IRPS No.

1,

November

1976

RECENT

STUDIES

ON RICE TUNGRO

DISEASE

AT IRRI1

ABSTRACT The irregularity of outbreaks of rice tungro disease suggests that tungro outbreaks are influenced by environmental and biological factors. A cage method was developed to study the experimental epidemiology of the disease. The incidence of the disease is influenced by factors of insect vector and virus source. Temperature affects transmission to a certain extent. The retention period of the virus by Nephotettix virescens becomes much longer at 13°C than at 32°C. Therefore, tungro is classified as a transitory leafhopper-transmitted virus instead of a nonpersistent virus. An insect infects, at maximum, 40 seedlings/day. A rice variety's field resistance to tungro may be related to the nonpreference of the vector for the variety in addition to the variety's mechanism of antibiosis to the insect.

by K. C. Ling, plant pathologist, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines. This paper was originally submitted at the International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Tropical Crops, September 1976, Tokyo, and revised and submitted to the IRRI Research Paper Series Committee 3 September 1976.

1

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

RECENT

STUDIES

ON RICE TUNGRO

DISEASE

AT IRRI

Several These

virus

diseases

of rice have characteristics in Indonesia habong (Tantera,

similar

to tungr9.

include

cella pance

1973), leaf yellowing
(Tantera,

in India et al.,

(John,

1968), penyakit
merah

In Indonesia

1973; Saito 1970), 1967).
of rice

1975), penyakit

in Malaysia (Lamey,

(Ting and Paramsothy, Suri.n, and Leeuwangh, and stunting

and yellow-orange The major plants. tungro

leaf in Thailand symptoms

are yellowing by a virus

of leaves

The disease

is caused

that is known

to be transmitted

only by the leafhopper

species,

Nephotettix maZayanus~ N. nigropictus~ N.
of virus

paruue , N. ui.reecene, and ReciZia dorsalis (Ling, 1972, 1973). N. virescens is the most important vector in terms of efficiency
transmission and insect population in rice fields.

Tungro years

is prevalent the disease suddenly

across

South and Southeast

Asia.

During rather

the last

10

has been epidemic and destroying

(or epiphytotic) areas

than endemic, Although

striking

large

6f rice plants. after

the disease

may be found

in an area for a few years or moderate levels

an outbreak, crops for

it has not persisted any extended in Bangladesh India, in 1969 period. in 1969

at severe

in ~uccessive tungro

This was substantiated (Miah and Ahmad,

by the major

outbreak and Bihar,

1974), in Uttar Pradesh

(Anonymous,

1969; John, 1970; Anjaneyulu,
(aka, 1971; Tantera, and Sarna, 1973; Tantera, (Lim, 1972), in Cotabato,

1974), in South 1973, 1974), in
Philippines, in

Kalimantan, Sulawesi North

Indonesia,

in 1969

1973) and South

in 1972

(Van Ha1teren in 1969

Krian,

Malaysia,

1970 and in Central Luzon in 1971, and in Thailand 1967).

in 1966

(Lamey et al.,

The irregularity controlled

of tungro

outbreaks

suggested

that they are influenced This led to Vlrus

or

by environmental studies

and biological

factors.

epidemiological source, host,

to determine

the effect

of insect vector,

and environment

on disease

incidence,

as well as to the

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

4

breeding

of rice varieties Institute.

resistant Recent

to the disease

at the International below.

Rice Research

findings

are summarized

EXPERIMENTAL

EPIDEMIOLOGY studies

OF RICE TUNGRO can be categorized

DISEASE as statistical approach and experimental, collecting,

Epidemiological or analytical collating, about

and synthetic.

The statistical

includes

and analyzing factors

observations

on disease

incidence

and information field or or

existing

that are related

to the disease the effects are studied

under natural of individual

conditions. combined

In the experimental on the disease controlled

approach, incidence

factors

In the greenhouse

the field under

conditions.

A

cage method fop studying expepimental
(Ling, epidemiology essential because

epidemiology
to simulate a field experiment was possible for

A cage method of tungro most virus

1976a) was developed

in a cage manipulation the disease,

factors source,

for spreading

such as insect vector, can vary individual or

and test seedlings. among the cages

The investigator to determine Further,

combined

factors

their effects the cages

on percentage

of infection various

of the test seedlings. conditions

can be kept under on disease

environmental

to investigate

their effects

incidence.

