# PORTAL FRAMES

Version II 36 - {PAGE }
15 m
30 m
5 m c / c
3 m
6 m
3.25 m
15 m
0.6 m 0.6 m
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Job No: Sheet 1 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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Problem

Analyse and Design a single span portal frame with gabled roof. The frame
has a span of 15 m, the column height 6m and the rafter rise 3m. Purlins are
provided @ 2.5 m c/c.

Weight of asbestos sheeting = 0.17 kN/m
2

Fixings = 0.025 kN/m
2

Services = 0.100 kN/m
2

Weight of purlin = 0.100 kN/m
2

---------------
2
= 0.395 kN/m
2

---------------

PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
13.8 m
1 m
( 300 + 60 ) 300
B
F
6.9 m
Job No: Sheet 2 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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= 1.975 kN / m
≈ 2.0 kN/m

Angle of rafter = tan
-1
(3/7.5) = 21.8
0

From IS: 875 (part 2) – 1987; Table 2 (cl 4.1),

= 2.57 kN/m

Overhead electric crane capacity = 300 kN

Approximate weight of crane girder = 300 kN

Weight of crab = 60 kN

The extreme position of crane hook is assumed as 1 m from the centre line of
rail. The span of crane is approximately taken as 13.8 m. And the wheel
base has been taken as 3.8 m

The weight of the crane is shared equally by four wheels on both sides. The
reaction on wheel due to the lifted weight and the crab can be obtained by
taking moments about the centreline of wheels.

M
B
= 0

{ { } } 5 * 10) (21.8 0.02 0.75 run m / load Live − − − − = =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
Job No: Sheet 3 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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2 R
F
(13.8) = (300 + 60) * 1 + 300 * (6.90)
R
F
= 88 kN

M
F
= 0

2 R
B
(13.8) = (300 + 60) * (13.8-1) + 300 * (6.9)
R
B
= 242 kN

To get maximum wheel load on a frame from gantry girder BB', taking the
gantry girder as simply supported.

Centre to centre distance between frames is 5 m c/c.
Assuming impact @ 25%

Maximum wheel Load @ B = 1.25 (242 (1 + (5-3.8)/5)
= 375 kN.

Minimum wheel Load @ B = (88 /242)*375
=136.4 kN

Lateral load per wheel = 5% (300 + 60)/2 = 9 kN

(i.e. Lateral load is assumed as 5% of the lifted load and the weight of the
trolley acting on each rail).
Lateral load on each column { EMBED Equation.3 } = 13.9 kN
(By proportion)

242 kN
242 kN
3.8 m
5 m
B'
B
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
Job No: Sheet 4 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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Design wind speed, V
z
= k
1
k
2
k
3
V
b

From Table 1; IS: 875 (part 3) – 1987

k
1
= 1.0 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life)

From Table 2; IS: 875 (part 3) – 1987

k
2
= 0.8 (assuming terrain category 4)

k
3
= 1.0 (topography factor)

Assuming the building is situated in Chennai, the basic wind speed is
50 m /sec

Design wind speed, V
z
= k
1
k
2
k
3
V
b

V
z
= 1 * 0.8 *1 * 50
V
z
= 40 m/sec

Basic design wind pressure, P
d
= 0.6*V
z
2

= 0.6 * (40)
2

= 0.96 kN/m
2

1.4.1. Wind Load on individual surfaces

L
acting normal to the individual surfaces is given by
W
L
= (C
pe
– C
pi
) A*P
d

(a) Internal pressure coefficient

Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability

C
pi
= ± 0.2

PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
h
w
w
L
plan elevation
Job No: Sheet 5 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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(b) External pressure coefficient

External pressure coefficient for walls and roofs are tabulated in Table 1 (a)
and Table 1(b)

1.4.2 Calculation of total wind load

(a) For walls

h/w = 6/15 = 0.4
L/w = 30/15 = 2.0

Exposed area of wall per frame @ 5 m c/c
is
A = 5 * 6 = 30 m
2

For walls, A p
d
= 30 * 0.96 = 28.8 kN

Table 1 (a): Total wind load for wall

C
pe
C
pi
C
pe
– C
pi
Total wind(kN)
(C
pe
-C
pi
)Ap
d

Wind
Angle
θ Wind-
ward
Lee-
ward

Wind
ward
Lee
ward

Wind
ward
Lee
ward
0.2 0.5 -0.45 14.4 -12.9 0
0
0.7 -0.25
-0.2 0.9 -0.05 25.9 -1.4
0.2 -0.7 -0.7 -20.2 -20.2 90
0
-0.5 -0.5
-0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -8.6 -8.6

(b) For roofs

Exposed area of each sloping roof per frame @ 5 m c/c is

( ) ( )
2 2 2
m 40.4 7.5 3.0 * 5 A · + ·
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
15 m
Job No: Sheet 6 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
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For roof, Ap
d
= 38.7 kN

Table 1 (b): Total wind load for roof

Pressure Coefficient C
pe
– C
pi
(C
pe
– C
pi
) Ap
d

C
pe
C
pe
Wind
ward
Lee
ward
Wind
ward
Lee
ward
Wind
angle
Wind Lee
C
pi

Int. Int.
-0.328 -0.4 0.2 -0.528 -0.6 -20.4 -23.2 0
0

-0.328 -0.4 -0.2 -0.128 -0.2 -4.8 -7.8
-0.7 -0.7 0.2 -0.9 -0.9 -34.8 -34.8 90
0

-0.7 -0.7 -0.2 -0.5 -0.5 -19.4 -19.4

rafter by equivalent concentrated loads at
two intermediate points on each rafter,

{ EMBED Equation.3 }

Concentrated load , { EMBED Equation.3 }

Job No: Sheet 7 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
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Maximum Vertical Load on columns = 375 kN (acting at an eccentricity of
600 mm from column centreline)

Moment on column = 375 *0.6 = 225 kNm.

Minimum Vertical Load on Column = 136.4 kN (acting at an eccentricity of
600 mm)

Maximum moment = 136.4 * 0.6 = 82 kNm

3.0 Partial Safety Factors

f
= 1.35
f
= 1.5
f
= 1.05

3.2 Material Safety factor

γ
m
= 1.15

4.0 Analysis

In this example, the following load combinations are considered, as they are
found to be critical.

Similar steps can be followed for plastic analysis under other load
combinations.

