA.4) The shift operation is working continuously from Monday to Friday continuously. In some rare cases it can be appear. relays are required for switching. But this problem can be solved: If a DOWN-command is programmed before an UP-command. By that it is always required to use a combination of one UP and one DOWN programming in the weekday. 16 Figure: Times of the sunset Combination of Random and Astro Mode: If Random Mode and Astro Mode are activated. the DOWN-command is ineffective. (Attention: Note the information about safety in chapter 3. Chap.

Contactors with 4 normally-open contacts each are used. Again the final switches prevent the current flow in the motor. 2 minutes is guaranteed by the control of the contactors/relay.00 h a DOWN-command is executed correctly.6. Switch-on power per contactor: P = 20 VA. but is ineffective. The switching power used in the shutter and blind circuit can be calculated in the following: Switch-on power of all contactors + power of all motors = total power. the power consumption is more favourable. The maximum move time of approx.On Friday at 21. Thus. Formula: + = Example: You have to control 6 motors at the same time. The contactors and relays. On the next Friday the cycle will be repeated. as the power of the motor is not effective. L N N L n x contactor power n x motor power power of the circuit 3.55 h (end of the working week) an UP-command is generated.55 h. The next command is a DOWN-command on Monday morning at 5. in the switching moment back-voltages can occur which could danger the motors.4 Connection of several motors in parallel The control is designed for the connection of on motor. L N N L K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 M1 M2 K1 K2 K1 K2 Figure: Control of several motors. as is complies with the requirement.00 h the next UPcommand is then correctly executed and the rollup gate is moving up correctly. Referring to the Controller. Used contactors: Upwards: totally 6 contacts = 2 contactors (each witch 4 contacts) Downward: totally 6 contacts = 2 contactors (each witch 4 contacts) Calculation of the power: Upwards: P = 6 x 100 VA + 2 x 20 VA = 640 VA Downwards: P = 6 x 100 VA + 2 x 20 VA = 640 VA The power of 100 VA per Controller is allowed. The roll-up gate is now closed.: 3.1 Page: 11 . This power may not exceed the maximum power of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds (see technical data). K1 K2 M1 M2 Figure: Control of several motors. Every motor has a power of P = 100 VA. as the roll-up gate is already in the UP-position and no current is flowing by means of the final switches. Each single motor must be switched-off by means of final switches. variant 2 The motors are directly supplied by the mains. variant 1 Chap.1. But it is not executed. have to be selected according to the maximum switching power. On Monday morning at 6. At 22. respectively the recommended circuit (Figures Control of several motors (variant 1 and 2). The programming over the days is also possible with the Electronic timer. If several motors are connected in parallel. because the roll-up gate is in the DOWNposition. described in chapter 2 and it is probably used more frequently. every motor has to be separated by means of relays or contactors. which is required by the motors.

They take over the task to separate several shutter motors of up to 3 . central control and single control c) for 2 motors. whether you install manual or electronic operation elements for the central or single circuit. you can select. if the central and single control are operating at the same moment.Installation of Separating relays As very often a simultaneous control of several motors is required. These relays fit "at site" in the flushbox or distributing box. This is necessary to prevent dangerous situations (short circuits). With it. small separating relays have been developed. central control and single control The figure Application example with Separating relays shows a possible application of the separating relay type b. to realize single and central control circuits. but the installation of contactor circuits in distribution boards is too enormous. Central control Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuel l Auto Zufall Astro Single control Single control Single control Man/Auto Einstelle n Enter 3 2 3 Mains 3 2 2 3 Seperating relay 4 Seperating relay Seperating .5 A each and serve the possibility.: 3. At time different types of separating relays are offered with the following connections: a) for 1 motor and central control b) for 1 motor.1 Page: 12 .relay M1 M2 M3 Figure: Application Example with Separating relays Chap. due to its internal construction. Normally Separating relays address a higher priority to the commands of a central circuit than to the commands of the single circuit.

on a load (e. the function is locked and the blinds move to its final position.1 General The Electronic Timer serves for the automatic switching-on and off of electrical consumers.1 applies also to the Electronic Timer. i. The switching-off is executed after 2 minutes automatically or by means of the motor final switches. The Electronic Timer is very similar to the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds described in chapter 1. The Electronic Timer can be programmed with time intervals of 1 minute.2 Page: 1 . The Astro Mode of Electronic Timer operates in the opposite to the Astro Mode of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. either the function "UP or the function"DOWN" is executed.2. This can only be achieved by means of an inverted Astro Mode compared with the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. will be executed just at the time of the sunrise. The Electronic Timer contains only one switch output to switch-on and -off the supply voltage of the consumer. the Electronic Timer switches-on the consumer at programmed times and switches-off.: 3. if the connected load will not exceed 1000VA or contactors are installed for higher power. In the Automatic Mode the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds always switches-on at the programmed times.g. will be really executed at the time of the sunset. A difference in the operation of touch and permanent mode has not been realized because it is not requested. i.2 Electronic Timer 3.e. although the key is released.1. 5. Against it. The Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds has two switch outputs with one relay each to control the two shutter motor inputs. the operation time of the consumer is defined by the Electronic Timer. 4. Programmed switch times that are in the bright time of the evening of day. In this mode the blind movement can be stopped by means of pressing any desired key The keys for manual operation are marked with "EIN" (ON) and "AUS" (OFF) on the Electronic Timer . which are supplied with voltage by means of the mains terminals. Chap. All programmed switch times that are in the bright time of the morning of day. but is cancelled in the Electronic Timer. the lamellas of the blinds can be adjusted. The keys for manual operation are marked with Ù for "UP" or Ú "DOWN" on the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. It is possible to use an Electronic Timer in various situations.3. A longer touch causes the moving up or down of the blinds. 3. lighting) at the beginning of the darkness and it switches-off later in the night. If the keys are shortly touched.e. The minimum time interval of 2 minutes between two switch times is required using the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. Only the five following differences come into effect: 1. 2. pumps of water fountains may be controlled by Electronic Timers. if you mentally delete one of the two drawn relays. The figure Block structure of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds in chapter 3. it can be named every kind of lighting control. Firstly. If the touch time is longer than 3 seconds. But also other consumers. Reason: Normally an Electronic Timer switches.

It has no effect.6 Operation 1.00 h.2. and the lighting is switched-on.6. (1 Ú is earlier than 1 Ù!) 05. the programming over days is explained by an example which is specially thought for the Electronic Timer: Example for programming over days: An outdoor lighting of the home shall be daily switched-on in the evening at 20. so the chapters 1. With it. that a mixture of programming over days and the manual switching-on and off may create undesired states by means of overlapping switch times. the lighting is switched-off.2 Programming 1.5 Initial set-up 1.59 h the Timer executes an ON-command.6.00 hand switched-off in the next morning at 6.00 h the Timer executes an OFF-command. but it has no effect.59 h activate Mo (mon).00 h activate Mo (mon).59 h 06. But note.00 h during the active program. So(sun). mode OFF OFF Manuell Auto Zufall Astro R a n d o m m o d e Astro mode On On EIN ON Man/Auto AUS Einstellen Enter Selection of adjustment mode Figure: Display and operation elements of Electronic Timer The programming is similar to the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds: It means: UP (Ù) = ON DOWN (Ú) = OFF The remaining functions and features are identical with those of the Electronic Controller for Shutter and Blinds. In the next morning at 5.Fr(fri). At 6.3 Types of operation 1. as the lighting is already switched-on.4 Programming the days are applied to the Electronic Timer and the function of the Electronic Timer have not to be described separately.2) 1. A possible programming looks like the following example: 1Ù 1Ú Enter 2Ù 2Ú 20.Di(tue). if the lighting is switched-on at 19.50 h to 20. Referring to the above example. Do(thu). OFF Manual mode Automatic On Adjust weekday Woche Tag Adjust time Prog Program switch tim e s D isplay Weekday Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So ON D isplay W intertime D isplay Summertime Time Selection of manual/auto. Do(thu).Mi(wed). Nevertheless. At 19.00 h the Timer executes an ON-command.00 h due to safety reasons.6. The following switching procedure is then created: At daytime the lighting is switched-off.3 Technical construction 1.Sa(sat). please see chapter 3. At 20.Fr(fri).Di(tue).00 h 19. So(sun).Display and operation elements of Electronic Timer Adjust calendarweek Summer-/wintertime adjustment ON Switch time no.Mi(wed).4 Fitting and installation (For wiring. a dark phase will occur from 19.: 3.Sa(sat). Chap.59 h the Timer executes an OFF-command. because the installation is already switched-off. the requested switching behaviour is achieved.2 Page: 2 .

2 Page: 3 .: 3.2.3. information about safety: The Electronic Timer is designed for the automatic switching of lighting. 1000VA N Figure: Wiring diagram Electronic Timer Chap. the user has to exclude this danger by means of installing additional safety measures.2 Installation: Use the following wiring diagram to connect the Electronic Timer: L1 N Attention. heating or cooking devices). max.e. If it is used for other purposes creating danger (i.

3.: 3. as it shown on the next pages.1.3 Graphical presentation of the operation menu The operation which is described in chapter 3. which have learned the operation of the Controller and only need some small information to program the Controller without problems.) Finish program: Einstellen Start Adjustment Mode alter Summer/ wintertime confirm Enter Finish program Einstellen alter Present calendarday (CW) confirm Enter Finish program : Einstellen alter Present weekday confirm Enter Finish program : Einstellen alter Present time confirm Enter Finish program: Einstellen (next page) Chap.3 Page: 1 . The graphic is suitable for those users.6 can be explained by means of graphical presentation. START Einstellen Enter PROGRAMMIERUNG (within 2 sec.

3 Page: 2 . jump to Normal Mode Chap.(from the previous page) Jump from the "End Adjustment mode" alter Switch time number confirm Enter finish program Einstellen alter UP-time confirm Enter finish program Einstellen alter DOWN-time confirm Enter finish program Einstellen confirm displayed switch weekday confirm Enter confirm Enter cancel Switch weekday run for each weekday all weekdays are programmed finish program Einstellen not all switch times are programmed return to "switch time number" End Adjustment mode all switch times are programmed END.: 3.

We receive the right to change the technical data and. 2 minutes programmable by the user 2 screw clamps for max. in important cases the operating instruction should be taken for decision. when the Electronic Handbook was published. have been up-to-date.Selection Man/Auto Enter (within 2 sec.3A / 250 D -10°C to + 40°C Chap.4 Technical data more valid in case of changes. ± 15 min. the technical data are no Parameter: Rated voltage: Rated load: Time-keeping quality: Operation reserve: Switch times: Shortest period between switch times: Random Generator: Astro Mode: Relay output: Switch pulse duration: Connection: Self consumption: Fuse: Ambient temperature: Electronic Controller for Shutter Electronic Timer: and Blinds : 230 V +6%.5 mm < 2W T 6.4 Page: 3 . As the technical data are always up-to-date in the operating instructions. described here. 2. which are delivered with the product.: 3. -10%..) Start Operation Mode Selection alter Operation mode Selection confirm Enter automatic jump to Normal Mode End Operation Mode Selection 3. 1000 VA ± 1 min.and "DOWN"-times each 2 minutes between two 1 minute between two movements switching operations max./month approx. 50Hz Neutral conductor required ! max.START Operation Mode . 1 Motor 1000 VA max. The technical data. 2 hours 9 "UP".3 / 3. internal memory for the times of sunrise and sunset 2 NOC 1 NOC approx.

