You are on page 1of 40

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual

HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering



Lab Manual
For Academic Session 2011



ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION
&
UTILIZATION
EE-422












Department of Electrical Engineering
HITEC University Taxila Cantt
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

SAFETY RULES


1. Please don t touch any live parts.
2. Never use an electrical tool in a damp place.
3. Don t carry unnecessary belongings during performance of experiments (like
water bottle, bags etc).
4. Before connecting any leads/wires, make sure power is switched off.
5. In case of an emergency, push the nearby red color emergency switch of the
panel or immediately call for help.
6. In case of electric fire, never put water on it as it will further worsen the
condition; use the class C fire extinguisher.


Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation
(combustion) of fuel. Three basic conditions when
met, fire takes place. These are fuel, oxygen & heat,
absence of any one of the component will extinguish
the fire.





If there is a small electrical fire, be sure to
use only a Class C or multipurpose (ABC)
fire extinguisher, otherwise you might make
the problem worsen.
The letters and symbols are explained in left
figure. Easy to remember words are also
shown.





Don t play with electricity, Treat electricity with respect, it deserves!
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering


HITEC University
Heavy Industries Taxila Education City, Taxila Cantt
Department of Electrical Engineering

LIST OF EXPEREIMENTS
List of Experiments
1. Analysis of different types of cables.
2. Selection of appropriate size of cable for the given load.
3. Using measuring instruments measure the high level of voltage, current and resistance.
4. To study the operation and constructional features of a Distribution Transformer
5. To measure active, reactive and apparent power of a load
6. Power factor improvement with static capacitor.
7. Automatic Reactive Power Controller
8. Determine vector group of a three phase transformer.
9. No load performance of a distribution transformer
10. Load Performance of a distribution Transformer
11. Verifying the Inverse Square Law and compare the difference in output luminescence of
incandescent, fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps.
12. Calculating the Total Cost in a Residential and Commercial or Industrial Bill.
13. To make connections in home electrical wiring from services main to different
distribution boards and electrical points for appliances in a room.
14. To measure Earthing Resistance and Soil resistivity.





Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 1
Power Cables
OBJECTIVE
To dissect the power cable into its distinguished parts.
APPARATUS
Dissected Cables
Vernier Calliper
Screw Gauge
THEORY
A cable is defined as an assembly of conductors and insulators used for the transfer of power
in densely populated urban areas. Cables are mostly laid under the ground in order not to
disturb the land beauty and to avoid using the land for power transmission purposes.
Types of Cables
1. Single Core Cables

2. Double Core Cables

3. Three Core Cables

4. Four Core Cables
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

PARTS OF CABLE
A cable is composed of the following parts;
Core
All cables either have a central core (conductor) or a number of cores made of strands of
Copper or Aluminum conductors having highest conductivity. Conductors are stranded in
order to reduce the skin effect.
Insulation
It is provided to insulate the conductors from each other and from the outside periphery. The
common insulating materials are Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polyethylene.
Metallic Sheath
Metallic Sheath protects the cable against the entry of moisture. It is made of lead, some alloy
of lead or Aluminum

Bedding
In order to protect the metallic sheath from injury, bedding is wound over it. It consists of
paper tape compounded with a fibrous material.
Armoring
It consists of one or two layers of galvanized steel wires or two layers of steel tape, to avoid
the mechanical injury. Armoring provides mechanical strength to the cable.

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
Serving
A layer of fibrous material, used to protect the armoring.
Different constants for copper and aluminum conductors is given below.

EXERCISE:
You are given three cables of unknown cross section: find out the following information
about each cable.

PROCEDURE
Practical demonstration
RESULT
Cables have been studied and their operation is understood.




Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT 2
Select the Appropriate Cable Size
OBJECTIVE
Select the appropriate cable size for the given load.
APPARATUS
Given Load
Cable Tables Book
THEORY
The cable selection procedures set out in this LAB SESSION will give the basic guidelines to
be followed to determine the minimum size of cable required to satisfy a particular
installation condition.
The following three main factors influence the selection of a particular cable to satisfy the
circuit requirements:

(a) Current-carrying capacity dependent upon the method of installation and the presence
of external influences, such as thermal insulation, which restrict the operating temperature of
the cable.
(b) Voltage drop dependent upon the impedance of the cable, the magnitude of the load
current and the load power factor.
(c) Short-circuit temperature limit dependent upon energy produced during the short circuit
condition.
TASK:
Determine the size of cable required & voltage drop in the cable.

