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Damp Prevention in Buildings

Damp Prevention in Buildings

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Refresher Course for SAG officers ( Session No.

837 )

Name of Topic :

WATER PROOFING & DAMP PREVENTION IN BUILDINGS

Presented on 23.10.2008

BY

J.K. Singla CGE/SEC Rly, Bilaspur

Course Director Guide

: Shri S. K . Garg : S hri Manoj Arora

Name of Topic : WATER PROOFING & DAMP PREVENTION IN BUILDINGS
Neither humans nor buildings can tolerate too little or too much of water. Exces s water in buildings is called Dam pness . The root of all evil is water. It dis solves buildings . It cons um es wood, erodes m asonry, corrodes m etals , peels paint, expands destructively on freezing, permeates everywhere on evaporation, s tin ks . creates unhealthy conditions for residents , cause of growth of fungi, Bacteria, Mites & other m icro organisms . Dampness is a catalys t for build ing defects like Corros ion of metals , efflores cence of brick & m ortar, Damage of Mas onry & concrete. Unwanted mois ture can adversely affect their us e. Dampness caus es aes thetic as well as physical damage to buildings . It can disfigure internal wall & ceiling finishes & external wall surfaces 1. 1.1 1,1.1 Sources of Leakages or Dampness in Buildings External Sources of Leakages Leakages from Roofs :(i) Faulty Roof Slopes (ii) Abs ence of Roof Slab Projection (iii) Junction of Parapet walls & Roof Slab (iv) Inadequate Num ber & Size of Drainage outlets (v) Spreading of Water on Roofs due to Overflowing from Water Tanks . (vi) Bad Quality of Concrete us ed in RCC Roof Slab (vii) Stagnation of water (viii) Poor Quality or Improper Methods adopted in Laying Lime Conc. Terracing or Mudphus ka roofing. 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 Leakages from External Walls Dampness due to Leaking Waste Water & Soil Pipes Faulty Expansion Joints Chaja Wall Junction External Cupboards Balconies

1.2. 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.1.1

Internal Sources of Leakages Faulty Size & Slope of Soil and Waste Pipes Sunken Floors Floor Traps Concealed Water Pipes Leakages from Roofs (i) Faulty Roof Slopes Leakage has direct relation to the Intensity of Rainfall in the Region & Type of Roof adopted Minimum Slope of Roof: 1 in 100 Recomm ended Slope: 1 in 40 for Mudphus ka Roofing : 1 in 60 for Conc. Roofing RCF Colony : Proper s lope towards drainage pipes has not been provided resulting into stagnatio n of water on the roofs for a longer period which ultimately percolates through cracks or through porous conc slab. (ii) Absence of Roof Slab Projection In absence of s lab projection , the rain water travels along the walls & enters through crack at junction of Roof Slab and Wall (Entry of water m echanism) Roof s lab to project beyond wall by 50 mm ( minim um) s o that water falls clear of the wall (Prevention of water-1) All roof projections be provided with a Drip Cours e to s top back travel of Rain Water. The s ize should be m inim um 50 mm by 50 mm s o as to be effective. If it is not possible to extend the roof, the arrangem ents as shown in (Prevention of water2) can be adopted. (iii) Junction of Parapet walls & Roof Slab:Junction of Parapet walls & Roof Slab is a s ource of leakage & requires to be m ade water proof. To s top leakage, the roof Treatment provided on Roof slab be carried out to the Parapet Wall through the Junction of Parapet walls & Roof Slab. A chas e mus t be cut in the Parapet Wall at a Height of 20 cm above the roof and the water proofing Treatment s hould be finished ins ide the chas e (Junction of Parapet walls & Roof Slab ) (iv) Inadequate Number & Size of Drainage outlets The num ber & Size of Drainage outlets be adequate to drain off water without s tagnation. Min. size not less than 75mm . No. of drain pipes depend upon shape of terrace, location of drainage points & spacing of drain pipes . 100mm dia pipe can serve an area of 40-50sqm for rainfall intensity of 10 cm per hour.

The spacing between outle t pipes s hould not be more than 6m . Size of rain water pipes for roof drainage depends on average rate of rainfall in mm /hr & on the area of roof, as shown in table given below. For better drainage effect, Rain Water Pipes having bell m outh inlet at the roof surface be provided. Rain water pipes should be s ecured to the walls / columns by m eans of clam ps . RWP s hould be kept away from walls by using s addle plates as s hown in Fig.