(i) 1.35D.L + 1.5 C .L + 1.05 W.L

Job No: Sheet 8 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
kN 2.6
2
5.2
eaves @
2
w
· ·
kN 2.1
2
4.2
eaves @
2
w
· ·
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(ii) 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L+ 1.05 L.L

4.1. 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L+ 1.05 W.L

w @ intermediate points on windward side

w = 1.35 * 5.0 – 1.05 *(4.8/3) cos21.8

= 5.2 kN.

w @ intermediate points on leeward side

w = 1.35 * 5.0 – 1.05 * 7.8/3 cos21.8
= 4.2 kN

Total vertical load @ the ridge = 2.6 + 2.1 = 4.7 kN

H @ intermediate points on windward side

H = 1.05 * 4.8/3 sin 21.8

= 0.62 kN

Job No: Sheet 9 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
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H/2 @ eaves points = 0.62/2 = 0.31 kN

H @ intermediate purlin points on leeward side
= 1.05 * 7.8 /3 sin 21.8
= 1 kN
H/2 @ eaves = 0.5 kN

Total horizontal load @ the ridge = 0.5 - 0.31 = 0.19 kN

Table 3: Loads acting on rafter points

Windward Leeward Windward Leeward

Intermediate
Points
5.2 4.2 0.62 1.0
Eaves 2.6 2.1 0.31 0.5
Ridge 4.7 0.19

Moment @ B = 1.5 * 225 = 337.5 kNm
Moment @ F = 1.5 * 82 = 123 kNm
Horizontal load @ B & @ F = 1.5 * 13.9 = 20.8 kN

Note: To find the total moment @ B and F we have to consider the moment
due to the dead load from the weight of the rail and the gantry girder. Let us
assume the weight of rail as 0.3 kN/m and weight of gantry girder as 2.0
kN/m

Factored moment @ B & F = 1.35 * 5.75 * 0.6 = 4.6 kNm

Job No: Sheet 10 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
kN 5.75 5 *
2
0.3 2
·
,
_

¸
¸ +
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
15 m
3 m
6 m
3.25 m
20.8 kN 20.8 kN
342
128
27.2 kN
1.5 kN
Factored Load (1.35D.L+1.5 C.L +1.05 W.L)
1.0 kN
1.0 kN
0.5 kN
0.19 kN
4.7 kN
4.2 kN
4.2 kN
2.1 kN
0.62 kN
0.62 kN
5.2 kN
5.2 kN
2.6 kN
0.31 kN
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Total moment @ B = 337.5 + 4.6 = 342 kNm
@ F = 123 + 4.6 = 128 kNm

4.2 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L + 1.05 L.L

@ intermediate points on windward side = 1.35 * 5.0 + 1.05 * 6.4
= 13.5 kN
@ ridge = 13.5 kN

@ eaves = 13.5 / 2 ≈ 6.8 kN.

Job No: Sheet 11 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
Factored Load (1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L + 1.05 L.L)

3 m
6 m
3.25 m
13.5 kN
13.5 kN
13.5 kN
13.5 kN
6.8 kN
13.5 kN
15 m
20.8 kN
20.8 kN
342 128
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Moment @ B = 342 kNm

Horizontal load @ B = 20.8 kN

Moment @ F = 128 kNm

Horizontal load @ F = 20.8 kN

4.3 Mechanisms

We will consider the following mechanisms, namely

(i) Beam mechanism
(ii) Sway mechanism
(iii) Gable mechanism and
(iv) Combined mechanism

Job No: Sheet 12 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
4.7 kN
0.62 kN
5.2 kN
0.62 kN
0.31 kN
5.2 kN
0.19 kN
2.6 kN
θ/2
θ
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4.3.1 Beam Mechanism

(1) Member CD

Case 1: 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L + 1.05 W.L

Internal Work done, Wi = M
p
θ + M
p
(θ/2) + M
p
(θ + θ/2)
= M
p
(3θ)

External Work done, W
e
= 5.2 * 2.5θ - 0.62 * 1 * θ +5.2 * 2.5 * θ/2 – 0.62
* 1 * θ/2
= 18.6θ

Equating internal work done to external work done

W
i
= W
e

M
p
(3θ) = 18.6θ

M
p
= 6.2 kNm

Case 2: 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L + 1.05 W.L

Internal Work done, W
i
= M
p
(θ +θ/2 + θ + θ/2)

W
i
= M
p

Job No: Sheet 13 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
θ
13.5 kN
13.5 kN
13.5 kN
6.8 kN
θ/2
20.8 kN
342 kNm
27.2 kN
θ
11θ /13
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External work done, W
e
= 13.5 * 2.5 θ + 13.5 *2.5θ/2
= 50.6θ

Equating W
i
= W
e
,

M
p
(3θ) = 50.6 θ

M
p
= 16.9 kNm

Note: Member DE beam mechanism will not govern.

(2) Member AC

Internal Work done,

Job No: Sheet 14 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
è
p
M 3.69
è
13
11
p
M è
13
11
è
p
M è
p
M
i
W
= =
 
 
 
 
 
 
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + + = =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
20.8 kN
342 kNm
21.2 kN
θ
11θ /13
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External Work done,

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

3.69 M
p
θ = 383.9 θ

M
p
= 104.1 kNm.

(3) Member EG

Internal Work done,

External Work done,

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

3.69 M
p
θ = 428.3θ

Job No: Sheet 15 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
è
p
M 3.69
è
13
11
p
M è
13
11
è
p
M è
p
M
i
W
= =
 
 
 
 
 
 
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + + = =
è
è * * è * è * *
383.9
13
11
3.25 27.2
2
1
13
11
342
13
11
3.25 20.8 W
e
·

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
428.3è
è
13
11
3.25 * (21.2)
2
1
è * 342 è
13
11
* 3.25 * 20.8
e
W
= =
 
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + + = =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
θ
θ
θ
θ
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M
p
= 116.1 kNm

For members AC & EG, the 1
st
load combination will govern the failure
mechanism.

4.3.2 Panel Mechanism

Case 1: 1.35 D.L + 1.5 C.L + 1.05 W.L

Internal Work done, W
i
= M
p
(θ) + M
p
(θ) + M
p
(θ) + M
p
(θ)
= 4M
p
θ

External Work done, W
e

W
e
= 1/2 (27.2) * 6θ + 20.8 * 3.25θ + 342θ - 0.31 * 6θ - 0.62 * 6θ - 0.62
(6θ)+ 0.19 * 6θ + 1.0 *6θ + 1.0 * 6θ + 0.5 * 6θ+1/2 (1.5) * 6θ +
20.8 * 3.25θ - 128 * θ

= 442.14θ

Job No: Sheet 16 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
θ
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
θ
θ
θ
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
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Equating W
i
= W
c
, we get

4M
p
θ = 442.14θ

M
p
= 110.5 kNm

The second load combination will not govern.