The 230 V voltage has to be transformed to 12 V to supply the lamps with power by the mains. to distinguish from the conventional transformers or power supplies. More and more in modern light architecture lightings with low-voltage lamps are used. We are calling them electronic transformer/ switch power supplies (SNT) or abbreviated "TRONIC-transformers". before the transformation the 50 Hz mains voltage has to be transformed into an alternating voltage with high frequency. To it. Thus.g.2 Page: 1 . automatic power reduction − protection against open circuit − high efficiency − less weight and compact construction − able to be repaired − able to be dimmed by means of TRONIC dimmer of the TRONIC Lighting control system e. In the power range up to 200 W electronic transformers are increasingly used due to several advantages. so that they are designed for powers between 50 W and 500W (in steps). a high-frequency voltage can be transformed by a smaller transformer. Low-voltage halogen lamps can be operated either by DC or by AC voltage.: 4. if the same conditions are effective. The frequency is approx.7 V. The 50 Hz mains voltage is rectified. TRONICtransformers offer an output alternating voltage with a RMS-value of U = 11.2 Principle It was the aim to design transformers as small and compact as possible and this was achieved by following realization: The volume (V) of a wound transformer is reverse proportional to the frequency (f) of the transformed voltage: V~1/f Following that. the duty cycle is 1:1. which interrupt rhythmically the voltage supply of the load. These lamps require an operating voltage of 12 V (some need 24 V) and are offered with an electrical power from 5 W to 100 W. Electronic switches are used for that. 40 kHz. A high rectangular voltage is offered behind the converter.g. The ON-time and the OFF-time are fixed to the values. Conventional iron core transformers with 50 Hz are installed for these powers. Transformers support this.1 Electronic transformer Application 4. 4. e. In the following the direct current converter "cuts" the voltage with a high frequency of approx. That is simply solved by "cutting" the mains voltage periodically with a high frequency. Main advantages are: − low-noise operation − electronic short circuit protection.7 kW by means of one push button! − operation at 230 V DC voltage (emergency installations) complying to all protection function is possible with special devices. never change a fuse again! − after solving the short circuit automatic restart − protection against overload − softstart with no peaks ensures a longer lamp lifetime − overtemperature protection. These should supply mostly more lamps. This is done by electronic switches.1 / 4. Mains Rectifier Lamps Converter Transformer UN UB U Ua t 50 Hz 100 Hz t 40 kHz t 40 kHz t Figure: Principle of electronic transformers Chap. In the figure Principle of electronic transformers the switch power supply is illustrated schematically.4. low-noise dimming of loads up to 7. which has been set onto the desired value by the transformer. 40 kHz.

: 4. The realization of the circuit is roughly drawn up in the figure Basic circuit of the TRONIC-transformer (details see at the point Converter) Overvoltage protection: A varistor in parallel to the rectifier supports the protection against mains transients. Rectifier: The rectifier transfers the mains voltage into pulsing direct voltage. block circuit 4. Short-circuits or overloads have no effects on the TRONIC-transformer. The naming half-bridge is referring to the position of the electronic switches (transistors T1/T2) in the figure Basic circuit TRONIC-transformer. There is no respectively a small filtering. Thus a dimming without external dimmer respectively a regulation of the overtemperature is possible. If the capacitors are replaced by transistors. block circuit. If the primary current increases to an inadmissible value by means of a component failure. the voltage can be seen in the figure Principle of electronic transformers. as this is regulated by the protection against short-circuits.3. Converter: The DC voltage (exacter: the frequency pulsing with 100Hz) is transformed to a high frequency rectangular voltage and to 12 V.Overtemperature protection Rectifier Mains Fuse RFI Suppression Overvoltage protection Converter Halogen lamps Protection against short circuit Figure: TRONIC-transformer. a full-bridge is designed. the well-known principle of the phase-cuton dimmer is applied.3 Specification of TRONICtransformers 4. So they are also generated by the TRONIC-transformer and the RFI suppression removes those parts from the mains that are caused by the switching frequency and by their harmonics on the transformer operating voltage . After each half wave the circuit has to be fired again. the following function blocks are presented: Fuse: It is often designed as a fuse-resistor in TRONIC-transformers. Converter R D 230 V~ C Di T1 Cs Tr T2 UB Cs Figure: Basic circuit of TRONIC-transformer Chap. It protects the installation. It is built as a "Half-bridge flow converter". and serves for the attenuation of the mains interferences. Radio frequency suppression: The block RFI suppression consists of a L-Cnetwork. it disconnects the transformer from the mains. if faults will occur in the TRONICtransformer.1 Block circuit In the figure TRONIC-transformer. The second half-bridge is formed by the two capacitors Cs.3 Page: 1 . which are generated at any switching process.

an automatic re-start is effective.: 4. a dimming is possible.5 V to approx. The switch frequency lies above the hear limit (16 kHz).0 V in case of the rated load of the transformer and at the nominal mains voltage. The temperature existing in the transformer is controlled by a regulation circuit and the power output is automatically reduced from a given limit on. In this process the energy has to be stored in an inductance. Operation of the converter: By means of the resistor R. It controls alternatively the switching of T1 and T2. The connected LV-lamps are turned to a reduced brightness in this state. If R is designed as a potentiometer. The voltage is proportional to the mains voltage deviations. and it switches-on the transistor and the converter. Overtemperature protection: Overtemperatures occur by means of exceeding the permissible ambient temperature or by means of an overload.7 V. The time constant T = R x C determines the time tz and. the capacitor C is charged up to the turn-on value of the diac DI.3 Page: 2 . 4. The complex control circuit is not shown in the figure Basic circuit of the TRONIC-transformer. 170 %. The time becomes longer. e. So the temperature values in the transformer are stabled and an overheating is countered. with it. One component is a temperature dependent resistor (PTC = resistor with Positive Temperature Coefficient) and this serves for the overtemperature regulation (Block Overtemperature protection in the figure TRONIC-transformer. block circuit) The value of R and the time constant increase due to temperature rises in case of overload or inadmissible ambient temperatures. the output voltage is reduced. A detailed description was given under "Converter".5 V to 12. This power regulation leads to a heat level in the TRONIC-transformer and prevents a defect of the device by means of overvoltage temperature. The light efficacy is reduced in fact. In the practical realization R is divided. which offers a high-frequency (HF) rectangular voltage. If a short-circuit appears. Usually the value is selected which is laid down at 11. The transformer transforms the voltage to the required value. The TRONIC-transformers contain an overtemperatur protection. This is why a wire-fuse is not required. After solving the short-circuit. Then the diac is turned-on. but the lamp's lifetime increases. a "Block converter" transfers the energy to the load in its nonconductive phase. The TRONIC-transformer offers an output voltage of 11. the lamp brightness. The short-circuit current only flows a short time and a damage of the components is excluded."Flow" is referring to the energy transfer to the load in the conductive phase of the switching transistors. The diac does not turn-on. the charging of the capacitor is avoided by an additional circuit. In contrast to that. Thus the original brightness of the lamps and a relieving of the transformer is achieved. a lower ambient temperature or a reduced load should be realized. the converter can not oscillate. Short circuit protection: In case of a short-circuit of the lamps the transformer and the mains are protected by an internal electronic protection circuit and the output is switched-off within fewer milliseconds. If this automatic reduction of the lamps' brightness is recognized. so no acoustic is occurring.3. Simply described: The converter is a self-oscillating circuit. Chap. at 11. It also serves for the galvanic separation of the primary and the secondary side (Test voltage: Peak 4240 V) and for the protection against electrical shock. The regulation is a proportional regulation.2 Output voltage A high frequency voltage is applied to the lamp: t tZ 10 ms Ua t 25 µs Figure: Output voltage of the TRONICtransformer The amount of the RMS value is decisive to select the main data of the lamp (see figure Voltage dependence of the lamp data).g.

4. The DC voltage is adjusted up to the value that is corresponding to the lux-value. A reduction of the load of 50% increases the output voltage to approx. 3%. additional light is avoided. This is the reason the length of the lamp wire may not exceed 2m to guarantee the radio frequency suppression. The correct wiring is shown in the following figure. L / Lo 90 80 70 10. power in the allowed range of the transformer). A further requirement to the minimum load is the safety against open circuit operation of the TRONIC-transformer.4 12.6 U [V] 13.0 12. c) a) Mains TRONIC-trans.3 Page: 3 . easy to use in comparison to the instruments only used in laboratories. The DC value is registered. L = Lifetime Figure: Voltage dependence of the lamp data Load driftings have fewer influences. A rough measurement is the correlation measurement of the illuminance of the same lamp supplied by a known DC or 50 Hz AC supply. = Light efficiacy. The rated volt age is not exceeded and so the lamp "lives" longer. The arrangement of the lamp and the luxmeter is not changed. P / Po. The transformer has to operate in its load range. Mains TRONIC-trans. It is identical to the RMS-value of the HF-voltage. / o. Mains TRONIC-trans.8 = Luminance flux. In the actual practise. it is sufficient to test the burning of the lamp by means of a test lamp (U = 12 V. Underload may lead to flickering. P = Power. Figure: Wiring of TRONIC-transformers Chap.3.3 Secondary wire Harmonics (numeral multiple of the switch frequency) may be radiated as electromagnetic waves. I = Lamp current.400 [%] 300 200 150 Halogen lamp 140 130 L P I 120 110 100 I 80 60 P L 40 30 25 11.2 / 100 I / Io. Measuring: The illuminance of a lamp connected to a trans former is detected by a luxmeter. A minimum load has to be determined due to this influences. the lamp is to be supplied by a variable DC power supply. The value is registered.: 4. In the following. That is required by the VDE if an approval is given and it is the user's advantage. Measuring the output voltage: The output voltage is to measure only by means of especially selected instruments! The mobile Fluke 8060A is a suitable instrument. b) Mains d) TRONIC-tarns. o.

when selecting the secondary wire.5 mm² Voltage drop [V] 1. twisted single core wire.3. when the same wire cross-section is installed. but also on the kind of cabling (e. Lamp power per wire ≤ 60 W 65 .6 0. 1. see Wiring of TRONIC-transformer . a high current will flow for a certain time.2 LV halogen lamps You have to pay attention on the flowing current and the allowed voltage drop (brightness reduction). two-core wire. which is effective by the softstart when the lamp starts burning. that the LV-halogen lamp is loaded with an essentially higher current connected to a 50 Hz transformer than using a TRONICtransformer I RMS − 50 Hz . As electronic transformers operate with a frequency of approx. wire crosssection and conductivity of the wire material. If the transformer is switched-on. Some transformers contain multiple terminals and in fact. You can see. reduces the voltage drop furthermore.8 0. The switch-on time is determined to 40 ms. it is shifted from the wire center to the wire surface (Skin effect).5 mm² ≥ 2. The delay time. These facts have been taken into account in the following Information about selection of the secondary wire: − − The wire length required by the VDE may not exceed a maximum of 2 m. The figure Switch-on behaviour of transformers shows the differences of the RMS-currents.0 0.: 4. if a LV-halogen lamp is switched-on by means of a 50 Hz transformer and a TRONIC-transformer. Please select the wire cross-section adapted to the lamp power from the following table.sections ≥ 1. single core in a ring ). The switch-on current of incandescent lamps rises up to ten times of the rated current. the voltage drop is not only depending on the wire length. they should be twisted to minimize the voltage drop.transformer Rated current TRONIC-transformer 300 t [ms] − Figure: Switch-on behaviour of transformers This start being gentle to lamps is achieved by means of a delayed switching-on of the converter.4 Switch-on behaviour Cold lamps have a very low resistance. may be up to maximum 2 seconds. at the moment of a high voltage.g. This switch-on behaviour (also called "softstart") guarantees a long life time of the connected lamps. they should be used. However. Additionally the current is not flowing equally in the cross-section. Separating the wire at the transformer's terminals (instead separating at the lamps).3 Page: 4 .0 mm² ≥ 1.4 0.150 W − Cross. if single core wires have to be installed. It depends on the loading The relation of voltage drop and reduction of the luminous flux can be seen in the figure R eduction of the luminous flux of lamps Chap. A two-core wiring causes a smaller voltage drop than an out-going and a back-coming single-core wire.2 0 20 5 10 15 25 allowed reduction of luminous flux [%] 30 Figure: Reduction of the luminous flux of lamps The power according to the table has to be separated on several wires.The secondary wire of several lamps should be laid far away as possible from the mains wires. 4.105 W 110 . Halogen lamps have a switch-on time up to 300 ms and switch-on currents up to 10 times of the rated current. A 6-way distributor is offered to achieve the optimum distribution. if a lamp power of more than 150 W per TRONIC-transformer is connected. 40 kHz.