Dia of pipe Av erage Rate of Rainfall in mm/Hr. ( Roof area in sqm )
50 50 65 75 100 125 150 13.4 24.1 40.8 85.4 75 8.7 16.0 27.0 57.0 100 6.6 12.0 20.4 42.7 80.5 125 5.3 9.6 16.3 34.2 64.3 150 4.4 8.0 13.6 28.5 53.5 83.6 200 3.3 6.0 10.2 21.3 40 62.7

(v) Spreading of Water on Roofs due to Overflowing from Water Tanks :This may happen due to missing of Float Valves . Defective or broken float valves . In RCF Colony , it is s een that defective Float Valves were not replaced with result overflowing of water tanks. No over flow pipes were provided in newly cons tructed quarters . Action Plan All m iss ing or defective float valves were replaced with good quality Float Valves in a time bound manner. Ins tructions iss ued to connect over flow pipes with Rain Water Pipes to s top splashing of water on roofs (water tank on roof). (vi) Bad Quality of Concrete used in RCC Roof Slab:Mos t of leakages can be elim inated if the quality of conc. of Roof Slab is ens ured. A well com pacted & cured roof slab is its elf Water Proof.

Clos e s upervision at the tim e of cons truction can eliminate leakages due to faulty cons truction. RCC Roof Slabs expos ed to Sun lead to large number of hair cracks . Thes e hair cracks are the sources of leakages . Hence Water Treatm ent is a mus t for every roof s lab to prevent leakages . (vii) Stagnation of water Stagnation at the outlets is either due to wrong slopes of the roof or due to choking of rain water pipes . Stagnation als o takes place due to depressions on the roof or level of inlet RWP being higher than level of Khurra. Terrace area is required to be sloped towards the outlets so that water flows freely. Rain water outlet pipes s hould be provided with gratings at the m outh & they s hould be regularly cleaned along with cleaning of roof to prevent from chocking. Rain water pipes should be s ecured to the walls / columns by m eans of clam ps . (viii) Poor Quality or Improper Methods adopted in Laying Mudphuska roofing Etc. (Fig) a. The main reasons are:Non availability of s killed labor. Cumbersome procedure. Time consum ing. High labor cos t. Inexperienced contractors & supervis ors . Unworkable Rates . b. Steps for M udphuska Roofing Clean the roof. Apply Keros ene oil (Bitum en Prim er). Apply Bitumen. Sprinkle coars e s and over Bitumen. Put m ud mortar mixed with Bhus a in slope. Allow it to crack for s om e days . Prepare Gobri leaping( Mix of clay+ cowdung or hors edund). Allow it to decay for one week before us e. Apply Gobri for filling cracks . .Put Gobri leaping for brick tiling. Put brick tiles over Gobri leaping. Leave it undis turbed for a week. No body s hould walk over it. Grout the tiles joints in cement mortar 1: 3( 1cem ent + 3 fine s and ). Lime Conc. Terracing or

Do pointing over brick tiles in cem ent mortar 1: 3. Do curing. Average thickness is 10 cm . Mudphus ka treatment is for therm al ins ulation of roof & not for water proofing. For water proofing Bitum en coating below is applied. 1.1.2 Leakages from External Walls Reasons:Loos ely filled brick joint Us e of poor quality Bricks . Im proper Curing,poor Workmans hip. hairline cracks on s urface. (MOVIE). Remedy :Use of good quali ty bricks with joints properly filled up, use of 15mm thick plaster in 1:6. Where quality of bricks is poor, us e cement mortar 1:4 in two layers . Use coars e s and in external plas ter . 1.1.3 Dampness due to Leaking Waste Water & Soil Pipes Reasons:Cracks in pipes , Leaking Joints, Im proper fixing of cleaning eye. Im proper grouting of the openings around the pipes in the external walls (MOVIE). Remedy :The ins pection of pipes for s igns of cracks before fixing. A rubber gas ket to be used for fixing the cleaning eye. . Openings around the pipes in walls be filled up with PCC 1:3:6. Plumbing services be planned in s uch a way that can be maintained easily. Service s hafts to have sufficient rooms to enable repair teams to work with ease.

1.1.4

Faulty Expansion Joints Reasons:Non m onolithic cas ting of roof slab & parapet wall of expans ion gap creating joint at junction. Faulty s lope of roofs towards expans ion gaps & im proper cas ting of roof s lab on the joint . Remedy :Monolithic cas ting of roof s lab & parapet wall with minim um reinforcem ent to avoid breaking (fig 1, 2,3 & 4 ). Filling of joint between slabs with s ealant to seal the joint. Provis ion of s loping precas t s lab with drip course & water proofing treatment.

1.1.5

Chhaja Wall Junction Reasons:A pos sible source of dampness in a building is the junction between the wall & chajja .This is due to wrong slope of chajja.This dampness leads to growth of Fungus at the chajja wall junction. In RCF colony, res idents have kept wood on chajja & have cons tructed unauthorized s heds which has prevented free flow of water. Remedy :Chajja s hould be given a slope of 1 in 30 with a drip course at the end so that water m ay not travel back ( Fig 1 & 2). All chajjas at junction with wall be provided with gola for effective drainage.