4.3.3 Gable Mechanism

Case 1: 1.35 D.L + 1.05 W.L + 1.5 C.L

Internal Work done = M
p
θ + M
p
2θ + M
p
(2θ) + M
p
θ = 6M
p
θ

External Work done, W
e
=
-0.62 * 1 * θ - 0.62 * 2 *θ + 0.19 * 3 * θ + 1.0 * 4 * θ + 1.0 * 5 * θ + 0.5 *
6 * θ + 5.2 * 2.5 * θ + 5.2 * 5 * θ + 4.7 * 7.5 * θ + 4.2 * 5 * θ + 4.2 * 2.5 *
θ + ½* 1.5 * 6θ + 20.8 * 3.25 * θ - 128*θ

W
e
= 60.56θ

Job No: Sheet 17 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
6.8
13.5
20.8 kN 20.8 kN
342
kNm
128
kNm
θ
θ
θ
θ
6.8
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Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

6M
p
= 60.56θ

M
p
= 10.1 kNm.

Case 2: 1.35 D.L + 1.05L.L + 1.5 C.L

Internal Work done, W
i
= M
p
θ + M
p
(2θ) + M
p
(2θ) + M
p
θ =6M
p
θ

External Work done, W
e

= 13.5 * 2.5*θ + 13.5 * 5 * θ + 13.5 * 7.5θ + 13.5 * 5 * θ + 13.5 * 2.5θ -
128 * θ + 20.8 * 3.25θ
= 243.4θ

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

6M
p
θ = 243.4θ

M
p
= 40.6 kNm

Job No: Sheet 18 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
θ /2
θ
θ /2
θ /2
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
12 m
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4.3.4 Combined Mechanism

Case1: 1.35 D.L + 1.05 W.L + 1.5 C.L

(i)

Internal Work done, W
i
= M
p
(θ ) + M
p
(θ + θ/2) + M
p
(θ/2 + θ/2) + M
p
(θ/2)
= M
p
(θ + θ +θ/2 + θ/2 + θ/2 +θ/2 + θ/2)
= 4 M
p
θ
External Work done, W
e
=
1/2 * 27.2 * 6θ + 20.8 * 3.25* θ + 342θ - 0.31 * 12 * θ/2 - 0.62 * 11 * θ/2
- 0.62 * 10 *θ/2 + 0.19 * 9 * θ/2 + 1.0 * 8 * θ /2 + 1.0 * 7 * θ /2 + 0.5 * 6*
θ/2 + 1/2 (1.5) * 6θ/2 + 20.8 * 3.25 * θ/2 - 128 * θ/2 – 5.2 * 2.5 * θ/2 – 5.2 *
5.0 * θ/2 – 4.7 * 7.5 * θ/2 – 4.2 * 5 * θ/2 – 4.2 * 2.5 * θ/2
= 411.86θ

Job No: Sheet 19 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
θ /2
θ /2 θ /2
θ
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
12 m
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Equating W
i
= W
e

4M
p
θ = 411.86θ

M
p
= 102.9 kNm

(ii) Internal work done, W
i
= M
p
θ /2 + M
p
(θ /2 +θ/2) + M
p
(θ /2 + θ )
+M
p
θ
W
i
= 4M
p
θ

Job No: Sheet 20 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
6è * 1.5 *
2
1
è * 128 è 3.25 * 20.8
2
è
* 2.5 * 4.2
2
è
* 5.0 * 4.2
2
è
* 12 * 0.5
2
è
* 11 * 1.0
2
è
* 10 * 1.0
2
è
* 7.5 * 4.7
2
è
* 5.0 * 5.2
2
è
* 2.5 * 5.2
2
è
* 9 * 0.19
2
è
* 8 * 0.62
2
è
* 7 * 0.62
2
è
* 6 * 0.31
2
è
6 * 27.2 *
2
1
2
è
* 342
2
è
* 3.25 * 20.8
e
W
+ +
− − + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + − −
− − − −  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + + = =
5θ/6
θ/6 θ/6
θ
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
36 m
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
External Work done,

= 251.35θ

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

4M
p
θ = 251.35θ

M
p
= 62.84 kNm

(iii)

Job No: Sheet 21 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
è
p
4M
) (è
p
M è
6
è
p
M
6

6
è
p
M
6

p
M
= =
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
= =
è) * (6 (1.5)
2
1
*è 128 è * 3.25 * 20.8
6
è
* 2.5 * 4.2
6
è
* 5.0 * 4.2
6
è
* 7.5 * 4.7
6
è
* 10 * 5.2
6
è
* 12.5 * 5.2
6
è
* 36 * 0.5
6
è
* 35 * 1.0
6
è
* 34 * 1.0
6
è
*33* 0.19
6
è
* 34 0.62*
6
è
* 35 * 0.62
6

* 6 * 0.31
6

* 6 * 27.2 *
2
1
6

* 342
6

* *3.25 20.8
+ + − − + +
+ + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + − −
− − − − + + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
Internal work done, W
i

External Work done, W
e
=

W
e
= 390.92θ

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

4M
p
θ = 390.92θ

M
p
= 97.7 kNm

(iv) Internal Work done,

Job No: Sheet 22 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
( ( ) )
è
p
4M
è
p
M è
3
è
p
M
3
è
è
3
2
p
M è
3
2
p
M
i
W
= =
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
= =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
2θ/3
θ /3
θ /3
θ
20.8 kN
342 kNm
20.8 kN
128 kNm
27.2 kN 1.5 kN
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.19
4.7
4.2
4.2
2.1
0.62
0.62
5.2
5.2
2.6
0.31
18 m
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date

External Work done, W
e
=

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

4M
p
θ = 328.3θ

M
p
= 82.1 kNm

Job No: Sheet 23 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
328.3è
e
W
6è * (1.5)
2
1
è * 128 *è 3.25 * 20.8
3
è
2.5 * 4.2
3
è
* *5.0 4.2
3
è
* 18 * 0.5
3
è
* 17 * 1.0
3
è
* 16 * 1.0
3
è
* 15 * 0.19
3
è
7.5* 4.7*
è
3
2
* 5 * 5.2 è
3
2
* 2.5 * 5.2
3
è
* *15 0.19
3
è
* 16 * 0.62 è
3
2
* 7 * 0.62
è
3
2
* 6 * 0.31 è
3
2
* 6 * 27.2 *
2
1
è
3
2
* 342 è
3
2
* *3.25 20.8
= =
+ + − − + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ +
+ + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + − −  
 
 
 
 
 
− −
 
 
 
 
 
 
− −  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
5θ/6
θ/6
θ/6
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
6.8
13.5
20.8 kN
20.8 kN
342 128
θ
36 m
6.8
5θ/6
/6
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
Case 2: 1.35 D.L + 1.05 L.L + 1.5 C.L

(i) Assuming plastic hinge is formed @ purlin point 2 and 7 and at fixed
supports.

