Malaysian English (MyE), formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE), is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia

as a second language. Malaysian English should not be confused with Malaysian Colloquial English which is famously known as Manglish or Street English, a portmanteau of the word Malay and English.

Features
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Malaysian English is generally non-rhotic, regardless of the fact that all /r/s are pronounced in native Malay. Malaysian English originates from British English as a result of British colonialism in present-day Malaysia. It has components of American English, Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other languages: vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Like South-Eastern British English, Malaysian English employs a broad A accent, as such words like bath and chance appear with /ɑː/ and not /æ/. The /t/ phoneme in words like butter is usually not flapped (as in most forms of American English) or realised as a glottal stop (as in some other forms of British English, including Cockney). There is no h-dropping in words like head. Malaysian English does not have yod-dropping after /n/, /t/ and /d/. Hence, for example, new, tune and dune are pronounced /njuː/, /tjuːn/ and /djuːn/ rather than /nuː/, /tuːn/ and /duːn/. This contrasts with many East Anglian and East Midland varieties of British English and with most forms of American English.

Varieties of English in Malaysia
According to The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature, p 61, English in Malaysia has been categorized into three levels: the acrolect, mesolect and basilect. The acrolect is near-native, and not many Malaysians fall into this category - only those educated in core English-speaking countries from early schooling up to university may be found to speak the acrolect variety, so only tiny percentage of Malaysians are proficient in it. As with other similar situations, a continuum exists between these three varieties and speakers may code-switch between them depending on context. Most academics, professionals and other English-educated Malaysians, speak mesolect English. Malaysian English belongs to mesolect, and it is Malaysian English that is used in daily interaction. However, in truth most Malaysians on the street speak Manglish on a daily basis. Therefore this means Manglish is actually short for Malaysian English. Manglish can be spoken almost using completely English words alone just that they are used differently. Imported words are actually minimal except for just a a handful of common non-English nouns and verbs in Malaysia. Manglish or Malaysian English is therefore a matter of style of usage. There are indeed colloquial words not common outside of Malaysia but that does not render them a part of English. They are used colloquially as substitutes in other languages in Malaysia as well.

or mixing grammar and words that don't belong together can be done quite spontaneously and be quite amusing. the influx of American TV programmes has influenced the usage of Malaysian English. For instance.g. speaking English using Chinese grammar. although the British form is preferred. received the highest priority. to set and mark the GCE O-Level English Language "1119" paper which is a compulsory subject for the Malaysian Certificate of Education (the English Language paper set by the Malaysian Ministry of Education is the same as the English Language "1119" paper for GCE O-Level). Malaysian English was exactly similar to British English (BrE) (albeit spoken with a Malaysian accent). largely due to the country's colonisation by Britain beginning from the 18th century. "chips" instead of "crisps". NST English (named after the New Straits Times. Unofficially. The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate continues. it was reported that English can exist alongside native languages such as Malay. such as further education abroad and improving one's knowledge. using Malay grammar on English words.[citation needed] [edit] Words only used in British English To a large extent. however. There is no official language board. [1] [edit] Malaysian English and British English In the first half of the 20th century. Survey: Why Malaysians need English in Malaysia? The Faculty of Education. both "lift/elevator" and "lorry/truck" are understood. because after independence. [edit] Words or phrases only used in Malaysian English . Malay replaced English as the official language. council or organisation to ensure the correct and standard usage of Malaysian English. However in the post-colonial era (after 1957). University of Malaya has published a paper reporting on a study that examines the functions served by the English language to Malaysian schoolchildren. Only in some very limited cases is the American English form more widespread. while social functions. it would not be accurate to list down all words and meanings and package them as a new form of language as is sometimes done by authors to have enough content for a coffee table book.At other times. Also. such as using English to communicate with one's family and friends. The primary study focused on nine separate functions related to three broad themes which were identified from 182 students' responses to a questionnaire and found that English for academic functions. the oldest English language daily in Malaysia) is often used as the reference point for Malaysian English. however. particularly in the form of television programmes and movies. Mandarin and Tamil as they have a role in communication among Malaysians. The findings of the study imply that English plays an important role in the personal advancement of the individual and in national progress. Malaysians are also usually familiar with many American English words. received the lowest priority. Hence. But because of influence from American mass media. e. Malaysian English is descended from British English. "fries" instead of "chips" and "diaper" instead of "nappy".

