Predetermined Motion Time Systems

Sections: 1. Overview of Predetermined Motion Time Systems 2. Methods-Time Measurement 3. Maynard Operation Sequence Technique

Chapter 14

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

PMTS Defined
  An alternative to direct time study that does not require performance rating. A database of basic motion elements and their associated normal time values, together with procedures for applying the data to analyze manual tasks and establish standard times for the tasks

Basic motions include:  Reach  Grasp  Move  Release
A set of tables that listing time values that corresponds to basic motion elements, the lowest level in hierarchy of manual work activity.
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Historical Notes
       Frank B. Gilberth- 17 therbligs Asa B. Segur – Motion Time Analysis (MTA) - the first commercial PMT system (1922) and base on Gilberth’s 17 therbligs H. Quick – Work-factor system (1934-1938): cognitive work involved Harold B. Maynard – Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) (1948): very successful and widely used G.Chris Hyde- Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards (MODAPTS) –1966 Kjell B. Zandin- Maynard Operations Sequence Technique (MOST)(1970s) Computerization of systems as commercial products

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Synthesize/Analyze method that would be used to perform the task  The method is described in terms of basic motion elements Retrieve normal time values for each motion element  Sum the element times to determine the task normal time Evaluate method to make improvements by  eliminating motions  reducing distances  using both hands simultaneously etc. Apply allowances to determine standard time Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P.PMTS Procedure  Common in all PMT systems 1.. 2. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 4. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. All rights reserved. 3. Measurement. . Groover.

one MTA times must be multiplied by 125%  Most workers can not achieve standard performance according to MTA  If the organization defines the standard differently..Performance Rating  No need for performance rating  Different PMT systems use different definitions of standard performance  In general basic motion times are rated based on 100% performance rate (normal or standard performance)  MTM and MOST:  daywork standard performance  If a day work pace=100. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. Upper Saddle River. an adjustment should be made Work Systems and the Methods. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. performance . Inc. Groover. a normal pace=130  Most workers can achieve daywork performance  MTA  based on a faster working pace. Measurement.

. Inc. All rights reserved. NJ.PMTS Levels and Generations  First-level PMT Systems use the basic motion elements  Reach. grasp. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River. and move used separately to define the task  Higher-level systems combine several motion elements into motion aggregates  Reach and grasp combined into one element called “get”  First-level systems were chronologically the first to be developed and are called first generation PMTS Work Systems and the Methods. . Measurement. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.

. Upper Saddle River.Comparisons First-level PMTS Higher-level PMTS Most accurate High application speed ratio Most suited to highly repetitive short cycles Basic motion elements Very detailed Less accurate Less time to set standards Longer cycle times feasible Motion aggregates Less detailed Highest flexibility Detailed Less flexible Simplified and condensed Work Systems and the Methods. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Measurement.. NJ. Inc. All rights reserved. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education.

NJ.0006 min = 0.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.036 sec 1 sec = 27. All rights reserved. Inc.org) Work Systems and the Methods.Methods-Time Measurement (MTM)  Procedure which analyzes any manual operation or method into the basic motions required to perform it and assigns to each motion a predetermined time standard which is determined by the nature of the motion and the conditions under which it is made  Time units are TMUs 1 TMU = 10-6 hr = 0. Measurement.8 TMU  MTM is a family of products available through the MTM Association (www. ©2007 Pearson Education. Groover. .mtm. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.Methods-Time Measurement Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. Groover. Measurement. . and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Inc..

All rights reserved.. and body actions  Many of the basic motion elements correspond to the original therbligs developed by Frank Gilbreth  More appropriate for tasks that are highly repetitive and cycle times are less than 1 min  Application speed ratio is about 250. foot. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River. Groover.MTM-1  Operates at the basic motion element level in our pyramidal structure of work  Most MTM-1 basic motions involve hand and arm movements  Also includes elements for eye. NJ. . leg. ©2007 Pearson Education. Measurement. Inc. Work Systems and the Methods. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

Groover. R10C takes 8. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. Measurement. ©2007 Pearson Education. . All rights reserved.4 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. NJ. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

All rights reserved. G1C3 takes 10. Inc. .. Groover. NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.8 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education.

and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.5 takes 3.8 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. NJ. Upper Saddle River.. Groover. .9)=13. M6B12. Inc. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education.9+1. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.11(8.

and Management of Work by Mikell P. . Measurement. Inc. Upper Saddle River.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover. Round peg in a round hole: S(ymmetrical)  Key inserted in a lock: N(on)S(ymmetrical)  P3NSD takes 53. All rights reserved. NJ.4 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. ©2007 Pearson Education.

Inc. All rights reserved.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Measurement. RL1 takes 2 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. . Groover.

. and Management of Work by Mikell P. All rights reserved. . ©2007 Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Upper Saddle River. Groover.Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. Measurement. NJ.

Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement. . ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. NJ. Upper Saddle River.Work Systems and the Methods.