Internal Work done

Job No: Sheet 24 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
è
p
4M
è
p
M è
6
è
p
M
6
è
6

p
M
6

p
M
= =
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
= =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
2θ/3
θ/3
θ/3
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
6.8
13.5
20.8 kN
20.8 kN
342
128
θ
18 m
6.8
2θ/3
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
External Work done =W
e

Equating W
i
=W
e
, we get

4M
p
θ = 365.3θ

M
p
= 91.3 kNm

(ii) Plastic hinge is formed @ 3 and 7

Job No: Sheet 25 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
è 365.3
128è è 3.25 20.8
6
è
2.5 13.5
6
è
5.0 13.5
6
è
7.5 13.5
6
è
10 13.5
6
è
2.5 1 13.5
6

342
6

3.25 20.8
·
− + + +

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
347.7è
128 è 3.25 20.8
3
è
2.5 13.5
3
è
5.0 13.5
3
è
7.5 13.5 è
3
2
5.0 13.5 è
3
2
2.5 13.5 è
3
2
342 è
3
2
3.25 20.8
·
− + +
+ + + + +

,
_

¸
¸
θ * * * * *
* * * * * * * * *
( )
θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
p
p p p p i
M
M M M M W
4
3 3 3
2
3
2
·
+
,
_

¸
¸
+ +
,
_

¸
¸
+ +
,
_

¸
¸
·
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
Internal work done,

External Work done, W
e
=

Equating W
i
= W
e
, we get

4M
p
θ = 347.7θ

M
p
= 86.9 kNm

(iii) Plastic hinged is formed at 4 and 7

Internal Work done

Job No: Sheet 26 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
è
p
M 4
è
p
M è
2
è
p
M
2
è
2
è
p
M
2
è
p
M
= =
+ +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
= =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
θ/2
θ/2 θ/2
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
6.8
13.5
20.8 kN
20.8 kN
342 128
θ
12 m
6.8
θ/2
Worked Example: 1

PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date

External Work done, W
e
=

Equating W
i
= W
e

4M
p
θ = 296.3θ

M
p
= 74 kNm

Job No: Sheet 27 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
3 . 296
128 25 . 3 * 8 . 20
2
* 5 . 2 * 5 . 13
2
* 0 . 5 * 5 . 13
2
* 5 . 7 * 5 . 13
2
* 0 . 5 * 5 . 13
2
* 5 . 2 * 5 . 13
2
* 342
2
* 25 . 3 * 8 . 20
= =
− − + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + +
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
è 346.9 W
128è è * 3.25 * 20.8 *2.5è 13.5 è * 5.0 * 13.5
2
è
* 7.5 * 13.5
2
è
* 5.0 * 13.5
2
è
* 2.5 * 13.5
2
è
* 342
2
è
* *3.25 0.8
e
·
− + + +

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
2
θ/2
θ
θ
13.5
13.5
13.5
13.5
6.8
13.5
20.8 kN
20.8 kN
342
128
kN
θ
6 m
θ/2
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date

(iv) Plastic hinge is formed @ 5 and 7

Internal Work Done,W
i
=

External Work done, W
e
=

Job No: Sheet 28 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
( ( ) ) ( ( ) )
è
p
M 5
i
W
è
p
M è è
p
M è
2
è
p
M
2
è
p
M
= =
+ + + + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
+ + + +  
 
 
 
 
 
= =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date
Equating W
i
= W
e

5M
p
θ = 346.9 * θ

M
p
= 69.4 kNm

Design Plastic Moment = 116.1 kNm.

5.0 DESIGN

For the design it is assumed that the frame is adequately laterally braced so
that it fails by forming mechanism. Both the column and rafter are
analysed assuming equal plastic moment capacity. Other ratios may
be adopted to arrive at an optimum design solution.

5.1 Selection of section

Plastic Moment capacity required= 116 kNm

Required section modulus, Z = M
p
/ f
yd

From IS: 800-1984 (Annexure F)

ISMB 300 @ 0.46 kN/ m provides

Z
p
= 683 * 10
-3
mm
3

b = 140 mm
T
i
= 13.1 mm
A = 5.87 * 10
3
mm
2

t
w
=7.7 mm
r
xx
=124 mm
r
yy
=28.6 mm

Job No: Sheet 29 of 30 Rev
Structural Steel
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
3
mm
3
10 * 6 . 533
1.15
250
6
116*10
= =
 
 
 
 
 
 
= =
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
y 1
f
f
136
T
b
·
8.6 5.34
13.1
70
T
b
1
f
< · ·
Worked Example: 1
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date

5.2 Secondary Design Considerations

5.2.1 Check for Local buckling of flanges and webs

Flanges

b
f
= 140/2 = 70 mm

T
1
= 13.1 mm

t = 7.7 mm

Web

5.2.2 Effect of axial force

Maximum axial force in column, P = 40.5 kN

Job No: Sheet 30 of 30 Rev
Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design
Structural Steel
Worked Example: 1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ≤
y y y
1
P
P
f
1600
f
1120
t
d
( )
K O. Hence 68, 38.9
0.27
250
1600
250
1120
7.7
300
y y

1
1
]
1

¸

− ≤
PORTAL FRAMES
Version II 36 - {PAGE }
kN 276
5.87*10
1.15
250
3
1 ·
· ·
PU
Date
Design Project

Calculation Sheet

Checked By
VK
Date

y
= f
yd
* A

Therefore the effect of axial force can be neglected.

5.2.3 Check for the effect of shear force

Shear force at the end of the girder = P- w/2
= 40.5 -6.8 kN
= 33.7 kN

Maximum shear capacity V
ym
, of a beam under shear and moment is given by

V
ym
= 0.55 A
w
* f
yd
/ 1.15

= 0.55 * 300* 7.7* 250/1.15
=276.2 kN>> 33.7 kN

Hence O.K.

