8u8Cu uLMl8ALÞ 2Ŧ11Ŧ2011

220070027
LnvL 420 Ŵ PCMLWC8k

8reokpoint ch/orinotion to kemove 4mmonio
lor many yearsţ breakpolnL chlorlnaLlon has been used Lo produce a free chlorlnaLlon resldual ln
drlnklng waLerŦ 1he baslc process of breakpolnL chlorlnaLlon ls LhaL chlorlne reacLs wlLh ammonla ln
four dlfferenL sLages Lo ulLlmaLely produce nlLrogen gasţ hydrogen lonsţ chlorlde lonsţ and posslbly
some nlLrous oxldeţ and some nlLraLeţ as shown ln equaLlons 7Ŵ8 Lhrough 7Ŵ12Ŧ
llrsLţ chlorlne reacLs wlLh waLer Lo yleld hypochlorous and hydrochlorlc acldsť

cl
2
+ n
2
O nOcl - cl
Ŵ
- n
-
(7Ŧ8)
1henţ hypochlorous acld reacLs wlLh ammonlať

nOcl + Nn Nn
2
cl + n
2
O (7Ŧ9)
nOcl + Nn
2
cl Nncl
2
+ n
2
O (7Ŧ10)
nOcl + Nncl
2
Ncl
3
+ n
2
O (7Ŧ11)
nOcl -Ncl
3
N
2
+ N
2
O - NO
3
Ŵ
(7Ŧ12)
8reakpolnL chlorlnaLlon can be used Lo converL ammonla Lo nlLrogen gas ln wasLewaLer LreaLmenLŦ
Poweverţ slnce many subsLances LhaL are sLronger reduclng agenLs Lhan ammonla wlll exerL Lhelr
demandţ Lhls meLhod ls sulLable only lf such subsLances are noL presenL ln slgnlflcanL amounLsŦż1Ž

Comp|ex Iormat|on

1he presenL sLaLe of sLudles of Lhe klneLlcs of complex formaLlon of meLals wlLh organlc llgands ln
analyLlcal chemlsLry ls summarlzedŦ lasL and slow reacLlons of complex formaLlon of lablle and lnerL
complexes are dlscussedŦ1he appllcaLlon of llgand replacemenL and exchange reacLlons of cenLral
aLoms ln Lhe lnner sphere of complex compounds ln specLrophoLomeLrlc analyslsţ solvenL exLracLlon
and subŴsLolchlomeLrlc separaLlon of elemenLs ls descrlbedŦ1he prospecLs of uslng klneLlc regularlLles
of complex formaLlon ln chemlcal analysls are ouLllnedŦż2Ž

keferences

ż1ŽndusLrlal WasLe 1reaLmenL PandbookŤ Second LdlLlonŤ LdlLed by Woodard Ǝ CurranŤ pages 168
ż2ŽklneLlcs of Complex lormaLlon of MeLals WlLh Crganlc Llgands ln AnalyLlcal ChemlsLry Ť LdlLed by
Ŧ ÞŦ Alimarin

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