1.1.6

External Cupboards Reasons:Provis ion of half brick thick walls in cupboards in the outer walls . Use of poor quality bricks in external walls . Provis ion of one layer of plas tering of 12 mm thickness without water proofing compounds .

Remedy :In heavy rainfall Regions, don’t provide cupboards in external walls . External cupboards wherever provided be made water proof from the top & the s ides . On the top of the cupboard, a roof projection at a s lope of 1 in 40 with a drip cours e will keep rain water away. Provis ion of good quality of full brick thickness in external cupboards . 15mm thick plas tering in two layers (10+5) with outer layer in 1:4, with water proofing compound. 1.1.7. Balconies Balconies should be given a slope of 1 in 100 s o that rain water is drained out. The m inimum s ize of the outlets should not be less than 50mm dia. Step of 20 mm at the junction of Balcony with room be provided to s top back traveling of rain water. All outlets be planned in such a way so as to connect them with Rain Water Pipes 1.2. 1.2.1 Internal Sources of Leakages Faulty Size & Slope of Soil and Waste Pipes For adequate movem ent of waste water it is necessary to provide adequately sized pipes laid to a good s lope. Size of the pipes m us t be properly designed bas ed on the peak flows of s pent was te water to be received in different parts . The flow to be received at any point in the s ys tem depends on the num ber & type of appliances connected to the s ys tem . Branch drains within the toilets are laid to s lope of about 1:10 to 1: 50. Capacity of thes e lines to carry flow depends on the s lope. NBC pres cribes 100 dia for s oil s tacks & 75 mm dia for was te s tacks with capacity of 500 & 60 fixture units respectively. 1.2.2 Sunken Floors Floors in bathrooms , kitchens & toilets are sunk to accommodate floor traps , was te pipes & bends connecting the sanitary appliances & was te pipes . A potential s ource of s eepage is the filli ng in sunken floors . The pres ent practice of use of cinder as filling should be avoided as cinder is a major culprit in holding the s eepage water.

Lime concrete fillers & lean concrete (PCC- 1:5:10) fillers in s ome cas es have given better results . The s unken floor slabs & s ides are to be plastered in cem ent mortar 1:4. Besides they s hould be provided with water proofing treatment. In spite of bes t of the precautions , occasionally water leaks in s unken floors . To provide relief 40 mm dia GI pipes can be provided in the outer wall of s unken floor to draw away the s eeped water (Fig 1 & 2). 1.2.3 Floor Traps For preventing pass age of foul gas , traps with water seal are invariably used at every fixture. Floors in bath rooms , kitchen. For effective drainage, the slope should not be less than 1 in 100. Junction of the trap and the was te pipe which is embedded in the floor is a poss ible s ource of leakages . The joints should be thoroughly tes ted for leakages before doing the flooring (Figs ). 1.2.4 Concealed Water Pipes A concealed water pipe is a poss ible source of leakage. All concealed water pipes m us t be thoroughly pressure tested for leakages before taking up the finishes . 2.0 Recent Techniques It has already been dis cuss ed about the Limitations of the Conventional m ethods . The need of the hour is to go for recent techniques as discussed below;2.1` Guniting This is als o one of the conventional s ys tems. Cons is ts of depos iting an impervious layer of rich cement mortar over the surface to be waterproofed & is carried out by using a special gun. 2.2 Grouting This technique is ess entially used to reduce the poros ity or perm eability of concrete as a 1st s tep towards Waterproofing. High fluid materials known as grouts are injected into the body of conc. Under press ure, s uch as cem ent grouts , polym er m odified cementitious grouts , epoxies etc. This is not a complete sys tem & needs further treatment like coating.

2.3

Bitumen & Bituminous materials are still considered as very effective systems for Waterproofing. These are used either as hot applied or cold applied. The main advantages of these systems are :Low cos t, Cheap Labor, Eas y application. The m ain advantages are :Black color, Fas t degradation under exposed conditions & UV’ Low res istance to high differentials of temp.

2.4

Integral Waterproofing Compounds Used to reduce the water absorption & the poros ity/perm eability. Als o increas e cohes ion & surface finish. Basically they are Perm eability reducers , Water repellents or Polym er modifiers.

2.5

Sealants Used to seal the jo ints provided. The main advantages of these systems are :Low cos t, Cheap Labor, Eas y application in structures like expansion, cons truction etc. New generation sealants are bas ed on polysulphides , polyurethane, s ilicons , & new generation s ingle part Sylyl terminated polyethers . These are required to provide a seal agains t ingress or s eepage in addition to other properties like m ovem ent accommodation etc.