0.15 0.03
1276
40.5
P
P
y
< · ·

PORTAL FRAMES

Structural Steel Design Project
Calculation Sheet

Job No: Sheet 2 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Made By Date PU Checked By Date VK = 0.395 * 5 = 1.975 kN / m ≈ 2.0 kN/m

1.2

Angle of rafter = tan-1 (3/7.5) = 21.80 From IS: 875 (part 2) – 1987; Table 2 (cl 4.1), Live load / m run = {0.75 − 0.02 (21.8 − 10)} * 5 = 2.57 kN/m 1.3 Crane Loading Overhead electric crane capacity Approximate weight of crane girder Weight of crab = 300 kN = 300 kN = 60 kN

The extreme position of crane hook is assumed as 1 m from the centre line of rail. The span of crane is approximately taken as 13.8 m. And the wheel base has been taken as 3.8 m 1.3.1 Vertical load

The weight of the crane is shared equally by four wheels on both sides. The reaction on wheel due to the lifted weight and the crab can be obtained by taking moments about the centreline of wheels. ( 300 + 60 ) B MB = 0 1m 13.8 m 300 6.9 m F

Version II

36 - {PAGE }

PORTAL FRAMES

Structural Steel Design Project
Calculation Sheet

Job No: Sheet 3 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Made By Date PU Checked By Date VK

2 RF (13.8) = (300 + 60) * 1 + 300 * (6.90) RF = 88 kN MF = 0 2 RB (13.8) = (300 + 60) * (13.8-1) + 300 * (6.9) RB = 242 kN To get maximum wheel load on a frame from gantry girder BB', taking the gantry girder as simply supported. 242 kN B' 3.8 m 5m 242 kN B

Centre to centre distance between frames is 5 m c/c. Assuming impact @ 25% Maximum wheel Load @ B = 1.25 (242 (1 + (5-3.8)/5) = 375 kN. Minimum wheel Load @ B = (88 /242)*375 =136.4 kN 1.3.2 Transverse Load:

Lateral load per wheel = 5% (300 + 60)/2 = 9 kN (i.e. Lateral load is assumed as 5% of the lifted load and the weight of the trolley acting on each rail). Lateral load on each column { EMBED Equation.3 } = 13.9 kN (By proportion)

Version II

36 - {PAGE }

Vz = k 1 k 2 k 3 Vb From Table 1. IS: 875 (part 3) – 1987 k 1 = 1.0 (topography factor) Assuming the building is situated in Chennai.96 kN/m 2 1.6*Vz2 = 0.6 * (40)2 = 0.PORTAL FRAMES Structural Steel Design Project Calculation Sheet 1.8 (assuming terrain category 4) k 3 = 1.8 *1 * 50 Vz = 40 m/sec Basic design wind pressure.2 Version II 36 .4.4 Wind Load Job No: Sheet 4 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Made By Date PU Checked By Date VK Design wind speed.1. WL acting normal to the individual surfaces is given by WL = (C pe – Cpi ) A*Pd (a) Internal pressure coefficient Assuming buildings with low degree of permeability Cpi = ± 0. Vz = k 1 k 2 k 3 Vb Vz = 1 * 0. the basic wind speed is 50 m /sec Design wind speed. IS: 875 (part 3) – 1987 k 2 = 0.{PAGE } . Pd = 0. Wind Load on individual surfaces The wind load.0 (risk coefficient assuming 50 years of design life) From Table 2.

{PAGE } .3 Lee ward -0.2 Cpi Cpe – Cpi Wind ward 0.7 -0.7 -0.9 -0.0 ) 2 + (7. A pd = 30 * 0.5 Leeward -0.2 -0.6 L w w plan elevation h (b) For roofs Exposed area of each sloping roof per frame @ 5 m c/c is A= 5 * (3.45 -0.2 Calculation of total wind load (a) For walls h/w = 6/15 = 0.2 -0.2 -8.4 -20.96 = 28.9 -20.0 Exposed area of wall per frame @ 5 m c/c is A = 5 * 6 = 30 m2 For walls.4 L/w = 30/15 = 2.7 -0.8 kN Table 1 (a): Total wind load for wall Wind Angle θ 00 900 Cpe Windward 0.6 -12.5 0.2 0.3 Total wind(kN) (C pe-Cpi )Apd Wind Lee ward ward 14.9 -1.4 25.05 -0.4.5) 2 = 40.4 m 2 Version II 36 .5 0.2 -8.25 -0.PORTAL FRAMES Structural Steel Design Project Calculation Sheet (b) External pressure coefficient Job No: Sheet 5 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Made By Date PU Checked By Date VK External pressure coefficient for walls and roofs are tabulated in Table 1 (a) and Table 1(b) 1.

528 -0. Int.2 -0.7 0.7 -0.128 -0. -20.1 Dead Load Dead Load = 2.4 -23.4 -0.4 2.57 kN/m Concentrated load .2 -0.7 Cpi 0 900 Wind -0.0 Equivalent Load Calculation 2.2 0.3 } 2.8 -19.2 Superimposed Load Superimposed Load = 2.7 kN Job No: Sheet 6 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Made By Date PU Checked By Date VK Table 1 (b): Total wind load for roof Wind angle Pressure Coefficient Cpe 0 Cpe – Cpi Wind ward -0.328 -0.2 -4.2 Total Wind Load(kN) (C pe – Cpi) Apd Wind Lee ward ward Int. { EMBED Equation.0 kN/m Replacing the distributed dead load on rafter by equivalent concentrated loads at two intermediate points on each rafter.9 -0.{PAGE } .4 -19.7 -0.8 -7.6 -0. Apd = 38.2 -0.328 -0. { EMBED Equation.8 -34.8 -34.PORTAL FRAMES Structural Steel Design Project Calculation Sheet For roof.4 -0.5 Lee ward -0.3 } 15 m Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 7 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .5 Cpe Lee -0.9 -0.

4 kN (acting at an eccentricity of 600 mm) Maximum moment = 136.05 W.L + 1.0 Analysis In this example.L + 1.6 = 225 kNm.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet 2. as they are found to be critical. Minimum Vertical Load on Column = 136. γf = 1. (i) 1. Similar steps can be followed for plastic analysis under other load combinations.0 3.L Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 8 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .35D. γf = 1.35 For major live load. γf = 1.5 For minor live load.{PAGE } .15 4.5 C .4 * 0. the following load combinations are considered.6 = 82 kNm 3.3 Crane Load Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date Maximum Vertical Load on columns = 375 kN (acting at an eccentricity of 600 mm from column centreline) Moment on column = 375 *0.1 Partial Safety Factors Load Factors For dead load.05 3.2 Material Safety factor γm = 1.

