• • 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) It is selection of suitable insulation levels of various components in any electrical system and their rational arrangement. It is required to ensure Insulation shall withstand all normal stresses and majority of abnormal ones Efficient discharge of over voltages due to internal /external causes B/D shall be only due to external causes B/D shall be at such places where least damage is caused Safety of operating personnel and public.

Determination of Insulation coordination – contd.
Steps in the determination of Insulation coordination • Determination of live Insulation • Selection of BIL and Insulation levels of other equipment • Selection of Lightning Arrestors.

• Wet flash over voltage:.hood of insulation under testing and directed at an angle of 45° the volume of water being equivalent to precipitation of 0.Flash over voltages • Dry flash over voltage (Dry for) Power frequency voltage.305 cm /min .Power frequency voltage. Which will cause flashover of the Insulation.Definition:.over when sprayed with water of a resistance 9000-11000 ohm-cms drawn from a source of supply at a temp within 10°c of the ambient temperature in the neighbour. Which will cause flash.

2x50µs impulse • (British standards1x50µ sec) • (American standards 1.Definition:.5 x 40µsec) .Flash over voltages Impulse flash over voltage:• The voltage which will cause flash over of an Insulation When subjected to a 1.

Definition:.2x50 µs (Indian standards) Equipment insulation as tested shall be equal or above the BIL .Flash over voltages • Basic Insulation level :The crest voltage of standard wave that will not cause flashover of the insulation is referred to as ―Basic insulation level‖ (Basic impulse insulation voltages are levels expressed in impulse crest voltage with a standard wave not longer than 1.

time characteristic • This characteristic is obtained by plotting --Time which elapses between the moment the voltage wave is applied and the moment of spark over -.Impulse spark over volt.on abscissa -Voltage at the movement of spark over (i) Occurring on the wave front (ii) Occurring on the wave peaks (iii) Crest of the voltage for spark over occurring on the wave tail .

.time characteristic -contd.Impulse spark over volt. Lightning arrestor. • This characteristic is established by means of a 1/50 impulse wave • A line drawn meeting the three B/D values is the characteristic • Proper insulation co-ordination will ensure that the voltage time Curve of any equipment will lie above the volt -time curve of the protective equipment. say.

LINE INSULATION • Extra high voltage line can be made lightning proof by 1 Efficient shielding 2 Low tower footing resistance equal to or less than 10 ohms shielding angle Transmission lines up to 220kV 30° 400 kV at and above 20° .

. dirt. Insulation pollution etc. • Line insulation shall be sufficient to prevent a flashover from the powerfrequency over voltages and Switching Surges.) .Line insulation -contd. • It shall take into consideration the local un favourable circumstances which decrease the flash over voltage (rain.

OVER VOLTAGE FACTORS Line Voltages Switching Power frequency flash Surge flash over (Dry & Wet) over 6. .5 V pn 220kV 0.3 Vpn = Phase to Neutral Voltage (rms) Add one or two more Insulators for each string.0 V pn 400kV 3.3 5.

-To take care of one disc in the string becoming defective.OVER VOLTAGE FACTORS— Contd. -Facilitate hot line maintenance Up to 220 kV Line – 1 disc for each string 400 kV Line – 2 discs for each string .

FLASH OVER VOLATAGE(FOV) OF DISCS 254 X 145 mm NO DRY FOV OF DISCS 9 10 14 15 25 540 590 785 830 1280 WET FOV Impulse ( kV rms) FOV (Standard full wave) 375 860 415 945 565 1265 600 1345 900 2145 .