3.0 3.1

New Generation Materials for Waterproofing Polymer Modified Cementitious Membranes Water s oluble polymer in conjunction with cement makes good water proofing sys tems . They ha ve good adhes ion with s ubs trate, low water permeability, and com patibility with host concrete. They have very good bond with concrete s urfaces and are breathable s ys tems. In addition thes e sys tems are fairly flexible and can bridge small cracks .

3.2

Silicone coatings These are colorless water repellent s olutions, which are mainly us ed to protect mas onry s tructures . These coatings are m ainly us ed as dam p proofing mas onry and concrete s tructures .

The advantages of thes e coatings are:- Low cos t, Eas y and fas t rate of application, can be applied to a wide verity of s ub s tates (m asonry, tiles , concrete etc). The dis advantages of these coatings are:- poor crack bridging characteris tics & incapable of withstanding hydros tatic pressure. Silicon based coatings are classified into:Silicones (Silicon resins , silanes & siliconates). Silicates (alkaline s ilicates , dialkyl s ilicates etc). 3.3 Torch applied Bituminous Membranes Cons is ts of a bitum inous prim er overlaid with an Actactic polyptopylene (APP). Or a Styrene butadiene Styrene ( SBS) bas ed membrane which is s tuck to the s urface by torching. These s ystems are more ideal for basem ents & foundations Advantages :High Strength reinforcement gives excellent res is tance to Puncture & s tress , Bonds well to the s ubstrate & readily form ed to contours. 3.4 Cr ystalline Capillary Waterproofing Systems Thes e s ystems com pose of Portland Cem ent, quartz aggregates & s pecial chem icals, which in the pres ence of mois ture , chem ical react with free lim e to produce insoluble crystals . This crys talline growth reduces porosity by blocking capillaries & filling hairline, non s tructural cracks ( upto 0.25 mm) caused by s hrinkage or expansion. Membrane waterproofing s ys tem form a s urface barrier but these s ys tems in pres ence of water continue to produce crys tals & a lasting impervious to water. Ad vantages : Penetrates concrete, s eals capillary tracts , and contains no chlorid e, Single part s ys tem hence eas y application. Resis ts chem ical attack of s ewage & indus tria l wastes . Suitable for external & internal applications , Res is ts negative water pressure. 3.5 Epoxy and P olyurethane Coating Epoxy based coatings are mostly us ed for waterproofing & dam p proofing for internal applications . Ad vantages are: Good Adhes ion with different s ubstrates , High chemical resistance & excellent imperm eability but limited resis tance to UV & High cos t.

Polyurethane coatings offer all the advantage of Epoxy based coatings including good UV res is tance. 3.6 P olymer Based Spray- applied Membranes Thes e are high performance products des igned for a range of application including basem ents, roofing, tunnels , Water tanks , pile tops , Terraces , underground s tructures etc. The advantages are:- High Bond s trength & puncture res istance. Seam less , high elongation flexibility & high tensile strengths , Crack bridging capacity, Withs tands negative pressure, extremely fast rate of application. Sets ins tantly on application & can be applied over green conc and can be applied on any s ubs trate and to various profiles like s hells , folded plates etc. 4.0 4.1 New Generation Waterproofing S ystems P olyurea Polyurea applied mem brane coatings have the combined advantage of both Epoxy & Polyurethane s ystems . This s ystem differs from normal Epoxy & Pol yurethane in chemical com position & s uperior perform ance. The advantages are:-Mos t ideal for waterproofing applications , Seam less , resilient, excellent chem ical res istance, therm al s hock and puncture. Environment friendly. Curing rate ranging from 30 s ec to a few m inutes . Extrem ely good therm al s tability. 5.0 5.1 CASE S TUDIES – 1( Polymer based S pray Applied Membrane) Location: Bhubanes hwar, Contractor: L & T and Product: Proofe x S M Customer Requirement:-The canteen and recreation block of Infos ys , Konark cons isted of 5 buildings with s hell roof. The building had a unique profile with many joints . A foolproof & reliable waterproofing s ys tem , which could follow this profile , flexible enough to accomm odate the m ovement of joints , was the requirem ent. It was tim e bound & to be completed very fas t. Proposed solution :-Proofex SM- A polym er based s pray applied s ys tem of Fos roc Chem icals India Pvt Ltd was proposed owing to its superior technical features & incredibly fas t rate of application over difficult profiles. Execution:- After proper surface preparation, Proofex SM m em brane was applied us in g the custom designed s pray equipment. The s prayed m em brane was immediately covered with a layer of geotextile. The laps in the geotextile were sprayed again with Proofex SM. The entire treated surface was covered with a 100mm thick concrete s creed. To prevent cracks on s creed,