05 * 7.5 C.L+ 1.05 *(4.8 = 0.05 W. w 5.35 D.6 + 2.05 L.{PAGE } .L+ 1.0 – 1.2 kN.62 kN Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 9 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .35 * 5.8 = 4.L + 1.05 * 4.7 kN b) Horizontal Load H @ intermediate points on windward side H = 1.35 * 5.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet (ii) 1.L 4.8/3 sin 21.1 kN 2 2 Total vertical load @ the ridge = 2.1.0 – 1.2 @ eaves = = 2.8/3 cos21.L Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date 4.2 @ eaves = = 2.5 C.35 D.6 kN 2 2 w @ intermediate points on leeward side w = 1.8 = 5.8/3) cos21.1Dead Load and Wind Load (a) Vertical Load w @ intermediate points on windward side w = 1.L + 1.2 kN w 4. 1.1.1 = 4.

35 * 5.{PAGE } .6 2.0.75 * 0.3  Dead load on the column =  2  * 5 = 5.31 kN H @ intermediate purlin points on leeward side = 1.2 2.5 .05 * 7.5 * 13.62/2 = 0.5 kNm Moment @ F = 1.6 kNm Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 10 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .8 /3 sin 21.8 = 1 kN H/2 @ eaves = 0. Let us assume the weight of rail as 0.9 = 20.7 Horizontal Load (kN) Windward Leeward 0.5 0.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet H/2 @ eaves points Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date = 0.31 = 0.2 Crane Loading Moment @ B = 1.6 = 4.1 4.0 0.62 1.5 * 225 = 337.5 * 82 = 123 kNm Horizontal load @ B & @ F = 1.5 kN Total horizontal load @ the ridge = 0.2 4.19 kN Table 3: Loads acting on rafter points Vertical Load (kN) Windward Leeward 5.19 Intermediate Points Eaves Ridge 4.1.0 kN/m  2 + 0.31 0.75 kN   Factored moment @ B & F = 1.8 kN Note: To find the total moment @ B and F we have to consider the moment due to the dead load from the weight of the rail and the gantry girder.3 kN/m and weight of gantry girder as 2.

2 kN 1.7 kN 5.4 = 13.5 C.62 kN 2.19 kN 4.L Dead Load and Live Load @ intermediate points on windward side = 1.2 kN 0.5 kN Factored Load (1.2 kN 0.0 kN 4.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date Total moment @ B = 337.25 m 27.8 kN.2 kN 15 m 1.31 kN 0.62 kN 5.5 kN 3m 342 128 6m 20.5 C.L) 4.0 kN 2.5 kN @ eaves = 13.6 kN 0.L+1.5 kN @ ridge = 13.05 W.8 kN 20.L + 1.35 D.2 4.6 = 128 kNm 4.L + 1.5 / 2 ≈ 6.05 L.05 * 6. Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 11 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .1 kN 0.8 kN 3.L +1.{PAGE } .35D.2.35 * 5.5 + 4.2 kN 1.6 = 342 kNm @ F = 123 + 4.1 1.0 + 1.

2.8 kN 3m 342 20.35 D.5 kN 13. namely (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Beam mechanism Sway mechanism Gable mechanism and Combined mechanism Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 12 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .8 kN 13.25 m 15 m Factored Load (1.{PAGE } .L + 1.5 kN 6.5 kN 13.05 L.8 kN Moment @ F = 128 kNm Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date Horizontal load @ F = 20.2 Crane Load Moment @ B = 342 kNm Horizontal load @ B = 20.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet 4.5 C.L + 1.3 Mechanisms We will consider the following mechanisms.8 kN 128 6m 20.5 kN 13.L) 4.8 kN 3.5 kN 13.

62 kN 5.2 kN 0.35 D.{PAGE } .62 kN 2.05 W.2 kN 0.L 4.5θ .62 * 1 * θ +5.7 kN 5. Wi = Mp (θ +θ/2 + θ + θ/2) Wi = Mp 3θ Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 13 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .5 C.5 * θ/2 – 0.2 * 2.19 kN θ/2 θ Internal Work done.1 Beam Mechanism Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date (1) Member CD Case 1: 1.6 kN 0.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet 4.L + 1.L Internal Work done.62 * 1 * θ/2 = 18.6θ Mp = 6.L + 1.2 * 2.5 C.0.6θ Equating internal work done to external work done Wi = We Mp (3θ) = 18.05 W. Wi = Mp θ + Mp (θ/2) + Mp (θ + θ/2) = Mp (3θ) External Work done.35 D.2 kNm Case 2: 1.L + 1.L + 1. We = 5.3.31 kN 0.

8 kN Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 14 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .5 kN 13.2 kN θ 20.{PAGE } .5 kN Date Date 13.5 θ + 13.5 kN 6.6 θ Mp = 16.69 M pè 11θ /13 27. (2) Member AC Internal Work done.8 kN θ/2 θ External work done.9 kNm Note: Member DE beam mechanism will not govern. We = 13.6θ Equating Wi = We.5 * 2.5 *2.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK 13. 342 kNm 11    11  Wi = M pè + M p  è + è + M p  è 13    13  = 3.5θ/2 = 50. Mp (3θ) = 50.

3θ 11 1  11  è + 342 * è + (21.2) * 3.8 kN 11θ /13 External Work done.8 * 3. We = 20.8* 3. (3) Member EG Internal Work done. we get 3.69 M pè 20.25 * = 383.25  è  13 13 2  13  342 kNm θ 11    11  Wi = M pè + M p  è + è + M p è 13    13  = 3.69 Mp θ = 383.{PAGE } .9è Equating Wi = We.2 kN Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 15 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet External Work done. We = 20.9 θ Mp = 104.25 * = 428. we get 3.3è Equating Wi = We. Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date 11 11 1  11  è + 342 * è + * 27.1 kNm.2 * 3.69 Mp θ = 428.25  è  13 2  13  21.

5 * 6θ+1/2 (1.8 kN θ 27. the 1st load combination will govern the failure mechanism.8 * 3.25θ + 342θ .6 342 kNm 20.0 * 6θ + 0.5 kN Internal Work done.0 4.2 1.14θ Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 16 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .L + 1.0.62 0.05 W.5) * 6θ + 20.{PAGE } .0. Wi = Mp (θ) + Mp (θ) + Mp (θ) + Mp (θ) = 4Mp θ External Work done.19 * 6θ + 1.2 kN θ θ 128 kNm 20.L + 1.2 Panel Mechanism Case 1: 1.5 5.5 C.2 0.62 (6θ)+ 0.0 2.1 0.3.62 0.7 5.31 * 6θ .8 * 3. We We = 1/2 (27.2 0.L 4.128 * θ = 442.8 kN θ 1.62 * 6θ .PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Mp = 116.35 D.19 4. 4.2) * 6θ + 20.0.1 kNm Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date For members AC & EG.31 2.25θ .2 1.0 *6θ + 1.