SITUATION:
A 150kW, three phase load is supplying from a 400V, 50Hz supply. The circuit is protected
using BSEN 60898 Type B circuit breaker and is situated 150m away from the distribution
board. It is run with two other power circuits and is buried in the ground at a depth of 0.8m.
There the soil resistivity is 1.2 C.m/W. The temperature within the installation can be
assumed to be 30 C. Calculate the size of cable required, assume armored Cu cable is used
here.
DB
150 kW
Load
150 m

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
METHOD:

STEP #01
Determine the current requirements of the circuit. This current is known as Design current,
either specified by the manufacturer or can be calculated by the formulae.

Design Current (IN) = kilo Watt Power (For 1 phase)
Single Phase Voltage x power factor



Design Current (IN) = kilo Watt Power (For 3 phase)
3 x Line Voltage x power factor

If kVA power is given the above formula will change accordingly.
If motor power is given in hp then use the conversion 1hp=746 Watts.

Here,
Design Current (IN) = _______________________ = Amps
STEP #02
Determine the method of cable installation to be used.

Installation Conditions:
The current-carrying capacity of a cable is dependent on the method of installation to maintain the
temperature of the cable within its operating limits. Different methods of installation vary the rate at
which the heat generated by the current flow is dissipated to the surrounding medium.

Specific conditions of installation are there like cables installed with or without wiring enclosures in
air, in the ground or embedded in building materials.

STEP #03

Determine the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the cable installation, where
applicable, like

(i) The ambient air or soil temperature
(ii) The depth of laying rating factor
(iii) The soil thermal resistivity rating factor

Use any cable s table book to find out the correction factor values.
Here, the correction factors from the tables:

Grouping Factor (Cg): _______
Ambient Temperature (Ca): _______
Soil Resistivity Factor (Cr): _______
Depth of laying factor (Cd): _______
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
STEP #04

Apply the correction factors to determine the current carrying capacity (Ic) of the cable by
using the formula.
Current carrying capacity of cable = Design current
Correction Factors

The above factors should be applied according to the design situation.

Current carrying capacity of cable = Design current
Cg x Ca x Cr x Cd

Here,
Current carrying capacity of cable = ________________________
Current carrying capacity of cable = ______________
Minimum cable size = _____________ mm2

Finding the Protective Device Size (IF).

The design current should be no greater than the fuse rating. The fuse rating must be no
greater than the current carrying capacity of the cable. The current carrying capacity of the
cable should not be greater than the tabulated capacity of the cable i.e.

IN IF IC

The Worst-Case Scenario

A cable may experience various different environments along its route. For example it may start
at a switchboard, run through the switch room in a trench with a lid or steel flooring, pass
through a duct in a wall and under a roadway, run a long way directly buried and finish on a
ladder rack at the consumer. At each of these environments the thermal resistivity and ambient
temperature will be different. The environment that causes the most derating of the rated current
should be taken and used for the whole cable.

DETERMINATION OF VOLTAGE DROP FROM MILLI VOLTS PER AMP -
METRE

According to IEE Regulation 522-8 of the 15th edition, it is stipulated that: The voltage drop
within the installation does not exceed a value appropriate to the safe functioning of the
associated equipment in normal service. For final circuits protected by an over current protective
device having a normal current not exceeding 100A, this requirement is deemed to be satisfied if
the drop in voltage from the origin of the circuit to any other point in the circuit does not exceed
2.5 percent of the nominal voltage at the design current, disregarding staring conditions.
The voltage drop can be determine using the following formula 50 for applications where
only the route length and load current of balanced circuits are known.

