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191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
Chapter 19 Problem Solutions
191. Intrinsic temperature is reached when the intrinsic carrier density n
i
equals the lowest
doping density in the pn juinction structure (the nside in this problem). Thus
n
i
(T
i
) = N
d
= 10
14
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T
i

1
300
Solving for T
i
using E
g
= 1.1 eV, k = 1.4x10
23
[1/°K] yields
T
i
= 262 °C or 535 °K.
192. Nside resistivity
n
=
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 43.5 ohmcm
Pside resistivity
p
=
1
q
p
N
a
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(500)(10
18
)
= 0.013 ohmcm
193. Material is ntype with N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
>> n
i
= 10
10
cm
3
. Hence use approximate
formulas given in Chapter 19.
n = N
d
= 10
13
cm
3
; p =
n
2
i
N
d
=
10
20
10
13
= 10
7
cm
3
194. p
o
=
n
2
i
[300]
N
d
; 2p
o
=
n
2
i
[300+T]
N
d
2 n
2
i
[300] = n
2
i
[300 + T] ; 2x10
10
= 10
10
exp
˚

qE
g
2k
˛
1
T

1
300
Solving for T yields T =
qE
g
300
(qE
g
k300ln(2))
= 305.2 °K
T = 305.2  300 = 5.2 °K.
195. I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
kT
; 10 I
1
= I
s
exp(
qV
1
+ V
kT
) ; V =
kT
q
ln(10) = 60 mV
196. (a) x
n
(0) = depletion layer width on nside at zero bias; x
p
(0) = depletion layer width
on pside at zero bias.
x
n
(0) + x
p
(0) = W
o
=
2
c
(N
a
+N
d
)
qN
a
N
d
(1)
c
=
kT
q
ln
˚
N
a
N
d
n
2
i
= 0.026 ln
˚
10
14
10
15
10
20
= 0.54 eV
Conservation of charge: q N
a
x
p
= q N
d
x
n (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously gives using the numerical values given in the problem
statement gives:
W
o
= 2.8 microns ; x
n
(0) = 2.55 microns ; x
p
(0) = 0.25 microns
(b) Electric field profile triangularshaped as shown in Fig. 199b. Maximum electric at
zero bias given by
E
max
=
2
c
W
o
=
(2)(0.54)
(2.8x10
4
)
= 3,900 V/cm
(c) From part a)
c
= 0.54 eV
(d)
C(V)
A
=
W
o
1+
V
c
; C(V) = spacecharge capacitance at reverse voltage V.
C(0)
A
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
2.8x10
4
= 3.7x10
9
F/cm
2
C(50)
A
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
2.8x10
4
1+
50
0.54
= 3.8x10
10
F/cm
2
(e) I = I
s
exp(
qV
kT
) ; exp(
qV
kT
) = exp (
0.7
0.026
) = 5x10
11
I
s
= q n
2
i
˚
D
n
N
a
+
D
p
N
d
A
= (1.6x10
19
)(10
20
)
˚
(38)(10
6
)
(10
15
)(10
6
)
+
(13)(10
6
)
(10
14
)(10
6
)
(2)
2
I
s
= 6.7x10
14
A ;
I = (6.7x10
14
)(5x10
11
) = 34 mA
197. Resistance R =
L
A
;
L
A
=
0.02
0.01
= 2 cm
1
At 25 °C, N
d
= 10
14
>> n
i
so =
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 41.7 cm
R(25 °C) = (41.7)(2) = 83.4 ohms
At 250 °C (523 °K), n
i
[523] = 10
10
exp
˚

(1.6x10
19
)(1.1)
(2)(1.4x10
23
)
˛
1
523

1
300
=
(10
10
)(7.6x10
3
) = 7.6x10
13
which is an appreciable fraction of N
d
= 10
14
. Thus we
should solve Eqs. (192) and (193) exactly for n
o
and p
o
rather than using equations
similiar to Eq. (194). Solving Eqs. (192) and (193) for N
d
>> N
a
yields
n
o
=
N
d
2
˚
1+ 1+
4n
2
i
N
2
d
and p
o
=
n
2
i
n
o
. Putting in numerical values yields
n
o
=
10
14
2
˚
1+ 1+
(4)(7.6x10
13
)
2
(10
14
)
2
= 1.4x10
14
and
p
o
=
5.8x10
27
10
14
= 5.8x10
13
Assuming temperatureindependent mobilities (not a valid assumption but no other
information is given in text or the problem statement), resistance is
R(250 °C) =
(250° C)L
A
; (250 °C) ≈
1
q
n
n
o
+q
p
p
o
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.4x10
14
)+(1.6x10
19
)(500)(5.8x10
13
)
= 26.2 cm ;
R(250 °C) ≈ (26.2)(2) = 52.4 ohms
198. BV
BD
=
(N
a
+N
d
)E
2
BD
2qN
a
N
d
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10
15
+10
14
)(3x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
15
)(10
14
)
= 3,340 volts
197. Resistance R =
L
A
;
L
A
=
0.02
0.01
= 2 cm
1
At 25 °C, N
d
= 10
14
>> n
i
so =
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
14
)
= 41.7 cm
R(25 °C) = (41.7)(2) = 83.4 ohms
At 250 °C (523 °K), n
i
[523] = 10
10
exp
˚