the Malaysian English speaker may be unaware that the word or phrase is not present in British or American English. Malaysian English. There is no reference to the English being used in Malaysia.g. MC (medical certificate). Naturally there are some differences of comtemporary words used between Malaysia and the United Kingdom as they are continents apart each have their own media. they are not so distinctly apart and established that English in Malaysia needs to be recognised as Malaysian English. Malaysia has no intention of formulating its own English or coming up with its own dictionary unlike some English-speaking Commonwealth states like Australia. Conversational English etc but "Malaysian English" is not an official . Call it English 112. Malaysia continually strives to refer to authorities of British English but also accepts that American English influence is becoming increasingly apparent.Malaysian English has also created its own vocabulary just like any other former British colonies such as Australia and New Zealand and these words come from a variety of influences. for words or phrases that are based on other English words. There is no such term as Malaysian English in any official context except for the everchanging school curriculum modules in attempts to improve the command of English but without going into advanced lessons. Often used in this context. e. 'He is on Sick note MC today' Photocopy. Hence. Malaysian Handphone (often abbreviated to HP) Malaysian Chinese / Malaysian Indian KIV (keep in view) Slippers Outstation British / American Mobile phone or Cell phone Malaysian Chinese or Chinese Malaysian / Indian Malaysian Kept on file. held for further consideration Flip-flop (not to be confused with slip-on night-time footwear) Means both 'at work out of town' or less frequently 'at work overseas/abroad'. English for Primary Students. as Malaysian English. Typically. due to the multi-language environment the local teachers are not high up on pronunciations and intonations. However. Unfortunately. Xerox (Photostat Photostat actually refers to an older copying machine) Mee Noodles Remisier Broker [edit] Definition: Officialy and On-the-streets Students in Malaysian schools are taught only basic and simpler conversational English using British grammar and spelling. even from the English daily newspapers.

both figuratively speaking .dialect of English. What is common between the two is the way local language terms.K. wat? (OK what?) spoken in rising questioning OK and lowering assuring tone means Isn't this good enough? (with intent to assure that it is good enough) or This should be acceptable.e. Manglish is just "Malaysian English" shortened as Singlish is Singaporean English shortened i. Manglish however is fused more with Malay nouns and verbs as all Malaysians learned Malay in school whereas Singlish is more fused with Chinese terms as most Singaporeans do not learn Malay in school and the island republic has an overwhelming majority of chinese speakers. "Manglish" was coined right after "Singlish" was coined when Singapore attempted to stop such language being accepted on public media. You are not paying attention. redefining the use of certain english words... . over-simplifying the grammar. Many writers who teach Manglish and Singlish do so with reference to earlier light-hearted books that would have needed to be at least 20 to 50 pages long.is it? end any sentence with this question ignoring the grammar will mean Is this/that correct? or Is the statement true? When ah? Who ah? How ah? Why ah? Where ah? in rising ahs mean When? Who? How? Why? Where? respectively Eh hello! (hey hello!) or just hello! spoken in the middle of a conversation means That does not sound right or you don't seem alright. It is however. On the streets.             Wat la yu? (What lah you?) spoken in a rising disappointing tone means How could you? or How stupid can you get? Wat la yu. intonations. intonation. And Malaysia wanted its own identity to the broken English language instead of a term that refers to sibling rival Singapore. (What lah you) spoken in lowering sheepish softening comforting tone means You shouldn't have or You should have been more careful but I still like you Got or not? spoken is rising tone means Did that happen? or Do you have it? Wear got? (Where got) spoken in rising exclamation means No such thing or I don't believe you Sure ah? spoken in rising question tone means Are you sure? O. possible to speak Manglish/Singlish without substituting English words with that from another language. give meaning to phrases and using simple exlamations common to the region as well as paying attention to the expression and tones will have anyone speaking Manglish/Singlish. isn't it? Like dat cannot la! (Like that cannot lah!) spoken with serious expression means I cannot accept it this way or in this condition How can? spoken in rising exclamation means How could this happen or How can this happen Die lah! spoken in somber or exclamation means I'm in deep shit or I would be in deep shit. By just changing the pronunciation. please stay alert! Of course there needs to be some inclusion of common simple words in Malay or Chinese like Alamak! or Aiyo! (both mean Oh no!!) but by no means would the list of non-English verbs and nouns take pages. bad broken English that it originally was. exclamations and grammar are fused with English. it has turned out to be a quirky and amusing language to foreigners and some write about it to help foreigners adapt instead. For some reason however.