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering


Voltage Drop (Vd) = L x IN x Vc
1000

where
Vc = The millivolt drop per ampere-metre route length of circuit, as shown in the tables for
various conductors, in millivolts per ampere metre (mV/A.m)
Vd = Actual voltage drop, in volts
L = route length of circuit, in meters
IN = the current to be carried by the cable, in amperes.
Here,
L = 80m

IN = __________ Amps
Vc= __________ mV/A.m

Voltage Drop (Vd) = _________________
1000
Voltage Drop (Vd) = _______ i.e. % of 400V.

Hence the selected cable of mm2 is suitable for normal current of Amps & cable
length of 80m.


EXERCISE:

Repeat the above task

(i) With load 20kW at power factor 0.9.
(ii) With L = 130 m
(iii)Assume unarmored cable is used here installed in air.

Answer:
(i) mm2
(ii) mm2
(iii) mm2









Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 3

Measure the High Level Voltage, Current and Resistance
OBJECTIVE
Using measuring instruments measure the high level of voltage, current and resistance.

APPARATUS
Current Transformer
Potential Transformer
Megger
Clip on Ammeter
THEORY
Current Transformers
Ammeters are employed for measurement of current in
circuits. In high voltage transmission lines, it is more feasible
to use Current Transformers for measurement of current owing
to its higher range of measurement. High values of currents
flowing in the transmission lines serve as the primary circuit of
a current transformer. The high current is stepped down to a
much lower value (normally not more than 5A) which is then
measured by an ordinary ammeter. This way, an ammeter is
not exposed to high currents and voltages.
Potential Transformers
For measurement of high voltages, potential transformers are
commonly used. Difference between the potential transformers and
current transformers is that Current Transformers are connected in
series whereas Potential Transformers are connected in parallel.
Among the available range of PTs and CTs, the selection is based on
the following factors
- Insulation Class
- Primary to Secondary ratio
- Continuous thermal rating
- Service conditions
- Accuracy
Clip On Ammeter
Current is measured only when an ammeter is connected in a circuit in
series. What if the current in any wire connected to a load is required to
be measured. Using an ammeter, we shall first need to disconnect the
load from the source, insert an ammeter and then measure the current.
Instead of doing all this, a clip on ammeter allows current measurement
without disconnecting the line. It operates on the concept of
transformation, as in transformers where flux linkages produce voltages.
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
Megger

Megger is a name given to an instrument used to measure large
values of resistance. Measuring resistance of machines and
devices is very helpful in determining faults like short circuits
etc. Once a machine faces a fault, its internal resistance gets
changed. Machine resistance is regularly monitored in order to
detect any internal faults occurring in the machines and other
devices.
OBSERVATION
Using Clip on Ammeter measure the current of a single phase load.
Sr. No Load Meter Reading Clip on Meter
Reading
Resistive Load 200 W
400W
Capacitive Load 20 F
40 F
60 F
Inductive Load 0.75 H
1.5 H
3 H

Using CT (current Transformer) measure the current of a given load.

CT ratio: ________

Using Megger find the insulation Resistance of
1. A new cable _____________________ found to be___________________
2. An old cable______________________ found to be___________________
3. Across Burnt Motor Terminals______ found to be___________________
4. _________________________________ found to be___________________
RESULT
Working of measuring instruments practically demonstrated.
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 4
Distribution Transformer
OBJECTIVE
To study the operation and constructional features of a Distribution Transformer
APPARATUS
Distribution Transformer
THEORY
Distribution transformer is used to convert electrical energy of higher voltage (usually 11-22-
33kV) to a lower voltage (250 or 433V) with frequency identical before and after the
transformation. Its main application is mainly within suburban areas, public supply authorities
and industrial customers. With given secondary voltage, distribution transformer is usually the
last in the chain of electrical energy supply to households and industrial enterprises.

CONSTRUCTION
There are 3 main parts in the distribution transformer:

Coils/winding where incoming alternating current (through primary winding) generates
magnetic flux, which in turn induces a voltage in the secondary coil.
Magnetic core material allowing transfer of magnetic field generated by primary winding to
secondary winding by the principle of electromagnetic induction.
A transformers core and windings are called its Active Parts. This is because these two are
responsible for transformer s operation.

Tank serving as a mechanical package to protect active parts, as a holding vessel for
transformer oil used for cooling and insulation.