the used lamp type. those devices supply the installation with a DC current of 230 V. On the secondary side a connection neither in parallel nor in series is allowed! TRONIC-trans. That one is marked by a small round point and signed as Tc-point (Tc = Temperature Case) with the corresponding. The electrical devices of this installation have to operate with both 230 V AC as 230 V DC The design of the electronic transformer ensures an operation at 230 V DC in principle. These devices need internally the pulsing DC voltage. Use only Tronic-dimmer for dimming TRONICtransformers.7 Dimmer operation A dimmer may be pre-connected on the primary side of the transformer to control the brightness. an evaluation of the ambient temperature is no more necessary. maximum allowed temperature. Mains TRONICDimmer TRONIC-trans. e. This is the reason to use "phase-cut-off" dimmer.: 4. because the protection features of the device are only effective in the AC operation (short circuit protection. The output voltage would have a constant frequency of approx. A certain size of the mounting room is necessary. which is only offered by the 230V AC y x [ mm ] x Figure: Minimum distances of transformer mounting Chap. they should be mounted on a nonvibrating base.g. For details. But minimum requirements are set to meet reliably this feature. no special requirements on the mounting base are set referring to the danger of fire.2).3. marked with the MM-sign. If the temperature stays below the specified allowed limit also in permanent operation. Figure: Connecting TRONIC-transformers together 4. the generated overtemperature at permanent operation (2-3h) must be measured. 4. for a dimmer installation. are allowed to be fitted into wooden furniture. Normally conventional "phase-cut-on" dimmers are not suitable for dimming electronic transformers. The minimum distances between the transformer and the ambient can be taken from the drawing of the operating instructions: 4. Often humming or flickering of the light may occur. The measure point is the hottest point on the transformer housing (and not the transformer's environment). The sum of the transformers' power shall not exceed the allowed dimmer power. overtemperature protection and overload protection). the TRONIC-dimmer. One dimmer can control several transformers. Such an operation is not allowed (except SNT 200).It is hardly to recognize in normal installations.3.g.3. 4. as the devices contain a rectifier circuit in the input (see chapter 4. Nevertheless. e.5 If you want to check whether the transformer is overheated under certain mounting conditions. In such case. as they create only small temperature in case of a defect and create no danger of fire. Connecting TRONIC-transformers together It is only allowed to connect the TRONICtransformers in parallel on the primary side. In case of mains failure. Transformers. see chapter 1. TRONIC-trans. are often installed with emergency power plants. non-interrupted power supply. Mains TRONICDimmer TRONIC-trans. Therefore. the transformer is operating under specified conditions.of the transformer. 40 kHz and a constant amplitude. see figure Connecting TRONIC-transformer together. hospitals.3. the feature of the installed network and on the use of a TRONIC-dimmer.8 Operation at DC-voltage Buildings that need a continuous. It is not sensible to connect them in series. so no resonances may occur. to guarantee an emergency operation.6 Installation Transformers operate with low acoustic noise.3 Page: 5 .

: 4.3 Page: 6 . Complying to all protection functions. however the TRONIC-transformer SNT 200 is only dimmable in AC networks.Protection functions have been realized. As dimmers are not able to be operated at direct current DC. L 230 V N Emergency power plant + 230 V = Batteries - TRONIC-trans. as shown in the figure TRONICtransformer in emergency power plants. this device can be installed in networks with 230V DC. This transformer does need the internal pulsing direct voltage and is suitable for the installation in DC networks. when the TRONIC-transformer SNT 200 was designed. SNT 200 230 V Figure: TRONIC-transformer in emergency power plants Chap.

load false ! correct ! t t OFF ON TRONIC-trans. If inductive loads (e. Up to 10 TRONIC-transformers can be protected by using the module (see following figure). This is the reason.2 ). when the TRONIC-transformers are switched-off and separated galvanically. if the various consumers are switched at different times. OFF Figure: Switching of mixed installation at different times 4. which is low-resistive in case of a high-voltage pulse and shorts this pulse (detailed information about the varistor. mains spikes will not arrive at the TRONICtransformer directly. TRONIC-transformer should not be operated in one common load circuit with L N L N Figure: Installation of the overvoltage module Chap.g. a voltage dependent resistor.g. but TRONIC-transformers and inductive loads should be connected to separate phases. An improvement of the situation just appears. damage of the devices are no more excluded. In these standards an immunity of the device is required against mains spikes of 1000 V between L and N and mains spikes of 2500 between L/N and PE This immunity against overvoltage is achieved by means of a varistor in the input stage of the transformer. but voltage values rise up to 1000V.1.2) contains also a varistor.4 Page: 1 . TRONIC-dimmer and TRONIC-transformer are resistant against these mains spikes according to EN 61047 and EN 61000-4-4/5.Switch process ON ind. A clean area is built up behind the module. If it is ensured (e. as shown in chapter 4. The overvoltage protection module (chapter 6. If the values of the mains spikes exceed this limits. The mains voltage has a value of 230 V with a tolerance +6% and -10%. by means of time delay switches) that inductive loads are only switched. see figure Switching of mixed installation at different times. These occur only at tiny fractions of a second. overvoltage pulses (so-called "spikes") are generated. see chapter 6.3. conventional ballasts of fluorescent lamps or high pressure mercury lamps) are switched in the mains.: 4.4 Overvoltage protection in LVinstallations inductive loads.3.4.

If a TRONIC. but in front of the TRONIC-dimmer to protect also the TRONIC-dimmer. to ensure the optimum effect. see figure Wire installation using the overvoltage protection module. The discharge capacity of the overvoltage protection module is not sufficient in case of severe overvoltages (direct lightning strike or similar events).: 4.The module should be installed as close as possible to the transformer.duct Figure: Wire installation using the overvoltage protection module Chap.g. one component of a protection concept SD Medium-level protection Detailed protection SD Medium-level protection Basic protection MD Figure: Overvoltage protection module. duct e. An effective protection against such events can only be achieved by installing a basic protection in the wrong ! main distribution board and a medium-level protection in the sub-distribution board (see chapter 6. The effect of the module would be reduced. one component of a protection concept correct ! Coupling of spikes Coupling of spikes e. The varistor of the overvoltage protection module can be destroyed.g. Moreover the installation between dimmer and transformer would create an additional danger. In this context. Mains spikes can be inductively coupled from one wire to another.4 Page: 2 . as the mains spike is applied with its total amount to the dimmer only. the overvoltage protection module has not to be installed in front of the TRONICtransformer or the TRONIC-transformers. the overvoltage protection module can be classified as a part of the detailed protection. This is the reason to avoid the parallel cabling of the protected wire and the non-protected wire. Then an integrated temperature switch disconnects the module permanently from the mains.dimmer is installed.5). see figure Overvoltage protection module.

if it is hung on the non-isolated current feeders. The protection device has to switch-off the lamp circuit in case of power changes of more than ± 30W in the lamp circuit according to the draft standard DIN VDE 0100 Part 559 A2. It is also possible that the a single low voltage halogen lamp is connected. Even a metallic coat hanger can generate a short-circuit. Electronic protection circuits have been developed to avoid the danger and they are monitoring the power of the lamp circuit. non-isolated power feedings. as the voltage is at the low level of 12 V and the system is isolated from the mains. 300 W 250 W 200 W 150 W 100 W 50 W Reset Figure: Current guard 5. L1 12 V 230 V~ N 5. 2. where it can be operated conveniently. the installation is switched-off and a current path was opened with non-flammable material. The current guard may be installed at that place.1 − Function The current guard switches-off permanently the lamp circuit of the installation at shortcircuit. because the current guard also monitors the power losses of the transformer and the wires.2 Page: 1 . If the current guard is adjusted. Mains voltage deviations are detected and compensated by the current guard.2 Current guard The current guard developed by INSTA is a protection device according to draft standard Chap. if the power is altering from a specified value. Current guard for control of low voltage rope and pole systems By means of the availability of the low voltage lamps the lighting designer was able to create attractive. A dangerous current through the human body is not possible. It is also required to switch-off the lamp circuit at reduced load (-30W). non-isolated power feeders in rope and pole systems. this fails and the user believes. overload and reduced load. as the load conditions in the lamp circuit can be transferred to the primary side of the transformer and two advantages exist compared with the secondary side: 1.: 5. That does not cause any disadvantages. if the blank power feeders are touched. If soft-iron E-cores are used. In the draft standards DIN VDE 0100 Part 559 (Installation standard) and 0711 Part 500 (Lamp standard) these protection devices have been required for low voltage lightings with multiple pole. It is designed for the primary side of conventional transformers. DIN VDE 0100 Part 559. They do not influence the switching behaviour of the current guard.2.1 Danger and safety requirements of rope and pole system The danger appears. They switch-off the lamp circuit. Inductive transformers are often installed due to the long secondary wire of this lighting systems which are normally longer than 2 meters. The current guard is installed between mains and transformer (see figure Current guard).2. if the transformer or the current feeders are overheated by means of the connection of too many lamps or by means of a short-circuit in the lamp circuit. This results of the potential danger appearing.5. In case of failure a current less than 20 times must be switched-off. the value of the lamp load should lie in the range of the rated − − 5. if a low voltage lamp fails and the not used power flows away from the protection device across a dangerous path.2) may exceed the total lamp power a little bit. the adjusted total power of the lighting system (see chapter 5.1 / 5.

the adjustment time of 1. the evaluation stage (9) sets the LED 2. the lighting can put into operation by means of the reset key or by means of switchingoff and -on the mains by a light switch. If a short-circuit should exist in the lamp circuit during this initial phase. and the load circuit is switchedoff.5W LED1 LED2 (3) K open Relay (Prio.: 5. 3) Sart-up function (4) K open Short-circuit detection (Priority 2) (1) Initial/Reset function Adjustment stage (Priority 1) (2) K close Figure: Principle circuit Current guard Chap.e. the short-circuit detection (4) will quickly disconnect the lamp circuit. It detects. which has been adjusted to the lamp load by means of a potentiometer. It transmits a value to the evaluation stages (8-10). operates after the adjustment time of 1. L 230 V N Rmeas (7) (8) Voltage measurement (Compensation of main deviations) Operating functions (5) Load variation >+ 5W (9) Comparator (6) (10) Current measurements Load variation > +/. If the measured load variation is within the range ∆P = + 5 W to + 25 W.5 W to .25W Load variation >. In case of a short-circuit between current guard and transformer on the primary side. − The current guard is a protection device for the secondary current circuit.6 seconds. which are proportional to the load variation. if the values of the current measurement (6) and the values of the voltage measurement (7) will change into an opposite direction. it is not possible to transfer exactly the conditions of the secondary side to the primary side.power of the transformer to guarantee an optimum switching of the current guard. If a reduced load of ∆P = . The reason is. the contact K is opened permanently by the evaluation stage (10) and the relay stage (3). Explanations of the Principle circuit Current guard: The switching-on of the mains and the reset key (1) have the same function: They reset the adjustment stage (2).25 W is detected. the line (L) and the neutral conductor (N) of the transformer are led through the current guard.6 sec starts and the relay closes the contact K (3) and lets the current flow to the transformer and the lamps. Connecting the current guard. the current guard is switched-off permanently by means of a safety resistor. If the load variation should exceed the tolerance ∆P = ± 25 W. The comparator (5). K Trans. After solving of the load variation or after adjusting the current guard onto a new load value. i. the evaluation stage (8) triggers by turning-on the LED 1. if transformers with soft-iron E-core are only loaded with a small load. however this has to be repaired in the factory.2 Page: 2 .