(Wet) kV * discs Voltage (Vph/√3) required 132kV 76 76 x6.5=495 5 220kV 127 127x6.5=825 9 400kV 231 231x5=1755 13 * Compared with Impulse FOV (Value) .RECOMMENDED INSULATION LEVEL OF LINE Normal Vpn Switching over No of system In kV volt.

over volt (wet) (kVrms) 76x3=228 127x3=381 231x3=762 No. 6 10 20 7 11 22 9/10 13/14 23/24 76 127 231 . req. Normal system Voltage 132kV 220kV 400kV Vpn In kV Power freq.RECOMMENDED INSULATION LEVEL OF LINE—contd. No. of As per of discs practice discs recom.

the impulse FOV ( kVp =695kVp) • For better performance tower forting resistance shall be brought down.• Tower forting resistance 10ohms • severest lightning discharge 50kA (rms) • Impulse strength of Insulation=√2x50x10³x10=700kV • As per the table for 7 discs. • For 132kV best is 7 ohms .

Current through lighting arrestor can be calculated from Surge impudence of line Surge voltage arriving over the line • 1 2 .Co-ordination of line Insulation and Sub-Station Insulation • • Line Insulation is not directly related to the Insulation of equipment within the Sub-Station. Impulse flash over voltage of line Insulation determine the highest surge voltage that can travel into the sub-station.

Co-ordination of line Insulation and Sub-Station Insulation • Discharge voltage of the LA on that current is the basic protective level of the substation equipment. • Discharge voltage across LA varies with surge current. .

BASIC INSULATION LEVEL AS PER IS (2165 – 1962) Nominal system volt kV (rms) 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV Highest system volt kV (rms) 145 245 420 Impulse withstand volt kVp for test Full Reduced insulation insulation 650 1050 550 900 1550 1425 One minute power frequent volt kV (rms) Full Reduced insulation insulation 275 460 230 395 680 630 Reduced insulation is used where system is effectively earthed. .

some of the equipment may lie well out side the protective zone of the LA. . (LAs will be designed for a still lower level) • Where LAs are provided right on the top of the transformer. • Some times transformers. Instrument Transformers are manufactured for the standard Insulation level. are manufactured for one step lower insulation level for the sake of economy. Isolators.INSULATION LEVELS OF EQUIPMENT • Transformers.

• Generally BILL of substation equipment other than transformer are designed for10% higher BIL than that of Transformer .INSULATION LEVELS OF EQUIPMENT • Protective zone is determined based on A With stand level of equipment B Discharge volt of LA C Distance between LA and equipment. • Such equipment shall be designed for one step higher Bill. .

INSULATION LEVELS OF EQUIPMENT • BIL of Open poles of a disconnect switch shall be 10 to 15% higher than that provided between poles and earth. .

• EHV system must be designed to operate under stresses associated not only with normal operating power frequency voltage but also those caused by transient over voltage. • These transient over voltage rise principally from lightning over voltage and switching operations • The former is predominant in system at 100 kV and below. • Switching over voltage are of concern in system at 220 kV and above

• Let Un = line to line normal RMS voltage • Let Um = Rated highest system voltage rms line to line • √2 Un / √ 3 = Peak of rms voltage phase to ground for nominal system voltage • √2 Um / √ 3 = Peak of rms voltage phase to ground voltage for highest system voltage • Any voltage higher than √ 2/ √ 3 Um is called over voltage

Over voltages
• • In addition, temporary over voltages also occur at power and harmonic frequencies at times for considerable time under certain conditions. The insulation strength and characteristics of various components of a system (including those of voltage limiting devices) must be selected relating to those stresses.
i. To reduce frequency of supply interruptions ii. To reduce component failures

The selected level of voltage shall be low enough to be operationally and economically acceptable

(ii) electric strength of LAs or protective spark gaps IEC 71-3 • Phase to phase insulation co-ordination • Complimentary to part I & II • Standard phase to phase insulation level for voltages up to and above 300 kV • Voltage stresses In service and clearances in air . principles • IEC 71.• IEC 71 covers ― Insulation Co-ordination‖ • IEC -71.Part-I definition.Part – II Guidance for selection of rules (i) electric strength of the plant.

Field data on lightning induced and switching surges appearing on the system 2.Data required: 1. Establishing insulation strength of various insulating components of the system through lab tests .