(1.6x10
19
)(1.1)
(2)(1.4x10
23
)
˛
1
523

1
300
=
(10
10
)(7.6x10
3
) = 7.6x10
13
which is an appreciable fraction of N
d
= 10
14
. Thus we
should solve Eqs. (192) and (193) exactly for n
o
and p
o
rather than using equations
similiar to Eq. (194). Solving Eqs. (192) and (193) for N
d
>> N
a
yields
n
o
=
N
d
2
˚
1+ 1+
4n
2
i
N
2
d
and p
o
=
n
2
i
n
o
. Putting in numerical values yields
n
o
=
10
14
2
˚
1+ 1+
(4)(7.6x10
13
)
2
(10
14
)
2
= 1.4x10
14
and
p
o
=
5.8x10
27
10
14
= 5.8x10
13
Assuming temperatureindependent mobilities (not a valid assumption but no other
information is given in text or the problem statement), resistance is
R(250 °C) =
(250° C)L
A
; (250 °C) ≈
1
q
n
n
o
+q
p
p
o
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.4x10
14
)+(1.6x10
19
)(500)(5.8x10
13
)
= 26.2 cm ;
R(250 °C) ≈ (26.2)(2) = 52.4 ohms
198. BV
BD
=
(N
a
+N
d
)E
2
BD
2qN
a
N
d
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10
15
+10
14
)(3x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
15
)(10
14
)
= 3,340 volts
199. E
2
max
= E
2
BD
≈
4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o
f
c
; Eq. (1913); or
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD
f
c
; E q. (19 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W
(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.
1910. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
6
) = 62 microns
1911. Assume a onesided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
1912. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p
n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 =  q m
p
n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i
m
p
m
n
and p = n
i
m
n
m
p
p = 10
10
1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
3
; n = 10
10
500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly ptype.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n
.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)
= 2.8x10
6
mhoscm
199. E
2
max
= E
2
BD
≈
4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o
f
c
; Eq. (1913); or
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD
f
c
; E q. (19 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W
(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.
1910. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
6
) = 62 microns
1911. Assume a onesided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
1912. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p
n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 =  q m
p
n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i
m
p
m
n
and p = n
i
m
n
m
p
p = 10
10
1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
3
; n = 10
10
500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly ptype.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n
.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)
= 2.8x10
6
mhoscm
199. E
2
max
= E
2
BD
≈
4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o
f
c
; Eq. (1913); or
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD
f
c
; E q. (19 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W
(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.
1910. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
6
) = 62 microns
1911. Assume a onesided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
1912. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p
n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 =  q m
p
n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i
m
p
m
n
and p = n
i
m
n
m
p
p = 10
10
1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
3
; n = 10
10
500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly ptype.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n
.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)
= 2.8x10
6
mhoscm
199. E
2
max
= E
2
BD
≈
4f
2
c
BV
BD
W
2
o
f
c
; Eq. (1913); or
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
W
2
(BV
BD
) =
W
2
o
BV
BD
f
c
; E q. (19 11) ; Inserting
W
2
o
f
c
=
4BV
BD
E
2
BD
and taking
the square root yields W
(BV
BD
) ≈
2BV
BD
E
2
BD
.
1910. L
p
= D
p
t = (13)(10
6
) = 36 microns ; L
n
= D
n
t = (39)(10
6
) = 62 microns
1911. Assume a onesided step junction with N
a
>> N
d
I
1
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
1
N
d
t
1
exp(
qV
kT
) ; I
2
= q n
2
i
A
D
p
t
2
N
d
t
2
exp(
qV
kT
)
I
2
I
1
= 2 =
t
1
t
2
; Thus 4 t
2
= t
1
1912. s = q m
p
p + q m
n
n ; np = n
2
i
; Combining yeilds s = q m
p
n
2
i
n
+ q m
n
n
ds
dn
= 0 =  q m
p
n
2
i
n
2
+ q m
n
; Solving for n yields n = n
i
m
p
m
n
and p = n
i
m
n
m
p
p = 10
10
1500
500
= 1.7x10
10
cm
3
; n = 10
10
500
1500
= 6x10
9
cm
3
;
Thus minimum conductivity realized when silicon is slightly ptype.
Inserting p and n back into the equation for conductivity yields s
min
= 2 q n
i
m
p
m
n
.
Putting in numerical values s
min
= (2)(1.6x10
19
)(10
10
)
(500)(1500)
= 2.8x10
6
mhoscm
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
201. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
3
; W(2500 V) = (10
5
)(2500) = 250
microns
202. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (201) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch
through structure and Eq. (209) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 900 V
203. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
I
I
s
; For onesided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d
t
o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
6
)
= 1.6x10
 9
A
V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (2016) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
qm
o
An
b
=
5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
t
o
=
3
(5x10
3
)
4
(1.6x10
19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
6
)
= 7.5x10
4
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
201. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
3
; W(2500 V) = (10
5
)(2500) = 250
microns
202. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (201) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch
through structure and Eq. (209) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 900 V
203. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
I
I
s
; For onesided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d
t
o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
6
)
= 1.6x10
 9
A
V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (2016) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
qm
o
An
b
=
5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
t
o
=
3
(5x10
3
)
4
(1.6x10
19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
6
)
= 7.5x10
4
Chapter 20 Problem Solutions
201. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
2500
= 5x10
13
cm
3
; W(2500 V) = (10
5
)(2500) = 250
microns
202. Drift region length of 50 microns is much less than the 250 microns found in the previous
problem (201) for the same drift region doping density. Hence this must be a punch
through structure and Eq. (209) applies.
BV
BD
= (2x10
5
)(5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
13
)(5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 900 V
203. V
on
= V
j
+ V
drift
; V
j
=
kT
q
ln
˚
I
I
s
; For onesided step junction I
s
=
qAn
2
i
L
p
N
d
o
;
Evaluating I
s
yields
(1.6x10
19
)(2)(10
10
)
2
(13)(2x10
6
)
(5x10
13
)(2x10
6
)
= 1.6x10
9
V
d
= K
1
I + K
2
(I)
2/3
Eq. (2016) with I = forward bias current through the diode.
K
1
=
W
d
q
o
An
b
·
5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(2)(10
17
)
= 1.7x10
4
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
q
2
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
o
=
3
(5x10
3
)
4
(1.6x10
19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(2)
2
(2x10
6
)
= 7.5x10
4
I V
j
V
drift
V
on
0 A 0 V 0 V 0 V
1 0.53 0.001 0.53
10 0.59 0.005 0.59
100 0.65 0.033 0.68
1000 0.71 0.25 0.96
3000 0.74 0.67 1.41
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1 10 100 1000 10000
V
on
in volts
Forward current in amperes
204. a) V
on
(t) = R
drift
I(t) >> V
j
≈ 1 V ; R
drift
=
L
A
; =
1
q
n
N
d
=
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(5x10
13
)
= 85 ohmcm ;
L
A
=
5x10
3
2
= 2.5x10
3
R
drift
= (85)(2.5x10
3
) = 0.21 ohms ; I(t) = 2.5x10
8
t ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(t) = (0.21)(2.5x10
8
t ) = 5.3x10
7
t Volts ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(4 s) = (5.3x10
7
)(4x10
6
) = 212 volts
b) V
on
(t) = R
drift
(t) I(t) ; R
drift
(t) = 0.21[1  2.5x10
7
t]
V
on
(t) = {0.21[1  2.5x10
7
t]} { 2.5x10
8
t } = 53[t  0.25 t
2
] ; t in microseconds
I V
j
V
drift
V
on
0 A 0 V 0 V 0 V
1 0.53 0.001 0.53
10 0.59 0.005 0.59
100 0.65 0.033 0.68
1000 0.71 0.25 0.96
3000 0.74 0.67 1.41
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1 10 100 1000 10000
V
on
in volts
Forward current in amperes
204. a) V
on
(t) = R
drift
I(t) >> V
j
≈ 1 V ; R
drift
= r
L
A
; r =
1
qm
n
N
d
r =
1
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(5x10
13
)
= 85 ohmcm ;
L
A
=
5x10
3
2
= 2.5x10
3
R
drift
= (85)(2.5x10
3
) = 0.21 ohms ; I(t) = 2.5x10
8
t ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(t) = (0.21)(2.5x10
8
t ) = 5.3x10
7
t Volts ; 0 < t < 4 microseconds
V
on
(4 m s) = (5.3x10
7
)(4x10
6
) = 212 volts
b) V
on
(t) = R
drift
(t) I(t) ; R
drift
(t) = 0.21[1  2.5x10
7
t]
V
on
(t) = {0.21[1  2.5x10
7
t]} { 2.5x10
8
t } = 53[t  0.25 t
2
] ; t in microseconds
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
205. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
206. Assume a nonpunchthrough structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
W
d
= 10
5
BV
BD
= (10
5
) (150) = 15 microns
207. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d
L
A
A =
2x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
205. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
206. Assume a nonpunchthrough structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
W
d
= 10
5
BV
BD
= (10
5
) (150) = 15 microns
207. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d
L
A
A =
2x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
205. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
206. Assume a nonpunchthrough structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
W
d
= 10
5
BV
BD
= (10
5
) (150) = 15 microns
207. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d
L
A
A =
2x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Von
in
volts
With carrier injection
No carrier injection
205. t
off
= t
rr
+ t
3
= t
rr
+
I
F
di
R
/dt
= t
rr
+
2000
2.5x10
8
= t
rr
+ 8 m s
t
rr
=
2t I
F
di
R
/dt
; t = 4x10
12
(BV
BD
)
2 =
4x10
12
(2000)
2
= 16 m s
t
rr
=
(2)(1.6x10
5
)(2x10
3
)
2.5x10
8
= 16 m s ; t
off
= 8 m s + 16 m s = 24 m s
206. Assume a nonpunchthrough structure for the Schottky diode.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
BD
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
W
d
= 10
5
BV
BD
= (10
5
) (150) = 15 microns
207. V
drift
= (100 A) (R
drift
) = 2 V ; R
drift
= 0.02 ohms ; 0.02 =
1
qm
n
N
d
L
A
A =
2x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(10
15
)(2x10
2
)
= 0.42 cm
2
208. Use Eq. (209) to solve for N
d
; N
d
= [E
BD
W
d
 BV
BD
]
Î ˚
2e
qW
2
d
= [(2x10
5
)(2x10
3
)  300]
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
3
)
2
= N
d
= 3.4x10
14
cm
3
209.
R
A
npt
=
W
d
(npt)
qm
n
N
npt
; N
npt
= N
d
of nonpunchthrouth (npt) diode
R
A
pt
=
W
d
(pt)
qm
n
N
pt
; N
pt
= N
d
of punchthrough (pt) diode
W
d
(npt) =
e E
BD
qN
npt
; Derived from Eqs. (1911), (1912), and (1913)
W
d
(pt) =
e E
BD
qN
pt
Î ˚
1+ _ 1
2qN
pt
BV
BD
e E
2
BD
2qN
pt
BV
BD
e E
2
BD
=
qN
pt
e E
BD
N
npt
N
npt
2BV
BD
E
BD
=
qN
npt
e E
BD
2BV
BD
E
BD
N
pt
N
npt
=
1
W
d
(npt)
W
d
(npt)
N
pt
N
npt
= x =
N
pt
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1+ _ 1x
If N
pt
<< N
npt
(x << 1) W
d
(pt) ≈ 0.5 W
d
(npt) ; Eq. (2010)
Limit of
1
x
[ ]
1+ _ 1x as x approaches is infinite for the plus root and 0.5 for the
minus root. Hence the minus root is the correct choice to use.
R
A
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1 1x
qm
n
N
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1 1x
qm
n
N
pt
N
npt
N
npt
=
W
d
(npt)
qm
n
N
npt
1
x
2
[1  1x ] =
R
A
npt
1
x
2
[1  1x ]
d
dx
Î ˚
1
x
2
1x = 0 =
2
x
3
[1  1x ] +
1
2x
2
1x
Solving for x yields x =
8
9
i.e. N
pt
=
8
9
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = 0.75 W
d
(npt)
208. Use Eq. (209) to solve for N
d
; N
d
= [E
BD
W
d
 BV
BD
]
˚
2
qW
2
d
= [(2x10
5
)(2x10
3
)  300]
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
3
)
2
= N
d
= 3.4x10
14
cm
3
209.
R
A
npt
=
W
d
(npt)
q
n
N
npt
; N
npt
= N
d
of nonpunchthrouth (npt) diode
R
A
pt
=
W
d
(pt)
q
n
N
pt
; N
pt
= N
d
of punchthrough (pt) diode
W
d
(npt) =
E
BD
qN
npt
; Derived from Eqs. (1911), (1912), and (1913)
W
d
(pt) =
E
BD
qN
pt
˚
1+ _ 1
2qN
pt
BV
BD
E
2
BD
2qN
pt
BV
BD
E
2
BD
=
qN
pt
E
BD
N
npt
N
npt
2BV
BD
E
BD
=
qN
npt
E
BD
2BV
BD
E
BD
N
pt
N
npt
=
1
W
d
(npt)
W
d
(npt)
N
pt
N
npt
= x =
N
pt
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1+ _ 1x
If N
pt
<< N
npt
(x << 1) W
d
(pt) ≈ 0.5 W
d
(npt) ; Eq. (2010)
Limit of
1
x
[ ]
1+ _ 1x as x approaches is infinite for the plus root and 0.5 for the
minus root. Hence the minus root is the correct choice to use.
R
A
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1 1x
q
n
N
pt
=
W
d
(npt)
1
x
[ ]
1 1x
q
n
N
pt
N
npt
N
npt
=
W
d
(npt)
q
n
N
npt
1
x
2
[1  1x ] =
R
A
npt
1
x
2
[1  1x ]
d
dx
˚
1
x
2
1x = 0 =
2
x
3
[1  1x ] +
1
2x
2
1x
Solving for x yields x =
8
9
i.e. N
pt
=
8
9
N
npt
; W
d
(pt) = 0.75 W
d
(npt)
R
A
npt
= 0.84
R
A
npt
2010. C
jo
=
A
W
d
(0)
; Area A determined by onstate voltage and current. Depletionlayer
width W
d
(0) set by breakdown voltage. W
d
(0) same for both diodes.
W
d
(150) = W
d
(0) 1+
150
0.7
= (10
5
)(150) = 15 m ;
W
d
(0) =
15
(150)/(0.7)
≈ 1 m
Schottky diode area ; V
drift
= 2 volts =
W
d
(150)
q
n
N
d
A
Schottky
I
F
Drift region doping density N
d
same for both diodes. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
A
Schottky
=
(1.5x10
3
)(300)
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(8.7x10
14
)
= 1.07 cm
2
PN junction diode area: V
drift
= 2 volts = K
1
I
F
+ K
2
(I
F
)
2/3 ;
Eq. (2016)
K
1
=
W
d
(150)
q
o
A
pn
n
b
·
1.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(A
pn
)(10
17
)
=
10
4
A
pn
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
(150)
q
2
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
pn
o
=
3
(1.5x10
3
)
4
(1.6x10
19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(A
2
pn
)(2x10
6
)
K
2
= 2.4x10
4
(A
pn
)
0.67
; 2 volts =
10
4
A
pn
(300) + 2.4x10
4
(A
pn
)
0.67
(300)
0.67
A
pn
= 0.015 + 0.00154 (A
pn
)
0.333
; Solve by successive approximation ;
A
pn
≈ 0.017 cm
2
Schottky diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(1.07)
10
4
≈ 11 nF = 0.011 F
R
A
npt
= 0.84
R
A
npt
2010. C
jo
=
e A
W
d
(0)
; Area A determined by onstate voltage and current. Depletionlayer
width W
d
(0) set by breakdown voltage. W
d
(0) same for both diodes.
W
d
(150) = W
d
(0) 1+
150
0.7
= (10
5
)(150) = 15 m m ;
W
d
(0) =
15
(150)/(0.7)
≈ 1 m m
Schottky diode area ; V
drift
= 2 volts =
W
d
(150)
qm
n
N
d
A
Schottky
I
F
Drift region doping density N
d
same for both diodes. N
d
=
1.3x10
17
150
= 8.7x10
14
cm
3
A
Schottky
=
(1.5x10
3
)(300)
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(8.7x10
14
)
= 1.07 cm
2
PN junction diode area: V
drift
= 2 volts = K
1
I
F
+ K
2
(I
F
)
2/3 ;
Eq. (2016)
K
1
=
W
d
(150)
qm
o
A
pn
n
b
=
1.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(A
pn
)(10
17
)
=
10
4
A
pn
K
2
=
3
W
4
d
(150)
q
2
m
3
o
n
2
b
A
2
pn
t
o
=
3
(1.5x10
3
)
4
(1.6x10
19
)
2
(900)
3
(10
17
)
2
(A
2
pn
)(2x10
6
)
K
2
= 2.4x10
4
(A
pn
)
0.67
; 2 volts =
10
4
A
pn
(300) + 2.4x10
4
(A
pn
)
0.67
(300)
0.67
A
pn
= 0.015 + 0.00154 (A
pn
)
0.333
; Solve by successive approximation ;
A
pn
≈ 0.017 cm
2
Schottky diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(1.07)
10
4
≈ 11 nF = 0.011 m F
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.017)
10
4
≈ 180 pF
2011.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
)  2r
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
2012.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 2011, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n
R ≈ 12 W
n
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.017)
10
4
≈ 180 pF
2011.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
)  2r
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
2012.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 2011, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n
R ≈ 12 W
n
PN junction diode C
jo
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.017)
10
4
≈ 180 pF
2011.
BV
cyl
BV
p
= 2 r
2
(1 +
1
r
) ln (1 +
1
r
)  2r
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.1 1 10
BV
cyl
/ BV
p
r = R/(2W
n
)
2012.
BV
cyl
BV
p
=
950
1000
= 0.95 ; From graph in problem 2011, r ≈ 6 =
R
2W
n
R ≈ 12 W
n
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
211. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6
B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
212. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 218b.
When emitteropen switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
213. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in stepdown converter
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
211. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6
B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
212. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 218b.
When emitteropen switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
213. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in stepdown converter
Chapter 21 Problem Solutions
211. NPN BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/4
; PNP BJT ; BV
CEO
=
BV
CBO
b
1/6
B
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
J
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1 10 100
BV
CEO
BV
CBO
PNP
NPN
212. The flow of large reverse base currents when emitter current is still flowing in the
forward direction will lead to emitter current crowding towards the center of the emitter.
This accenuates the possibility of second breakdown. See Fig. 218b.
When emitteropen switching is used, there is no emitter current and thus no emitter
current crowding and second breakdown is much less likely to occur.
213. a) Idealized BJT current and voltage waveforms in stepdown converter
T/2
I
o
V
d
V (t)
CE
i (t)
C
t
d,off
t
rv
t
fi
t
d,on
t
ri
t
fv
BJT power dissipation P
c
=
1
T
ı
0
T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt = {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
; f
s
=
1
T
E
on
= V
CE,on
I
o
{
T
2
+ t
d,off
 t
d,on
} ≈ (2)(40)
1
2f
s
=
40
f
s
Joules
E
sw
= E
ri
+ E
fv
+ E
rv
+ E
fi
E
ri
=
V
d
I
o
t
ri
2
=
(100)(40)(2x10
7
)
2
= 4x10
4
Joules
E
fv
=
V
d
I
o
t
fv
2
=
(100)(40)(1x10
7
)
2
= 2x10
4
Joules
E
rv
=
V
d
I
o
t
rv
2
=
(100)(40)(1x10
7
)
2
= 2x10
4
Joules
E
fi
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
=
(100)(40)(2x10
7
)
2
= 4x10
4
Joules
E
sw
= 1.2x10
3
Joules ; P
c
= [
40
f
s
+ 1.2x10
3
] f
s
= 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
15025
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(12540)
1.2x10
3
= 71 kHz
214. From problem 213, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
 25]} with a =
0.4
(12525)
= 4x10
3
110  50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
3
[1+0.004(11025)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
215. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
4
)
= 200 A
216. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
217. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reachthrough x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base
side protusion of the baseemitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reachthrough
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of baseemitter baseside protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
15025
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(12540)
1.2x10
3
= 71 kHz
214. From problem 213, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
 25]} with a =
0.4
(12525)
= 4x10
3
110  50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
3
[1+0.004(11025)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
215. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
4
)
= 200 A
216. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
217. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reachthrough x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base
side protusion of the baseemitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reachthrough
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of baseemitter baseside protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
15025
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(12540)
1.2x10
3
= 71 kHz
214. From problem 213, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
 25]} with a =
0.4
(12525)
= 4x10
3
110  50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
3
[1+0.004(11025)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
215. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
4
)
= 200 A
216. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
217. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reachthrough x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base
side protusion of the baseemitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reachthrough
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of baseemitter baseside protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
15025
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(12540)
1.2x10
3
= 71 kHz
214. From problem 213, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
 25]} with a =
0.4
(12525)
= 4x10
3
110  50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
3
[1+0.004(11025)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
215. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
4
)
= 200 A
216. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
217. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reachthrough x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base
side protusion of the baseemitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reachthrough
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of baseemitter baseside protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
40
80
0
33 kHz
f
s
[watts]
P
c
b) T
j
= R
q ja
P
c
+ T
a
; P
c,max
=
15025
1
= 125 watts = 40 + 1.2x10
3
f
s,max
f
s,max
=
(12540)
1.2x10
3
= 71 kHz
214. From problem 213, P
c
= {E
on
+ E
sw
}f
s
where E
sw
is proportional to the switching
times. If the switching times vary with temperature then E
sw
can be written as
E
sw
(T
j
) = E
sw
(25 °C){1 + a[T
j
 25]} with a =
0.4
(12525)
= 4x10
3
110  50 = R
q ja
{40 + 1.2x10
3
[1+0.004(11025)] (2.5x10
4
)}
R
q ja
= 0.75 °C/watt ; This represents an upper limit.
215. Beta begins to drop when the excessd carrier density in the base becomes comparable to
the doping density in the base, i.e. n
base
(x) ≈ N
a
in an NPN BJT.
I
C
=
qD
n
N
a
A
W
b
=
(1.6x10
19
)(38)(10
16
)(1)
(3x10
4
)
= 200 A
216. The diode can carry the larger current. The lateral voltage drops in the BJT base limit the
maximum current that the transistor can carry. These lateral voltage drops lead to emitter
current crowding. The diode has no such limitation.
217. The base doping is not much larger than the collector doping so that the CB depletion
layer protrudes a significant amount into the base. This encroachment may stretch across
the base and reach the EB depletion layer before the desired blocking voltage is reached.
At reachthrough x
p
will equal the difference between the base width W
B
and the base
side protusion of the baseemitter depletion layer width W
EB,depl
.The reachthrough
voltage is approximately estimated as shown below.
Estimate of baseemitter baseside protusion = W
EB,depl
at zero bias.
W
o,EB
=
2e f
c
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i
f
cE
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚
10
34
10
20
= 0.84 V
W
o,EB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.84)(10
19
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
19
)(10
15
)
= 0.33 microns
Estimate of collectorbase baseside protusion of W
CB,depl
.
CB depletion layer thickness W(V) = W
o,CB
1+
V
f
c
= x
p
+ x
n
;
x
p
= protrusion of CB depletion layer into ptype base region. x
p
=
W(V)
11
using x
p
N
a
= x
n
N
d
(charge neutrality).
W
o,CB
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i
f
cC
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚
10
29
10
20
= 0.54 V
W
o,CB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.54)(10
14
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)(10
15
)
= 2.8 microns
{(3  0.33)x10
4
}(11) = 2.8x10
4
1+
V
0.54
: Solving for V yields V = 59 volts.
Reachthrough voltage of 59 V is much less than the expected value of BV
BD
= 1000 V.
218. BV
EBO
= 10 V =
1.3x10
17
N
aB
; N
aB
= acceptor doping density in base = 1.3x10
16
cm
3
BV
CBO
= b
1/4
BV
CEO
= (5)
1/4
(1000) = ≈ 1500 Volts ≈
1.3x10
17
N
dC
N
dC
= collector drift region donor density = 8.7x10
13
cn
3
W
o,EB
=
2e f
c
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i
f
cE
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚
10
34
10
20
= 0.84 V
W
o,EB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.84)(10
19
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
19
)(10
15
)
= 0.33 microns
Estimate of collectorbase baseside protusion of W
CB,depl
.
CB depletion layer thickness W(V) = W
o,CB
1+
V
f
c
= x
p
+ x
n
;
x
p
= protrusion of CB depletion layer into ptype base region. x
p
=
W(V)
11
using x
p
N
a
= x
n
N
d
(charge neutrality).
W
o,CB
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i
f
cC
= 0.26 ln
Î ˚
10
29
10
20
= 0.54 V
W
o,CB
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.54)(10
14
+10
15
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)(10
15
)
= 2.8 microns
{(3  0.33)x10
4
}(11) = 2.8x10
4
1+
V
0.54
: Solving for V yields V = 59 volts.
Reachthrough voltage of 59 V is much less than the expected value of BV
BD
= 1000 V.
218. BV
EBO
= 10 V =
1.3x10
17
N
aB
; N
aB
= acceptor doping density in base = 1.3x10
16
cm
3
BV
CBO
= b
1/4
BV
CEO
= (5)
1/4
(1000) = ≈ 1500 Volts ≈
1.3x10
17
N
dC
N
dC
= collector drift region donor density = 8.7x10
13
cn
3
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
2
cm)(6.7x10
3
) = 1 micron = W
base
219. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
15020
21
= 6.2
2110. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V