Start by the RESET key. continue with the fine adjustment. reduced load by means of a lamp defect) and remove it.6 seconds.2. it is switched-off within 1.: 5.3 Determine the total power before adjusting and pre-select on the scale.5. as the dimmer operation causes power variations in the load circuit. If the value does not fit. as the TRONIC-transformer contains its own protection components. Now the device reacts onto load variations of ± 25 W After the tripping of the current guard. − − Recommendation: The lamp current alters after a certain time after switching-on due to the physics of the lamp. Re-start by using the RESET key or by switching-off and on the installation.2 Page: 3 . − Combination of dimmer or TRONICtransformer An operation of dimmers and current guard in one circuit leads to malfunctions. The potentiometer has to be turned into the direction of the shining LED until both LEDs switch-off (center of the window).2 − Operating the current guard 5.g. A combined operation of the current guard and a TRONIC-transformer in the same circuit must not be planned. you have to search the reason for the fault (e. if a deviation of ± 25 W from the rated value is required. Chap. a readjustment is to be executed in the direction of the shining LED. When the preselected value is correct. When one LED shines again. That's why the adjustment should be tested after one minute. But it can be installed.2.

valuable exhibits are lighted. The features of the miniature fluorescent lamp are dependent on the temperature. if very lightsensitive.4. 8. the lamps are not suitable for dimming.: 6.1 Physics of the FM.67 lm / W MTBF: 8000 h Lampholder system : W4. The best available luminescent material is used manufacturing a FM-lamp to meet the high requirements. Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600 2400 An essential step to smaller solutions has been achieved in the innovation of new fluorescent tubes. Similar to all other fluorescent lamps. the colour temperature of the emitted light (see figure Colour temperature of the FM-lamp) and the emitted luminous flux (with that the brightness of the lamp) are varying depending on the ambient temperature (see figure Luminous flux of the FMlamp). Chap. marked as "FM" (fluorescent miniature) or also "T2" have only a tube diameter of 7 mm and a lamp power of 6W-13W! Since the lamps possess additionally excellent values of efficacy and brilliance. These so-called three-band luminescent materials stand for a high efficiacy. This is also the same value of incandescent lamps.3 Operating system: Electronic ballast with pre-heating and safety switch-off Wattage: Colour temperature: At present. The radiation only rises up to 1/15 of the value of a sunburn measured after 8 h and 1000 lx. independent on the Electronic ballast. shop windows and shelves. 13 W Warm DELUX 183-830 White DELUX 184-840 further under consideration Colour temperature: 3000K (WWX) 4000K (CWX) Colour rendering property: Level 1B Lamp length: 218 . furniture.lamp The basic principle of the fluorescent lamps have been described in chapter 1. besides of their interesting size.g. But you should pay attention on the fact. new application fields and possibilities for an economic and lighting with effects can be realized in display cases.1. pictures in museums. good colour rendering property and a small loss of luminous flux.3 and can be read again there. galleries and party rooms. FM-lamps emit also a small. 0 60 20 40 Tube temperature (°C) 80 Figure: Colour temperature of a FM-lamp 120 Luminous flux (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 Ambient temperature(°C) 60 6. So both. 60-80 microwatt per lumen. The new miniature fluorescent lamps.Colour temperature (K) 6. non-critical radiation in the UVrange and this is approx.860 lm Efficiacy: 52.523 mm Luminous flux: 310 .1 Page: 1 . This low UV-portions are totally harmless to the user in normal use. 11. to avoid the bleaching of the colours. e. similar to all other fluorescent lamps. that FM-lamps with cover should be installed. Figure: Luminous flux of the FM-lamp The most important features are summarised in the following: − − − − − − − − − − 6.

1 second. But they are tuned to the specific wattage in operation and with it. These variants consist of 4 wattage levels 6W.. but a voltage on mains potential. just before damages may appear. The lamp circuit is not galvanically isolated and mains potential is still staying at the lampholders in the switch-of state. lamp ageing. These dangerous conditions are detected at the output of the Electronic ballast by means of the voltage and current values. Afterwards the output voltage which is set ot the mains potential. 11W and 13W and of the two housings . It may reach values of a few 100 Vpp.a cubic and a cylindrical one.3 Device variants: Operation principle: After switching-on the Electronic ballast starts the ignition process of the lamp. it may rise to an ignition voltage of 1500 Vpp The installation on the lamp side (lampholders and wires) must be isolated according to that. Overtemperature of the lamp. dependent on the lamp type and mains voltage. The Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps are designed for use in operation with one single lamp of one wattage The wiring of the Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps is shown in the following figure: L N S L Electronic ballast for ML N Lamp / tube miniature AC 230 V ~ Figure: Wiring of the cubic Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps grey L N AC 230 V ~ Electronic ballast for ML white Figure: Wiring of the cylindrical Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps Chap. is increased. the mercury-filled glass tube would melt. At first the electrodes of the lamp are pre-heated to achieve a softstart (gentle to the lamps) to ensure a long lamp lifetime. 8 variants of the Electronic ballast for Miniature Fluorescent lamps are offered. which will result in a lamp overheating and with it.: 6. The pre-heating phase takes about 0. They have hardly no differences referring to its electrical circuit.2 The technology of the Electronic ballast for ML 6. The normal operation is then running.6. Current-carrying parts are not allowed to be touched. The output voltage is not a safety extra low voltage (SELV). "false starts". During the start-up phase. 8W.3 Page: 1 Lamp / tube miniature . too large current in the lamp or broken filaments are dangerous operating conditions. If the lamp is started. The Electronic ballast switches-off the current through the luminaire. to avoid an electrical shock. The steady-state is then reached.2 / 6. in case of a lamp defect maximum 1500 Vpp. the output voltage breaks down to the burning voltage of 50 to 180 Vrms. The lamp can be started again by means of exchanging the lamp and by a short interruption (minimum 1 second) of the power supply of Electronic ballast ..5. the electronic has designed slightly different.

At the lamp side.: 6. An Electronic ballast FM is offered to enable e. because the lamp wires lead high voltage.g. The pull-relief on the mains side is designed to ensure the effective relief of round wires. that is equipped with a double-isolated FMmounting rail and the lamp wires. a round wire H05VV-F 4x0. The clamping-insert is not used for that.75 mounted on side are recommended for effective pull-relief. break the clamping-insert moulded at the pull-relief cap Flat wire Completely assembled lampholders with singleisolated wires are often offered by lamp holder manufacturer. the FM-lamp is not dimmable.3 Page: 2 .75 or two single wires H05 VV H2-F 2x0. the housing may be installed by means of both the screw holes on the housing bottom and the screw holes on the housing side. the mounting in false ceilings or furniture.75 shall be relieved from pull. As you can see in the figure Cubic housing Electronic ballast ML. which may be PC“ recycled. But they are only allowed to be installed in lamps and devices of the protection class I.Figure: Cubic housing Electronic ballast ML As it already described. Figure: FM-lamp set The pull-relief caps must be closed by means of two screws. Break Figure: Insert at the cubic housing and fit it into the housing bottom and then insert the flat wire. The cubic housing: It consists of polycarbonat „ . Applications according to the VDE standards are possible without these wires by means of this set. You have to meet the following minimum distances to prevent an overheating of the Electronic ballast ML in its mounting surrounding: Chap. If flatwires of the type H05VV-F 2x0.

Here the cylindrical Electronic ballast ML is a wise alternative: It is designed for lamps of protection class I or for SELV devices (Safety Extra Low Voltage).6 20 Figure: Cylindrical housing Electronic ballast ML The cylindrical housing: The cubic Electronic ballast ML may not fit into filigree lamps due to its length. an installation in false ceilings or furniture is not possible Chap.5 20 20 Figure: Minimum distances cubic Electronic ballast ML 3. as the lamp only provides space in the lamp foot. Following that.3 Page: 3 .: 6. 78.10 5 66.

which are delivered with the product.g. 50 Hz 230 V not permitted max.6. Abbreviation EVG (german: Elektronische Vorschaltgerät) = Electronic ballast Parameter: Number of lamps per EVG Rated voltage (AC): Rated voltage (DC): Start-up current: Ambient temperature ta: Housing temperature tc: Housing dimensions: Length of the output wiring: Connection technology EVG/ML 8W EVG/ML 11W EVG/ML 13W 1x 8W 1x 11W 1x 13W 230 V.Overtemperature of the lamp .: H05VV-F 2x0.4 Technical data: (The technical data . described here.: H05VV-H2-F2x0.75 Flat wire e.75 Flat wire e. have been up-to-date.g.g. 1m Cubic housing: Pull-relief for an effective relief of the mains side Round wire e.75 lamp side Round wire e.To high pin current .False start-ups of the lamp . to EN 61047 EN 61000-4-2/4/5/11 EN 55015 Short-circuit proof Open-circuit proof RFI suppressed Protection against fire: Chap. the technical data are no more valid in case of changes.). when the Electronic Handbook was published. As the technical data are always up-to-date in the operating instructions.Defect of the filament Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Switching-off of the input side in fault condition EMC-tested accord.5 mm 2 Cylindrical housing: assembled with connection wires Protective measure: Cubic housing: Protection insulation.: H05 VV H2-F 2x0.g.Lamp ageing .: 6. in important cases the operating instruction should be taken for decision. 8 A (Select mains switch according to it) 50 °C 75 °C see figures in the description max. We reserve the right to change the technical data serving the technical progress and.4 Page: 1 . protection class II Cylindrical housing: Covered construction for built-in lamps EVG/ML 6W 1x 6W Device functions: Dimmable Protection function: Automatic switch-off in case of: no .: H05VV-F 4x0.75 Screw terminals for maximum cross-section of 2.

protective devices for energy technology and protective devices for information technology corresponding to their task. Mains connection Figure: Complete equipotential bonding system Protective devices are classified into the two classes. we will illustrate more clearly the complexity of the subject. but in industrial area such damages can result in very serious consequences. it is possible to install an effective protection against overvoltages of all kinds. In the private area device damages caused by overvoltages are often felt annoying and expensive. For this reason. Chap.g. and all parts of the installation are connected to the equipotential bonding rail. as the applications of electronic devices are increasing. that electronic installations and devices being up to 1. we are concerned by damages that are created by overvoltages in the mains network. a complete equipotential bonding system and the building and room shielding. that the lightning current is distributed according to the following figure. which sources of overvoltages are existing and which problems may occur by them. In the worst case (a power supply network with L and PEN conductor) a load of 50 kA per conductor can appear.1 Page: 1 . In approximation. all supply and information system wires as well as metal tube wires. electrostatic discharges or by switching operations of nonresistive consumers. it is explained in the next chapters. 100 % Roof conductor 7. e. Information system network Energy system network Metal tubes Equipotential bonding rail 50 % 50 % Earthing system Figure: Distribution of lightning current In that. The "internal lightning protection" extends the protection against overvoltage damages by reducing the disturbing quantity to a value that the installation may withstand. overvoltages arrive at the installation by means of both travelling waves and induced voltages. 50% of the current are flowing to the earthing system. Overvoltage protection in electrical installations Overvoltages in the mains are a subject which is often underestimated and often it is not well known. Therefore a so-called "external lightning protection" is required. A total loss of data and a total defect of the computer system are important to the existence of the concerned company But by means of modern technology. A lightning arrester must be suitable to discharge lightning currents of 200 kA. and a surge arrester serves only for a relatively small surge current. For that. and the remaining 50% are distributed to the connected supply systems.5 km away from the lightning strike are endangered.1. which shall prevent major damages in and at the building by means of fire or mechanical destruction. are incorporated indirectly. it can be assumed. Equipotential bonding rail Aerial Sewage pipe Water pipe Gas pipe 7. Before describing the devices for the detailed protection more precisely.: 7.1 Overvoltage protection due to lightning strikes In the last years it was found by means of thundery strikes. These overvoltages are often generated by direct or distant lightning strikes. All wires. the most essential measures are.7.1 General Cable TV Foundation earth MC Telecommunication wire Heating pipe Heating pipe In trade and industry and even at home. The reason is.