Polypropylene fibres (s upplied by Fosroc) were added to the concrete at a dosage of 150gm per bag of cem ent. 5.2 CASE HIS TORY : 2 (silicon based water Repellent Coating) Location: Bangalore, Contractor: Form tek, Products: Nitocote SN522 Customer Requirement:-The fas cia of Jawaharlal Nehru planetarium building made of Dholpur s tone. Algae and fungal growth s poiled the exteriors & caused stains on the buildings . The requirem ent was colorless water repellent coating for dam p proofing the fas cia of the building, which would also be res is tant to fungal and algae growth. The natural finis h of the s tone had to be retained. Proposed Solution:- Cleaning of the s urface with Reebaklens followed by Nitocote SN522 a s ilicone water repellent coating of Fosroc chem icals India Pvt Ltd. The cons ultants and the client approved the s ys tem after observing the trial area treated with the s ys tem. The s urface was properly cleaned using blower and wire brus hed using Reebaklens a cleaning agent. The s urface preparation was critical and in certain places Strong cleaning agents were us ed. Then two coats of Nitocote SN 522, water repellent coating was brush applied. 5.3 CASE HISTORY:3 ( P oly based Cementitious Waterproofing Membrane) Location: Chennai, Contractor: Dual Structurals , Product: Brush bond RFX, Nitobond SBR Customer Requirement:-Ford cons tructed two 18m high water tanks each of 25,00,000 liters capacity. When water was filled, it s tarted leaking. Ford was unable to inaugurate their plant. Inves tigations revealed, cons truction joints were not treated properly and hence were leaking. It was noticed that concrete s howed honey combs in various locations . The clients wanted a fool proof solution. Proposed Solution:-The concrete s urface ins ide the tank was lightly s and blasted. This revealed that the cons truction joints and the surface were honeycom bed. The cons truction joint & all honey com bed surfaces were treated with Nitobond SBR (A Styrine butadiene rubber bonding agent/ mortar modifier) modified m ortar. Press ure grouting was done at all the joints using neat cem ent s lurry and Conbex 100. Brus hbond RFX A Polym er modified cementitious water proofing m em brane of Fos roc Chem icals India Pvt Ltd. was applied in two coats on the entire s urface and allowed to cure. The entire s urface was then plas tered with Nitobond SBR m odified mortar. When tes ted the tanks showed no s igns of leakage. 5.0 Problems in RCF Due to persis tence problems in RCF, no. of agencies were cons ulted & finally the agency of Panchkula studied the problems & s olutions as s ugges ted by them are as under:5.1 Efflorescence Treatment by Pealing of Paint Firm: Neelam’s Building Protection Sys tems Ltd., Panchkula Products : Walcrete:300gm /sqft, High Bond-40 :22.5gm s qft & Stanro IW-4:100gm /bag of cement

Proposed Solution: Remove the existing plas ter up to brick level. Making 15 mm grooves joints . Clean & cure the surface properly.

in

Filling grooves by cem ent s and (1:2) mix with High Bond-40 @ 1Kg/bag of cement. Curing the s urface for one day. Apply 2 coats of walcrete coating with m ixing ratio of 1 part of High Bond-40, 4 part of water by volum e, 11 part of walcrete by volum e. Mix it properly. Again curing s urface for one day. Over the Walcrete Coating, laying the plas ter with mixing ratio of 1 part of cement 4 part of s and m ix with Stanro IW-4 @ 100gm /bag of cem ent. 6.2 Waterproofing Coating on Cupboard area Products : B Guard Primer: 6-8 sqm /Kg/coat, B Guard Top Coat: 7-8sqm /Kg/coat. Proposed S olution: Rem ove the existing loose coating from the s urface. Clean the surface by brush or other mechanical m eans . Apply 1 coat of B Guard Prim er. Over that apply 2 coats top coat B Guard. 6.3 Bath Room/ Kitchen/ Floor Traps Bonding by High Bond-40 Products: High Bond-40 ( Consum ption depend upon the Size of Floor traps ). Proposed Solution :Clean the floor traps with Acid Water. Again wash the floor traps . Apply High Bond-40 m ix with white cement all around the floor Traps . High Bond-40 provides excelle nt bond to conc., mas onry, s tonework, plas ter etc. Before application of High Bond-40, the s urface must be clean, s ound and free from loos e particles , dust, oil & greas e. Before use, it s hould be slightly dam p 6.4 Treatment of Roof Khurra by BP G 700 & B. Guard Remove the exis ting khurra upto RCC roof level. Clean the surface thoroughly. Sealing of all pipe joints by BPG-700/Crackseal RTV. After that, apply one coat of Prim er B. Guard.