+

+

+
C
B
E
10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
2
cm)(6.7x10
3
) = 1 micron = W
base
219. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
15020
21
= 6.2
2110. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V

+

+

+
C
B
E
10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
Set base width W
base
by calculating the protrusion, x
p
, of the CB depletion layer into the
base at V
CB
= 1500 volts = BV
CBO
; W
base
= x
p
(BV
CBO
)
Approximate width of CB depletion layer at breakdown W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ (10
5
)(1500)
= 150 m m
x
p
(BV
CBO
) =
x
n
(BV
CBO
)N
dC
N
aB
= x
n
(BV
CBO
)
8.7x10
13
1.3x10
16
= x
n
(BV
CBO
) 6.7x10
3
x
p
(BV
CBO
) << x
n
(BV
CBO
) so x
n
(BV
CBO
) ≈ W
CB
(BV
CBO
) ≈ 150 m m
Hence x
p
(BV
CBO
) = (1.5x10
2
cm)(6.7x10
3
) = 1 micron = W
base
219. Beta = 150 = b
D
b
M
+ b
D
+ b
M
= 20 b
M
+ 20 + b
M
b
M
=
15020
21
= 6.2
2110. Must first ascertain the operating states of the two transistors.Two likely choices
including (1) driver BJT saturated and main BJT active and (2) driver BJT and main BJT
both saturated. Initially assume driver BJT saturated and main BJT active.
10 I
B,M
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V

+

+

+
C
B
E
10 I
B,M
+ I
B,M
= 100 A
I
B,M
= I
C,D
= 9.1A
I
C,M
= 91 A
V
CE,D
= 0.2 +(.02)(9.1) = 0.382 V
V
CE,M
= V
CE,D
+ 0.8 V = 1.18 v
But a saturated main BJT with I
C,M
= 91 A
going through 0.02 ohms generates
a voltage drop of 1.8 V which is > 1.18 V.
Hence main BJT must be saturated.
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V

+

+

+
C
B
E
0.02 W
0.6 V

+
I
C,M
Neglecting I
B,D
I
C,M
+ I
C,D
= 100 A
(.02)I
C,M
0.6 = (.02) I
C,D
+0.2
I
C,D
= 30 A ; I
C,M
= 70 A
V
CE,M
= 0.2 + (70)(.02) = 1.6 V
P
Darl
= V
CE,M
[I
C,M
+ I
C,D
]
P
Darl
= (1.6 V)(100 A) = 160 W
2111. C
EBO
=
e A
E
W
EBO
;
C
CBO
=
e A
C
W
CBO
W
EBO
= zerobias emitterbase depletion layer thickness
W
CBO
= zerobias collectorbase depletion layer thickness
W
EBO
=
2e f
cE
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i
f
cE
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(10
16
)
10
20
= 0.89 V ;
W
EBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.89)(10
19
+10
16
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
19
)(10
16
)
= 0.34 microns
C
EBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.3)
3.4x10
5
= 9.2 nF
W
CBO
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i
f
cC
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
10
20
= 0.6 V ;
B,M
I
0.02 W
0.8 V
0.6 V
0.8 V

+

+

+
C
B
E
0.02 W
0.6 V

+
I
C,M
Neglecting I
B,D
I
C,M
+ I
C,D
= 100 A
(.02)I
C,M
0.6 = (.02) I
C,D
+0.2
I
C,D
= 30 A ; I
C,M
= 70 A
V
CE,M
= 0.2 + (70)(.02) = 1.6 V
P
Darl
= V
CE,M
[I
C,M
+ I
C,D
]
P
Darl
= (1.6 V)(100 A) = 160 W
2111. C
EBO
=
e A
E
W
EBO
;
C
CBO
=
e A
C
W
CBO
W
EBO
= zerobias emitterbase depletion layer thickness
W
CBO
= zerobias collectorbase depletion layer thickness
W
EBO
=
2e f
cE
(N
aB
+N
dE
)
qN
aB
N
dE
; f
cE
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dE
n
2
i
f
cE
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(10
16
)
10
20
= 0.89 V ;
W
EBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.89)(10
19
+10
16
)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
19
)(10
16
)
= 0.34 microns
C
EBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.3)
3.4x10
5
= 9.2 nF
W
CBO
=
2e f
cC
(N
aB
+N
dC
)
qN
aB
N
dC
; f
cC
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
aB
N
dC
n
2
i
f
cC
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
10
20
= 0.6 V ;
W
CBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.6)(1.3x10
16
+8.7x10
13
)
(1.6x10
19
)(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
= 2.1 microns
C
CBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(3)
2.1x10
4
= 14.8 nF
2112. Equivalent circuit for turnon delay time, t
d,on
, calculation.
+

10 W
C
CB
C
BE
V
BE
V
in
+

8 V
8 V
V
in
t
V
BE
(t) = 8  16 exp
Î ˚
t
t
; t = (10 W )(C
BE
+ C
CB
)
At t = t
d,on
V
BE
(t
d,on
) = 0.7 V ; t
d,on
= t ln
Î ˚
16
7.3
The spacecharge capacitances are nonlinear functions of the voltages across them. Need
to find an average value for each of the two capacitors. During the t
d,on
interval, the
voltage V
CB
changes from 108 V to 100 volts and thus will be considered a constant.
Hence C
CB
will be given by
C
CB
=
C
CBO
1+
V
CB
f
cC
=
1.5x10
8
1+
100
0.6
= 1.2 nF
The voltage V
BE
changes from 8 V to 0.7 volts during the same interval. We must find
the average value of C
BE
.
W
CBO
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.6)(1.3x10
16
+8.7x10
13
)
(1.6x10
19
)(1.3x10
16
)(8.7x10
13
)
= 2.1 microns
C
CBO
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(3)
2.1x10
4
= 14.8 nF
2112. Equivalent circuit for turnon delay time, t
d,on
, calculation.
+

10 W
C
CB
C
BE
V
BE
V
in
+

8 V
8 V
V
in
t
V
BE
(t) = 8  16 exp
˚
t
; = (10 )(C
BE
+ C
CB
)
At t = t
d,on
V
BE
(t
d,on
) = 0.7 V ; t
d,on
= ln
˚
16
7.3
The spacecharge capacitances are nonlinear functions of the voltages across them. Need
to find an average value for each of the two capacitors. During the t
d,on
interval, the
voltage V
CB
changes from 108 V to 100 volts and thus will be considered a constant.
Hence C
CB
will be given by
C
CB
=
C
CBO
1+
V
CB
cC
=
1.5x10
8
1+
100
0.6
= 1.2 nF
The voltage V
BE
changes from 8 V to 0.7 volts during the same interval. We must find
the average value of C
BE
.
C
BE
=
ı
8
0
C
EBO
1+
V
EB
cE
dV
EB
ı
8
0
dV
EB
=
C
EBO
cE
( 8)
˚
1+
0
cE
 1+
8
cE
C
BE
=
(9.2x10
9
)(0.89)
8
[ 1+
8
0.89
 1] = 2.2 nF
t
d,on
= (10) [2.2x10
9
+ 1.2x10
9
] ln
˚
16
7.3
= (3.4x10
8
)(0.78) ≈ 27 nanoseconds
Chapter 22 Problem Solutions
221. The capacitance of the gatesource terminals can be modeled as two capacitors connected
electrically in series. C
ox
is the capacitance of the oxide layer and is a constant
independent of v
GS
. C
depl
(v
GS
) is the capacitance of the depletion layer which
increases in thickness as V
GS
increases as is shown in Fig. 226. Any increase in the
depletion layer thickness reduces the value of C
depl
(v
GS
) and hence the atotal gate
source capacitance C
gs
. However once v
GS
becomes equal to or greater than V
GS(th)
,
the depletion layer thickness becomes constant because the formation of the inversion
layer jillustrated in Fig. 226c shields the depletion layer from further increases in v
GS
(any additional increase in v
GS
is dropped across the oxide layer). Thus both
components of C
gs
are constant for v
GS
> V
GS(th)
.
222. a) Idealized MOSFET waveforms shown below. To dimensions the waveforms, we
need the numerical values of the various waveform parameters. The voltage and current
amplitude parameters are given in the problem statement as: V
d
= 300 V, V
GS(th)
= 4 V, V
GS,Io
= 7 V, I
o
= 10 A. To complete the dimensioning, we must calculate the
various switching times.
Chapter 22 Problem Solutions
221. The capacitance of the gatesource terminals can be modeled as two capacitors connected
electrically in series. C
ox
is the capacitance of the oxide layer and is a constant
independent of v
GS
. C
depl
(v
GS
) is the capacitance of the depletion layer which
increases in thickness as V
GS
increases as is shown in Fig. 226. Any increase in the
depletion layer thickness reduces the value of C
depl
(v
GS
) and hence the atotal gate
source capacitance C
gs
. However once v
GS
becomes equal to or greater than V
GS(th)
,
the depletion layer thickness becomes constant because the formation of the inversion
layer jillustrated in Fig. 226c shields the depletion layer from further increases in v
GS
(any additional increase in v
GS
is dropped across the oxide layer). Thus both
components of C
gs
are constant for v
GS
> V
GS(th)
.
222. a) Idealized MOSFET waveforms shown below. To dimensions the waveforms, we
need the numerical values of the various waveform parameters. The voltage and current
amplitude parameters are given in the problem statement as: V
d
= 300 V, V
GS(th)
= 4 V, V
GS,Io
= 7 V, I
o
= 10 A. To complete the dimensioning, we must calculate the
various switching times.
T/2
I
o
V
d
V (t)
CE
i (t)
C
t
d,off
t
rv
t
fi
t
d,on
t
ri
t
fv
V
GG
0
V
GS(th)
V
GS,Io
V
GG
V (t)
GS
t
d,on
estimate  Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212a.
Governing equation is
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
=
V
GG
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
;
Boundary condition v
GS
(0) =  V
GG
Solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GG
 2 V
GG
e
t/t
; t = R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ;
At t = t
d,on
, v
GS
= V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
d,on
yields
t
d,on
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚
2V
GG
V
GG
V
GS(th)
t
d,on
= (50) (1.15x10
9
) ln
Î ˚
(2)(15)
(154)
= 58 ns
t
ri
estimate  Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212b.
v
GS
(t) still given by governing equation given above in t
d,on
estimate. Changing time
origin to when v
GS
= V
GS(th)
yields;
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ [V
GG
 V
GS(th)
] e
t/t
. T he drain current is given by
i
D
(t) = C
gd
d(V
d
v
GS
)
dt
+ g
m
[v
GS
(t)  V
Gs(th)
] ; g
m
=
10
74
= 3.3 mhos
At t = t
ri
, i
D
= I
o
. Substituting v
GS
(t) into i
D
(t) and solving for t
ri
yields
t
ri
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚
(V
GG
V
GS(th)
){g
m
+
C
gd
R
G
(C
gs
+C
gd
)
}
g
m
(V
GG
V
GS(th)
)I
o
t
ri
= (50)(1.15x10
9
) ln Î ˚
(154)(3.3+
1.5x10
10
(50)(1.15x10
9
)
)
(3.3)(154)10
= 21 ns
t
fv
estimate  Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212c.
v
GS
approximately constant at V
GS,Io
=
I
o
g
m
+ V
GS(th)
during this interval.
Governing equation is C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 
Î ˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)

I
o
g
m
R
G
with v
DS
(0) = V
d
.
Solution is given by
v
DS
(t) = V
d

Î ˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)

I
o
g
m
t
R
G
C
gd
; At t = t
fv
, v
DS
= 0.
Solving for t
fv
yields
t
fv
=
R
G
C
gd
V
d
V
GG
V
GS(th)