1 Page: 2 . it can be found in some cases. Short-circuit Figure: Transient overvoltages Very often the causes of overvoltages are not easy to be found. which has a conductive connection to the earth. supplying the consumer. The distance to the transformer station. The occurring currents (in the range of µA) are very small and do not engage humans and animals.2 Overvoltages due to electrostatic discharge In comparison with the problems by lightning strikes. being charged. defines if either a hard mains network or a soft mains network exists. The internal resistance of the mains is mainly responsible. The tripping pulse of a 10A fuse is shown in the following figure: U U = 1700 V Us = 325 V Sine half wave 0 t Figure: Short-circuit pulse of a fuse Chap.1. The power supply network also influences the spreading of the transients. The figure shows. M Mains con. The normal procedure is to connect a voltage recorder and to switch the devices one by another. how the spike spreads out in the installation. The transient can be added at any time onto the mains voltage and they can have different length and amount and with that different energy contents. In this process. are created by switching processes within the installation and can reach enormous values. i. the cause is absolutely found as a short-circuit If a body. 1700V is created and a short oscillation is effective due to the existing wire capacities and inductances. But the electrical shock is felt unpleasantly. touches a surface. voltages are generated up to 20 kV. e. what device is responsible to the occurring spikes. Although electronic devices and the wires in the surroundings or PCB (Printed Wire Board) wires can be damaged by the flowing discharging current. Even flash-overs can appear. which are external influences. shoes and others. Values measured by voltage recorders can not be reproduced and the recorders very often present values above the current loading of the installation.7. The causes of electrostatic discharge are fitted carpets. that a pulse of approx. This mains overvoltage or mains spikes are spread to all directions within the electrical installation and only in some cases. a mains network with very low internal resistance. By testing. also called transients.: 7. The exact length and amount of the spikes can be determined in the installation only very approximately. the electrostatic discharges are generated in the concerned installation or room itself. The corresponding device may be found then. the body is discharged immediately. Computer systems and the information technology networks are endangered Especially TV Subdistr. Transients are attenuated very high by means of "very hard mains network".1. clothes. fitted carpet Figure: Electrostatic discharge by means of PC touching 7.e.3 Overvoltages due to electromagnetic pulses Overvoltages.g.

amplitude and frequency are not.7. Although the installed protective devices must comply with special testing standards. a mathematical calculation of the overvoltage protection is hardly to achieve. which are caused inside the protected system. and thus test standards exist in every class. and they reach the system by means of the connection wires. This allows to describe the protective function of the devices by means of comparable data. electrostatic flash-over. 7. Two mains groups are defined due to its causes. The definition includes again galvanic couplings with high potential level (e. The definition includes the galvanic coupling with high voltage potential. it must be ascertain. switching of inductive consumers as well as inductive and capacitive couplings. The maximum occurring overvoltages of the internal overvoltages can be calculated by means of "worst case conditions". Thus. due to their capabilities and usage.3 Test pulses Overvoltage protective devices are classified in different classes.: 7.2. the test standards are applied and the components are complying with them. which are caused outside of the protected system. This is the reason.2.1 External overvoltages External overvoltages are defined as influences. 100 I (%) 90 50 7. and even be ascertained by a test. The wave form (8/20) µs of the important test curve is shown in the following diagram.2 Ascertain the possible overvoltages In order to plan the installation with a sufficient protection.2. Devices of the class Basic protection and Medium-level protection are tested by essentially higher criterias as devices of the class Detailed protection. 10 0 8 20 t (µs) Diagram: Surge current with wave form (8/20) µs Chap. disturbances on the wires and lightning strikes. The total amount of the current is dependent on the installation place of the protective device. mains and low voltage wires). which values of overvoltages will appear. 7.2 Page: 1 . or they are created by inductive or capacitive coupling of the system.g. The wave form. We have to take into account an oversized calculation to achieve a reliable protection. This wave form is used to specify also the technical data of the discharge current.2 Internal overvoltages Internal overvoltages are defined as influences. or only insufficiently known in the most cases.

: 7. which start from the Basic protection to the Detailed protection. Chap. In the conductive state. varistors.0 µs 0.2 Varistors (VDR-resistors) Varistors are semiconductor devices. It is visible.4 0. =0.1 Gas-filled arresters Gas arresters. The behaviour of the components is described in details in the following chapters.2 0.3.8 1.7 µs. are very high-resistive (in the range of MΩ) in the non-ignited state. For this purpose very often gas-filled arresters. V 1000 kV 1 µs Figure: Construction of a gas-filled arrester I/A 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 Sparc-over discharge 10 1 10 0 Glow discharge 10 -1 10 -2 Transition area 10 -10 10 -11 0 0 150 300 Dependent discharge 450 U/V 800 700 V 600 400 Figure: Characteristic HB of a gas-filled arrester Gas-filled arresters are suitable for a wide range of applications. that the gas-filled arrester is ignited after approx. Discharge region Insulator Glass ceremic Electrode Activating compound 7. Gas-filled arresters are classified in voltage categories. A disadvantage is the relatively high ignition voltage and their response time. also called spark gaps or gas-filled arrester.2 0 0.3 Page: 1 . they have a short-circuit with a remaining voltage of approx.3 Components for overvoltage protection Terminal Electrode Ignition aid Various components can be used for overvoltage protection depending on the purpose and the required features. that resistance change from a very high value to a very low value and the behaviour is independent on the direction. 10V. suppressor diodes or a combination of them are used. 7.3.7 200 Diagram: Response time of a gas-filled arrester The internal construction of the gas-filled arrester and its characteristic is shown in the following figures. 200 0.7. The response time of the 700V type is shown in the following diagram.6 0.

but its discharge capacity is less than a gas-filled arrester.3.2 0. 3. if the cross-section of the layer with the zinc oxide grains is increased. that leads to the melting of the zinc oxide grains.I/A 3 2 1 -100 -200 -300 To understand the function of a varistor.3 Page: 2 . Increasing the volume of layer with the zinc oxide grains. The areas touching the zinc oxide grains form micro varistors.2 320 V 400 -0.3 Suppressor diodes Suppressor diodes (e.2 Diagram: Response time of a varistor Structure: The component exists of sintered zinc oxide grains. V 100 200 300 U/V -1 -2 -3 3. as the number of the Z-diodes is reduced by means of the melting. Varistors with several characteristic data can be manufactured by varying the quantities. which are smelted in coat of epoxy. the discharge capacity is increased (parallel-circuit).g.5 V. A remaining change of the features appears. the protective level is also increased (series-circuit). Very often the abbreviation VDR resistor appears which is deviated from voltage dependent resistor. By means of the extraordinary current capacity and its very fast response time (< 25 nsec). maximum operating peak.5 times exceeding. The protective level of the varistor is decreasing continuously. and perhaps. an increased current is flowing at normal operation voltage. The peak reverse voltage U RM of a diode has to be higher or as equal as the operating voltage of the circuit to be protected. Transil-diodes) are semiconductor devices.voltage (230 V + 10% = 253 V) µs 0. Varistors are classified by means of the operating voltage: If the voltage is 1.: 7. it is often used with fuses or in encapsulated housings. it is the almost perfect protective element.4 -0.6 0. The current increases in avalanches by means of the diode connected in parallel and in reverse direction. Consequently. The varistor is connected in parallel to the electronic being protected and in case of a rising voltage. increases the capacity of the energy absorption (series and parallel circuit).8 1 1. The varistor reaches its limit value in a short time (see diagram Response time of a varistor) and is faster. This effect is called avalancheeffect. V 1000 800 600 320 V 400 200 10 bis 50 µm Figure: Detailed illustration of varistor The electrical behaviour of the varistor is given by means of switching these z-diodes in parallel and in series: If the height of the layer with the zinc oxide grains is increased. that have a characteristic of a symmetric Zener-diode with a reverse voltage of approx. In extreme cases. the varistor can explode at very high voltages. Suppressor diodes are thus called Chap. it forms a low-resistive shunt and prevents a further rise of the transient. which destroys the varistor by thermal heat. when the voltage exceeds only slightly. a model with diodes can help.4 0.5 V 100 µA I Micro varistor Zinc oxide Intermediate phase Figure: Characteristic of a varistor The name is derived from the wording variable resistor. that show a similar behaviour as the Z-diodes. Terminals Sintered zinc oxide grains Electrodes Epoxy Figure: Structure of varistor 7.

The main application is the protection of devices. A disadvantage is the relatively high price and a reduced ability to discharge energy. Suppressor diodes can be classified as a detailed protection.02 0. They are designed to discharge high transient voltages.8 0. electronic assemblies and expensive components.e.4 I Combination of arc-filled arrester and varistor Very often a combination of varistor and gasfilled arrester is used for overvoltage limitation.3. These components complement each other together perfectly in some applications.avalanche-diodes. a voltage limitation is effective in both directions. When a load with a transient is occurring in a series circuit of these components.2 0.: 7.2 µs Gas-filled arrester in function Varistor in function Characteristic: Series circuit of varistor and gas-filled arrester Chap.7 1.3 Page: 3 Varistor . 400 320 V 200 In operating mode Gas-filled arrester 0 0 0. The response times are in the range of some nsec (nano second = thousand millionth second) 7.0 1. i. built in the device.4 0. the following voltages are effective: V 1 µs kV URM URM U 1000 800 700 V 600 Only valid for the duration of the impulse In ignition mode Diagram: Characteristic of a suppressor diode The characteristic of the bi-directional suppressor diode is shown.6 0.

which is low-resistive to impulse with high-voltage and it shorts them (see chapter 7. They are not suitable for the attenuation of static and excessive voltages. high-energy pulses (spikes) may be created. Such installations are also called mixed installations.4 Devices with overvoltage protection 7. i. Each protection. it is ensured. If it is not possible to reduce this internal overvoltages to a tolerable quantity by means of the installations measures. Thus. TRONIC-overvoltage protection module In larger installations fluorescent lamps.4.3. all TRONIC-transformer contain a spike protection according to DIN VDE 0712 Part 25 / EN 61047.7.4.: 7.e. it is necessary to install additional protective measures. described in the chapter below. EC-standards. because the loads by overvoltages in an installation exceed the values. We have given up the integration of indication lamps. as they would not be visible in these installations. All devices.4 Page: 1 . Switching-on and off of such loads.g. described above. is classified as a Detailed protection and is not able to discharge pulses with high energy. Consequently. Chap.4 and 7. that the varistor does not explode suddenly.2 The components. built in the device. can not be repaired and has to be replaced by a new one. described in the above chapters. In chapter 4. Many causes of interferences are prevented at the beginning of the design and manufacturing of electronic components by means of meeting the valid standards (VDE. shown in the figures 4. being protected. are suitable for the overvoltage protection according to the chapter 7. They are already installed in the electronic assemblies to protect the high-grade and sensitive components as well as in devices that are designed for an additional overvoltage protection.g.7. a voltage dependent resistor. On the one hand. IEC test specifications). see chapter 4.4 some information has been described for the installation of these modules.1 Protection against overvoltage built in the devices Almost all electronic devices of the home installation are equipped with overvoltage protection components or circuits. for example. no damages of the module are known which have been generated by means of switching processes. TRONIC overvoltage protection modules may be installed for the reduction of the mains spikes. which are specified in the standard. It is designed as a built-in device and may be fitted into distribution boxes as well as to the terminals of the device. In addition. Nevertheless in many cases. ϑ N (L) Principle circuit: Overvoltage protection The module is destroyed after a switching of the temperature switch. The overvoltage protection module contains a varistor. it may be an especially designed circuit with several protective devices. the false installation of a product to two outer conductors (L1 and L2 à 400 V) instead to L and N with 230 V. Today.2). e. overvoltage protection in low voltage installations.e. in the false ceiling. The module is connected in parallel and as close as possible to the components being protected. to carry increased voltages in a mains line due to an incorrect installed neutral conductor shift within the ThreePhase-Network. They are also not suitable. conventional wound transformers and other inductive components are installed apart from other electronic components. to achieve a "total device protection". and the overvoltage protection circuit (according to VDE 0712/25) is not sufficient which is integrated in the electronic components. L (N) 7. i.4. are used in the devices for the Detailed protection. the varistor in the module is thermally monitored by means of a temperature switch and is disconnected from the mains in severe situations. On the other hand. high intensity discharge lamps (e. this may be a Z-diode or suppressor diode to protect one single semiconductor component that is more sensitive than others. High pressure sodium or mercury lamps). The components will be destroyed by means of permanently excessive operating overvoltage. For further information.