Causes of over voltage: • Phase to earth faults ( it is assumed that resulting temporary voltages will not exceed –1.7 Pu for resistance earthed networks –2. A smaller generator connected to a long cable or over head line) • Ferro resonance ( inter change of stored energy for series or parallel combination of inductive and capacitive reactance) .4 Pu for solidly earthed networks –1.0 Pu for reactance earthed networks • Load rejection (supplying capacitive current through a large inductive reactance ex.

Causes of over voltage: contd. . • Ferranti effect: (receiving end voltage greater than sending end voltage under no load or light load conditions) • By care full design and natural earthing sustained over voltages involving resonance and arcing ground faults are eliminated • Below 145 kV method of earthing will normally determine the level temporary over voltages.

Switching surges • They are of short duration and irregular form • Typical switching impulse standard form is the 250/2500 sec.5 pu would be typical maximum based on which the discharge duty of LA is assessed • However in systems above 300 kV. it may be necessary to suppress maximum switching surges to 2 pu or less by the installation of a shunt reactor and/or closing resistors on the circuit breakers . ( time to crest/ time to half value way) • The magnitude of internally operated switching surges is related to the system operating voltage • In a system where CBS are not subjected to multi re striking the switching surges will rarely exceed 3 pu • 2.

Charging long lines without shunt reactor compensation . When switching cable and overhead line combination iii. Between lumped capacitive and reactive elements and over head lines iv. When switching transformer ii.Resonance effects • For voltage level below 300 kV. Resonance effects occur i.

the dead circuit draws energy by captive coupling from the parallel line circuit which resonates with transformer impedance at a sub harmonic frequency • (operation procedure such as opening the line isolator at the transformer end on the disconnected circuit will eliminate the problem) .contd • Ferro resonance encountered on a transformer feeder greater than 5 to 10 Km in length • When one feeder/transformer on a double circuit is switched out but parallel feeder remains energized.Resonance effects-.

Mode of action of flash over on a line • A lightning flash can impress over voltage on a over head line by a) Induction when it discharges to earth close to line b) By direct contact on the line either to the earthed structure or to the phase conductor .

Induced Voltage Surge – A close flash to ground up to about 14 m away can induce a voltage rise on phase conductors – The highest amplitude normally associated is in the region of 200 kV – Significant in case of low voltage lines – At 11 kV estimated that it accounts for some 90% of all faults – Little significance on lines of 275 kV and above .

for transmission of shielded design. is innocuous • Raise in potential caused by passage of current through tower impedance to earth will be less than with stand strength of line .Direct stroke • A direct stroke can be to the earthed tower top or on phase conductor • Stroke on earthed lower top.

Direct stroke—contd. if – Tower footing resistance is high – Rate of rise of current exceeds a certain level • Flashover may occur • Through the system voltage. • However the rise in potential can be severe and exceed with stand capability. losses is the frequency of flash over .

Direct stroke—contd. IN a 400 kV line Z0 = 175 ohms • Voltage rise is sufficient to cause failure of line insulation • Minimum critical current for flash over Ic = 2 V I0 Z0 VI0 = minimum flash over voltage for 1/50 Wave • At flash over the impedance through which the discharge current flows drops abruptly from Z0/2 to impedance of tower. • Discharge current flows equally in both directions. x -arm.e. • Impedance to earth is half the surge impedance (Z0) of the conductor. tower footing . • Direct stroke on phase conductor • May occur if there is a shielding failure i. stroke avoids earth wire and lands on line conductor.

• Rod gaps and surge arrestors provide necessary protection • Waves are subjected to considerable attenuations due to losses both in the conductor (ohmic losses) and corona losses . equipment there in get stressed.Surge propagation: • Surge waves are propagated at the velocity of light along the conductor • On arrival at substation.

Lightning discharges • Clarification of lightning discharges stroke (A) stroke (B) Stroke (A) : produced by the charged cloud which induces a charge on the stationery objects such as high buildings etc. • Decrease in dielectric strength of surrounding air takes considerable time . • Charge distribution causes concentration of potential at the top most point • Electro static stress being great at that point ionization of surrounding atmosphere takes place • Dielectric strength of surrounding air decreases giving an easy path to lightning stroke.