Effect of some factops of vectop on disease incidence
The effects percentage were three of the insect vector of infected seedlings method on tungro incidence, In terms of Native 1 (TNl), for of the variety In a greenhouse. Taichung A basic

studied factors

by the cage -- number -- added

composition

of insects,

pots of diseased

plants,

and duration

of confinement containing plants

180 virus-free

N. vipescens to cages, each
as well as 4 pots of diseased The basic in which on tungro composition them for 7 days. except for those

300 test seedlings sources,

in 12 pots,

as virus

and confined

remained

constant factor

in all experiments was varied

each incidence

individual (Ling,

to determine

its effect

1976b).

The percentage insects

of infected

seedlings

(x)

increased

ill the cage by

Y

(Y) increased
=

as the number of adult 2 100-100 (l+ax+bx ) , where a and b

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

6

than when This

diseased

plants

of the varieties plants

C4-63G

or IR20 were used. varieties are not identical as the feeding on

indicates

that diseased

of different

in quality percentage diseased

as sources of insects

of tungro

virus.

The quality after

is defined acquisition

that become

infective

plants

or seedling

infection source.

as result

of using

diseased

plants

of various

types as a virus

EFFECT

OF TEMPERATURE of ambient green

ON TRANSMISSION temperature on the transmission of tungro virus by

The effect the adult conditions. temperatures

leafhopper

(N. virescens) was studied under controlled
1976) indicate that, at the virus 10 to 38°C, the insect can acquire

The results ranging plants

(Ling and Tiongco,

from

from diseased infected. restricting the insect's ambient

and can inoculate

rice seedlings

that later become

Hence,

temperature

in the tropical under

region may not be a factor natural conditions. However, as the as

tungro virus efficiency

transmission in transmitting from

the Vlrus

tends

to increase slightly

temperature

increases

10 to 31°C and decreases from 31 to 38°C.

the temperature

increases

further

Within spread

the day-night of tungro,

temperature

range

between

24-16°C

and 30-22°C,

the

measured

by percentage increase.

of infected

seedlings,

increases

as the day-night

temperatures

The life span of tungro-viruliferous decreases from 34 to 13°C. After retention

adult

insects

increases

as temperature

an acquisition

feeding

at rOOIn temperature, retention at

the longest

at 13°C was 22 days and the longest insects.

32°C was 6 days, infectivity

ln tests of 6,895

At 7°C, the insects

lost less

than at room temperatures.

TRANSITORY Like

LEAFHOPPER-TRANSMITTED virus diseases,

VIRUS does not persist in its leafhopper is of

similar

tungro

vectors

(Ling,

1970,

1972). Ling

(1966) suggested if "short"

that tungro virus to a duration

nonpersistent not longer interaction tungro

in the rice leafhopper

refers

than 1 week because other

no characteristic period

of the virus-vector the grouping of

than the retention group.

precludes

in the nonpersistent

7

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

Categorizing because

tungro virus

as nonpersistent

seems no longer period

appropriate than 3 weeks

new findings

show that the retention Ling and Tiongco viruses

is longer

at 13°C. Therefore,

(1976) proposed the following

the term "transitory" characteristics of

for leafhopper-transmitted virus-vector 1. interaction.

with

The virus infectivity

does not persist or percentage or daily period

In its leafhopper of infective

vector,

l.e.,

the

insects

decreases

with

time at hourly 2. The retention

intervals

after

acquisition

feeding.

is generally to become

less than a week but depends

on low temperatures 3. There

longer. period In the leafhopper

is no demonstrable

latent

vector. 4. The infectivity blockage. 5. The insect needs reacquisition feeding to become reinfective. is lost due to molting -- transstadial

It is recommended transmitted categorized virus

that tungro be designated and that the virus-vector instead

as a transitory interaction

leafhopperbe

of tungro

as transitory

of nonpersistent.