4 Page: 2 Diagram: Switching of a fluorescent lamp. Example 2: Switching-off of a fluorescent lamp. type flush-mounting (UP). These facts are obvious from the following principle circuit.4 Line filter with surge protection High sensitive electronic devices may not be only interfered or destroyed by mains spikes. but also by means of high frequency. When the red indication lamp is brightening. 36 W. measurement and regulation installations etc. Example 1: Switching of an air-type contactor U Overvoltage peaks up to 750 V Indications Outlet cover f > 3 kHz The socket outlet reduces the surge voltage. The function mode is visible by means of two indication lamps. As a result of this. 750 V may occur by means of a switching air-type contactor. the temperature switch disconnects the branch being protected. e. that mains voltage is applied to the protective circuit.4. 36W unbalanced . Function: The operating mode of the varistors is detected by means of a temperature control. In severe cases the protection circuit is not in operation. This is technically realized by means of voltage dependent resistors. The green lamp indicates. L ϑ Indication RED Ueff = 230V t Sine (50Hz) U Diagram: Switching of an air-type contactor Surges of approx. contains a circuit that removes the surge voltage from the connected devices. An acoustic signal is sounding. the temperature switch has been triggered and the surge protection is no more effective. and in case of exceeding the limits. The acoustic warning signal may be switched-off by removing the plug from the socket outlet.7.g. the user is informed about the failing of the surge protection. although the socket outlet is not visible. Also oscillations with frequencies > 3 kHz appear. medical equipment. 58-mm box Cover frame 230 V 7. to a tolerable quantity of the electronic device. unbalanced U Overvoltage peaks up to 3 kV t up to 600 V U f PE Indication GREEN N not protected protected 2 4 6 8 MHz Figure: Principle circuit Surge protection socket outlet with acoustic signal Chap. Examples are data processing systems. highgrade components of the video or audio area. occurring in short times. As the power supply of the device is not disconnected in these cases. this mode has to be indicated.3 Socket outlet with surge voltage protection and acoustic signal The outlet. It is required to replace the outlet immediately.4. control.: 7. varistors or gas-filled arresters. The connected loads are protected against damages by means of this.

Unbalanced fluorescent lamps at first cause a small re-oscillation and then a high transient pulse. asymmetrical interferences occur between each conductor carrying current and the earth potential. 8 MHz. The transient voltage peaks have to be discharged by means of the overvoltage protection in both cases and the following highfrequency have to be attenuated by a HF-filter. It is pre-connected to the device being protected. which are effective in the TV and Audio range. The integrated lamps indicate: GREEN on: Device in operation GREEN off: Mains fuse has tripped or mains voltage fails RED on: Temperature fuse of the overvoltage protection has triggered. The device offering these both functions is the Line filter. Please note. The part overvoltage protection is operating according to the principles described in chapter 7. the device still remains in function. However. the protective device has to be replaced. that is designed as a mobile device. that attenuates the high-frequency interferences. Protected area (output) L ϑ ϑ Indication RED ϑ ϑ Indication GREEN PE N Figure: Principle circuit of the Line filter In the diagram shown below. which then is changing into a high frequency re-oscillation of approx.4. the interferences are suppressed. Additionally a filter is integrated. Non-protected area (input Schuko plug Schuko outlet Fuse T 10 / 250 D Indications Figure: Line filter Symmetrical interferences voltages occur between all conductors carrying current. Chap. Replacing the fuse: Pull off the fuse holder at the side of the housing and replace the fine-wire fuse T 10/250 D. The attenuation is presented in logarithmic scale. An attenuation of 10 is equal to 20 dB and 60 dB is equal to an attenuation of 1000. the principle transmission characteristic of the filter is shown. that only devices can be connected to the Line filter which have a maximum rated current of 10 A.: 7. With it. It affects symmetrical and asymmetrical interferences. The principle circuit is shown in the following figure.3. The varistors used are thermally monitored and disconnected from the mains in case of overloading.4 Page: 3 .

40 asym.: 7.100 a / dB 80 60 sym. 20 0 103 104 105 106 107 108 f / Hz Diagram: Transmission characteristic of the Line filter Chap.4 Page: 4 .

the overvoltage protection socket outlet. which are coupled into the power supply network. Part 600. they will not be damaged by means of the small currents. That is not affecting a touch-dimmer. always disconnect all overvoltage protection devices. it is sensible. e. This disconnection applies to all devices.5 Graduated protection 7.: 7. requires an insulation measurement of the installation and in parallel. A galvanic separation is ensured by a commercially used installation switches. Otherwise the test voltage is limited by the protection components. Basic Medium-level Detailed protection Figure: Graduated protection Chap. A further attenuation of the transients is realized in the sub-distribution board. it gives information about possibly wrong measurements due to the protection devices connected. Consequently. For completion of the overvoltage protection the detailed protection is defined according to the sensivity against overvoltages of the devices being protected. TRONIC-transformers that contain a varistor in its input circuit. This category includes the complete equipotential bonding and discharge sections. and very often gasfilled arresters and varistors are used. which have integrated overvoltage protection components. We call that medium-level protection. and wrong measurements will be carried out.6 Insulation measurement To achieve a comprehensive overvoltage protection in a building. to reduce the overvoltage pulses in stages by means of grading the protective components.g. for example. high energy transient voltages. You have to note in general: In case of insulation measurements in an installation. the Line filter and the TRONIC overvoltage protection module. If overvoltage protection devices should remain by mistake in the installation. are discharged when entering the installation (basic protection).7. The detailed protection includes devices. They distort the measured values due to it components limiting the voltage. are connected according to the reduced limitation voltage and the energy absorption. The effect is realized because the device being protected is connected in parallel to the overvoltage protection circuit.6 Page: 1 . This basic protection is used in the transformer station and in the main distribution board.5 / 7. The devices limiting the overvoltage. A symbolic presentation of the graduated protection is shown in the following figure: Overland long-distance cable Transformer of the electricity board Main distribution board Sub-distribution board Socket outlet VDE 0100. It has to be disconnected from the mains.

7 Notes for installation The kind of installation has an essential influence onto the overvoltage stress of every consumer. Protected (overvoltage reducing) wires should not be laid in a parallel or in bundles. but not the wire on the backside. Such an installation creates the danger of new coupling of transients (see also chapter 4. in a common wiring channel. 7. not protected Example 3: A weak point. The transients spread into both directions of the mains wire.7 Page: 1 . The coupling of transient can be reduced enormously by means of suitable measures. the wires protected against overvoltage should be as short as possible.1 Coupling of transients In general.: 7.7.4) In order to show the possibilities of coupling transients. is the coupling of transient in multiple portable sockets as transients can be coupled into the leads due to its position. e.g. some examples are illustrated in the following figures. In this example the data processing system is protected. Example 1: 230 V Figure: Coupling to opposite lying walls A coupling of overvoltages can not be excluded. Coupling Figure: Unfavourable use of an overvoltage protection socket outlet Chap. not able to be controlled. even a coupling from one wall to another is possible without any trouble. (see figures Unfavourable / favourable use of an overvoltage protection socket outlet) 230 V 230 V Coupling supposed to be protected Unfavourable position of the lead Figure: Possible coupling Example 2: If high surges occur. if wires are lying side by side behind the socket outlet. An overvoltage protection socket outlet has to be fitted generally in the multiple portable sockets.7.

2 Propagation of transients If a fuse trips under load.: 7. A B B A Figure: Propagation of transients by means of overvoltage protection socket outlets B B Attenuation by means of wire length re.Here wrong ! 230 V A general solution is not possible.3). The propagation is effective in all directions. if overvoltage protection socket outlets are installed.7 Page: 2 . but an enormous attenuation takes place. a short circuit pulse is created which is added to the mains voltage (see chapter 7. A Position of leads unfavourable B B A 230 V B Coupling 230 V E 230 V D C 230 V Here correct ! Figure: More favourable use of an overvoltage protection socket outlet F A B C D E F Attenuation by means of the wire length and the built-in overvoltage protection components 7. indirect coupling A B Figure: Propagation of transients Chap.1.7. The pulse is less attenuated by means of the wire length respectively the coupling of the parallel lying wires.

: 7. which are delivered with the product.2 kV between L and N ≤ 1. replacing the existing socket outlet in front of the consumer being protected Class of requirements: Operating temperature: Installation: Indications GREEN on: GREEN off: RED on + acoustic signal: Device in operation Mains voltage fails Temperature fuse of the overvoltage protection has been triggered (replace protection device). 1000 V -25 to +80 °C flexible 1. in important cases the operating instruction should be taken for decision. remove the mains plug for switching-off the acoustic signal triggered Chap.5 kV L/N and PE D -20 to +60°C ∅ 58 mm flush-box. wiring channels.5 kA (1x) approx. • Overvoltage protection module Rated voltage: Rated discharge current I SN (8/20) µs: Max. etc.5 kA 5 kA (1x) ≤ 1.5 mm 2 . 80 mm long in parallel to the protected device or operating circuit 1 module for approx. discharge surge current iSmax (8/20) µs: Protective level: 230 V / 50 Hz 16 A Disconnection of the protection component at overload 2. 5 -10 TRONIC-transformers in each circuit • Socket outlet with surge voltage protection and acoustic signal Rated voltage: Rated current: Temperature fuse: Rated discharge current iSN (8/20) µs: Max. when the Electronic Handbook was published. the technical data are no more valid in case of changes.8 Page: 1 . As the technical data are always up-to-date in the operating instructions. We reserve the right to change the technical data serving the technical progress and.).7.8 Technical data: (The technical data. described here. discharge surge current iSmax (8/20) µs: Remaining voltage at I S (1 kA): Operating temperature: Terminals: Installation: Protection capacity: 230 V / 50 Hz 1 kA (100x) 4. have been up-to-date.

remove the mains plug for switching-off the acoustic signal triggered Chap. DIN 41571 T3 2.• Line filter with over voltage protection Rated voltage: Rated current: Fine-wire fuse: Rated discharge current iSN (8/20) µs: 230 V / 50 Hz 10 A T 10 / 250 D. discharge surge current: i Smax (8/20) µs: Protection level: Class of requirements: Max. HPF -20 to +40°C according to VDE 0565 T3 Device in operation Mains voltage fails Temperature fuse of the overvoltage protection has been triggered (replace protection device).5 kA (1x) Max.5 mA according to DIN 40 040.8 Page: 2 . leakage discharge current: Climatic class: Operating temperature: RFI suppression filter: Indications GREEN on: GREEN off: RED on + acoustic signal: ≤ 1 kV D 0.: 7.5 kA 6.