Over that, apply two coat of Top coat B. Guard approxim ately 2feet around the pipe. Note:- This treatment is a life long treatment & may be adopted for making new Khurra as per requirements. 6.5 Permanent Repairing S ystem for Industrial Floor, Roads & Joints Products: Cinter SL Screed ‘J’: 1.6 Kg/s qm /mm thickness Exposed Concrete Road Dismantling the loos e concrete from the pot holes / joints . Using the conc. Cutter to give the proper shape. Repair the pot holes with Cinter SL Screed ‘J’ mix. Inside the Factor y Shed floor Cut the damaged corner floor/ floor joint by concrete cutter. Remove the loos e conc. From the damaged floor. Clean the surface thoroughly. Filling the joint/ Concrete floor by Cinter SL Screed ‘J’ m ix. 6.6 Water Proofing of Sub Station ( M RS ) Remove the exis ting treatm ent s uch as Tarfelt, Tile upto RCC Roof level. Clean the surface thoroughly. Sealing of all cracks and joints with BPG 700/ Cracks eal RTV. Pressure Grouting the surface wherever it is required. Apply one coat of B Guard Primer. Over the Prim er coat apply top coat of B Guard . Again relaying the m ud phus ka, tile terracy over the waterproofing coating to make the proper s lope 6.7 Waterproofing Treatment of Factory Shed Products: BP G 700 Prim er NP: 3gm /Metre & BPG 700 compound : 85 gm/Metre Sealing of Sk y Lights Clean the exis ting treatment from the glass & channel joints .

Apply one coat of BPG 700 Primer. Over the Prim er coat apply BPG 700 compound. Waterproofing Treatment of ACC Gutters • • Clean the joints & s urface. Remove the existing treatment. Sealing of all joints & nut bolts by BPG 700 com pound.. Apply one coat of B Guard Primer & over that apply Top coat of B Guard. 6.7 Sealing of Expansion Joint at Hospital Building ( 25mm width ) Dismantling the exis ting expansion joint, tile, mud phus ka upto RCC Roof level. Clean the surface & joints thoroughly. Fixing the Alum inum Sheet as per drawing with BPG 700. Laying the PCC us ing High Bond – 40 as a bonding agent. Again top of the joint seal with BPG 700 compound. 7.0 7.1 Some Modern Water Proofing Coatings( Polymer/ Rubber Based) Chemistic Rubberized Water Proof Coating Manufacturer: M/s chemis ol Agencies • Single component. Ready to use. Black colour. • Can be applied on dam p s urfaces . Excellent adhesion to all building materials . ( Apply chem is tics clear water proofer as a prim er coat first ). Uses: Water proofing of terraces, Bas em ent, Water tanks , AC/GI Sheets . Coverage per litre: Rough-34-40sqft. Sm ooth: 1s t coat-40-45sqft. 2nd:50-55 s qft. 7.2 Chemistic White Water Proofer Coating Manufacturer: M/s chemis ol Agencies • Rubberized water proofing coating s ingle com ponent. White colour. Abrasion Res istant, was hable. Persons can walk over it .

• •

Can be used as under coat or over coat. Reduces tem p. of interior because of UV reflection property. E xcellent adhes ion to all building m aterials . Cannot be applied on damp surfaces ( Apply chem is tics clear water proofer as a prim er coat firs t ). Uses: Water proofing of roofs, terraces , Bas ement, Water tanks . Coverage per litre : 1st coat-50-55sqft. 2nd:65-70 s qft.

7.3

Tarothane Manufacturer: M/s choksey Chemicals Two component coating m ade of high quality Tar with polyurethane. White colour. Can be used over existing Tar/ Bitumen treatm ent. Does not require recoating year after year. Cannot be applied on damp surfaces. E xcellent adhesion with concrete , AC Sheet & Steel. No prim er required for concrete s urfaces . Uses: Water proofing of roofs , terraces , AC Sheets , Toilet s unken portion, metal/concrete tanks & Pipe lines . Coverage per Kg: 4-5 s qm .

7.4

Mastercreet Manufacturer: M/s choksey Chemicals Polym eric m odifier for cem ent. To be us ed in the ratio of 2:1 ( 2 cem ent * 1 m as tercreet) for water proofing coating. Can be used for mixing in cem ent paint to improve durability & to prevent dis coloration ( Mix 5% of cement ) . Uses: Water proofing of Tanks, To improve adhes io n , durability, corrosion resis tance, Im pact Strength of cem ent (Mi x 5-10% of cement paint ) . Coverage per Kg: 1 kg s qm .

7.5.