Transformer Accessories
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
Breather
Pressure relief device
Temperature Indicator
Tap Changer etc

SIGNIFICANCE OF VECTOR GROUPS
Three phase machines, such as transformers, are allotted symbols representing the type of phase
connection and the phase angle between the HV and LV terminals. The angle is described by a
clockface
hour figure. The HV vector is taken as 12 o clock, the reference, and the corresponding LV
vector is represented by the hour hand.
For example, a Dy11 represents;
D = HV winding is delta connected
y = LV winding is star connected
11 = clock-face reference indicating that the LV vector is at 11 o clock (30o lead)
with reference to the HV vector.
EXERCISE:
Give the purposes of following parts of Distribution Transformer
1. Bushings
2. Conservator or expansion tank
3. Breather
4. Pressure relief device
5. Tap Changer (OFF Load)












Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT 5
To measure active, reactive and apparent power of a load
Objective
To use voltmeter, ammeter, power factor meter and wattmeter to measure active, reactive and
apparent power of a load.
Apparatus
1. Wattmeter
2. Voltmeter
3. Ammeter
4. Load banks
5. Power factor meter
6. Connecting leads
Theory
In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductance and capacitance may
result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power flow that,
averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one
direction is known as real power (also referred to as active power). That portion of power flow
due to stored energy, that returns to the source in each cycle, is known as reactive power.

The relationship between real power, reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by
representing the quantities as vectors. Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and
reactive power is represented as a vertical vector. The apparent power vector is the hypotenuse of
a right triangle formed by connecting the real and reactive power vectors. This representation is
often called the power triangle. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, the relationship among real,
reactive and apparent power is:
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
(apparent power)
2
= (real power)
2
+ (reactive power)
2

Real and reactive powers can also be calculated directly from the apparent power, when the
current and voltage are both sinusoids with a known phase angle between them:
Real Power = VIcos()
Reactive Power = VIsin()
Power Factor =


=


The ratio of real power to apparent power is called power factor and is a number always between
0 and 1. Where the currents and voltages have non-sinusoidal forms, power factor is generalized
to include the effects of distortion.
Procedure
Connect load and different measuring instruments as shown below.
Load
Power
Factor
Meter
Wattmeter
A
V

Measure supply voltage and load current by using voltmeter and ammeter respectively. Use
power factor meter to measure power factor of load. These measured values will be further used
in above mentioned formulas to calculate different type of powers taken by load.
Results
Sr. No. Load Power
Factor
cos
Active
Power
VIcos
(watts)
Reactive
Power
VIsin
VAR
Apparent
Power
VI (VAs)
Wattmeter
Meter
Reading
(watts)
Resistive

Inductive

Capacitive

Conclusions
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 6
Power factor improvement with static capacitor
Objective
To improve the power factor of the power system by changing capacitance of capacitor banks
connected in parallel with distribution lines.
Apparatus Required
1. Squirrel cage motor (DL 1021)
2. Magnetic power brake (DL 1019P)
3. Magnetic brake control unit (DL 1054TT)
4. Three phase power supply unit (DL 2108TAL)
5. Switchable capacitor battery (DL 2108T20)
6. Wattmeter (DL 2109T26E)
7. Power Factor Meter (DL 2109T27)
8. Ammeter (DL 2108T2A5)
9. Connecting Leads
Theory
A power factor of one or "unity power factor" is the goal of any electric utility company since if
the power factor is less than one, they have to supply more current to the user for a given amount
of power use. In so doing, they incur more line losses. They also must have larger capacity
equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary. As a result, an industrial facility will be
charged a penalty if its power factor is much different from 1.
Industrial facilities tend to have a "lagging power factor", where the current lags the voltage (like
an inductor). This is primarily the result of having a lot of electric induction motors - the
windings of motors act as inductors as seen by the power supply. Capacitors have the opposite
effect and can compensate for the inductive motor windings. Some industrial sites will have
large banks of capacitors strictly for the purpose of correcting the power factor back toward one
to save on utility company charges.
For a DC circuit the power is P=VI, and this relationship also holds for the instantaneous
power in an AC circuit. However, the average power in an AC circuit expressed in terms of the
rms voltage and current is

where is the phase angle between the voltage and current. The additional term is called the
power factor
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