1.1 1.4 Chapter 2.2 Dimmer with push switch 1.2.1 1.3.2. Dimmer for fluorescent lamps 1.3 Remote control dimmer 1. ELECTRONIC TRANSFORMER Chapter Dimmer with rotary knob 1.2. ELECTRONIC BALLAST FOR MINIATURE FLUORESCENT LAMPS Supplement: 0 Page: 1 .2. CURRENT GUARD Chapter 6.2 2. 2.1 Dimmer for incandescent lamps and LV dimmer for conventional transformer 1.1 2.1 Dimmer with rotary on/off switch or push switch 1.3 Speed regulator 1.2 DEVICES WITH AUTOMATIC TIME FUNCTION Electronic controller for shutter and blinds Electronic Timer Chapter 4.1 1.Supplement MODULAR ELECTRONIC HANDBOOK Application circuit Contents Chapter 1.3 1.3 Phase-cut-off-control dimmer for TRONIC-transformers Dimmer with rotary on/off switch : „ TRONIC-Dimmer“ Dimmer with/for touch operation: „ TRONIC-touch dimmer“and „ TRONIC-recessed dimmer“ Remote control dimmer: „ IR-TRONIC-touch dimmer“ Power extension: „ TRONIC-light control system“ Electronic potentiometer for 10 V control input Observer Observer for surface m ounting Observer for flush mounting Observer system Chapter 3.4 Power extensions 1.1 1.2 Dimmer and switches Electronic switches and push buttons Switches Push buttons 1.2.2 Phase-cut-on control dimmer 1.2 Dimmer with touch operation 1.

push button N 1 1 Mains 230 V C For illumination of the extension "C" is only necessary Operation with one extension (Function equal to 2-way switch circuit) L N Load Push-relay switch Extension for example type A mech. for example type A mech.1.1. push button N 1 1 Mains 230 V Extension for example type A mech. 1.1 Dimmer and switches Electronic switches and push buttons Switches L N Load Push-relay switch Mains 230 V N 1 One-way switch circuit with push-relay switch L N Load Push-relay switch Extension.1 1. push button 1 L may als o be connected to the extensions C C C To further push-relay switch extensions Operation with two extensions (Function equal to 4-way switch circuit ) Supplement: 1 Page: 1 .

L N Load IR-switch Receiver Switch Mains 230 V 1 N One -way switch circuit with IR-switch L N Load IR-switch Receiver Switch Mains 230 V Extension type A or mechanical switch 1 N 1 Only for illuminated extensions Operation with one extension (Function equal to 2-way switch circuit) L N Load Mains 230 V IR-switch Receiver Switch Extension type A or mechanical switch 1 N 1 1 Only for illuminated extensions To further extensions Operation with two extensions (Function equal to 4-way switch circuit ) Supplement: 1 Page: 2 .

10 m Channel selector switch N AC 230 V ~ L IR-receiver Emergency push button Wiring IR-recessed switch Supplement: 1 Page: 3 .Power unit N L 1 2 3 4 brown green yellow white max.

g. type A mech. push-relay switch Load Wiring of IR-extention push button 4channel in principle Supplement: 1 Page: 4 .g.g. e. push-button 1 1 IR-extension Receiver IR-push button with permanent pulse 1 N IR-push button with permanent pulse as an extension max.2 L N Push buttons Mains 230 V Load IR-main unit. e.1.g. dimmer for conv.1.g. 10 m IR-receiver Assignment of mains to any push button output Device 4 e. IR-push button Receiver Extension. TRONIC-recessed dimmer Load Device e. transformers Load Device 2 e.g. TRONIC-recessed dimmer Load Emergency push button Device 3 e.

power boosters and extensions (flush mounting) have to be connected to the same load! IR. dimmers.g. NO Load Attention: All devices of the same load circuit.e.extension push button 4channel Eb.Brown White max.g. TRONIC-recessed dimmer Emergency push button Push button flush. 10 m Green Yellow IR-receiver e. example of a circuit with a manual extension Supplement: 1 Page: 5 .

Dimmer for incandescent lamps LV-dimmer for conv. - - - x - - x x x - L N Load Mains 230 V Dimmer 1-way switch circuit Supplement: 1 Page: 6 .1.2. 2-way or 4-way switch circuits not possible 1.2.1 Dimmer for incandescent lamps and LV dimmer for conventional transformers Dimmer type TRONICtransfomer Permitted load type (x = permitted): Conventional HV halogen Incandescent transformer lamp lamp HVHalogen Fluorescent lamp Bal.2 Phase-cut-on dimmer 1. transf.2.1.1. suitable only for incandescent lamps.2 Dimmer with push switch 1.1 Dimmer with rotary on/off switch or push switch L N Dimmer Mains 230 V Rotary-off dimmer.1.1 Dimmer with rotary knob 1.2.2.

L N Load Dimmer 2-way switch P Mains 230 V 2-way switch circuit L N Load Dimmer P P P 4-way switch 2-way switch Mains 230 V 4-way switch circuit Supplement: 1 Page: 7 .

connect earth wire according to the selection list for lamps) 7 Clip for earthing the ignition support 8 Compensation capacitor 9 Earth wire depending on the fluorescent lamp type RFI class N is only achieved with lamps. Dimmer for fluorescent lamps - - - x x 3 8 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps 1 2 To further lamps 4 L 1 Adjustment of the basic brightness (potentiometer) N PE 2 Basic load (Incandescent lamp 25 W) 3 Ballast 4 Heating transformer 5 38 mm lamp without starter 6 Ignition support (When required.1. that are pre-wired for the brightness control and comply RFI class N.2 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps Dimmer type TRONICtransfomer Permitted load type (x = permitted): Conventional HV halogen Incandescent transformer lamp lamp HVHalogen Fluorescent lamp Bal.2. 9 7 6 5 1-way switch circuit with unsymmetrical ballast L N PE 3 8 Dimmer for flourescent lamps 1 2 2-way switch P To further lamps 4 9 7 6 5 2-way switch circuit with unsymmetrical ballast Supplement: 1 Page: 8 .1.2.

L N PE 3 8 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps 1 4-way switch 2 2-way switch To further lamps 4 P P P 9 7 6 5 4-way switch circuit with unsymmetrical ballast L N PE 3 8 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps 1 2 To further lamps 4 9 7 6 5 1-way switch circuit with symmetrical ballast 2-way and 4-way switch circuit according to the connection of fluorescent lamps with unsymmetrical ballast Dimmer for fluorescent lamps 1 2 Power booster 1 L N PE 2 1 3 8 4 3 8 4 To further lamps 9 7 6 5 To further lamps To further lamps 5 6 7 9 1-way switch circuit with a Power booster 2-way and 4-way switch circuit and connection of a symmetrical ballast according to a dimmer for fluorescent lamps without Power booster Supplement: 1 Page: 9 .

3 Speed regulator L N Adjustment of basic speed Speed regulator Motor Mains 230 V M ~ Supplement: 1 Page: 10 .2.L N 5 6 7 8 1 2 Electronic 3 ballast 4 Dimmer for fluorescent lamps Filter 1 2 5 To further lamps Dimmer circuit for fluorescent lamps with 26 mm diameter and electronic ballast 2-way and 4-way switch circuit according to the connection of fluorescent lamps with unsymmetrical ballast 1.1.2.

g. (Not for TRONIC-touch dimmer) Operation with one extension (Function is equal to 2-way switch circuit) L N Memory Load Touch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V mech. push button 1 C Wire C is necessary only in case touch dimmer extension shall be illuminated.g. transformers - - - x - - x x x - L N Load Memory Touch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V Touch key On/off circuit L N Load Memory Touch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V Extension e.2. push button 1 C C To further touch dimmer extensions (type A) Operation with two extensions (Function is equal to 4-way switch circuit) Supplement: 1 Page: 11 .2 Dimmer with touch operation Permitted load type (x = permitted): Conventional HV halogen Incandescent transformer lamp lamp HVHalogen Dimmer type TRONICtransfomer Fluorescent lamp Bal. type A mech. push button 1 Extension e.1. Touch dimmer for incandescent lamps LV touch dimmer for conv.type A mech.

3 Remote control dimmer Dimmer type TRONICtransfomer Permitted load type (x = permitted): Conventional HV halogen Incandescent transformer lamp lamp HVHalogen Fluorescent lamp Bal. push button 1 C C Wire C for illuminated extensions only Operation with two extensions for IR-touch dimmer and IR-LV-touch dimmer (Function is equal to 4-way switch circuit) Supplement: 1 Page: 12 . type A mech.2. Taster 1 Mains 230 V 1 Wire C for illuminated extension only C Operation with one extension for IR-touch dimmer and IR-LV-touch dimmer (Function is equal to 2-way switch circuit) L N Load IR-touch dimmer Receiver Dimmer Memory 1 Mains 230 V Extension e. IR-touch dimmer for incandesent lamps IR-LV.g.g. type A mech. transformers - x x x x - L N IR-touch dimmer Receiver Dimmer Memory Load Mains 230 V 1 On/off switch circuit IR-touch dimmer and IR-LV-touch dimmer L N Load IR-touch dimmer Receiver Dimmer Memory Extension e. type A mech. push button 1 Extension e.g.touch dimmer for conv.1.

10 LV-recessed Power booster 600W Example in connection with LV-touch dimmer and extension Supplement: 1 Page: 13 . 600 W N N LV1 recessed Power booster max.4 Power extension L N Power booster Mains 230 V 1 To further Power boosters (Terminal 1) To (load) terminal of the dimmer Power booster (flush) in connection with dimmer for incandescent lamps L N Power booster All heating transformers must be connected to the terminal of the dimmer Netz 230 V Resistive basic load To fluorescent lamp 1 To further Power boosters (Terminal 1) To (load) terminal of the dimmer Power booster (flush) in connection with dimmer for fluorescent lamps L N Mains 230 V Extension 1 LV-touch dimmer max. 500 W 1 N LV1 recessed Power booster N max. 600 W L1N max.2.1.

transformers N L3 ind.L1 L2 L3 N max. 600 W max. 3500 W per 16 A MCB max.16A I> 2 pole MCB- I> LV .16A max. 6500 W max. transfomers max. 600 W max. 500 W max. 600 W max.Dimmer LV Power booster max. 3500 W per 16 A MCB LV-recessed Power boosters Coupled MCBs at powers > 3500 W Supplement: 1 Page: 14 . 600 W N L3 ind.

1 Dimmer with push switch: „TRONIC-Dimmer“ L N Load TRONICDimmer Mains 230 V On/off switch circuit L N Load TRONICDimmer 2-way switch P Mains 230 V 2-way switch circuit L N Load TRONICDimmer 4-way switch P P 2-way switch P Mains 230 V 4-way switch circuit Supplement: 1 Page: 15 .3 Phase-cut-off dimmers for TRONIC-transformers Dimmer type TRONICtransfomer Permitted load type (x = permitted): Conventional HV halogen Incandescent transformer lamp lamp HVHalogen Fluorescent lamp Bal.1.3. TRONIC-Dimmer TRONIC-Touch dimmer TRONIC recessed dimmer IR-TRONIC Touch dimmer x x x x - x x x x x x x x - 1.