Brush bond Manufacturer: M/s FORSOK Chem icals Acrylic Polym er modified cementitious coating (Two com ponents Brus hbond powder & Nit bond BB Acrylic em uls ion). Can be used for mixing in cem ent paint to improve durability & to prevent dis coloration ( Mix 5% of cement ) . To be appli ed preferably on damp surfaces . Uses: Water proofing of roofs & water Tanks etc. Strength of cement.

7.6

Tech coat Manufacturer: M/s choks ey Chem icals No prim er required for concrete s urfaces . Polyurethane Rubber bas ed coating ( To be applied on dry s urfaces . No prim er needed ). Uses: Water proofing of roofs , terraces . m etal/concrete tanks as inner & outer coating. Protective coating on wood. Exterior coating on walls. Coverage per Litre : 4-5 s qm per coat.

7.7 .

Sealer Coat and Sealoxy Manufacturer: M/s chitra insultec , Ahm edabad Is reas onably elastic to take care of minor s tructure movements without cracking. Two component coating m ade of high quality Tar with polyurethane. White colour. Can be used over exis ting Tar/ Bitumen treatm ent. Does not require recoating year after year. Cannot be applied on damp surfaces . No prim er required for concrete s urfaces . Polym eric compound, Has excellent adhes ion with any s urface. Uses: Water proofing of roofs , terraces & walls . Seals all hairline cracks . Can be tinted to any colour shade. Has a thin film coating. Sealoxy can be m ixed in lime & cement pain t ( 2% to 5%) to improve their adhes ion & durability. Coverage per Kg: 4-5 sqm .

7.8

Coatings which can be done over Damp Ceilings & Damp Walls to Prevent Seepage

7.8.1 Techoxy Manufacturer: M/s choks ey Chem icals Water thinable epoxy ( can be applied on damp surfaces als o) . Can be overcoated with enamel paints excellent adhes ion. No prim er required. Uses: Water proofing of Tanks ( on ins ide). Interior Walls . Coverage per Kg: 1s t Coat: 8-9 s qm & 2nd Coat: 10-11 s qm .

7.8.2

Chemistic Damp Proofer Manufacturer: M/s chemis ol Agencies Single Component , can be applied on Dam p Surfaces . White colour Stainer can be mixed to give required colour. Primer not needed. Painting if required can be done directly over it. It is especia lly useful at interior locations where s eepage is already occuring. Uses: Dam p proofing of Toilets , Interior Walls , Basem ents , Underground ins ide). Coverage per Litre: 5 s qm for sm ooth s urfaces . Tanks . on

7.9 7.9.1

Some Flexible Sealants (To seal gaps, Joints, Cracks etc which Exhibit M ovement) Crackseal Manufacturer: M/s chemis ol Agencies One Com ponent white sealing com pound on an Acrylic bas e which hardens to plas tic elas tic putty with high elas ticity. Surface to be preferably wet before applying. Highly elastic & ductile in wide tem p. variations . Does not shrink, crack or crumble. Painting if required can be done directly over it. Excellent adhesion to all building m aterials . Application by s patula trowel, putty knife or by finger. Uses: For filling cracks, joints & gaps of Doors , Windows, Concrete Slabs , Mas onry Surface, Glass , tiles , pipes , AC/G.I. Sheat, Was h Bas ins and s inks . Coverage per Kg: 6 r. m . for groove of 1cm by 1cm .

7.9.2 Techmast Manufacturer: M/s choks ey Chem icals One Com ponent butyl rubber based sealant. Should be applied on absolutely dry surface. Movem ent accomm odation 15% of total joint width. Uses: Sealing of cracks in buildings , roofs , terraces , walls.

Sealing of cracks in Concrete water tanks . Sealing of joints in pipes & aluminium ducting to prevent leakages . Sealing of sm all joints between Windows & Door fram es and s urrounding bricks concrete & s tonework. 7.9.3 Techseal Manufacturer: M/s choks ey Chem icals Two Com ponent polysulphide bas ed sealant. One com ponent is liquid polys ulp hide primer. 2nd Component is an accelerator containing a chemicle curing agent. After m ixing it forms a s trong rubber like s ubstance which is highly elas tic, flexible and has outstanding res istance to weathering chem icles and excellent adhes ion to all Building Materials . Uses: Used where movem ent of joints is more & joint is subjected to high wear & tear m ore res istance to weathering chem icles is required. For exam ple:Expans ion joints , joints in water retaining s tructures ( Dams , Canals etc). Joints in basem ents , retaining walls , joints in Bridges , Roads , Car parks and joints in in dus tria l heavy duty floor. 7.9.4 Chemistic Rubberized joint filler Manufacturer: M/s chemis ol Agencies Single Component , Black colour Sealant. Highly elastic & ductile in wide tem p. variations . Does not shrink, crack or crumble. Painting if required can be done directly over it. Excellent adhesion to all building m aterials . Application by s patula trowel, putty knife or by finger. Uses: For filling cracks, joints & gaps of Doors , Windows, Concrete Slabs , Mas onry Surface, Glass , tiles, pipes, AC/G.I. Sheat, Wash Basins and s inks . Coverage per Kg: 6 r. m. for groove of 1cm by 1cm . and