The above

five features experiments.

of virus-vector

interaction virus

can be determined that lS contrary to

by

transmission these

A leafhopper-borne characteristics

five virus-vector

remains

classified

as a persistent

leafhopper-transmitted

virus.

Thus,

the leafhopper-transmitted rather

viruses

can be categorized semipersistent,

as transitory and persistent,

and persistent

than nonpersistent, are categorized.

as the aphid-borne

viruses

INFECTIVE Infective plants

CAPACITY capacity lS a new term proposed can infect for the number period of seedlings or

that an insect aspect

in any given

of time -- a capacity of

quantitative

of insect

transmission.

The infective

N.

virescens

to transmit

tungro virus adult

was determined

by transferring in test tubes

individually consecutively

viruliferous for 10 hours

insects

to rice seedling~

at intervals

of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes.

IRPS No. I, November

1976

8

As the inoculation lengthens number lowers.

access

time

(transfer

interval)

of an infective

insect

the percentage

of infected

seedlings insect

increases,

but the possible in a given the time

of seedlings

that an infective capacity

can inoculate therefore,

The infective of infected

is determined,

by both

percentage Neither

seedlings

and the number access time,

of inoculated

seedlings. number

the shortest

inoculation nor

that gives

the largest time,

of inoculated gives

seedlings,

the longest of infected Based

inoculation seedlings,

access

that the 10,000 of

the highest capacity

percentage

would maximize from exposing

infective seedlings

of an insect.

on the results the maximum

to 200 viruliferous

insects,

infective

capacity

N. virescens was found at the transfer interval
time) of 30 minutes. seedlings/insect/day, first 10-hour period The maximum assuming infective that the insects'

(or the inoculation was 30 infected during

access

capacity

infectivity

the

did not change infect (Ling, a higher 1976d).

for the remainder number

of the day. A more under more

efficient favorable

insect may conditions

of seedlings

Ling and Tiongco infected maximum

(1976) obtained

the maximum

infective

capacity

of 40

seedlings/insect infective capacity

per day at 34°C for was much lower

N. virescens but the
one of of on the basis

than the theoretical calculated

288 infected the shortest

seedlings/insect inoculation by

per day when time

access

(5 minutes)

for positive

transmission

of the tungro virus not infect during

N. virescens. The reason is that the insect does
in every inoculation access time, particularly

a seedling access

short

time.

MOVEMENT

OF VIRULIFEROUS movement

INSECTS

The hourly observed confined the green Only three

of 1,330 tungro-viruliferous after

N. virescens adults was
were individually is resistant to

from 0800 to 1700 hours in screened leafhopper, cages with

the insects

seedlings

of IR8, which

and of TN1, which

is green

leafhopper

susceptible. --

types of insect movement off-seedling,

related

to the spread

of tungro -- were

seedling-to-seedling,

and back-to-seedling

studied.

More

insects

moved

and each individual

insect moved

more

times on the IR8

seedlings

than on the TN1 seedlings

in the test period

(Ling and

9

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

Carbonell, viruliferous TNl. Seedlings

1976). Consequently, insects, two movements

more IR8 seedlings duration

were visited

by

but the visiting

per seedling

and the

interval between

of each insect were shorter on IR8 than on

of either IR8 or TNI that became longer by viruliferous These results suggest

infected had been visited than those that did not field time for to may be to the shorter durations

significantly resistance

insects

become infected. that viruliferous shorter because the particular the insect.

that a rice variety's Visiting

(Robinson,

1969) to tungro may be related

insects visit each seedling. in addition

the insects move more often due to their nonpreference rice variety, to the variety's antibiosis

LITERATURE

CITED

Anjaneyulu, A. 1974. Epidemiological studies of rlce tungro virus disease in India. Paper presented at the International Rice Research Conference, Los Banos, Philippines, April 22-26. 12 p. (mimeo) Anonymous. 1969. Surveillance of tungro virus in India. Pages 1-6, in Progress report of the All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India. John, V. T. 1968. Identification and characterization of tungro, a virus disease of rice in India. Plant Dis. Rep. 52:871-875. John, V. T. 1970. Yellowing disease of paddy. Indian Farming 20(3) :27-30.