I
o
g
m
= (50)(1.5x10
10
)
300
(1543)
= 300 ns
t
d,off
estimate  use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212d with the input voltagge V
GG
reversed.
v
GS
(t) =  V
GG
+ 2 V
GG
e
t/t
; At t = t
d,off
,
v
GS
= V
GS,Io
. Solving for t
d,off
t
d,off
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚
2V
GG
V
GG
+V
GS(th)
+
I
o
g
m
= (50)(1.15x10
9
) ln
Î ˚
(2)(15)
10
3.3
+4+15
= 18 ns
t
rv
estimate  Use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212c with the input voltage V
GG
reversed. v
GS
approximately constant at V
GS,Io
as in previous of t
fv
. Governing
equation is
C
gd
d{v
DS
V
GS,Io
}
dt
=
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
R
G
with v
DS
(0) = 0. Solution given by
v
DS
(t) =
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
R
G
C
gd
t . At t = t
rv
, v
DS
= V
d
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
=
V
d
R
G
C
gd
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
=
(300)(50)(1.5x10
10
)
(15+7)
= 100 ns
t
fi
estimate  use equivalent circuit of Fig. 2212b with the input voltage V
GG
reversed. Governing equation the same as in previous calculation of t
ri
. At t = 0, v
GS
(0)
= V
GS,Io
. Solution in this caae is given by
v
GS
(t) =  V
GG
+ [V
GS,Io
+ V
GG
] e
t/t
; At t = t
fi
, v
GS
= V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
fi
t
fi
= R
G
(C
gs
+ C
gd
) ln
Î ˚
V
GG
+V
GS,Io
V
GG
+V
GS(th)
= (50)(1.15x10
9
)ln
Î ˚
15+7
15+4
= 9 ns
b) Estimate the power dissipated in the MOSFET in the same manner as was done for the
BJT in problem 213.Waveforms for the MOSFET are the same as for the BJT except for
appropriate relabeling of the currents and voltages.
E
ri
= (0.5)(300)(10)(2.1x10
8
) = 3x10
5
Joules
E
fv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(3x10
7
) = 4.5x10
4
Joules
E
on
= I
o
V
DS,on
[0.5 T  t
d,on
+ t
d,off
] ; V
DS,on
= I
o
r
DS,on
= (10)(0.5) = 5 V
T >> t
d,on
and t
d,off
E
on
= (10)(300)(0.5)(5x10
5
) = 1.25x10
3
Joules
E
rv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(10
7
) = 1.5x10
4
Joules
E
fi
= (0.5)(300)(10)(9x10
9
) = 1.5x10
5
Joules
P
c
= (1.95x10
3
)(2x10
4
) = 39 watts
223. Use test conditons to estimate C
gd
. Then estimate the switching times in the circuit with
the 150 ohm load. Test circuit waveforms are shown below.
E
ri
= (0.5)(300)(10)(2.1x10
8
) = 3x10
5
Joules
E
fv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(3x10
7
) = 4.5x10
4
Joules
E
on
= I
o
V
DS,on
[0.5 T  t
d,on
+ t
d,off
] ; V
DS,on
= I
o
r
DS,on
= (10)(0.5) = 5 V
T >> t
d,on
and t
d,off
E
on
= (10)(300)(0.5)(5x10
5
) = 1.25x10
3
Joules
E
rv
= (0.5)(300)(10)(10
7
) = 1.5x10
4
Joules
E
fi
= (0.5)(300)(10)(9x10
9
) = 1.5x10
5
Joules
P
c
= (1.95x10
3
)(2x10
4
) = 39 watts
223. Use test conditons to estimate C
gd
. Then estimate the switching times in the circuit with
the 150 ohm load. Test circuit waveforms are shown below.
V (t)
G
V
GG
V (t)
GS
V
GS(th)
V
GS,Io
t
t
d,on
t = t
r i f v
t = t
f i r v
t
d,off
t
V
GG
V
d
V (t)
DS
I
o
i (t)
D
t
Equivalent circuit during voltage and current rise and fall intervals:
+
 C
gs
C
gd
V (t)
G
R
D
V
d
g (V  V )
m
GS GS(th)
R
G
Governing equation using Miller capacitance approximation:
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS
=
V
G
(t)
; = R
G
[C
gs
+ C
gd
{1 + g
m
R
D
}] ;
During t
ri
= t
fv
interval, V
G
(t) = V
GG
. Solution is
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ {V
GS(th)
 V
GG
} e
t/
; At t = t
ri
, V
GS
= V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
;
Solving for t
ri
= t
fv
yields
t
ri
= t
fv
= ln
˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)
V
GG
V
GS(th)

V
d
g
m
R
D
During t
rv
= t
fi
, v
G
(t) = 0 and solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GS,Io
e
t/
.
At t = t
rv
, v
GS
(t) = V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
= ln
˚
V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
V
GS(th)
. Invert equation for t
ri
to find C
gd
. Result is
C
gd
=
˛
t
ri
ln
˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)
V
GG
V
GS(th)

V
d
g
m
R
D
R
G
C
gs
˛
1
R
G
(1+g
m
R
D
)
C
gd
=
˛
˝
3x10
8
ln
˚
154
1541
5x10
9
˛
1
5(1+25)
= 2.3x10
9
F = 2.3 nF
Solving for switching times in circuit with R
D
= 150 ohms.
= [10
9
+ 2.3x10
9
{1 + 150}][100] = 35 s
t
ri
= 3.5x10
5
ln
˚
154
1542
= 7 s ; t
rv
= 3.5x10
5
ln
˚
4+2
4
= 14 s
224. Waveforms for v
DS
(t) and i
D
(t) shown in previous problem. Power dissipation in
MOSFET given by
<P
MOSFET
> = [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
; f
s
=
1
T
; E
on
= [I
D
]
2
r
DS,on
(T
j
)
T
2
;
dv
GS
dt
+
v
GS
=
V
G
(t)
; = R
G
[C
gs
+ C
gd
{1 + g
m
R
D
}] ;
During t
ri
= t
fv
interval, V
G
(t) = V
GG
. Solution is
v
GS
(t) = V
GG
+ {V
GS(th)
 V
GG
} e
t/
; At t = t
ri
, V
GS
= V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
;
Solving for t
ri
= t
fv
yields
t
ri
= t
fv
= ln
˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)
V
GG
V
GS(th)

V
d
g
m
R
D
During t
rv
= t
fi
, v
G
(t) = 0 and solution is v
GS
(t) = V
GS,Io
e
t/
.
At t = t
rv
, v
GS
(t) = V
GS(th)
. Solving for t
rv
yields
t
rv
= ln
˚
V
GS(th)
+
V
d
g
m
R
D
V
GS(th)
. Invert equation for t
ri
to find C
gd
. Result is
C
gd
=
˛
t
ri
ln
˚
V
GG
V
GS(th)
V
GG
V
GS(th)

V
d
g
m
R
D
R
G
C
gs
˛
1
R
G
(1+g
m
R
D
)
C
gd
=
˛
˝
3x10
8
ln
˚
154
1541
5x10
9
˛
1
5(1+25)
= 2.3x10
9
F = 2.3 nF
Solving for switching times in circuit with R
D
= 150 ohms.
= [10
9
+ 2.3x10
9
{1 + 150}][100] = 35 s
t
ri
= 3.5x10
5
ln
˚
154
1542
= 7 s ; t
rv
= 3.5x10
5
ln
˚
4+2
4
= 14 s
224. Waveforms for v
DS
(t) and i
D
(t) shown in previous problem. Power dissipation in
MOSFET given by
<P
MOSFET
> = [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
; f
s
=
1
T
; E
on
= [I
D
]
2
r
DS,on
(T
j
)
T
2
;
I
D
=
V
d
R
D
=
300
150
= 2 A ; r
DS,on
(T
j
) = 2
˚
1+
T
j
25
150
= 2
˚
0.833+
T
j
150
E
on
= (4)(2)
˚
0.833+
T
j
150
1
2f
s
= {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
E
sw
=
1
T
ı
0
t
ri
V
d
I
D
(1
t
t
ri
)(
t
t
ri
)dt +
1
T
ı
0
t
fi
V
d
I
D
(1
t
t
fi
)(
t
t
fi
)dt =
V
d
I
D
6
[t
ri
+ t
fi
]
E
sw
=
(300)(2)
6
[7x10
6
+ 14x10
6
] = 2.1x10
3
joules
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
f
s
+ 2.1x10
3
f
s
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
} +[ 2.1x10
3
][10
4
] = 24.3 + 0.027 T
j
B
B
B
B
B
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P
MOSFET
Watts
Temperature [ °K]
225. V
on
= onstate voltage of three MOSFETs in parallel = I
o
r
eff
I
D
=
V
d
R
D
=
300
150
= 2 A ; r
DS,on
(T
j
) = 2
Î ˚
1+
T
j
25
150
= 2
Î ˚
0.833+
T
j
150
E
on
= (4)(2)
Î ˚
0.833+
T
j
150
1
2f
s
= {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
E
sw
=
1
T
ı
0
t
ri
V
d
I
D
(1
t
t
ri
)(
t
t
ri
)dt +
1
T
ı
0
t
fi
V
d
I
D
(1
t
t
fi
)(
t
t
fi
)dt =
V
d
I
D
6
[t
ri
+ t
fi
]
E
sw
=
(300)(2)
6
[7x10
6
+ 14x10
6
] = 2.1x10
3
joules
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
}
1
f
s
f
s
+ 2.1x10
3
f
s
<P
MOSFET
> = {3.32 + 0.027 T
j
} +[ 2.1x10
3
][10
4
] = 24.3 + 0.027 T
j
B
B
B
B
B
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P
MOSFET
Watts
Temperature [ °K]
225. V
on
= onstate voltage of three MOSFETs in parallel = I
o
r
eff
r
eff
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
1
r
2
+r
2
r
3
+r
3
r
1
; r
1
etc. = onstate resistance of MOSFET #1 etc.
r
1
(T
j
) = r
1
(25 °C)
Î ˚
1+0.8
T
j
25
100
; r
1
(105 °C) = (1.64) r
1
(25 °C) etc.
r
1
(105 °C) = 2.95 W ; r
2
(105 °C) = 3.28 W ; r
3
(105 °C) = 3.61 W
r
eff
(105 °C) =
(2.95)(3.28)(3.61)
[(2.95)(3.28)+(3.28)(3.61)+(3.61)(2.95)]
= 1.09 ohms
For the ith MOSFET, P
i
=
V
on
2
2r
i
=
I
o
2
r
eff
2
2r
i
; Assume a 50% duty cycle and ignore
switching losses.
P
1
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(2.95)
= 5 W ; P
2
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.28)
= 4.5 W ; P
3
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.61)
= 4.1 W
226. Hybrid switch would combine the low onstate losses of the BJT and the faster switching
of the MOSFET. In order to obtain these advantages, The MOSFET would be turned on
before the BJT and turned off after the BJT. The waveforms shown below indicate the
relative timing. The switch blocks V
d
volts in the offstate and conducts I
o
amps in the
onstate.
r
eff
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
1
r
2
+r
2
r
3
+r
3
r
1
; r
1
etc. = onstate resistance of MOSFET #1 etc.
r
1
(T
j
) = r
1
(25 °C)
Î ˚
1+0.8
T
j
25
100
; r
1
(105 °C) = (1.64) r
1
(25 °C) etc.
r
1
(105 °C) = 2.95 W ; r
2
(105 °C) = 3.28 W ; r
3
(105 °C) = 3.61 W
r
eff
(105 °C) =
(2.95)(3.28)(3.61)
[(2.95)(3.28)+(3.28)(3.61)+(3.61)(2.95)]
= 1.09 ohms
For the ith MOSFET, P
i
=
V
on
2
2r
i
=
I
o
2
r
eff
2
2r
i
; Assume a 50% duty cycle and ignore
switching losses.
P
1
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(2.95)
= 5 W ; P
2
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.28)
= 4.5 W ; P
3
=
(5)
2
(1.09)
2
(2)(3.61)
= 4.1 W
226. Hybrid switch would combine the low onstate losses of the BJT and the faster switching
of the MOSFET. In order to obtain these advantages, The MOSFET would be turned on
before the BJT and turned off after the BJT. The waveforms shown below indicate the
relative timing. The switch blocks V
d
volts in the offstate and conducts I
o
amps in the
onstate.
v = v
DS
CE
i
D
i
C
v
GS
v
BE
V
DS,on
V
CE,on
I
o
I ; r < 1
o
(1  r )I
o
227. BV
DSS
≈
1.3x10
17
N
drift
= 750 volts ; N
drift
= 1.7x10
14
cm
3
W
drift
≈ (10
5
)(750) = 75 microns ;
W
d,body
= protrusion of drain depletion layer into body region
≈
W
drift
N
drift
N
body
=
(75)(1.7x10
14
)
5x10
16
≈ 0.3 microns
Even though bodysource junction is shorted, there is a depletion layer associated with it
which is contained entirely on the body side of the junction. This must be included in the
estimate of the required length of the body region.
W
s,body
≈
2e f
c
qN
a,body
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
;
v = v
DS
CE
i
D
i
C
v
GS
v
BE
V
DS,on
V
CE,on
I
o
I ; r < 1
o
(1  r )I
o
227. BV
DSS
≈
1.3x10
17
N
drift
= 750 volts ; N
drift
= 1.7x10
14
cm
3
W
drift
≈ (10
5
)(750) = 75 microns ;
W
d,body
= protrusion of drain depletion layer into body region
≈
W
drift
N
drift
N
body
=
(75)(1.7x10
14
)
5x10
16
≈ 0.3 microns
Even though bodysource junction is shorted, there is a depletion layer associated with it
which is contained entirely on the body side of the junction. This must be included in the
estimate of the required length of the body region.
W
s,body
≈
2e f
c
qN
a,body
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
;
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body
≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reachthrough , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body
= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
228. Displacement current = C
gd
dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd
dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V
dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
229. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
6
) = 16.7 volts
2210. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
2L
C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
10
5
= 1.04x10
7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
N =
(2)(100)(10
4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
7
)(2x10
3
)(154)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
2211. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
5
BV
DSS
= (10
5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body
≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reachthrough , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body
= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
228. Displacement current = C
gd
dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd
dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V
dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
229. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
6
) = 16.7 volts
2210. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
2L
C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
10
5
= 1.04x10
7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
N =
(2)(100)(10
4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
7
)(2x10
3
)(154)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
2211. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
5
BV
DSS
= (10
5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body
≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reachthrough , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body
= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
228. Displacement current = C
gd
dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd
dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V
dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
229. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
6
) = 16.7 volts
2210. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
2L
C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
10
5
= 1.04x10
7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
N =
(2)(100)(10
4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
7
)(2x10
3
)(154)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
2211. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
5
BV
DSS
= (10
5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body
≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reachthrough , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body
= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
228. Displacement current = C
gd
dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd
dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V
dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
229. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
6
) = 16.7 volts
2210. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
2L
C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
10
5
= 1.04x10
7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
N =
(2)(100)(10
4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
7
)(2x10
3
)(154)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
2211. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
5
BV
DSS
= (10
5
)(800) = 80 microns
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(5x10
16
)
(10
20
)
= 0.94
W
s,body
≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.94)
(1.6x10
19
)(5x10
16
)
≈ 0.16 microns
In order to avoid reachthrough , W
body
> W
d,body
+ W
s,body
= 0.3 + 0.16 = 0.46 microns
228. Displacement current = C
gd
dv
GD
dt
≈ C
gd
dv
DS
dt
; v
DS
≈ v
GD
>> v
GS
BJT will turn on if R
body
C
gd
dv
DS
dt
= 0.7 V
dv
DS
dt
>
0.7
R
body
C
gd
will turn on the BJT.
229. V
GS,max
= (0.67) E
BD
t
ox
= (0.67) (5x10
6
) (5x10
6
) = 16.7 volts
2210. a) i
D
=
m
n
C
ox
NW
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
2L
C
ox
=
e
t
ox
=
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
10
5
= 1.04x10
7
F/cm
2
N =
2i
D
L
m
n
C
ox
W
cell
(v
GS
V
GS(th)
)
N =
(2)(100)(10
4
)
(1500)(1.04x10
7
)(2x10
3
)(154)
≈ 5,800 cells
b) I
cell
=
100
5800
= 17 milliamps
2211. V
on
= 4 volts = I
on
R
on
= (10 A) R
on
; R
on
= 0.4 ohms
R
on
=
W
drift
qm
n
N
d
A
: W
drift
= 10
5
BV
DSS
= (10
5
)(800) = 80 microns
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
3
A =
8x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
2212. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
3
)(10
4
) = 121 pF
2213. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drainsource terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turnoff) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
7
)
Î ˚
100
5x10
8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
T
a
R
q ,ja
=
15050
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2
[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
8
) + (2)(2x10
7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
2214. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turnon and turnoff is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
3
A =
8x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
2212. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
3
)(10
4
) = 121 pF
2213. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drainsource terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turnoff) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
7
)
Î ˚
100
5x10
8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
T
a
R
q ,ja
=
15050
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2
[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
8
) + (2)(2x10
7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
2214. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turnon and turnoff is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
3
A =
8x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
2212. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
3
)(10
4
) = 121 pF
2213. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drainsource terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turnoff) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
7
)
Î ˚
100
5x10
8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
T
a
R
q ,ja
=
15050
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2
[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
8
) + (2)(2x10
7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
2214. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turnon and turnoff is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
BV
DSS
=
1.3x10
17
800
≈ 1.6x10
14
cm
3
A =
8x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(1.6x10
14
)(0.4)
≈ 0.5 cm
2
10A
0.5cm
2
= 20
A
cm
2
<< the allowable maximum of 200
A
cm
2
, so estimate is alright.
2212. C
gs
≈ C
ox
N W
cell
L = (1.04x10
7
)(5.8x10
3
)(2x10
3
)(10
4
) = 121 pF
2213. Two overstress possibilities, overvoltage across drainsource terminals because of stray
inductance and excessive power dissipation. Check for overvoltage first.
V
DS
(turnoff) = V
d
+ L
di
dt
= 100 + (10
7
)
Î ˚
100
5x10
8
= 300 V > BV
DSS
= 150 V
Check for excessive power dissipation.
P
allowed
=
T
j,max
T
a
R
q ,ja
=
15050
1
= 100 watts ; P
dissipated
= [E
on
+ E
sw
] f
s
E
on
f
s
=
I
o
2
r
DS(on)
2
=
(100)
2
(0.01)
2
= 50 watts
E
sw
=
V
d
I
o
2
[t
ri
+ t
fi
+ t
rv
+t
fv
] =
(100)(100)
2
[(2)(5x10
8
) + (2)(2x10
7
)]
E
sw
= 2.5x10
3
joules ; E
sw
f
s
= (2.5x10
3
)(3x10
4
) = 75 watts
P
dissipated
= 50 + 75 = 125 watts > P
allowed
= 100 watts
MOSFET overstressed by both overvoltages and excessive power dissipation.
2214. Gate current which charges/discharges C
gs
and C
gd
during turnon and turnoff is
approximately constant during the four time intervals. However during the current rise
and fall times the voltages V
GS
and V
GD
change by only a few tens of volts. However
during the voltage rise and fall times V
GD
changes by approximately V
d
which is much
larger than a few tens of volts. Thus we have:
Current rise/fall times proportional to [C
gs
+ C
gd
]
V
GG
I
G
Voltage rise/fall times proportional to C
gd
V
d
I
G
C
gs
roughly the same size as C
gd
and V
d
>> V
GG
Hence voltage switching times much greater than current switching times.
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
231. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2
ı
[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π
˚
V
s
R
L
2
R
on
[π  +
sin(2 )
2
]
232. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>
max
=
T
j,max
T
a,max
R
ja
<P
SCR
>
max
=
12549
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π
˚
220
1
2
(2x10
3
)[π  0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14  +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
233. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turnon.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
231. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2
ı
[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π
˚
V
s
R
L
2
R
on
[π  +
sin(2 )
2
]
232. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>
max
=
T
j,max
T
a,max
R
ja
<P
SCR
>
max
=
12549
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π
˚
220
1
2
(2x10
3
)[π  0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14  +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
233. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turnon.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
Chapter 23 Problem Solutions
231. v
s
(t) = 2 V
s
sin( t) ; i
L
(t) =
v
s
(t)
R
L
; < t <
<P
SCR
> =
1
2
ı
[(1)i
L
( t)+{i
L
( t)}
2
R
on
]d( t)
<P
SCR
> =
V
s
2 R
L
{1 + cos( )} +
1
π
˚
V
s
R
L
2
R
on
[π  +
sin(2 )
2
]
232. 120 °F = 49 °C ; T
j,max
= 125 °C ; <P
SCR
>
max
=
T
j,max
T
a,max
R
ja
<P
SCR
>
max
=
12549
0.1
= 760 Watts
Check <P
SCR
> at = 0
<P
SCR
> =
220
2π (1)
[1 + cos(0)] +
1
π
˚
220
1
2
(2x10
3
)[π  0 +
sin(0)
2
] = 107 watts
<P
SCR
> = 107 watts less than the allowable 760 watts. Hence trigger angle of zero
where maximum load power is delivered is permissible.
Average load power <P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{i
L
( t)}
2
R
L
d( t) ; i
L
( t) = 2 (220) sin( t)
<P
L
> =
1
2π
ı
π
{ 2(220)}
2
sin
2
( t)d( t) =
(220)
2
6.28
[3.14  +
sin(2 )
2
]
For = 0 <P
L
> = 24.2 kW
233. P
SCR
(t) = instantaneous power dissipated in the SCR during turnon.
P
SCR
(t) = v
AK
(t) i
A
(t) = V
AK
{1 
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t during t
f
P(t) = power density =
P
SCR
(t)
A(t)
= watts per cm
2
; A(t) = conducting area of SCR
A(t) = π [r
o
+ u
s
t]
2
 π r
o
2
= π [2 r
o
u
s
t + (u
s
t)
2
]
T
j
=
1
C
v
ı
0
t
f
P(t)dt =
1
C
v
ı
0
t
f
V
AK
{1
t
t
f
}
dI
dt
t
π [2r
o
u
s
t+(u
s
t)
2
]
dt
T
j
=
1
C
v
V
AK
2π r
o
u
s
dI
dt
ı
0
t
f
˚
1
t
t
f
1+
u
s
t
2r
o
dt ; Let a = a' = 1, b =
1
t
f
, and b' =
u
s
2r
o
Integral becomes ı
0
t
f
˚
a+bt
a'+b't
dt ; Using integral tables
ı
0
t
f
˚
a+bt
a'+b't
dt =
bt
f
b'
+
[ab'ab]
[b']
2
ln[a' + b' t
f
] ;
b = 
1
2x10
5
=  5x10
4
sec
1
; b' =
10
4
(2)(0.5)
= 10
4
sec
1
Evaluating the integral yields
ı
0
t
f
˚
a+bt
a'+b't
dt =
1
10
4
+
˚
10
4
+
5x10
4
10
8
ln[1 + (10
4
)(2x10
5
)] = 9.4x10
6
sec
With C
v
= 1.75 Joule/(°Ccm
3
), the expression for T
j
becomes
T
j
=
(10
3
)(9.4x10
6)
(2π )(1.75)(10
4
)(0.5)
dI
dt
= 125  25 = 100 °C ; Solving for
dI
dt
yields
dI
dt
=
100
1.7x10
7
= 590 A/ s
234. Advantages  Shorter N