to return to a previous edit e. in an email: "I will or state (although this to revert investigate this and revert meaning exists in BrE as to you by tomorrow. a set of letters used in a an alphabet "The word 'table' has five language alphabets.g. e.e. to put away or store. not the usage of this word conjoined with another further and we now see unit. Lately." a letter of the alphabet. slang when the real meaning is "I often unique to a particular cannot understand your country or social group accent" to accompany.g.g. accent.g. to follow follow you?" meaning "The police car was "Can I come with you?" following me" to retain as one's own. In turn. e. terms like "a semi-detached bungalow". informal spoken language." to get back to someone. regardless usually having a single of the number of floors it storey and sometimes an has. e. e. others learn this definition from them.g. e. They aim to inform and explain.g. [edit] Different Meanings This is a list of words and phrases that have one meaning in British English and another in Malaysian English Word / Phrase last time Malaysian meaning American / British meaning on the previous occurrence previously a parking space. In truth. i. some housing bungalow additional attic storey that developers have changed is free standing. "I cannot understand your slang". or a fully A small house or cottage detached house. a "I must decide which to to keep parent tells a child "Keep throw away and which to your toys!" keep.g. e.g. not to standardize and regulate. e." A mansion for the rich and/or famous.) . "That a parking garage (from US a parking lot new shopping mall has five English) hundred parking lots. "Can I to go after or behind. Some online dictionaries might also define the term Manglish differently in their efforts to quickly be a contemporary worldwide dictionary that includes new slangs and localised words." well.Anything less might not sell. they have less to do with imported words but more with style.

" slippers – Japanese sandals. "I send me to the airport?" sent this letter to my grandma. the colloquial Malaysian English. rubber – meaning eraser as in "Can I borrow your rubber?" (This is also a sense given to the word in British English. New Zealand or other countries:      chips – "hot chips" US "french fries" and UK "chips". as well as the stamp itself." Most Malaysians are adept at switching from Manglish and Malaysian English. of course lah.) send – to take somebody to somewhere . Awareness of these differences would prevent misunderstandings when dealing with people from different English-speaking backgrounds. The following are shared with Australia. having-in/having here – eat-in at a restaurant takeaway – takeaway (British English) take-out food (American English). lah.g. apartment – a medium-cost and high-cost flat flat – a low-cost flat. [edit] Vocabulary Main article: Malaysian English vocabulary There are many non-Malaysian words used in Malaysian English that are not in standard English. It originates from Chinese influence although the 'lah' is of the Malay language). la(h)! (see note above on Malaysian influence. condominium – a high-cost flat usually with common facilities." uni – in Malaysia it refers to the university (as in British English).to send to cause something to go to take someone somewhere without somewhere. This evolution in the use of English follows a worldwide trend and is unlikely to disappear. la(h)! – the prominent trademark in Manglish. it is used for emphasis at the end of a sentence. e."I'll send you to the airport. spoil. These are unique to Malaysia:            bungalow – a villa or any semi-detached house regardless of the size or number of storeys blur – confused (used by Manglish speakers and considered as bad English) chop – to stamp (with a rubber stamp). Australia "thongs" spoil – to be damaged "This one. as in US and UK "flip-flops". but are sometimes unclear as to the differences between Malaysian English and SABE (Standard American-British English).g. e. Eg: “Are you coming over to the party tonight?‟ – “Yes. while „U‟ is common in spoken Malaysian English. "Can you accompanying it.” pass up – to hand in "Pass up your assignments". [edit] Syntax .

The Sun. Some privately owned TV stations (such as TV3. for "It's your turn. British English and North American English:     Can I come too? for "May I come too?" Have you got any? for "Do you have any?" I've got one of those already.Syntactical differences are few although in colloquial speech 'shall' and 'ought' are wanting. A few Malaysian-made TV programmes in Malay carry English subtitles and vice-versa. . Malaysia does not have any television station which is broadcasted purely in English. Malaysian English uses the same pronunciation system as British English. LiteFM. it is still used among Malaysians and is recognised as the language of business. 8TV and Astro Hitz. due to the influx of American TV programmes and the large number of Malaysians pursuing higher education in the United States. e." [edit] Phonology and Pronunciation Officially. The accent has recently evolved to become more American. However.fm. this increased the emphasis on "r" in words such as "referring" and "world". most Malaysians speak with a distinctive accent. However. Traxx FM and Red FM. For example." It's your shot. The Government National Language policy requires local TV stations to air at least 25% Malaysian-made programmes (either Malay or English). There are also many English radio stations such as Hitz. 'must' is marginal for obligation and 'may' is rare. However. New Straits Times and Malay Mail. About 80% of urban businesses in Malaysia conduct their transactions in English (both Malaysian English and Manglish). There are several English newspapers in Malaysia namely The Star. Fly fm. NTV7. Many syntactical features of Malaysian English are found in other forms of English. Scottish English. for "I have one of those already.g. [edit] Role of Malaysian English in Independent Malaysia Even though Malaysian English is no longer the official language of Malaysia. American English has quite a strong foothold in international businesses in Malaysia. Mix FM.TV) do air some English Malaysian-made programmes.

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