7.9.5 PIDIS EAL PS Manufacturer: M/s Pidlite Two part polys ulphide s ealant available in two variety – gungrade & pouring grade. Uses: Sealing Movements joints in all types of cons truction ( especially us ed for expansion joints ). 7.9.6 RHODORSIL 3B RTV Silicon Sealant Manufacturer: M/s Pidlite One component Silicon Sealant. Uses: Sealing jo ints , gaps , cracks ( Movement accomm odation 35% of joint width) 7.10 Rigid Sealants (To fill gaps, Joints, Cracks etc which don’t Exhibit Movements)

7.10.1. Poly Seal Manufacturer: M/s Greenboro Two component Epoxy putty. Uses: For filling or sealing cracks , gaps , holes , joints in Wood, Concrete, Metals and ceram ic ( where there is no m ovem ent of joints ). Should not be us ed for hot areas . 7.10.2 M - Seal Manufacturer: M/s MECP( Mahindra Engg. & Chem ical Products Ltd.) Two component( Res in & hardner) Epoxy putty. Uses: For filling or sealing cracks , gaps , holes , joints in Wood, Concrete, Metals and ceramic ( where there is no movem ent of joints) Should not be us ed for hot areas . 7.10.3 Metal Putty or MC putty (DUCO )- Seal Manufacturer: M/s ICI ( India) Single component hardens in 2-3 hours . Us es : For filling holes in Steelw ork, finis hing of weld etc.

7.10.4 Fe viseal Manufacturer: M/s Pidlite Two component Epoxy putty. Sets hard within 20 m ts . Final curing s trength achieved in 4 hrs. Should not be us ed for hot areas . Uses: For filling or s ealing cracks , gaps , holes , joints in Wood, Concrete, Metals and ceramic ( where there is no movem ent of joints). 7.11 EMERGENCY WATER PROOFING Thunderproof Manufacturer: M/s choks ey Chem icals Two component, s olventless s ynthetic Polymer based compound which dries even in pres ence of water. It form s an impermeable, tough film which is absolutely waterproof & highly resis tant. It is a wonder product which gives relief from water leakages even while its raining. THUNDERPROOF is a quick setting repair product es pecially designed for EMERGENCY repair under any circumstances. Benefits of Thunderproof Ins tant leak repairer, Cures in pres ence of Rain, Snow & below freezing temp. Cures to a tough & abrasion resis tant waterproof film. Easily applicable by brush or trowel, Seals localized cracks & s urface poros ity. Can be reinforced to cover breaks & cracks . Bonds s trongly to m os t of the building m ateria ls . No prim er is required. Methods of Using Thunderproof Clean the surface. Mix part-I & Part-II hom ogeneous ly. Allow the mix to m ature for 5 minutes Apply on cracks with brus h or Trowel. For wider cracks make Thunderproof putty by m ixing 1Kg: 350gram (Thunderproof & white Portland cement res pectively). Fill the wider cracks & then apply Thunderproof coating. Applicable on concrete, cement, plas ter, as bes toes sheets etc Uses: Ins tant leak repair of cracks, joints & porous s ubs trates( resis tance to pos itive water press ure). Buil ding roofs , terraces , Chimney bases , Gutters , Water channels , Bridges , Dams

SUMMARY Leakages to great extent can be minimized by ens uring good quality cons truction i.e. by close s upervision & us ing m aterials of approved make. The durability of conc. not only depends on its s trength but als o on the perm eability of the conc. Therefore, waterproofing should be made m andatory for all s tructures . During cons truction, the integral waterproofing com pound either in powder or liquid form can be introduced in conc. to improve the waterproofing characters by optimizing the water cement ratio. Now with the invent of lates t technology polym er bas ed waterproofing s ys tems, it is much eas ier & effective to achieve waterproofing properties .

FLOOR TRAP2

Mechanism of Water Entry

Preventing Water Entr y (By Extending slab itself)

Preventing WATER ENTRY (By making brick or concrete cornice

WATER P ROOFING FOR S UNKEN FLOORS

PROOFING FOR S UNKEN FLOORS (SECTION

WATER TANK ON ROOF

WINDOW SILL (DAMP NESS P REV ENTION MEAS URES IN BUILDING AT WINDOW SILL)

DRAINAGE OF ROOF

Expansion joint1

Expansion joint2

Expansion joint3

Expansion joint4

Water proofing of roof1

WC1

WC2

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