region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages  Junction J
1
is now a P
+
 N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
235. t
on
=
(40.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
236. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire crosssectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
237. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a welldesigned
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
3
; W
d
≈ (10
5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
2
)
2
(1.4x10
23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/Vsec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
3
)
c) V
on
= I
R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
234. Advantages  Shorter N

region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages  Junction J
1
is now a P
+
 N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
235. t
on
=
(40.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
236. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire crosssectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
237. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a welldesigned
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
3
; W
d
≈ (10
5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
2
)
2
(1.4x10
23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/Vsec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
3
)
c) V
on
= I
R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
234. Advantages  Shorter N

region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages  Junction J
1
is now a P
+
 N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
235. t
on
=
(40.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
236. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire crosssectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
237. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a welldesigned
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
3
; W
d
≈ (10
5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
2
)
2
(1.4x10
23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/Vsec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
3
)
c) V
on
= I
R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
234. Advantages  Shorter N

region length W
d
means shorter carrier lifetimes can be
accomodated and thus faster switching times.
Disadvantages  Junction J
1
is now a P
+
 N
+
junction with a low breakdown voltage.
Since J
3
already has a low breakdown voltage, the modified thyristor has no significant
reverse blocking capability.
235. t
on
=
(40.5)cm
u
s
=
3.5
10
4
= 350 microseconds
236. Lateral voltage drops caused by base currents cause current density nonuniformities. At
large currents, these nonuniformities become severe and the increasing possibility of
second breakdown limit the total current that the BJT can safely conduct.
In the thyristor, no significant gate current is needed to keep the thyristor on and there is
consequently no lateral current flow and thus lateral voltage drop. The current density is
uniform across the entire crosssectional area of the thyristor and there is much less
likelyhood of second breakdown.
237. a) Breakover in a thyristor is not due to impact ionization. However in a welldesigned
thyristor, the value of the breakover voltage is an appreciable fraction of the actual
avalanche breakdown voltage. Thus an estimate of the n
1
thickness and doping level
based avalanche breakdown would be a reasonable first attempt.
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
2x10
3
= 6.5x10
13
cm
3
; W
d
≈ (10
5
)(2x10
3
) = 200 microns
b) t =
qW
d
2
kT(m
n
+m
p
)
=
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
2
)
2
(1.4x10
23
)(300)(900)
= 17 microseconds
Used (m
n
+ m
p
) = 900 cm
2
/Vsec which is value appropriate to large excess carrier
densities (approaching 10
17
cm
3
)
c) V
on
= I
R
drift
; Ignore I
2/3
contribution as it is usually small compared to the linear
term.
R
drift
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
;
2
2000
= 10
3
=
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)A
;
Solving for A gives A =
0.02
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
17
)(10
3
)
= 1.4 cm
2
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
238. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
239.
dv
AK
dt

max
≈
I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10)
2.9x10
4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt

max
=
0.05
3.6x10
8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
238. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
239.
dv
AK
dt

max
≈
I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10)
2.9x10
4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt

max
=
0.05
3.6x10
8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Resulting current density is
2000
1.4
= 1430 A/cm
2
which is excessively large. Probably
should use n
b
≈ 10
16
cm
3
which would give a current density of 140 A/cm
2
, a more
realistic value.
238. Cathode area =
3000
200
= 15 cm
2
= 0.65 A
si
; A
si
=
15
0.65
= 23 cm
2
23 cm
2
= π R
si
2
; R
si
=
23
π
= 2.7 cm
239.
dv
AK
dt

max
≈
I
BO
C
j2
(0)
; C
j2
(0) = zero bias value of junction J
2
space charge capacitance
C
j2
(0) ≈
e A
W
depl
(0)
; W
depl
(0) ≈
2e f
j2
qN
d
; f
j2
=
kT
q
ln[
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
]
f
j2
= 0.026 ln[
(10
14
)(10
17
)
(10
20
)
] = 0.66 V ;
W
depl
(0) ≈
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.66)
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)
= 2.9 microns
C
j2
(0) =
(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(10)
2.9x10
4
= 36 nF
dv
AK
dt

max
=
0.05
3.6x10
8
= 1.4x10
6
V/sec or 1.4 V per microsecond
Chapter 24 Problem Solutions
241. Crosssectional view of GTO gatecathode area with reverse gate current flowing.
N
2
P
2
Gate
Cathode
Center
Line
t
+
+ 

v
GK
v
GK
R
R
i
G
The negative gate current, i
G
, flowing through the P
2
layher beneath the N
2
cathode
layer develops a lateral voltage drop v
GK
as indicated. Maximum negative v
GK
= BV
J3
v
GK
 = I
G,max
 R
GK
< BV
J3
in order to avoid breakdown or I
G,max
<
BV
J3
R
GK
R
GK
=
R
2N
=
r
p2
W
4NLt
; N = number of cathode islands in parallel.
I
G,max
=
BV
J3
R
GK
=
I
A,max
b
off
: Solving for I
A,max
yields
I
A,max
=
4NLtb
off
BV
J3
r
p2
W
242. Assume that the current is communtated from the GTO to the turnoff snubber and
associated stray inductance linearly as a function of time. That is the inductor current
Chapter 24 Problem Solutions
241. Crosssectional view of GTO gatecathode area with reverse gate current flowing.
N
2
P
2
Gate
Cathode
Center
Line
t
+
+ 

v
GK
v
GK
R
R
i
G
The negative gate current, i
G
, flowing through the P
2
layher beneath the N
2
cathode
layer develops a lateral voltage drop v
GK
as indicated. Maximum negative v
GK
= BV
J3
v
GK
 = I
G,max
 R
GK
< BV
J3
in order to avoid breakdown or I
G,max
<
BV
J3
R
GK
R
GK
=
R
2N
=
r
p2
W
4NLt
; N = number of cathode islands in parallel.
I
G,max
=
BV
J3
R
GK
=
I
A,max
b
off
: Solving for I
A,max
yields
I
A,max
=
4NLtb
off
BV
J3
r
p2
W
242. Assume that the current is communtated from the GTO to the turnoff snubber and
associated stray inductance linearly as a function of time. That is the inductor current
i
Ls
= I
o
t
t
fi
; Assume that just prior to the end of the current fall time interval, the
voltage across the snubber capacitor has built up to approximately V
d
.
v
AK,max
= 1.5 V
d
= L
s
di
Ls
dt
+ v
cap
= L
s
I
o
t
fi
+ V
d
; Solving for L
s
yields
L
s
=
V
d
t
fi
2I
o
243. Equivalent circuit during t
gq
shown below.

+
V
GG
L
G
P
N
P
N
J3 forward
biased during
t
gq
i (t)
G
L
G
di
G
dt
=  V
GG
; i
G
(t) =
V
GG
L
G
t ; At t = t
gq
want i
G
= 
I
o
b
off
; Solve for L
G
L
G
=
b
off
V
GG
t
gq
I
o
=
(5)(15)(5x10
6
)
(500)
= 0.75 microhenries
Equivalent circuit during t
w2
interval.
i
Ls
= I
o
t
t
fi
; Assume that just prior to the end of the current fall time interval, the
voltage across the snubber capacitor has built up to approximately V
d
.
v
AK,max
= 1.5 V
d
= L
s
di
Ls
dt
+ v
cap
= L
s
I
o
t
fi
+ V
d
; Solving for L
s
yields
L
s
=
V
d
t
fi
2I
o
243. Equivalent circuit during t
gq
shown below.

+
V
GG
L
G
P
N
P
N
J3 forward
biased during
t
gq
i (t)
G
L
G
di
G
dt
=  V
GG
; i
G
(t) =
V
GG
L
G
t ; At t = t
gq
want i
G
= 
I
o
b
off
; Solve for L
G
L
G
=
b
off
V
GG
t
gq
I
o
=
(5)(15)(5x10
6
)
(500)
= 0.75 microhenries
Equivalent circuit during t
w2
interval.