5 * θ + 4.2 1.31 5.2 0.2 1.5 C.0 θ 4.2 kN 1.5 * 6 * θ + 5.19 4.7 * 7.3.7 θ 0.14θ Mp = 110.0.5 * θ + 5.19 * 3 * θ + 1. We = -0.2 * 2.2 0.35 D. 4.5 kNm Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date The second load combination will not govern.L 5.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Equating Wi = Wc.0 2.62 * 1 * θ .62 2.8 * 3.L + 1.2 * 5 * θ + 4.5 kN Internal Work done = Mp θ + Mp 2θ + Mp (2θ) + Mp θ = 6Mp θ External Work done.56θ Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 17 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .25 * θ .0 * 4 * θ + 1.5 * θ + ½ * 1.1 0.128*θ We = 60.0 * 5 * θ + 0.8 kN θ 128 kNm 20.{PAGE } .3 Gable Mechanism Case 1: 1.5 θ 342 kNm 20.62 4.2 * 2.6 0.2 * 5 * θ + 4.05 W.62 * 2 *θ + 0.8 kN 27. we get 4Mp θ = 442.L + 1.5 * 6θ + 20.

8 kN kNm 20.25θ = 243.5 * 5 * θ + 13.5*θ + 13.5 13.5 * 2.8 kN θ Internal Work done.4θ Mp = 40.{PAGE } . we get 6Mp θ = 243.1 kNm.8 * 3.5 * 7. we get 6Mp = 60.5θ + 13.35 D.5 13.8 342 128 kNm 20.5 * 2.56θ Mp = 10.4θ Equating Wi = We.5 * 5 * θ + 13.L + 1.L + 1.5θ 128 * θ + 20.6 kNm Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 18 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .8 Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date θ 13.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Equating Wi = We.L 13.5 6. Case 2: 1.5 θ θ 6. Wi = Mp θ + Mp (2θ) + Mp (2θ) + Mp θ =6Mp θ External Work done. We = 13.05L.5 C.5 13.

2 1.62 2.0.5 * θ/2 = 411.6 0.7 * 7.5 * θ/2 – 4.62 * 11 * θ/2 .05 W.2 1.5 kN Internal Work done.0 2.2 * 6θ + 20.0 * 8 * θ /2 + 1.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet 4.0 * θ/2 – 4.L + 1.0 * 7 * θ /2 + 0.0.128 * θ/2 – 5.35 D.2 * 5.5 342 kNm 20.8 * 3.2 0.0 4.25* θ + 342θ .7 0.4 Combined Mechanism Case1: 1.2 0.1 0.8 kN θ 27.3.2 * 2.19 4.L + 1.5 C.62 4.2 * 5 * θ/2 – 4.62 * 10 *θ/2 + 0.8 * 3.0.5) * 6θ/2 + 20.5 * θ/2 – 5.25 * θ/2 .86θ Job No: Sheet 19 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Structural Steel Version II 36 . Wi = Mp (θ ) + Mp (θ + θ/2) + Mp (θ/2 + θ/2) + Mp (θ/2) = Mp (θ + θ +θ/2 + θ/2 + θ/2 +θ/2 + θ/2) = 4 Mp θ External Work done. We= 1/2 * 27.31 * 12 * θ/2 .19 * 9 * θ/2 + 1.31 5.{PAGE } .8 kN 1.L (i) θ /2 θ /2 Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date 12 m 5.2 kN θ /2 128 kNm 20.2 * 2.5 * 6* θ/2 + 1/2 (1.

5 342 kNm 20.2 kN θ 128 kNm 20.1 0.7 0.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Equating Wi = We 4Mp θ = 411.2 1.86θ Mp = 102.2 0.31 5.9 kNm Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date (ii) Internal work done.0 4.0 2. Wi = Mp θ /2 + Mp (θ /2 +θ/2) + Mp (θ /2 + θ ) +Mp θ Wi = 4Mp θ θ /2 θ /2 12 m 5.62 2.62 4.5 kN Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 20 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .2 1.8 kN 1.6 0.8 kN θ /2 27.{PAGE } .19 4.2 0.

2 1.5* 12* + 4.35θ Mp = 62.0 * + 4.2 kN θ 1.0 * 10 * 2 2 2 2 2 2 è è è è + 1.62* 8* + 0.2 * 5.2* 2.5* + 5.8* 3.2 * 5.2 1.5 * + 1. we get 4Mp θ = 251.62 2.19 * 9 * + 5.35θ Equating Wi = We.0 * 11* + 0.5* + 20.8 kN 27.5 kN Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 21 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .{PAGE } .25 * Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date è è 1 è è è  + 342* + * 27.6 5.19 4.0 2.5* 6è 2 = 251.5 342 kNm 20.1 0.7 * 7.0 4.2 0.2 * 2.62 4.0* + 4.62* 7 * 2 2 2 2 2 2 è è è è è è − 0.7 0.31* 6 * − 0.25 è − 128 * è 2 2 2 2 1 + * 1.84 kNm (iii) θ /6 θ /6 36 m 0.2 0.31 5.2 * 6   − 0.8 * 3. We = 20.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet External Work done.8 kN 5θ /6 128 kNm 20.

2 * 6 * − 0.{PAGE } .2 * 10 * + 4.7 kNm (iv) Internal Work done. We =  5è  5è 1 5è 5è è 20.5 * + 4.5 * + 5.5 * 36 * 6 6 6 6 6 è è è è è + 5.8* 3.0 * + 4.31* 6 * − 0.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Internal work done.2 * 5.0 * 35 * + 0.0 * 34 * + 1.2 * 2.2 * 12.8*3.25 * è − 128 *è + (1.92θ Equating Wi = We. Wi Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date  5è   è 5è  è  = M p + M p  +  + M p  + è  + M p (è ) 6   6  6 6  = 4M pè External Work done.7 * 7.62* 35 * 6 2 6 6 6  6  è è è è è − 0.19 *33* + 1.25 *   + 342 * + * 27.5) (6 * è) 2 We = 390. we get 4Mp θ = 390. è 2  2 è  Wi = M p  è  + M p  è +  + M p  + è  + M p (è ) 3 3  3  3  = 4M pè Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 22 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Version II 36 .92θ Mp = 97.62* 34 * + 0.5 * 6 6 6 6 6 1 + 20.