From the phasor diagram for AC impedance, it can be seen that the power factor is R/Z. For a
purely resistive AC circuit, R=Z and the power factor = 1.
Experiment Procedure
Assemble the circuit according to the following topographic diagram. Connect ammeter, power
factor meter and power meter in the same current path. Connect three phase induction motor in
star and set its load as zero by adjusting parameters of magnetic brake. Connect capacitor bank
as shown in schematic diagram. Run the system and check out power factor with out capacitor
bank activation. Step by step increase capacitance and check out its effect on reactive power and
power factor.
Circuit Diagram

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
Results
1) No load operation
M = 0.2 Nm, f = 50 Hz, V = 380 V
Battery Level Qc (var) cos Q (var) I (mains)
A
I Motor
A
1 0
1 90
1+2 270
1+2+3 630
1+2+3+4 1350
2+3+4 1260
3+4 1080
4 720
2) Load Operation
M = 2 Nm, f = 50 Hz, V = 380 V
Battery Level Qc (var) cos Q (var) I (mains)
A
I Motor
A
1 0
1 90
1+2 270
1+2+3 630
1+2+3+4 1350
2+3+4 1260
3+4 1080
4 720

3) Load Operation
M = 3 Nm, f = 50 Hz, V = 380 V
Battery Level Qc (var) cos Q (var) I (mains)
A
I Motor
A
1 0
1 90
1+2 270
1+2+3 630
1+2+3+4 1350
2+3+4 1260
3+4 1080
4 720


Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 7
Automatic Reactive Power Controller
Objective
Automatic operation on the control of reactive power at various inductive loads and at different
sensitivity.
Apparatus Required
1. Squirrel cage motor (DL 1021)
2. Magnetic power brake (DL 1019P)
3. Magnetic brake control unit (DL 1054TT)
4. Three phase power supply unit (DL 2108TAL)
5. Switchable capacitor battery (DL 2108T20)
6. Wattmeter (DL 2109T26E)
7. Power Factor Meter (DL 2109T27)
8. Ammeter (DL 2108T2A5)
9. Reactive Power Controller (DL 2108T19)
10. Connecting Leads
Procedure
Assemble the circuit according to the following topographic diagram. Connect ammeter, power
factor meter and power meter in the same current path. Connect three phase induction motor in
star and set its load as zero by adjusting parameters of magnetic brake. Set the reactive power
controller in automatic operation mode, three phase connection, 5A ammeter circuit, 15s lag of
batteries, 1-2-4-8 batteries sequence, 4 installed batteries. The power factor set point value of the
controller is set to 1 by mean of potentiometer.
At f=50 Hz, U=380V the current of first capacitor battery is;
2
3 3
U U
Ic fc
Xc
t = = = 0.14 A
So the sensitivity can be calculated as;
1
10
Ic
K
In
= = 0.28
Set this value on the controller by mean of K potentiometer, when it is positioned in manual
operation. The toggle switches of battery must be on left side position. Start the motor brake set
and dont activate the brake exciter. The motor runs at no load. As expected the controller
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
executes automatically the calculation of wanting data and through the consequence the complete
summery, to adjust the installation power factor: the controller connects battery 4. Increasing the
load the compensation battery 4 remains always connected. Repeat the above testing for different
sensitivities and no load operation. Stop the motor and dont forget the starter resistance that
must be completely inserted before any activation.
Set controller sensitivity K = 0.2; maximize K potentiometer in ive direction. Start the motor
brake set and dont activate the brake exciter. The motor runs at no load. The controller adjusts
the installation power factor automatically connecting the compensation batteries with a
determined sequence.
Now set controller sensitivity K = 1.2; maximize K potentiometer in +ive direction. Start the
motor brake set and dont activate the brake exciter. The motor runs at no load. The controller
adjusts the installation power factor automatically connecting the compensation batteries with
another determined sequence (2/3/2 + 3/1 + 2 + 3/4).
Circuit Diagram

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

EXPERIMENT 8
Vector Group of a Distribution Transformer
Objective
Determine vector group of a three phase transformer.
Apparatus Required
1. Three phase power supply (DL 1013T1)
2. Three phase transformer (DL 1080TT)
3. Voltmeter (DL 2109T3PV)
Procedure
Initially assemble the circuit according to the following topographic diagram. Connect terminal
1U2 (capital A) with terminal 2U6 (lower case letter a), terminal 1V2 with capital B and 1W2
with capital C, terminal 2V6 with lower case letter b and 2W6 with lower case letter c.
Adjust the supply voltage in order to obtain a phase-to-neutral primary voltage of about 100 V.