Upper Saddle River. Measurement. All rights reserved. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P.Work Systems and the Methods. Groover. . ©2007 Pearson Education.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ.

g.. Groover. Handle 2. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Transport 3. ©2007 Pearson Education.  For tasks that are not highly repetitive and cycle times are greater than 1 min  MTM-3 – Third-level PMTS which has four motion categories 1. . NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Some motion elements are ignored (e. Step and foot motions 4. Measurement. Inc..Other MTM Systems  MTM-2 – Second-level PMTS in which basic motion elements are combined into motion aggregates (11 motions)  GET – combines Reach and Grasp  PUT – combines Move and Position  Application speed ratio is about 100. eye movement) Work Systems and the Methods. Bend and arise   Application speed ratio is about 35. All rights reserved.

.hbmaynard. NJ. Maynard and Company (an educational and consulting firm).com) Work Systems and the Methods. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River.B.Maynard Operation Sequence Technique  MOST is a high-level PMTS based on MTM  Same time units as MTM: TMU  Developed around 1967 under the direction of Kjell Zandin  MOST is a product of H. Pittsburgh. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. ©2007 Pearson Education. Pennsylvania (www. Measurement. Inc. All rights reserved.

MOST in the Work Pyramid Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. . Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Measurement. Upper Saddle River.

Groover. hammer. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. screwdriver) Work Systems and the Methods.. parts.g. Upper Saddle River..g. Measurement. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. tools) from one location to another in the workplace  Uses motion aggregates  Called activity sequence models  Three activity sequence models:  General move – object moved freely in space  Controlled move – object remains in contact with a surface  Tool use – use of hand tools (e.Basic MOST  Focused on work involving the movement of objects (e. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education.. .

.Activity Sequence Model  Consists of sequence model parameters. orient)  Standard sequence in General Move: ABGABPA ABG: to get an object. NJ. which correspond roughly to basic motion elements  Sequence model parameters for General Move:  A – Action distance (move hands or feet) – horizontal body motions  B – Body motion (sit. ©2007 Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. A: return to original position Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. Measurement.g. All rights reserved. position. Inc. Groover..Gain control (closely related to grasp)  P – Placement (e. lay aside. stand up) – vertical body motions  G . and Management of Work by Mikell P. ABP: to move the object to a new location.

. NJ.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement. Inc. Groover. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.1 Index = 10 TMU Work Systems and the Methods. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.

P1:lay aside part on table. Normal time: 10*28=280 TMUs Work Systems and the Methods. A0=no motion The sum of index values: 28. B6=bend and arise. returns to his original position. Measurement. G1=gain control of small part. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. A10=return back. Upper Saddle River. and places the part on his worktable. Inc. Solution A10B6G1A10B0P1A0 where A10=walk 5 steps.. B0=no body motion. ©2007 Pearson Education.  . picks up a small part from the floor. All rights reserved. NJ. Groover.Example: General Move  Develop the activity sequence model and determine the normal time for the following work activity: A worker walks 5 steps.

controlled  X-Process time  I-Align  Standard sequence in controlled move: ABGMXIA ABG: to get an object. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. A: to return Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement. Inc. Upper Saddle River. NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P.. .Controlled move  Used when an object is moved through a path that is somehow constrained. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.  M-Move. MXI: to move the object followed by a process time and alignment.

and Management of Work by Mikell P. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. NJ.. Groover. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. .Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement.

M1=pull the lever up 15 cm: X70=process time of . Measurement. G1=gain control of lever. Process time to turn the part is 25 sec.5 indices A3B0G1M1X70I0A0 where A3=walk 2 steps. A0=no motion The sum of index values: 75. NJ. ©2007 . and Management of Work by 10*75=750 TMUs Normal Pearson Education.Inc. grasp the waist-level feed lever on the lathe..  Solution: 25 sec. B0=no body motion. rights= 27 seconds time:Mikell Groover.P. All reserved. I0=no alignment.Example: Controlled move  Develop the activity sequence model and determine the normal time for the following work activity: A worker takes 2 steps. Work Systems and the Methods. pulls up the lever approximately 15 cm to engage the feed.s=69. UpperISBN 0-13-140650-7. Saddle River.

Groover. A: return Example 14.4 (page 387) Work Systems and the Methods. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. *: tool use code. NJ. Upper Saddle River.Tool use  Applies a variety of work situations  F-fasten  L-loosen  C-cut  S-surface treat  M-measure  R-record  T-think Only one is used in a sequence: ABGABP*ABPA ABG: to get the tool. Inc. ABP: put the tool aside. ABP: put the tool in the position. All rights reserved.  . Measurement. ©2007 Pearson Education. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Maxi MOST. Measurement. Upper Saddle River. or Mini MOST to the task Work Systems and the Methods. . ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Inc.Other Versions of MOST  Maxi MOST – for work cycles performed fewer than 150 times per week and there are variations in the cycle  Can be applied to tasks of several hours  Mini MOST – for highly repetitive work cycles performed more than 1500 times per week  Clerical MOST – similar to Basic MOST but designed for clerical tasks  MOST for Windows – Computerized technique that allows user to apply Basic MOST.

Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.. NJ. Groover. . Measurement. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P.Work Systems and the Methods. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

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