• No protection can be arranged against stroke `B` • Stroke `A` can be made safe by channelising the charge through a lightning conductor placed on the top of the building .Lightning discharges Stroke B: • A. B & C are three clouds with A and C positively charged and B negatively charged • When there is a stroke between (A) and (B) the charge on (C) becomes free and immediately and indiscriminately strikes on any object on the ground • For stroke (B) there is no time lag • Stroke (B) may completely ignore highest building and strike bare ground.

Static induced charges • An over head conductor accumulates statically induced charge when a charged cloud comes above • When the cloud is swept away charge on the conductor is released • The charge travels on either side giving rise to two travelling waves • The earth wire does not prevent such surges .

Lightning strokes • Over voltage due to lightning strokes surge impedance of the line = Zs Discharge current = Id Over voltage due to direct stroke = Vd = Id x Zs However current travels in both directions over voltage = Vd = Id x Zs 2 when lightning strikes over earth wire or a tower Over voltage = Id x Ze + Lc di dt Ze = impedance of earth wire Lc is the inductance of the line conductor .

Protection of electrical equipment from traveling waves . Protection of transmission lines from direct strokes 2. Protection of power stations and substations from direct strokes 3.Protection against lightning 1.

• There shall be adequate drain facilities so that the charge can be grounded without affecting Insulators or line conductors.Protection of transmission lines Against the direct strokes : • Most harmful • Effective protection required shielding to prevent lightning from striking the electrical conductors. .

Clearance between line conductor and ground wire all through the span including mid Span or point of lowest sag. (b) Adequate clearance between 1. They shall also be non –corrosive Resistance of ground wire shall be low for better protection against direct stroke. Line conductor and tower 2. (c) Tower footing resistance shall be low (d) Angle of protection (shielding angle) angle between the normal passing through the ground wire and line joining the supported center points of outer conductor and ground wire. It shall be 30° for 132 & 220 kV lines 20 ° for 400 kV lines . Line conductor and earth 3.Design of transmission line against lightning • Design shall consists of (a) General wire of adequate mechanical strength to provide shielding for line conductor.

C1 Decreases induced voltage on the line. • It is observed that presence of a ground wire reduces induced voltage on line to half.e.Effect of number of earth wires • In the absence of a ground wire: • When there is a charge cloud over a transmission line without any ground wire • There will be two capacitances (1) Between cloud and conductor C2 (2) Between conductor and earth C1 Induced voltage on the line V L1 = C1 x Ec C1+C2 • When ground wire is present it increases capacitance between conductor and earth i. • For two ground wires the induced voltage comes down to one third • Presence of two ground wires also provides better shielding .

Earth wires • Disadvantages with ground wire: (a) higher line cost (b) Probable direct shorting between line conductor and ground wire when the later gets cut In 400kV system transmission line towers will have twu earth wires. .

• Fitted directly below the conductor • The arc type electrode on the top of the tube forms a series gap with conductor . harmful voltages can still develop • Lightning arrestors act as additional protective devisees by by-passing the surges to ground • Protector tube is a fiber tube with electrode at earth end.Alternative method of line protection • Even after providing ground and reducing the likely induced voltages.

an arc develops between conductor and top electrode of the tube.Alternative method of line protection • The lower electrode is solidly grounded • In case of surge on the conductor. • Arc shifts within the tube and vaporises some of the fiber of tube wall to emit gases which will quench the arc • This tube successfully prevents re-striking • The break down voltage of tube shall be less than flash over voltage of the insulation. .

High peak voltage of surge may cause flash over in the internal winding or external flashover between the terminals of the equipment. ii.Protection against traveling waves The traveling waves cause the following damages: i. steep wave front may cause internal flash over between turns of the transformer iii. Steep wave front resulting into resonance and high voltage may cause internal or external flash over causing building up of oscillations in the equipment • • Protective equipment : LAs and Surge diverters They are connected between line and earth .