+
V
GG
L
G
i (t)
G
+

BV
J3
L
G
di
G
dt
= BV
J3
 V
GG
; i
G
(0) = 
I
o
b
off
; i
G
(t) = 
I
o
b
off
+
BV
J3
V
GG
L
G
t
At t = t
w2
, i
G
= 0 ; solving for t
w2
yields
t
w2
=
I
o
L
G
b
off
[BV
J3
V
GG
]
=
(500)(7.5x10
7
)
(5)(2515)
= 7.5 microseconds
Chapter 25 Problem Solutions
251.
R
on
(MOS)
A
proprotional to
1
m
majority
; m
n
= 3 m
p
; Hence
R
on
(pchannel)
A
= 3
R
on
(nchannel)
A
R
on
(IGBT)
A
proportional to
1
d n(m
n
+m
p
)
; d n = excess carrier density
d n = d p so pchannel IGBTs have the same R
on
as nchannel IGBTs
252. Turnoff waveforms of short versus long lifetime IGBTs
i
D
long lifetime
short lifetime
I (long)
BJT
I (short)
BJT
t
Long lifetime IGBT 
a. BJT portion of the device has a larger beta and thus the BJT section carries the largest
fraction of the IGBT current. Thus I
BJT
(long) > I
BJT
(short).
b. Longer lifetime leads to longer BJT turnoff times.
Short lifetime IGBT 
a. BJT beta smaller. MOSFET section of the device carries most of the current.
b. Shorter lifetime means less stored charge in the BJT section and thus faster turnoff.
Chapter 25 Problem Solutions
251.
R
on
(MOS)
A
proprotional to
1
m
majority
; m
n
= 3 m
p
; Hence
R
on
(pchannel)
A
= 3
R
on
(nchannel)
A
R
on
(IGBT)
A
proportional to
1
d n(m
n
+m
p
)
; d n = excess carrier density
d n = d p so pchannel IGBTs have the same R
on
as nchannel IGBTs
252. Turnoff waveforms of short versus long lifetime IGBTs
i
D
long lifetime
short lifetime
I (long)
BJT
I (short)
BJT
t
Long lifetime IGBT 
a. BJT portion of the device has a larger beta and thus the BJT section carries the largest
fraction of the IGBT current. Thus I
BJT
(long) > I
BJT
(short).
b. Longer lifetime leads to longer BJT turnoff times.
Short lifetime IGBT 
a. BJT beta smaller. MOSFET section of the device carries most of the current.
b. Shorter lifetime means less stored charge in the BJT section and thus faster turnoff.
253.
P
P
+
N

Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
V
DS1
V > V
DS1 DS2
Depletion layer
Effective
base width
Drain of
IGBT
Significant encroachment intoa the base of the PNP BJT section by the depletion layer of
the blocking junction. The effective base width is thus lowered and the beta increases as
v
DS
increases. This is base width modulation and it results in a lower output resistance
r
o
(steeper slope in the active region of the i
D
v
DS
characteristics).
P
P
+
N

Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
Depletion layer
Drain of
IGBT
N
+
V
DS
Effective base
width independent
of V
DS
Depletion encroaches into the N

layer but the advance is halted at moderate v
DS
values
by the N
+
buffer layer. The PNP base width becomes constant and so the effective
resistance r
o
remains large.
254. One dimensional model of nchannel IGBT
P
P
+
N

N
+
Source
Drain
10
17
10
14
10
19
10
19
25 m m
N
+
10
19
Reverse blocking junction is the P
+
 N
+
junction because of bodysource short.
BV
RB
≈
1.3x10
17
10
19
< 1 volt. No reverse blocking capability.
Forward breakdown  limited by P  N

junction.
P
P
+
N

Body region of
MOSFET section
of IGBT
Collector junction of
pnp BJT section of IGBT
Base of pnp BJT
Emitter of pnp BJT
Depletion layer
Drain of
IGBT
N
+
V
DS
Effective base
width independent
of V
DS
Depletion encroaches into the N

layer but the advance is halted at moderate v
DS
values
by the N
+
buffer layer. The PNP base width becomes constant and so the effective
resistance r
o
remains large.
254. One dimensional model of nchannel IGBT
P
P
+
N

N
+
Source
Drain
10
17
10
14
10
19
10
19
25 m m
N
+
10
19
Reverse blocking junction is the P
+
 N
+
junction because of bodysource short.
BV
RB
≈
1.3x10
17
10
19
< 1 volt. No reverse blocking capability.
Forward breakdown  limited by P  N

junction.
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punchthrough.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 453 volts
255. IGBT current  I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT
Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT
≈
30.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
W
d
= (10
5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
3
W
I
on,IGBT
≈
2.2
2.6x10
3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current  I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
256. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punchthrough.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 453 volts
255. IGBT current  I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT
Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT
≈
30.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
W
d
= (10
5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
3
W
I
on,IGBT
≈
2.2
2.6x10
3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current  I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
256. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT
BV
FB
=
1.3x10
17
10
14
≈ 1300 volts ; But W
depl
(1300 V) = (10
5
)(1300) = 130 microns
130 microns > 25 micron drift region length. Hence forward blocking limited by
punchthrough.
BV
FB
= (2x10
5
)(2.5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(10
14
)(2.5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 453 volts
255. IGBT current  I
on,IGBT
; V
on
(IGBT) = V
j
+ I
on,IGBT
R
on,IGBT
Assume V
j
≈ 0.8 V ; Exact value not critical to an approximate estimate of I
on,IGBT
.
I
on,IGBT
≈
30.8
R
on,IGBT
; R
on,IGBT
≈
W
d
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
W
d
= (10
5
)(750) = 75 m m ; R
on,IGBT
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(2)
= 2.6x10
3
W
I
on,IGBT
≈
2.2
2.6x10
3
≈ 850 amps
MOSFET current  I
on,MOS
; V
on
(MOS) = I
on,MOS
R
on,MOS
I
on,MOS
=
V
on
(MOS)
R
on,MOS
; R
on,MOS
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; W
d
= 75 m m
N
d
=
1.3x10
17
750
= 1.7x10
14
cm
3
R
on,MOS
=
7.5x10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1.5x10
3
)(1.7x10
14
)(2)
= 0.09 ohms
I
on,MOS
=
3
0.09
= 33 amps
256. V
on
(PT) = V
j,PT
+ I
on,PT
R
on,PT
= V
j,NPT
+ I
on,NPT
R
on,NPT
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
since V
j,NPT
≈ V
j,PT
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
257. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift
R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t
I
ov
=
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
258. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective crosssectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific onstate resistance.
259. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
257. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift
R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t
I
ov
=
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
258. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective crosssectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific onstate resistance.
259. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
257. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift
R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t
I
ov
=
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
258. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective crosssectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific onstate resistance.
259. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.
R
on,NPT
R
on,PT
=
W
d,NPT
W
d,PT
≈ 2 assuming doping level in PT drift region is much less than
the doping level in the NPT drift region.
Hence
I
on,PT
I
on,NPT
≈ 2
257. C
v
d T = d Q ; d Q =
P
V
d t ; P = power dissipated in IGBT during overcurrent transient.
V = volume in IGBT where power is dissipated.Duration of transient = d t.
P = I
ov
2
R
on
; I
ov
=
VC
v
d T
d tR
on
; V ≈ A W
drift
R
on
=
W
drift
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
; I
ov
=
q(m
n
+m
p
)n
b
A
2
C
v
d T
d t
I
ov
=
(1.6x10
19
)(900)(10
16
)(0.5)
2
(1.75)(100)
(10
5
)
≈ 2.5x10
3
amps
Estimate is overly optimistic because it ignores any other ohmic losses in the device such
as channel resistance or resistance of the heavily doped source and drain diffusions.
However IGBTs nominally rated at 100 A have repeatedly been tested at 1000 A for 10
microseconds or less and survived.
258. The IGBT has the smaller values of C
gd
and C
gs
because its effective crosssectional
area is smaller than that of the MOSFET. The IGBT has a smaller area even though its
current rating is identical to the MOSFET's rating because the IGBT utilizes conductivity
modulation of the drift region to significantly reduce the specific onstate resistance.
259. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff ;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
V
d
t
off
=
700
3x10
7
= 2330 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit.
Device is overstressed by an overly large
dv
DS
dt
.
Check switching losses P
sw
= V
d
I
o
t
ri
+t
rv
+t
fi
+t
fv
2
f
s
P
sw
= (700)(100)
(3x10
7
+7.5x10
7
)
2
(2.5x10
4
) = 875 W
Allowable power loss =
T
j,max
T
a
R
q ja
=
15025
0.5
= 250 watts
Switching losses exceed allowable losses. Module is overstressed by too much
power dissipation.
Chapter 26 Problem Solutions
261. Equivalent circuit for JFET in active region.
+

C
GD
C
GS
r
o
m v
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+

+

Equivelent circuit for JFET Linearized IV characteristics
in the blocking state.
C
GD
C
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+

+

0
V
GS2
GS1
V
i
D
V
DS1
V
DS2
0
262. Drive circuit configuration
+

V
DD
R
L
2
R
1
R
V
drive
MOSFET off
V
DS
= V
KG
=  V
GK
=
V
DD
R
2
R
1
+R
2
Negative enough to insure that
the FCT is off.
MOSFET on
V
DS
= V
KG
=  V
GK
= 0
and FCT is on.
Chapter 26 Problem Solutions
261. Equivalent circuit for JFET in active region.
+

C
GD
C
GS
r
o
m v
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+

+

Equivelent circuit for JFET Linearized IV characteristics
in the blocking state.
C
GD
C
GS
v
GS
v
DS
+

+

0
V
GS2
GS1
V
i
D
V
DS1
V
DS2
0
262. Drive circuit configuration
+

V
DD
R
L
2
R
1
R
V
drive
MOSFET off
V
DS
= V
KG
=  V
GK
=
V
DD
R
2
R
1
+R
2
Negative enough to insure that
the FCT is off.
MOSFET on
V
DS
= V
KG
=  V
GK
= 0
and FCT is on.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
MOSFET characteirstics:
 High current sinking capability
 Low R
on
; Low BV
Dss
263. V
drift
=
W
d
2
(m
n
+m
p
)t
; BV
BD
=
E
BD
W
d
2
; V
drift,GaAs
= V
drift,Si
W
d
2
(Si)
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
t
Si
=
W
d
2
(GaAs)
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
t
GaAs
t
GaA
t
Si
=
(m
n
+m
p
)
Si
(m
n
+m
p
)
GaAs
Î ˚
E
BD
(Si)
E
BD
(GaAs)
2
(m
n
+ m
p
)
Si
= 2000 cm
2
/Vsec ; (m
n
+ m
p
)
GaAs
= 9000 cm
2
/Vsec
E
BD
(Si) = 300 kV/cm ; E
BD
(GaAs) = 400 kV/cm
t
GaA
t
Si
=
2
9
Î ˚
3
4
2
= 0.125 ; GaAs has the shorter lifetime.
264. E
BD
= 10
7
V/cm ; BV
BD
= E
BD
t
ox
t
ox
=
10
3
10
7
= 10
4
cm = 1 micron
265. I
A,max
= (10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 1500 amperes
266. PMCT fabricated in silicon can turnoff three times more current than an identical
NMCT due to the difference between the mobilities in the nchannel OFFFET in the
PMCT and pchannel OFFFET in the NMCT. Hence
I
A,max
= (3)(10
5
)(1.5x10
2
) = 4500 amperes
267. Assume an ntype drift region since m
n
> m
p
.
R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d
Using Eq. (201) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (203) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
1
qe
2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3
268. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohmscm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohmscm
2
6HSiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
4
ohmscm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
7
ohmscm
2
269. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
2610. Eq. (201): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD
For 6HSiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD
R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d
Using Eq. (201) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (203) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
1
qe
2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3
268. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohmscm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohmscm
2
6HSiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
4
ohmscm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
7
ohmscm
2
269. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
2610. Eq. (201): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD
For 6HSiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD
R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d
Using Eq. (201) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (203) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
1
qe
2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3
268. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohmscm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohmscm
2
6HSiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
4
ohmscm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
7
ohmscm
2
269. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
2610. Eq. (201): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD
For 6HSiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD
R
drift
=
W
d
qm
n
N
d
A
; R
drift,sp
= R
drift
A =
W
d
qm
n
N
d
Using Eq. (201) N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
; Using Eq. (203) W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
Substituting into the expression for R
drift,sp
yields
R
drift,sp
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
1
qe
2qBV
BD
e E
BD
2
=
4(BV
BD
)
2
e m
n
(E
BD
)
3
268. Silicon : R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(11.7)(1500)(8.9x10
14
)(3x10
5
)
3
= 0.024 ohmscm
2
GaAs: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(12.8)(8500)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
3
= 0.0016 ohmscm
2
6HSiC: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(10)(600)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
3
= 2.3x10
4
ohmscm
2
Diamond: R
drift,sp
=
(4)(500)
2
(5.5)(2200)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
3
= 9.3x10
7
ohmscm
2
269. Diamond is the most suitable material for high temperature operation. It has the largest
bandgap (by almost a factor of two) and thus the smallest intrinsic carrier density at any
given temperature. This statement presumes that the phase change listed for diamond in
the table of material properties exceeds the sublimation temperature of SiC (1800 °C).
2610. Eq. (201): N
d
=
e E
BD
2
2qBV
BD
For GaAs: N
d
=
(12.8)(8.9x10
14
)(4x10
5
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
5.7x10
17
BV
BD
For 6HSiC: N
d
=
(10)(8.9x10
14
)(2x10
6
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.1x10
19
BV
BD
For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD
Eq. (203): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6HSiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
7
BV
BD
[cm]
2611. Use equations from problem 2610.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
3
10
2
cm
6HSiC
5.5x10
16
cm
3
2x10
3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
3
4x10
5
cm
2612. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(15050)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD
Eq. (203): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6HSiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
7
BV
BD
[cm]
2611. Use equations from problem 2610.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
3
10
2
cm
6HSiC
5.5x10
16
cm
3
2x10
3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
3
4x10
5
cm
2612. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(15050)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
For diamond: N
d
=
(5.5)(8.9x10
14
)(10
7
)
2
(2)(1.6x10
19
)(BV
BD
)
=
1.5x10
20
BV
BD
Eq. (203): W
d
=
2BV
BD
E
BD
For GaAs: W
d
=
2BV
BD
4x10
5
= 5x10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For 6HSiC: W
d
=
2BV
BD
2x10
6
= 10
6
BV
BD
[cm]
For diamond: W
d
=
2BV
BD
10
7
= 2x10
7
BV
BD
[cm]
2611. Use equations from problem 2610.
Material N
d
W
d
GaAs
2.9x10
15
cm
3
10
2
cm
6HSiC
5.5x10
16
cm
3
2x10
3
cm
Diamond
7.5x10
17
cm
3
4x10
5
cm
2612. T
j
= R
q jc
P
diode
+ T
case
: R
q jc
= C.• (k )
1
k = thermal conductivity and C = constant
Using silicon diode data: C =
(T
j
T
case
)k
P
diode
=
(15050)(1.5)
200
= 0.75 cm
1
R
q jc
(GaAs) =
0.75
0.5
= 1.5 °C/W : R
q jc
(SiC) =
0.75
5
= 0.15°C/W
R
q jc
(diamond) =
0.75
20
= 0.038°C/W
T
j
(GaAs) = (1.5)(200) + 50 = 350 °C : T
j
(SiC) = (0.15)(200) + 50 = 80 °C
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
2613. Pinchoff of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gatechannel (P
+
N