2* 5 * è 3 3 3 3 3  è è è è è è + 4.62 4.25 *è − 128* è + (1.1 kNm Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 23 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .8*3.2 0.2 0.8* 3.25 *  è  + 342 * è + * 27.5* è + 5.62 * 16 * + 0.2 1. we get 4Mp θ = 328.7 0.5* + 0.6 5.0 4.62 2. We = 2 1 2  2  2  20.19* 15 * + 1.5 342 kNm 20.19 0.5)* 6è 2  3 We = 328.7* 7.31* 6 *  è  3 2 3  3  3  è è 2 2 2  − 0.62* 7 *  è  − 0.5 * 18* + 4.0 * 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 è  + 4.2 * 6 *  è  − 0.0 2.{PAGE } .5 kN External Work done.8 kN 2θ /3 27.2* 2.0* 16 * + 1.2 * 2.0 * 17 * + 0.1 0.19*15 * + 5.5   + 20.31 5.2 1.8 kN 1.2 *5.2 kN θ 128 kNm 20.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet θ /3 Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK θ /3 Date Date 18 m 4.3θ Mp = 82.3è Equating Wi = We.

8 342 20.5 13. θ /6 θ /6 36 m 13.L + 1.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Case 2: 1.L + 1.5 13.35 D.{PAGE } .5 6.5 C.L Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date (i) Assuming plastic hinge is formed @ purlin point 2 and 7 and at fixed supports.5 6.8 kN 5θ /6 /6 5θ /6 128 20.8 kNθ  5è   5è è  è  Internal Work done = M p   + M p  +  + M p  + è  + M pè 6  6   6 6  = 4M pè Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 24 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .05 L.8 13.5 13.

5 * 5.5 * + 20.25 *è − 128è   6 6 6  = 365.8 kN 2θ /3 128 20.5 *   + 13.25 *   + 342 *   + 13.{PAGE } .3θ Mp = 91.8 * 3.5 *   + 13.5 * 10 *   +  6   6  6  6  è è è 13.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet External Work done =We Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date  5è   5è  è  è  20.8 342 20.5 13.5 * 2.0 * + 13. we get 4Mp θ = 365.5 13.5 6.5 13.3è Equating Wi =We.8 13.8 * 3.5 6.5 * 1 2.5 *7.8 kN θ 2θ /3 Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 25 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .3 kNm (ii) Plastic hinge is formed @ 3 and 7 θ /3 θ /3 18 m 13.

9 kNm Plastic hinged is formed at 4 and 7 è è è è Internal Work done = M p   + M p  +  + M p  + è  + M p è       2 2 2  2  = 4 M pè Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 26 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .5 * è + 13.8 * 3.5 *7.{PAGE } .5 * 2.7è Equating Wi = We.25 *  è  + 342 * è + 13.5 * 5.7θ Mp (iii) = 86.5 * + 3 3 3 3 3  è è 13.5 * 5.8 * 3.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Internal work done.0 * è + 13.5 * + 20. Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date θ 2  2 θ  Wi = M p  θ  + M p  θ +  + M p  +θ  + M p (θ ) 3 3  3  3  = 4 M pθ External Work done.5 * 2.25 è − 128θ 3 3 = 347.0 * + 13. we get 4Mp θ = 347. We= 2 2 2 è 2  20.

5 6.5 * 2.5 13.3θ 20.0* + 13.5 6.8* 3.8 kN θ /2 θ /2 128 20.3θ Mp = 74 kNm Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 27 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .5* + 13.5 * 5.25 θ − 128 θ 2 2 = 296.8 342 20.5 * 2.5 13. We = θ θ θ θ θ + 342* + 13.5 * 7.8 kN θ External Work done.5 13.8* 3.8 13.{PAGE } .25 * Equating Wi = We 4Mp θ = 296.5* 5.5 * 2 2 2 2 2 θ θ + 13.0 * + 13.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK θ /2 θ /2 Date Date 12 m 13.5 * + 20.

5*2.Wi = è  è  = M p   + M p  + è  + M p (è + è ) + M p (è ) 2 2  Wi = 5 M pè 13.5 13.0*   + 2 2 2 2 è  13.5* 5.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet (iv) Plastic hinge is formed @ 5 and 7 Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date Internal Work Done.5 * 5.0 * è + 13.8 kN θ /2 128 kN 20.9 è Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 28 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .{PAGE } .5*   + 13.5* 7.5* 2.8 kN θ /2 θ External Work done.8 13.8 *3.5 13.25 *è − 128è 2  We = 346.5 θ 13.5*   + 13.8 * 3. We= è  è  è  è  20.5 θ 6m 342 20.5è + 20.5 6.25*   + 342 *   + 13.

6 mm Structural Steel Version II Job No: Sheet 29 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design 36 .0 DESIGN Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date For the design it is assumed that the frame is adequately laterally braced so that it fails by forming mechanism.15 = 533.6 * 10 3 mm 3 From IS: 800-1984 (Annexure F) ISMB 300 @ 0. 5.1 Selection of section Plastic Moment capacity required= 116 kNm Required section modulus. 5.1 mm A = 5.46 kN/ m provides Zp = 683 * 10-3 mm3 b = 140 mm Ti = 13.87 * 10 3 mm2 t w =7.{PAGE } .4 kNm Design Plastic Moment = 116.9 * θ Mp = 69. Other ratios may be adopted to arrive at an optimum design solution.1 kNm.7 mm rxx =124 mm ryy =28. Both the column and rafter are analysed assuming equal plastic moment capacity.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Equating Wi = We 5Mp θ = 346. Z = Mp / f yd  116*106     = 250 1.

5 kN Structural Steel Job No: Sheet 30 of 30 Rev Job Title: Portal Frame Analysis and Design Worked Example: 1 Version II 36 .34 < 8.7 mm bf T1 = 70 = 5.1 Web d1  1120 1600  P     ≤ − t fy f y  Py        300  1120 1600 ≤ − (0.2.2 Secondary Design Considerations Worked Example: 1 Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date 5.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet 5. P = 40.2 Effect of axial force Maximum axial force in column.9 ≤ 68. K 5.1 mm t = 7.1 Check for Local buckling of flanges and webs Flanges bf T1 = 136 fy bf = 140/2 = 70 mm T1 = 13.Hence O.7  250y 250 y    38.6 13.{PAGE } .27 ) 7.2.

5 -6.{PAGE } .8 kN = 33. Py = f yd * A 250 = = 5.PORTAL FRAMES Design Project Calculation Sheet Axial load causing yielding.7* 250/1.15 =276.55 Aw* f yd / 1. of a beam under shear and moment is given by Vym = 0.5 = = 0.15 = 0. Version II 36 .15 = 1276 kN P 40.03 < 0.3 Check for the effect of shear force Shear force at the end of the girder = P.15 Py 1276 Therefore the effect of axial force can be neglected.7 kN Made By PU Checked By VK Date Date Maximum shear capacity Vym .2.2 kN>> 33.55 * 300* 7.w/2 = 40. 5.87*10 3 1.K.7 kN Hence O.