Action of the Surge diverter • A traveling wave reaches surge diverter and attains a prefixed voltage • A spark is formed across the gap • The diversion provides a low impedance path to earth • The surge impedance of the line limits the amplitude of the current flowing to earth to prevent break down of insulation • Important aspect is that the surge diverter shall provide low impedance path to earth only when traveling surge reaches the surge diverters .

• It means that it shall not function at power frequencies but function only when abnormal frequencies are applied • When there is a discharge through them they shall be capable of carrying the discharge current for some time interval.Action of the Surge diverter • It shall absorb any current during normal operation for over voltage surges. • After the over voltage discharge it must be capable interrupting normal frequency current from flowing to earth as soon as the voltage reaches below the break down value .

.Switching over voltage protection in a substation • Operation of breakers causes transient over voltages • Over voltage value varying between 1. surge arresters etc.1 Pu to 6 Pu based on switching duty and the type of circuit breaker • Over voltage occurs mainly due to exchange of energy between system inductance ½ LI2 and system capacitance ½ CV2 • Over voltage occurs during the opening of circuits and closing of long EHV lines • Most severe over voltages occurs during the closing unloaded transmission line • Preventive measure – Provision of Pre insertion resistors ( 400 to 800 ohms per phase) • Simultaneous closing of lines at both ends • Using shunt reactors.

Traveling waves travel to and fro giving rise to a switching surge.Switching Over voltages in Substations Switching duty of C.B.B. . Use of lightning arresters. EHV lines * Closing unloaded lines * Closing charged lines * Auto re closing of C. Use of shunt reactors in transmission lines. Opening of capacitor bank currents. for capacitor switching duty.Use of pre-closing resistors with circuit breakers. . correction.B. cable charging circuits. filter banks Applications and Remedial Actions Phenomena Switching of shunt Re strike in circuit capacitor banks used for breakers giving over p. voltage.f.Use of re strike free C. . * Long EHV transmission.

Methods of Reducing Switching Over Voltages Switching operation causing over voltage Energising an uncharged line Method to reduce switching over voltage High voltage shunt reactors are connected to line to reduce power frequency over voltages. Line shunting after opening by means of earthing switch Opening resistors ( Resistance switching with CB) used only with ABCB Elimination of trapped charged on the line Reduction of current chopping .

Methods of Reducing Switching Over Voltages Switching operation causing over voltage Reducing the switching over voltages due to closing Method to reduce switching over voltage Single stage pre closing resistor insertion with CB. Simultaneous operation of circuit breakers at both ends of line. Closing resistors in between circuit breaker and shunt reactor Synchronous switching of three poles. While closing of line While disconnecting reactor Reducing switching over voltages by improved switching sequence Use of surge arrestors . Two stage pre closing resistor insertion with CB.

• Spark over causes dead Short circuit • Voltage of phase with respect to ground falls very low • The rod gaps are no more used consequent to development of surge arrestors.Rod gaps or coordinating gaps • They are used on insulators. • The gap is adjusted to break down at about 20% below the flash over voltage of the insulation. . equipment and bushings • Conducting rods are provided between line terminal and earth terminal with an adjustable gap ( Air insulation) • Rods are of 12mm dia approx.

. to both sides Transmission line insulator.B. Closing of EHV lines -Use of opening resistors with C.Use of restrike free C. -Use pre-insertion resistors with C. The insulation of equipment is stressed by impulse surge Wave travels from C.B. The traveling wave reaches substations.Over-voltage in Network and Remedies Phenomena Causes Surges Lightning strokes on overhead lines or substation Effect Line insulation flash over or puncture.B.B. Terminal apparatus insulation stressed Remedies -Use of Ground wire . . line charging currents give rise to a over voltage due to restrike. Switching of capacitive.Surge Diverters -Earthing of towers -Lightning Masts Switching surges Breaking inductive circuit. the energy stored inductance gives rise a voltage rise across capacitor. stressed.