)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gatesource
voltage of V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gatechannel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 261 and 263.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d
Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c
Î ˚
W
2W
o
2
 f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)
2
 0.8 = 3.8  0.8 = 3 V
2614. Single cell of the multicell JFET shown below. See Fig. 261 for a fuller picture of the
multicell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the onstate resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gatesource voltage is
set at zero.
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
2613. Pinchoff of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gatechannel (P
+
N

)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gatesource
voltage of V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gatechannel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 261 and 263.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d
Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c
Î ˚
W
2W
o
2
 f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)
2
 0.8 = 3.8  0.8 = 3 V
2614. Single cell of the multicell JFET shown below. See Fig. 261 for a fuller picture of the
multicell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the onstate resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gatesource voltage is
set at zero.
T
j
(diamond) = (0.038)(200) + 50 = 57.4 °C
2613. Pinchoff of the channel occurs when the depletion region of the gatechannel (P
+
N

)
junction is equal to W/2 where W is the width of the channel. Occurs at a gatesource
voltage of V
p
. The other half of the channel is depleted by the depletion region from
the gatechannel junction on the other side of the channel. See Figs. 261 and 263.
W
2
= W
o
1+
V
p
f
c
; f
c
=
kT
q
ln
Î ˚
N
a
N
d
n
i
2
; W
o
=
2e f
c
qN
d
Solving for V
p
yields V
p
= f
c
Î ˚
W
2W
o
2
 f
c
f
c
= 0.026 ln
Î ˚
(10
19
)(2x10
14
)
10
10
= 0.8 V
W
o
=
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)(0.8)
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
14
)
= 2.3 microns
V
p
= (0.8)
Î ˚
10
(2)(2.3)
2
 0.8 = 3.8  0.8 = 3 V
2614. Single cell of the multicell JFET shown below. See Fig. 261 for a fuller picture of the
multicell nature of the JFET. The diagram on the left indicates the various
contributions to the onstate resistance and the figure on the right shows the various
geometrical factors that determine the resistance. Each cell is d centimeters deep in the
direction perpendicular to the plane (page) of the diagram. The gatesource voltage is
set at zero.
R
d
R
t
R
c
R
s
P
+
P
+
drain
source
P
+
P
+
W  2W
o
W
W + W
g
W + W /2
o g
l
c
l
gs
W
g
l  W  W /2
gd o
g
R
s
=
l
gs
qm
n
N
d
dW
=
10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
3
)
= 298 ohms
R
c
=
l
c
qm
n
N
d
d(W2W
o
)
=
10
3
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
3
4.6x10
4
)
= 552 ohms
R
t
estimate. Treat the region of thickness W
o
+ W
g
/2 as though it has an average width
given by
(W2W
o
)+(W+W
g
)
2
= W + W
g
/2  W
o
. R
t
now approximately given by
R
t
=
W
o
+W
g
/2
qm
n
N
d
d(W+W
g
/2W
o
)
R
t
=
(10
3
+5x10
4
)
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
3
+5x10
4
2.3x10
4
)
= 351 ohms
R
d
=
(l
gd
W
o
W
g
/2)
qm
n
N
d
d(W+W
g
)
=
R
d
=
(35x10
4
2.3x10
4
5x10
4
)
(1.6x10
19
)(1500)(2x10
14
)(0.07)(10
3
+10
3
)
= 412 ohms
Total resistance of a single cell is R
cell
= R
s
+ R
c
+ R
t
+ R
d
R
cell
= 298 + 552 + 351 + 412 = 1613 ohms
There are N = 28 cells in parallel so the the net onstate resistance is
R
on
=
R
cell
N
=
1613
28
= 58 ohms
2615. As the drainsource voltage increases, the reversebias on the gatedrain pn junction
increases. The depletion region of the two adjacent P
+
regions merge and then grow
towards the drain. The drift region of length l
gd
and doping N
d
must contain this
depletion region and will determine the breakdown voltage. The short length of the
drift region suggests that punchthrough will limit the breakdown voltage. Check for
this possibility first.
Nonpunchthrough estimate:
BV =
1.3x10
17
2x10
14
= 650 V ; W
d
> (10
5
)(6.5x10
2
) = 65 microns > 35 microns
Hence this is a punchthrough structure. Use Eq. (2121) and E
BD
= 2x10
5
V/cm
BV = (2x10
5
)(3.5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
14
)(3.5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 700  189
BV = 511 V
R
cell
= 298 + 552 + 351 + 412 = 1613 ohms
There are N = 28 cells in parallel so the the net onstate resistance is
R
on
=
R
cell
N
=
1613
28
= 58 ohms
2615. As the drainsource voltage increases, the reversebias on the gatedrain pn junction
increases. The depletion region of the two adjacent P
+
regions merge and then grow
towards the drain. The drift region of length l
gd
and doping N
d
must contain this
depletion region and will determine the breakdown voltage. The short length of the
drift region suggests that punchthrough will limit the breakdown voltage. Check for
this possibility first.
Nonpunchthrough estimate:
BV =
1.3x10
17
2x10
14
= 650 V ; W
d
> (10
5
)(6.5x10
2
) = 65 microns > 35 microns
Hence this is a punchthrough structure. Use Eq. (2121) and E
BD
= 2x10
5
V/cm
BV = (2x10
5
)(3.5x10
3
) 
(1.6x10
19
)(2x10
14
)(3.5x10
3
)
2
(2)(11.7)(8.9x10
14
)
= 700  189
BV = 511 V
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
271. a. During turnoff of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s
dv
C
dt
= I
o
t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o
Î ˚
dv
AK
dt
1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
 I
o
 I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000  500 100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs
≈
f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2
P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
272. L
s
di
A
dt
max
= V
d
; L
s
≈
500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turnoff = V
d
+ I
o
R
s
: Assume I
o
R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
273. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
 V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d
C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t  f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t  f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f )  Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
271. a. During turnoff of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s
dv
C
dt
= I
o
t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o
Î ˚
dv
AK
dt
1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
 I
o
 I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000  500 100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs
≈
f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2
P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
272. L
s
di
A
dt
max
= V
d
; L
s
≈
500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turnoff = V
d
+ I
o
R
s
: Assume I
o
R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
273. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
 V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d
C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t  f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t  f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f )  Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
Chapter 27 Problem Solutions
271. a. During turnoff of the GTO, I
o
communtates linearly to C
s
.
C
s
dv
C
dt
= I
o
t
t
fi
;
dv
C
dt
=
dv
AK
dt
=
I
o
t
C
s
t
fi
< 5x10
7
V/s
Maximum
dv
AK
dt
occurs at t
fi
. Solving for C
s
yields
C
s
> I
o
Î ˚
dv
AK
dt
1
=
500
5x10
7
= 10 microfarads
R
s
chosen on basis of limiting discharge current from C
s
to safe level when GTO
turns on. I
Cs,max
= I
AM
 I
o
 I
rr
. Assume i
rr
= 0.2 I
o
. Then
I
Cs,max
= 1000  500 100 = 400 A
R
s
=
500
400
≈ 1.3 ohms
Snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(10
5
)(1.3) = 30 microseconds.
b. Power dissipated in snubber P
Rs
≈
f
sw
C
s
V
d
2
2
P
Rs
= (0.5)(10
3
)(10
5
)(500)
2
= 1.25 kW
272. L
s
di
A
dt
max
= V
d
; L
s
≈
500
3x10
8
≈ 1.7 microhenries.
Voltage across GTO at turnoff = V
d
+ I
o
R
s
: Assume I
o
R
s
= 0.2 V
d
R
s
=
(0.2)(500)
(500)
= 0.2 ohms.
273. v
Cs
(t) = V
d
 V
d
cos(w
o
t) + V
d
C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t) = V
d
+ K sin(w
o
t  f )
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K ; K sin(w
o
t  f ) = K sin(w
o
t) cos(f )  Kcos(w
o
t) sin(f )
K sin(w
o
t) cos(f )  K cos(w
o
t) sin(f ) = V
d
C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t)  V
d
cos(w
o
t)
K cos(f ) = V
d
C
base
C
s
and K sin(f ) = V
d
;
[ ]
Kcos(f )
2
+
[ ]
Ksin(f )
2
= K
2
= V
d
2
C
base
C
s
+ V
d
2
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K = V
d
+ V
d
1+
C
base
C
s
274. a. Equivalent circuit after diode reverse recovery.
L = 10 m H
R
s
C
s
200 V
+

i
L
i
L
(0
+
) = I
rr
; During reverse recovery L
di
R
dt
= 200 V
di
R
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
=
200
10
5
= 2x10
7
A/sec ; I
rr
= (2x10
7
)(3x10
7
) = 6 A
b. v
Cs,max
= 500 V = 200 + 200 1+
C
base
C
s
1+
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ;
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ≈ 1.25
C
base
= (10
5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
C
s
=
9nF
1.25
≈ 7 nF
K sin(w
o
t) cos(f )  K cos(w
o
t) sin(f ) = V
d
C
base
C
s
sin(w
o
t)  V
d
cos(w
o
t)
K cos(f ) = V
d
C
base
C
s
and K sin(f ) = V
d
;
[ ]
Kcos(f )
2
+
[ ]
Ksin(f )
2
= K
2
= V
d
2
C
base
C
s
+ V
d
2
v
Cs,max
= V
d
+ K = V
d
+ V
d
1+
C
base
C
s
274. a. Equivalent circuit after diode reverse recovery.
L = 10 m H
R
s
C
s
200 V
+

i
L
i
L
(0
+
) = I
rr
; During reverse recovery L
di
R
dt
= 200 V
di
R
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
=
200
10
5
= 2x10
7
A/sec ; I
rr
= (2x10
7
)(3x10
7
) = 6 A
b. v
Cs,max
= 500 V = 200 + 200 1+
C
base
C
s
1+
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ;
C
base
C
s
= 1.5 ≈ 1.25
C
base
= (10
5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
C
s
=
9nF
1.25
≈ 7 nF
275. Use the circuit shown in problem 274.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
276. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
277. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
275. Use the circuit shown in problem 274.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
276. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
277. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
275. Use the circuit shown in problem 274.
C
s
= C
base
= (10
5
)
Î ˚
6
2
(200)
2
= 9 nF
R
s
= 1.3 R
base
= (1.3)
Î ˚
200
6
= 43 ohms
v
Cs,max
= (1.5)(200) = 300 V
276. P = W
R
f
sw
=
Î ˚
L
s
I
rr
2
+C
s
V
in
2
2
f
sw
W
R
= (0.5)(10
5
)(6)
2
+ (0.5)(9x10
9
)(200)
2
= 3.6x10
4
Joules
P = W
R
f
sw
= (3.6x10
4
)(2x10
4
) = 7.2 watts
277. a. BJT waveforms (t
rv
assumed to be zero for C
s
= 0)
I
o
i
Cs
t
t
f i
t
v
CE
V
d
C = 0
s
C > 0
s
0
0
Power dissipation for C
s
= 0 is P
c
=
V
d
I
o
t
fi
2
f
sw
P
c
=
(200)(25)(4x10
7
)
2
(2x10
4
) = 20 W
Power dissipation for C
s
= C
s1
P
c
= W
c
f
sw
; W
c
=
ı
0
t
fi
I
o
(1
t
t
fi
)
I
o
2C
s1
t
2
t
fi
dt =
V
d
I
o
t
fi
12
P
c
=
(200)(25)(4x10
7
)(2x10
4
)
12
= 3.3 watts
Factor of six reduction in the turnoff losses.
b. BJT losses increase at turnon only becaue of energy stored in C
s
being dissipated
in the BJT, but also because the time to complete turnon is extended as shown in
Fig. 2714a. This extended duration of traversal of the active region also increases
the turnon losses.
During the turnon interval, the collectoremitter voltage is given by (assuming
that the external circuit dominates the transient)
C
s1
dv
CE
dt
= 
di
C
dt
t  I
rr
; v
CE
(t) = V
d

di
C
dt
t
2
2C
s1
 I
rr
t
C
s1
Seting the expression for
v
CE
(t) equal to zero and solving for the time
D T = t
2
 (t
ri
+ t
rr
) (see Fig. 2714a) required for v
CE
to reach zero yields
D T = 
I
rr
di
C
/dt
+
Î ˚
I
rr
di
C
/dt
2
+
2V
d
C
s1
di
C
/dt
Note that D T = 0 if C
s1
= 0 which is consistent with the assumption that the
external circuit and not the BJT that dominates the turnon transient. Extra energy
disspated in the BJT at turnon due to C
s1
is thus
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt = V
d
I
rr
D T +
Î ˚
V
d
2
di
C
dt

[I
o
+I
rr
]I
rr
2C
s1
D T
2

(I
o
+3I
rr
)
2C
s1
di
C
dt
D T
3
 Î ˚
di
C
dt
2
D T
4
8C
s1
The increase in the BJT loss is
Î ˚
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt f
s
where f
s
is the switching
frequency. Numerical evaluation of D T gives D T = 0.29 m s (I
rr
= 10 A and C
s1
=
25 nF).
Evaluation of the loss gives 1.3x10
3
f
s
= 26.5 watts
278. a. D
s
shorts out the snubber resistance during the BJT turnoff. Hence C
s1
is
directly across the BJT as in problem 277a. Thus the loss reduction is the same as
in problem 277a.
b. Equivalent circuit during BJT turnoff after freewheeling diode reverse recovery
is shown below.
R
s
s
C
I + t
r r
di
C
dt
v
CE
+

v
C
+

v (0 ) = V
+
C
d
v
CE
= C
s
R
s
dv
C
dt
+ v
C ;
; C
s
dv
C
dt
=  I
rr

di
C
dt
t
Combining equations and solving for v
CE
(t) yields
v
CE
(t) = V
d
 I
rr
R
s

Î ˚
I
rr
C
s
+R
s
di
C
dt
t 
di
C
dt
t
2
2C
s
At t = D T, v
CE
= 0 and turnon is completed.
D T = 
I
rr
+R
s
C
s
di
C
dt
di
C
dt
+
Î ˚
I
rr
+R
s
C
s
di
C
dt
di
C
dt
2
+
2C
s
di
C
dt
[V
d
I
rr
R
s
]
D T goes to zero when R
s
=
V
d
I
rr
. hence there is no increase in power dissipation
in the BJT due to the presence of C
s
.
The increase in the BJT loss is
Î ˚
ı
0
D T
v
CE
(t)i
C
(t)dt f
s
where f
s
is the switching
frequency. Numerical evaluation of D T gives D T = 0.29 m s (I
rr
= 10 A and C
s1
=
25 nF).
Evaluation of the loss gives 1.3x10
3
f
s
= 26.5 watts
278. a. D
s
shorts out the snubber resistance during the BJT turnoff. Hence C
s1
is
directly across the BJT as in problem 277a. Thus the loss reduction is the same as
in problem 277a.
b. Equivalent circuit during BJT turnoff after freewheeling diode reverse recovery
is shown below.
R
s
s
C
I + t
r r
di
C
dt
v
CE
+

v
C
+

v (0 ) = V
+
C
d
v
CE
= C
s
R
s
dv
C
dt
+ v
C ;
; C
s
dv
C
dt
=  I
rr

di
C
dt
t
Combining equations and solving for v
CE
(t) yields
v
CE
(t) = V
d
 I
rr
R
s