1.3. push button 1 To further touch dimmer extensions (type A) Operation with two extensions (Function equal to 4-way switch circuit) Supplement: 1 Page: 16 . type A mech.g.type A mech. push button 1 Operation with one extension (Function equal to 2-way switch circuit) L N Load Memory TRONICtouch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V mech.g.2 Dimmer with touch operation or for touch operation: „TRONIC-touch dimmer“ and „TRONIC-recessed dimmer“ L N Load Memory TRONICtouch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V Touch key On/off switch circuit L N Memory Last TRONICtouch dimmer 1 Mains 230 V Extension e. push button 1 Extension e.

push button 1 Load Operation with one extension (Function equal to 2-way switch circuit) Supplement: 1 Page: 17 . 700 W 1 Wiring of TRONIC recessed dimmer in principle 1.g.L N Mains 230 V mechan.3. push button 1 1 Memory TRONIC recessed dimmer Control wires to terminal "1" of the Power boosters Load 1 max.3 Remote control dimmer: „IR-TRONIC touch dimmer“ L N IR-TRONIC touch dimmer Mains 230 V Receiver Dimmer Load Memory 1 N On/Off switch circuit IR-TRONIC touch dimmer L N IR-TRONIC touch dimmer Mains 230 V Receiver Dimmer Memory 1 N Extension e. type A mech.

push button 1 Load Dimmer Memory 1 N Operation with two extensions (Function equal to 4-way switch circuit) 1.4 Power extension:“TRONIC Light control system" L N TRONIC dimmer Mains 230 V Load max. 700 W L1N max.g. push button 1 Extension e. type A mech.3.315 W N 1 N TRONICrecessed Power booster Load max. 700 W N N TRONIC1 recessed Power booster Load max.L N IR-TRONIC touch dimmer Mains 230 V Receiver Extension e. type A mech. 10 Wiring of TRONIC recessed Power booster in principle Supplement: 1 Page: 18 .g.

5 up to mm² 150 W: 2x2. TRONIC-transformers LV area Wiring diagram of the TRONIC Light control system with UP TRONIC-dimmer (flush) L N 2x1.5 mm² N *: If aTRONIC-dimmer with push/change switch is installed.5 mm²150 W: > entspr.5 mm² 3 core 250 V cable. aufteilen. N L Extension Type A 1 2x1. max 315 W L Extension Type A 1 * TRONIC*touch dimmer 1 to further TRONIC-transformers N L TRONIC-trans. 12 V N min 60** W.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² 3 core 250 V cable. max 700 W 4 terminals only for the further TRONIC recessed Power boosters to terminal "1" N TRONICNo connection of further TRONIC transformers possible! 1 recessed Power L booster N 1 L TRONIC recessed power booster N N L TRONIC-trans. select the cross section according to the total load of all power boosters (perhaps distribute on cables) and protect by a n-pole MCB L TRONIC-trans. replace the extensions by a 2-way 4-way switch! or 1 L TRONICrecessed Power booster 2x1. 12 V N to further TRONIC-trans. 12 V 2x1. select the cross section according to the total load of power boosters.0 up to mm² 105 W: 2x1. 12 V N min 60** W.0 up to mm² 105 W: 2x1.5 up to mm²150 W: > entspr.5 mm² N L 1 N to further TRONICrecessed Power boosters L N to further N L up to 60 W : 2x1.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans. aufteilen. 12 V N min 100W.L N 2x1.5 mm² N N L TRONIC-trans. 12 V N **: Minimum load installing TRONIC-recessed power booster to further extensions 2x1.5 mm² L TRONIC-trans.5 mm² 150 W: 2x2. max 700 W L TRONIC-trans. TRONIC-transformers LV area Wiring diagram of the TRONIC Light control system with TRONIC-recessed dimmer Supplement: 1 Page: 19 .5 mm² 1 TRONICrecessed dimmer **: Minimum load connecting TRONIC-recessed Power boosters to further extensions 2x1. 12 V 2x1. max 700 W 3x1.5 mm² N L 1 N to further TRONICrecessed Power booster L N to further N L up to 60 W : 2x1. all (perhaps distribute on the cables) 2x1. 12 V N min 100 W.

L1 L2 L3 N max.16A I> I> 2 pole MCB TRONIC-dimmer TRONIC-transformer TRONIC-recessed Power booster N L3 TRONIC-transformer N L3 TRONIC-transformer max. 3680 W per 16A MCB Coupled MCBs in the TRONIC-Light control system with powers >3500W Supplement: 1 Page: 20 . 3680 W per 16 a MCB max.16A max.

40 mA Electronic ballast + - X Electronic ballast + - X Principle circuit for a lamp load up to 1150 W 230 V L N L N L N Adjustment of basic brightness Electronic potentiometer + - Electronic ballast + - X Electronic ballast + - X max. 40 mA Principle circuit for a lamp load > 1150 W Supplement: 1 Page: 21 .4 Electronic potentiometer for 10 V input control 230 V L N L N L N Electronic Adjustment of basic brightness potentiometer + max.1.

S1 does not trigger the observer . L N N S2 S1 S1 S2 L L N T N L Observer with automatic and manual operation: S1+S2 = open: all off. break contact.1 Observer Observer for surface mounting (Single devices) L N T N T N L L N L L N Observers in parallel circuit Observer in a 2-way switch circuit: (One automatic and one manual switch) T = Push button. 2. Manual operation triggers a switch cycle. S1 closed. Observer in parallel connection with a staircase lighting switch or time pulse relay Supplement: 2 Page: 1 . S2 closed: automatic operation. L N L N T N L N L T T Observer in a 4-way switch circuit: (2 automatic and one manual switch) T = Push button. if switch S1 is activated. S1+S2 closed: permanent light Switching off the observer: The observer is switched-on again.2. break contact.

You can select any the connection sequence. independent on the brightness. independent on the brightness. If switching-on. Important: Switch always the live wire and connect the lamp to the neutral wire ƒ Example of a circuit: Combination of insert with relay contacts (1) and an active extension (2) and a manual (passive) extension (3) Supplement: 2 Page: 2 . L N • 1 N ‚ 1 N T T Combination of an insert with triac and several manual push buttons (normally close contact).2 Observer for flush mounting (Modular system with inserts and attachments) L N L N S 1 N S Insert with relay contacts in basic circuit: S switches-off the Observer. a switch-on cycle is initiated.2. a switch-on cycle is initiated. L N Insert with triac in basic circuit: S switches-off the Observer. If switching-on. L N T T 1 N Inserts with relay contacts and manual extensions (normally close contacts) L N Parallel connection of inserts with triac: More favourable: Select insert with relay contact + extension insert for this application.

+ All wiring diagrams of the single observers presented in 2. 1 L N + + S Lx - 1 Lx S .2.+ 8 S Lx Lxo max.3 Observer system Lx S .+ 2 S Lx Lxo A + - 3 Lx S . 8 A System sensors (surface mounting) connected in a star: Only one Lx of the system sensors shall be connected to the power unit! System sensors (flush mounting) connected in a star: Only one Lx of the system sensors shall be connected to the power unit (A)! Supplement: 2 Page: 3 .+ 2 S Lx Lxo x + S Lx Lxo 2 Lx S .1 are suitable to be used for the Observer system power unit (surface mounting) on the mains side.+ 8 + - 3 S Lx Lxo A max. 8 System sensors (surface mounting) connected in a line: Only one Lx of the system sensors shall be connected to the power unit! System sensors (flush mounting) connected in a line: Only one Lx of the system sensors shall be connected to the power unit (A)! Lx S .+ 1 x + - 1 S Lx Lxo A L N + + S Lx - 2 Lx S .

+ 1 1 2 N L1 L1 4 Lx S .+ 1 S 1 max.+ 1 2 8 Maximum length of the system sensor length wire. 100 m 2 N L1 L1 4 80 Lx S . (Valid for all flush and surface mounting devices!) Observer system power unit REG 1channel: Potential-isolated contact is connected to Low voltage. Observer system power unit REG 1 channel combined with time switch L N 1 1 max.+ 2 L N A N L1 L1 4 „ Tricky circuits“in the Observer system: Opening switch S1. Connect point (1) and point (2) to the Low voltage load circuit. 100 m max. triggers a switch cycle. 100 m Lx S .+ 1 NOT PERMITTED! A system sensor (flush or surface mounting) is not allowed to be connected to several system power units. Supplement: 2 Page: 4 .max.+ 1 Observer system power unit: Basic circuit L N 1 L N + - S Lx + N L N + - S LX Lxo N L1 L1 4 S Lx 80 Lx S . independent on the brightness("manual system sensor") 80 Lx S . only system sensor 1 is disconnected . 100 m T 1 S 8 Maximum length of the system sensor wire (Valid for all flush and surface mounting devices!) Lx S . Activating push button T1(normally open).

All wiring diagrams of the single observers presented in 2. 16 system-sensors) a common load (max.A L N N L1 L1 4 N L1 L2 80 Lx S . both channels are activated for one cycle.+ 1 80 80 Last B Lx 1 S 1 - + Lx 2 S 2 - + Observer system power unit REG 1channel: All wiring diagrams of the single observers presented in 2. 2500 W). if the contact is closed.1 may be used for the Observer system power unit (surface mounting) on the mains side. No automatic re-switching-on.5mm 2) is inserted according to the drawing B: Terminal ‘ is connected as the load 1’ terminal (arrow showing out) of the single Observer L N Observer system power unit REG 2channel: Both channels switch (max. Supplement: 2 Page: 5 . Note the specification of the load of the time switch! L N Observer system power unit REG 2channel: Operation at the same phase L1 L2 N 80 80 S N L1 L2 N L1 L2 80 80 Lx 1 S 1 80 80 - + Lx 2 S 2 - + Lx 1 S 1 - + Lx 2 S 2 - + Observer system power unit REG 2channel: Operation at two phases Observer system power unit REG 2channel: S disconnects channel 2 and does not effect channel 1. if: A: An isolated wire bridge(1. L N 1 N N L1 L2 80 80 Lx 1 S 1 - + Lx 2 S 2 - + N L1 L2 Lx 1 S 1 - + Lx 2 S 2 - + Observer system power unit REG 2channel: Potential isolated contact of the second channel is combined with a time switch.1 may be used for channel 1 of the Observer system power unit 2channel on the mains side Attention: After a mains failure at channel 1.

3.3.1 Devices with automatic functions Electronic control for shutter and blinds L1 N max. 1 Motor 1000VA N Wiring diagram: Control of blinds L N N L K1 K2 AUF AB M K1 K2 K1 K2 M1 M2 Operation of several motors (Variant 1) L N N L K1 K2 K1 K2 K1 K2 M1 M2 Operation of several motors (Variant 2) Supplement: 3 Page: 1 .

example of an application with separating relays 3.2 Electronic timer L1 N max.Central control Woche Tag Prog Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Manuel l Auto Zufall Astro Single control Single control Single control Man/Auto Einstelle n Enter 3 2 3 Mains 3 2 2 3 Separating relay 4 Separating relay Separating relay M1 M2 M3 Control of several motors. 1000VA N Wiring diagram: Electronic timer Supplement: 3 Page: 2 .

SNT 105 L N AC 230 V ~ Wiring diagramTRONIC-transformer SNT 150. SNT 105 cyl. Electronic transformers L N AC 230 V ~ AC 12 V ~ Wiring diagramTRONIC-transformer SNT 70 cyl. AC 230 V ~ AC 230 V ~ L N Wiring diagramTRONIC-transformer SNT 35 L N Wiring diagramTRONIC-transformer SNT 70.TRONICDimmer transformer Overvoltage protection module L TRONIC-transformer N L N L N AC 12 V ~ AC 12 V ~ L N L N L N L N L N L N L N Connection of the overvoltage module with and without a TRONIC-dimmer Supplement: 4 Page: 1 .4. SNT 200 AC 12 V ~ Overvoltage protection module TRONIC..

Current Guard L1 12 V 230 V~ N 300 W 250 W 200 W 150 W 100 W 50 W Reset Wiring diagram: Current guard Supplement: 5 Page: 1 .5.

6. cubic construction Supplement: 6 Page: 1 Lampe / lamp / tube miniatur . cubic construction grey Lampe / lamp / tube miniatur EVG/ML L N AC 230 V ~ white Wiring diagram EVG/ML. Electronic ballast for mini fluorescent lamps L N S L N AC 230 V ~ EVG/ML Wiring diagram EVG/ML.

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