Poor voltage control Failure of -Proper Voltage transformers and control Rotating Machines Sustained Power frequency over voltage . for initial wave. voltage surges occur. Filters to eliminate harmonics High voltage waves get Reflected waves -Proper reflected – on reaching gets superimposed switching a junction or end. Voltage may rise to several time the normal voltage.Over-voltage in Network and Remedies Phenomena Causes Effect Remedies Resonance The fault causing resonance between inductance and capacitance in a part of the circuit Traveling waves Very high. Insulation failure likely to occur. sequence.

Angle of Protection œ = 300 .Protective Devices Against Lightning Over voltages Device Rod gaps Where applied Across insulator string.in sub stations Lightning Masts/Rods (earthed) .Above tall buildings Protect buildings against direct strokes. bushing insulators Remarks -Difficult to coordinate -Create dead short circuit -Cheap -Provide effective protection against direct strokes on line conductors towers sub station equipment -instead of providing overhead shielding wires Overhead Ground Wires (earthed) -Above overhead lines -Above the substation area Vertical Masts in substations -.

near rotating machines connected between phase and ground -Resistance Capacitance Combination absorbs the over voltage surge and reduces steepness of wave . Surge Absorbers -.on incoming lines in each substation -Near terminals of Transformers and generators -Near motor and generators terminals Remarks -.Protective Devices Against Lightning Over voltages Device Surge Arresters Where applied -.Diverts over voltage to earth without causing short circuit -Used at every voltage level in every substation and for each line.

To select the impulse current likely to be discharged through the arrester. 4. . or other abnormal conditions which cause higher voltages to ground than normal. To determine the maximum arrester discharge voltage for the impulse current and type of arrester selected. To determine the magnitude of the power frequency phase to ground voltage expected at the proposed arrester location during phase to ground fault. 5. To make certain that the maximum arrester discharge voltage is below the full wave impulse. To establish the full-wave impulse voltage withstand level of the equipment to be protected. 6. This selection may have to be reconsidered after step (6) is completed. withstand level of the equipment insulation to be protected. 3.Lightning arrester selection • • • • • • • 1. by adequate margin. 2. 7. To make a tentative selection of the power frequency voltage rating of the arrester. To establish the separation limit between the arrester and the equipment to be protected.

it is not effectively earthed system .Types of Earthing • For purpose of selection of voltage rating of a LA three types of earthing are considered (I) Effective earthed system: a system is effectively earthed if under any fault condition the line to earth voltages of healthy phases do not exceed 80 % of the system line to line voltage • If in a system all transformers have star connected winding with neutrally solidly earthed then the system is effectively earthed • However if only few transformers are earthed like that.

(II) Non effectively earthed system: a) if the line to earth voltage in healthy phases in case of a fault exceed 80% of the line to line voltage but does not exceed 100% of it.conted. the system is called non effectively earthed system b) System with few solidly earthed neutrals c) Systems with neutral Earthed through resistors or reactors of low ohmic value or arc suppression coil (III) Isolated or un earthed neutral systems :system neutrals are not earthed.Types of Earthing . . Line to earth voltage of healthy phases exceed 100% of the line to line voltage.

100 % .Selection of lightening arrestors • Tentative selection of arrestor Voltage: • Arrestor Voltage rating shall not be less than product of system highest voltage x co-efficient of earthing • Co-efficient of earthing : – Effectively earthed system – Non effectively earthed system and isolated earth system – 80% .

8 = 196 kV – As per IS 3070 (part –I) 1965 the rating is 198 kV • By going for a higher voltage rating for a surge arrestor. the degree of protection for equipment gets reduced. .Selection of lightening arrestors • In a 220 kV effectively earthed system – Highest system voltage = 245 kV – Co-efficient of earthing = 80% – Arrestor voltage rating >= 245x0.

Ea Z Ia = Arrestor discharge current E = Magnitude of incoming surge voltage Ea = Residual discharge voltage of an arrestor Z = Surge impedance of the line .Selection of arrestor discharge current • This can be calculated from (a) Spark over voltage of transmission line insulation (b) Surge impedance of the line (c) Residual discharge voltage of LA Ia = 2E.