Î ˚
I
rr
C
s
+R
s
di
C
dt
t 
di
C
dt
t
2
2C
s
At t = D T, v
CE
= 0 and turnon is completed.
D T = 
I
rr
+R
s
C
s
di
C
dt
di
C
dt
+
Î ˚
I
rr
+R
s
C
s
di
C
dt
di
C
dt
2
+
2C
s
di
C
dt
[V
d
I
rr
R
s
]
D T goes to zero when R
s
=
V
d
I
rr
. hence there is no increase in power dissipation
in the BJT due to the presence of C
s
.
279. a. Proposed snubber circuit configuration shown below.
1
2
3
4
L
s
R
s
C
s
I
o
2 V
s
Equivalent circuit swith SCRs 3 & 4 on and 1&2 going off or viceversa.
Continuous flow of load current formces SCRs 1 & 2 to remain on past the time
of natural commutation (when v
s
(t) goes through zero and becomes negative).
L
s
R
s
C
s
2 V
s
3 or 4
1 or 2
I
r r
With 3 & 4 on, 1 & 2 are off, and effectively in parallel with the R
s
C
s
snubber.
same is true when 1 & 2 are on and 3 & 4 are off. Thus the R
s
C
s
snubber
functions as a turnoff snubber.
b. w L
s
=
0.05V
s
I
a1
; worst case situation (maximum reverse voltage across SCR
which is turning off) occurs when SCR which is turning on is triggered with a
delay angle of 90°. During reverse recovery of SCR1, L
s
di
dt
= 2 V
s
and
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s
Î ˚
I
rr
2V
s
2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s
Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
2710. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turnoff so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the buildup of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turnoff, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turnoff of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
2711. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s
Î ˚
I
rr
2V
s
2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s
Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
2710. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turnoff so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the buildup of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turnoff, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turnoff of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
2711. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
di
dt
=
I
rr
t
rr
. Solving for I
rr
yields
I
rr
=
2w t
rr
I
a1
0.05
; C
base
= L
s
Î ˚
I
rr
2V
s
2
=
w I
a1
t
rr
2
0.05V
s
Smallest overvoltage occurs when C
s
= C
base
. Putting in numerical values
C
s
= 0.9933 I
a1
m F
R
base
=
2V
s
I
rr
=
0.05V
s
w t
rr
I
a1
=
(0.05)(230)
(377)(10
5
)I
a1
=
3050
I
a1
ohms
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
I
a1
ohms
c. Peak line voltage = 2 (230) = 322 V
Smallest overvoltage = (1.5)(322) = 483 V which occurs when C
s
= C
base
and R
s
= 1.3 R
base
. For I
a1
= 100 A
R
s,opt
= 1.3 R
base
=
4000
100
= 40 ohms ; C
s
= (0.0033)(100) = 0.33 m F
2710. The resistor in the BJT/MOSFET snubber must be shorted out during the device
turnoff so that the snubber capacitance is in parallel with the device. The uncharged
capacitor delays the buildup of the large V
d
voltage across the BJT/MOSFET until
most of the current has been diverted from the switch. The snubber diode is forward
biased during turnoff, thus providing the shorting of the snubber resistor as required.
The turnoff of the thyristor limits overvoltages arising from the interruption of current
through the stray inductance in series with the thyristor. Lowest overvoltages are
obtained when R
s
= 1.3 R
base
and C
s
= C
base.
Overvoltages are 70% larger if R
s
is
zero. Hence a diode in parallel with the resistor is not desirable.
2711. a. Check
dv
DS
dt
at turnoff;
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
; t
rv
< 0.75 microseconds
dv
DS
dt
>
700
7.5x10
7
= 930 V/m s > 800 V/m s limit so snubber is needed.
Not enough information available to check on power dissipation or overcurrents.
b.
dv
DS
dt
=
I
o
C
s
= 400 V/m s ; C
s
=
100
4x10
8
= 0.25 m F
Choose R
s
to limit total current I
D
to less than 150 A
150 A = 100 +
700
R
s
; R
s
=
700
150100
= 14 ohms
Check snubber recovery time = 2.3 R
s
C
s
= (2.3)(14)(2.5x10
7
) = 8 m s
Off time of the IGBT is 10 microseconds which is greater than the snubber
recovery time. Hence choice of R
s
is fine.
Chapater 28 Problem Solutions
281. Schematic of drive circuit shown below.
R
G
V
GG+
V
GG
V
DS
100 A
100 V
+

v
DS
(t) waveform same as in problem 222.
During MOSFET turnon
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
fv
< 500 V/m s
From problem 222,
V
d
t
fv
=
Î ˚
V
GG+
V
GSth

I
o
g
m
R
G
C
gd
During MOSFET turnoff,
dv
DS
dt
=
V
d
t
rv
< 500 V/m s
From problem 232,
V
d
t
rv
=
Î ˚
V
GG
+V
GSth
+
I
o
g
m
R
G
C
gd
g
m
=
I
o
V
GS
V
GSth
=
60
74
= 20 A/V
Estimate of R
G
for MOSFET turnon:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG+
4
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
10
)
; V
GG+,min
= V
GSth
+
I
o
g
m
= 4 +
100
20
= 9 V
Choose V
GG+
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET driven well into ohmic range to
minimize onstate losses.
R
G
>
159
(4x10
10
)(5x10
8
)
= 30 ohms
Estimate of R
G
at MOSFET turnoff:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG
+4+
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
10
)
Choose V
GG
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET is held in offstate and to minimize
turnoff times.
R
G
>
15+9
(4x10
10
)(5x10
8
)
= 115 ohms
Satisfy both turnon and turnjoff requirements by choosing V
GG+
= V
GG
= 15 V and R
G
> 115 ohms.
282. a. Circuit diagram shown below.
R
G1
R
G2
Q
s
T
sw
D
f
+

I
o
= 200 A
V
d
= 1000 V
When FCT is off we need V
KG
= (1.25)
1000
40
= 31.25 V = (1000)
R
G2
R
G1
+R
G2
Now R
G1
+ R
G2
= 10
6
ohms so 31.25 = (1000) (10
6
) R
G2
R
G2
= 31.25 kW and R
G1
= 969 kW
Choose V
GG+
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET driven well into ohmic range to
minimize onstate losses.
R
G
>
159
(4x10
10
)(5x10
8
)
= 30 ohms
Estimate of R
G
at MOSFET turnoff:
5x10
8
V/sec >
V
GG
+4+
100
20
(R
G
)(4x10
10
)
Choose V
GG
= 15 V to insure that MOSFET is held in offstate and to minimize
turnoff times.
R
G
>
15+9
(4x10
10
)(5x10
8
)
= 115 ohms
Satisfy both turnon and turnjoff requirements by choosing V
GG+
= V
GG
= 15 V and R
G
> 115 ohms.
282. a. Circuit diagram shown below.
R
G1
R
G2
Q
s
T
sw
D
f
+

I
o
= 200 A
V
d
= 1000 V
When FCT is off we need V
KG
= (1.25)
1000
40
= 31.25 V = (1000)
R
G2
R
G1
+R
G2
Now R
G1
+ R
G2
= 10
6
ohms so 31.25 = (1000) (10
6
) R
G2
R
G2
= 31.25 kW and R
G1
= 969 kW
b. MOSFET characteristics
 large onstate current capability
 low R
on

low BV
DSS
(BV
DSS
of 50100 V should work)
Chapter 29 Problem Solutions
291. Assume T
s
= 120 °C and T
a
= 20 °C.
R
q ,rad
≈
0.12
A
; A in m
2
; Eq. (2918)
R
q ,conv
≈
1
(1.34)(A)
Î ˚
d
vert
D T
1/4
; Eq. (2920)
R
q ,conv
≈
0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C.
A cube having a side of length d
vert
has a surface area A = 6 [d
vert
]
2
R
q ,conv
≈
0.4
[d
vert
]
1.75
; R
q ,rad
≈
0.02
[d
vert
]
2
R
q ,sa
= net surfacetoambient thermal resistance =
R
q ,conv
R
q ,rad
R
q ,conv
+R
q ,rad
R
q ,sa
=
0.04
[d
vert
]
1.75
+2[d
vert
]
2
Heat Sink # 1 2 3 5 6
Volume [m]
3
7.6x10
5
10
4
1.8x10
4
2x10
4
3x10
4
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.042 0.046 0.057 0.058 0.067
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.011 0.013 0.019 0.002 0.027
d
v
1.75 0.004 0.046 0.0066 0.0069 0.0088
d
v
2 0.0018 0.0021 0.0032 0.0034 0.0045
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 5.3 4.5 3.1 2.9 2.3
R
q ,sa
(measured) 3.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.7
Heat Sink # 7 8 9 10 11 12
Volume [m]
3
4.4x10
4
6.810
4
6.1x10
4
6.3x10
4
7x10
4
1.4x10
3
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.076 0.088 0.085 0.086 0.088 0.11
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.034 0.046 0.043 0.044 0.047 0.072
d
v
1.75 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.014 0.021
d
v
2 0.0058 0.0078 0.0071 0.0073 0.0078 0.012
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.9
R
q ,sa
(measured) 1.3 1.3 1.25 1.2 0.8 0.65
Heat sink #9 is relatively large and cubical in shape with only a few cooling fins.
Heat sink #9 is small and flat with much more surface area compared to its volume.
Large surfacetovolume ratios give smaller values of R
q ,sa
.
292. R
q ,conv
≈
0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C ; From problem 291
R
q ,conv
≈ 24 0 [d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C and A = 10 cm
2
= 10
3
m
2
d
vert
R
q ,conv
1 cm 76 °C/W
5 cm 113 °C/W
12 cm 141 °C/W
20 cm 160 °C/W
Volume [m]
3
4.4x10
4
6.810
4
6.1x10
4
6.3x10
4
7x10
4
1.4x10
3
d
v
= (vol.)
1/3
[m]
0.076 0.088 0.085 0.086 0.088 0.11
A = 6 [d
v
]
2
[m]
2 0.034 0.046 0.043 0.044 0.047 0.072
d
v
1.75 0.011 0.014 0.013 0.014 0.014 0.021
d
v
2 0.0058 0.0078 0.0071 0.0073 0.0078 0.012
R
q ,sa
[°C/W] 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.9
R
q ,sa
(measured) 1.3 1.3 1.25 1.2 0.8 0.65
Heat sink #9 is relatively large and cubical in shape with only a few cooling fins.
Heat sink #9 is small and flat with much more surface area compared to its volume.
Large surfacetovolume ratios give smaller values of R
q ,sa
.
292. R
q ,conv
≈
0.24
A
[d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C ; From problem 291
R
q ,conv
≈ 24 0 [d
vert
]
1/4
for D T = 100 °C and A = 10 cm
2
= 10
3
m
2
d
vert
R
q ,conv
1 cm 76 °C/W
5 cm 113 °C/W
12 cm 141 °C/W
20 cm 160 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
q
°C/W
d
vert
[cm]
R
,conv
293. R
q ,conv
≈
1
(1.34)(A)
Î ˚
d
vert
D T
1/4
; Eq. (2920)
R
q ,conv
≈ 353 [D T]
.25
A = 10 cm
2
and d
vert
= 5 cm
D T R
q ,conv
60 °C 127 °C/W
80 °C 118 °C/W
100 °C 112 °C/W
120 °C 107 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
q
°C/W
d
vert
[cm]
R
,conv
293. R
,conv
≈
1
(1.34)(A)
˚
d
vert
T
1/4
; Eq. (2920)
R
,conv
≈ 353 [ T]
.25
A = 10 cm
2
and d
vert
= 5 cm
T R
,conv
60 °C 127 °C/W
80 °C 118 °C/W
100 °C 112 °C/W
120 °C 107 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
60 70 80 90 100 110 120
R
,conv
°C/W
D T [°C]
294. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A
T
s
100
4

T
a
100
4
; Eq. (2917)
R
,rad
= 196
120T
a
(° C)
˚
239
˚
T
a
(° K)
100
4
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
s
= 120 °C
T
a
R
,rad
0 °C 128 °C/W
10 °C 123 °C/W
20 °C 119 °C/W
40 °C 110 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
60 70 80 90 100 110 120
R
,conv
°C/W
D T [°C]
294. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A
T
s
100
4

T
a
100
4
; Eq. (2917)
R
,rad
= 196
120T
a
(° C)
˚
239
˚
T
a
(° K)
100
4
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
s
= 120 °C
T
a
R
,rad
0 °C 128 °C/W
10 °C 123 °C/W
20 °C 119 °C/W
40 °C 110 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T
a
[°C]
R
,rad
[ °C/W]
q
295. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A
T
s
100
4

T
a
100
4
; Eq. (2917)
R
,rad
= 196
T
s
(° C)40
˚ ˚
T
s
(° K)
100
4
96
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
a
= 40 °C
T
s
R
,rad
80 °C 114 °C/W
100 °C 120 °C/W
120 °C 110 °C/W
140 °C 101 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
T
a
[°C]
R
,rad
[ °C/W]
q
295. R
,rad
=
T
5.1A
T
s
100
4

T
a
100
4
; Eq. (2917)
R
,rad
= 196
T
s
(° C)40
˚ ˚
T
s
(° K)
100
4
96
; A = 10 cm
2
and T
a
= 40 °C
T
s
R
,rad
80 °C 114 °C/W
100 °C 120 °C/W
120 °C 110 °C/W
140 °C 101 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
296. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
297. P
MOSFET
= 50 +
10
3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
,ja
= R
,jc
+ R
,ca
=
150° C35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
,ca
= 1.53  1.00 = 0.53 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
296. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
297. P
MOSFET
= 50 +
10
3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
q ,ja
= R
q ,jc
+ R
q ,ca
=
150° C35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
q ,ca
= 1.53  1.00 = 0.53 °C/W
B
B
B
B
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
T
s
[ °C]
R
q ,rad
[ °C/W]
296. P
MOSFET,max
=
150° C50° C
1° C/W
= 100 W ; 100 W = 50 + 10
3
f
s
Solving for f
s
yields f
s
= 50 kHz
297. P
MOSFET
= 50 +
10
3
• 2.5x10
4
= 75 W
R
q ,ja
= R
q ,jc
+ R
q ,ca
=
150° C35° C
75W
= 1.53 °C/W
R
q ,ca
= 1.53  1.00 = 0.53 °C/W
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