Lamey, H. A., P. Surin, S. Disthaporn, and L. Wathanakul. 1967. The epiphytotic of yellow orange leaf disease of rice in 1966 in Thailand. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 15:67-69. Lamey, H. A., P. Surin, and J. Leeuwangh. 1967. Transmission experiments on the tungro virus in Thailand. Int. Rice Comm. Newsl. 16(4):15-19. Lim, G. S. 1972. Studies on penyakit merah disease of rice. III. Factors contributing to an epidemic in North Krian, Malaysia. Malays. Agric. J. 48:278-294. Ling, K. C. 1966. Nonpersistence of the tungro virus of rice in its leafhopper vector, Nephotettix impicticeps. Phytopathology 56:1252-1256. Ling, K. C. 1970. Ability of Nephotettix apicalis tungro virus. J. Econ. Entomol. 63:583-586. to transmit the rice

IRPS No.1,

November

1976

10

Ling, K. C. 1972. Rice Vlrus diseases. Philippines. 142 p.

Int. Rice Res. Inst., Los Banos, Int. Rice of

Ling, K. C. 1973. Synonymies of insect vectors of ri.ceviruses. Res. Inst., Los Banos, Philippines. 29 p.

Ling, K. C. 1976a. A cage method for studying experimental epidemiology rice tungro disease. Philipp. Phytopathol. vol. 10. (in press) Ling, K. C. 1976b. Experimental epidemiology of rice tungro disease. I. Effect of some factors of vector (Nephotettix virescens) on disease incidence. Philipp. Phytopathol. (in press) Ling, K. C. 1976c. Experimental epidemiology of rice tungro disease: II. Effect of virus source on disease incidence. Philipp. Phytopathol. (in press) Ling, K. C. 1976d. The capacity of Nephotettix virescens to infect rice seedlings with tungro. Philipp. Phytopathol. vol. 10. (in press) Ling, K. C., and M. P. Carbonell. 1976. Movement of individual viruliferous Nephotettix virescens in cages and tungro infection of rice seedlings. Philipp. Phytopathol. (in press)

Ling, K. C., and E. R. Tiongco. 1976. Effect of temperature on the transmission of rice tungro virus by Nephotettix virescens. Philipp. Phytopathol. (in press) Miah, S. A., and M. S. Ahmed. 1974. Sources of resistance and breeding for resistance to tungro and bacterial blight in Bangladesh. Paper presented at the International Rice Research Conference, Los Banos, Philippines, April 22-26. 15 p. (mimeo) Miyashita, K., Y. Ito, S. Yasuo, T. Yamaguchi, and M. Ishii. 1964. Studies of the dispersal of plan~and leafhoppers. II. Dispersals of Delphacodes striatella Fallen, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, and Deltocephalis dorsalis Motschulsky in nursery and paddy field. Jpn. J. Ecol. 14:233-241 . aka, I. N. 1971. On an outbreak of a rice disease showing tungro symptoms in South Sumatra and Lampung provinces. Minist. Agric. Cent. Res. Inst. Agric., Bogor, Indonesia. 4 p , (mimeo) Robinson, R. A. 1969. Disease 48:593-606. resistance terminology. Rev. Appl. Mycol.

Saito, Y., M. Roechan, D. M. Tantera, and M. Iwaki. 1975. Small bacilliform particles associated with penyakit habang (tungro-like) disease of rice in Indonesia. Phytopathology 65:793-796. Tantera, D. M. 1973. Studies on rice virus/mycoplasma diseases in 1972. Paper presented at Staff Meeting, Central Research Institute of Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia, July 25-26. 25 p. (mimeo)

11

IRPS No. I, November

1976

Tantera, D. M. 1974. Field screening for tungro and grassy stunt in Indonesia, 1972-1974. Paper presented at the International Rice Research Conference, Los Banos, Philippines, April 22-26. 12 p. (mimeo) Ting, W. P., and S. Paramsothy. 1970. Studies on penyakit merah disease rice. I. Virus-vector interaction. Malays. Agric. J. 47:290-298. of

Van Halteren, P., and S. Sarna. 1973. The tungro disease in South Sulawesi. Paper presented at Staff Meeting, Central Research Institute of Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia, July 25-28. 51 p. (mimeo)

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