Selection of arrestor discharge current • In a 220 kV system using 11 insulators Transmission line will not permit a traveling wave of a value more than 1025 kVp • As per IS 3010 (Part 1) -1965 the residual voltages of LA at a discharge current of 10kA is 649 kV. . • Considering the surge impedance as 450 ohms • Maximum value of discharge current of LA = 2(1025000)-649000 = 3100 Amps 450 • The LAs normally in 200 kV system have a discharge current rating of 10 kA.

Selection of arrestor discharge Voltage • Most important characteristic of LA determining the protection level being offered • The arrestor discharge voltage shall be less than BIL of equipment for effective protection • Discharge voltage depends on (I) discharge current (II) rate of rise of current applied (III) Wave shape of current applied • Discharge voltage of LA increases with discharge current. • Increase in discharge from 5 kA to 20 kA produces only 25% rise in discharge voltage. • Increase in rate of current from 1000 to 5000 Amps per micro second increases discharge voltage by only 35%. . But increase is much restricted due to non –linear resistance property.

Protective margin of LA • Protective margin of LA = BIL of the equipment--maximum discharge voltage of LA • While determining protection level offered by a LA 10% allowances towards drop in lead length and manufacturing tolerance shall be allowed. • Protective margin shall be 20% of the BIL of the equipment when closely located • In a 220 kV system Discharge voltage of LA = 649 kV Allowing 10 % margin protection level = 713 kV BIL of equipment = 900 kVp Protection margin = 900-713 = 187 kVp There is more than 20 % of the BIL of 180 kV .

.Protective margin of LA-Continue. • In American system Average discharge voltage x 1.25 +40 kV = BIL protected When adequate margin is not available LAs with lower rating shall be chosen taking risk.

should be =714x1. 4=900 Kv. of CBs.=1175kv.I.Insulation Co-ordination Scheme • • • • • • • For 220 KV system. B.5=825kv √3 Check it is less than B.A..L. L. voltage rating=198 Kv Discharge current rating= 10KA (assumed) Residual voltage. the B.I.1=714Kv For a margin of 20% between the B.A.=900x1.L.L. Voltage rating=system highest voltage x co-efficient of earthing =245x. Choose standard B.2=857Kv. Selecting standard rating from Table 12. and the protection level of L.. Power frequency over voltage=220x3=228kv rms √3 This is less than 395kv.1=990kv.L. of 900kv. Choose standard B.A. The corresponding power freq.1 column 1. I minute test voltage =395kv Switching surge flashover voltage =220 x6.I. instrument transformer.I.3 (b) Col.=649Kv (peak) Protection level of the L.L. from column 3 of table 12. disconnect switches etc.L.I. Table 14.L.8=196Kv. =649x1.A.1. • • • • • • • • • .I.

The L. voltage rating Rated system voltage KV Highest system Arrester rating voltage KV in KV 132 220 400 145 245 420 120/132 198/216 336 .A.

. . At best there can be only outage . . . . . Hence a set of LAS shall be closer to transformers. . Not possible incase of CB or disconnections switches.Repair to transformer is costly and with higher revenue loss. A traveling wave coming into the station to location to the discharge voltage of the arrestor.Establishment of Separation Limit • • When arrestor are to be located away from equipment. • Proximity to transformer or breakers. Surge in excess to insulation strength will flash over to ground with out damaging the equipment. By reducing BIL of transformer savings in the cost of insulation can be obtained. . For circuit breakers and disconnecting switches flash over distance between terminals when in open position in grater than between terminals and ground. .Transformer is most expensive price.Transformers are always at the end of a circuit where voltage regulation. .

0 Closer to Trans.0 45. voltage KV 132kV 220kV 400kV BIL KV Peak 550 650 900/1050 1425/1550 Max. and the transformer bushing terminal (inclusive of lead length in metes for effectively earthed) should not exceed the limits given below: Rated syst. distance 35.Location of Lightning Arresters: • The electrical circuit length between L. .A.