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
In sequence measure the following voltages;
UCc = .. (V)
UCb = .. (V)
UBc = .. (V)
UBb = .. (V)
Compared the measured values in the following order;
UCc .UCb
UCc..UBc
UBb..UCb
UBb..UBc
UCb...UBc
Use the group table and determine the vector group of its connection. Shut-off the supply voltage
and assemble a new connection according to the following topographic diagram, modify only the
secondary connections.
Connect terminal 1U2 (capital A) with terminal 2U1 (lower a). Now match terminal 2V1 with
lower case letter b and 2W1 with lower case letter c.
Repeat the above measurements:
UCc = .. (V)
UCb = .. (V)
UBc = .. (V)
UBb = .. (V)
Compared the measured values in the following order;
UCc .UCb
UCc..UBc
UBb..UCb
UBb..UBc
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
UCb...UBc
Use the group table and determine the vector group of its connection.























Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 9
No load performance of a distribution transformer
Objective
To determine voltage transformation ratio and equivalent circuit quantities based on consumed
active and reactive power.
Apparatus Required
1. Three phase power supply (DL 1013T1)
2. Three phase transformer (DL 1080TT)
3. Power meter (DL 2109T26)
4. Ammeter (DL2109T1A)
5. Voltmeter (DL 2109T3PV)
Procedure
Assemble the circuit according to the following topographic diagram. Measurements are
conducted on one phase of transformer, dont connect phases L2 and L3. Set primary side of
three phase transformer in star connection 380V, the secondary side in star connection and
tertiary side left open. Adjust the supply voltage in order to obtain the nominal voltage (phase-to-
neutral voltage 220V) at the primary side of three phase transformer. This value must be kept
constant for all the measurements. Measure the no load voltage U2 on the secondary side of three
phase transformer for every indicated tap. Enter the measured values in the following table and
calculate the transformation ratio;
n12 = U1/U2
U1 (V) 220 220 220 220 220
Tap

U2 (V)

n12
U
N
+ 5% U
N
U
N
- 5% U
N
- 10% U
N
- 15%

The calculated value of transformation ratio reflects the approximate value of the winding turn
ratio w1/w2 of the winding taps used.
Without changing any of the relationship on the primary side use the voltmeter of the secondary
side to measure the voltage at the tertiary side (terminals 3U1 3U2).
Find out the transformation ratio n13 = U1/U3.
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
U1 (V) U3 (V) n13

220



Now remove the voltmeter on the secondary or tertiary side in order to refrain from distorting the
measurement results of no load current and active power consumed by the transformer.
Adjust again the supply voltage in order to obtain the nominal voltage at the primary side of
three phase transformer and measure the following quantities;
U1 (V) I
10
(mA) P
10
(W) Cos 0

220



Calculate the power factor on primary side by using the following expression;
Cos 0 = P
10
/(U
1
. I
10
)
At nominal voltage calculate the active and reactive components of the no-load current according
to the following expressions:
I
FE
= I
10
.Cos 0 =.. (mA)
I = I
10
.sin 0 =..(mA)
Now calculate the iron resistance and magnetizing reactance by using following expressions:

R
FE
= U1/ I
FE
= .()
X
h
= U1/ I = ()
Now also connect phases L2 and L3 and measure the transformation ratio at U
N
value on the
secondary side for a primary voltage supply of 380 V.
U1 = 220 V U2 = ..(V)
n12 = 220/U2 =


Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
After disconnecting the voltmeter on the secondary side measure the no load current I
10
and the
consumed active power P
10
.
I
10
= (mA)
P
10
=(W)
Circuit Diagram





Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 10
Load Performance of a distribution Transformer
Objective
- Measuring the effect of load type and magnitude on the performance of secondary
voltage
- Determining the efficiency of transformer
Apparatus required
1. Three phase power supply (DL 1013T1)
2. Three phase transformer (DL 1080TT)
3. Power meter (DL 2109T26)
4. Resistive load (DL 1017R)
5. Inductive load (DL 1017L)
6. Capacitive load (DL 1017C)
7. Ammeter (DL2109T1A)
8. Voltmeter (DL 2109T3PV)
Procedure
Assemble the circuit diagram in accordance with the following topographic diagram. Set the
primary side of transformer in star connection 380 V (phase voltage 220 V) and the secondary
side with Un = 220 V winding tap in star connection. First of all connect the resistive load in star
connection. Before starting the measurements the load is set to zero. Adjust the supply voltage in
order to obtain the nominal no load phase to neutral voltage U
20
= 220 V.
Beginning from R1, reduce the value of resistive load in steps until R6 value. For each step
measure the load voltage U2 and current I2 as well as active power absorbed P1 at primary and
P2 at secondary side.





Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
Enter the measured values in the following table and calculate the voltage drop on secondary
side after applying load and efficiency.
Load U
20
(V) U
2
(V) U(V) I
2
(A) P
1
(W) P
2
(W) (%)
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
220
220
220
220
220
220


Plot power vs. efficiency.
Now resistive load is first replaced with inductive and then with capacitive load. The above
measurements are repeated in the same fashion for the indicated three phase inductive and
capacitive loads.
The measurements of active power levels can be omitted here due to the fact that the inductive or
capacitive load consumes almost exclusively reactive power.
Enter the measured values in the following tables.
Inductive load
Load U
20
(V) U
2
(V) U(V) I
2
(A)
L3
L4
L5
L6
L7
220
220
220
220
220


Capacitive Load
Load U
20
(V) U
2
(V) U(V) I
2
(A)
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
220
220
220
220
220


Results

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 11
Luminescence
OBJECTIVE
Verifying the Inverse Square Law and compare the difference in output luminescence of
incandescent, fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps.
APPARATUS
1. A wooden board
2. Connecting wires
3. Fluorescent Light
4. Incandescent Light
5. LUX Meter

Theory
INVERSE SQUARE LAW
The inverse-square law, which states that the luminance at a point on a surface
perpendicular to the light ray is equal to the luminous intensity of the source at that point
divided by the square of the distance between the source and the point of calculation.
E = I/D
2


Where:
E= Illuminance in footcandles
I = Luminous intensity in candles
D= Distance in feet between the source and the point of calculation


INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULBS

Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) which is filled with an
inert gas to reduce evaporation of the filament. Inside the bulb is a filament of tungsten wire, through
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
which an electric current is passed. The current heats the filament to an extremely high temperature
(typically 2000 K to 3300 K depending on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current
passed through). The heated filament emits light that approximates a continuous spectrum. The
useful part of the emitted energy is visible light, but most energy is given off in the near-infrared
wavelengths.

FLOURESCENT TUBE LIGHT
A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury
vapor. The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to
fluoresce, producing visible light.
Compared with incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps use less power for the same amount of light,
generally last longer, but are bulkier, more complex, and more expensive than a comparable
incandescent lamp.









Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL; also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light,
and compact fluorescent tube) is a fluorescent lampdesigned to replace an incandescent lamp; some
types fit into light fixtures formerly used for incandescent lamps.
Compared to general-service incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light, CFLs use
less power (typically one fifth) and have a longer rated life (six to ten times average). In most
countries, a CFL has a higher purchase price than an incandescent lamp, but can save over five times
its purchase price in electricity costs over the lamp's lifetime. Like all fluorescent lamps, CFLs
contain mercury, which complicates their disposal. In many countries, governments have established
recycling schemes for CFLs and glass generally.
CFLs radiate a light spectrum that is different from that of incandescent lamps.
Improved phosphor formulations have improved the perceived colour of the light emitted by CFLs,
such that some sources rate the best "soft white" CFLs as subjectively similar in colour to standard
incandescent lamps.








PROCDUERE & CALCULATIONS
Place different lamps on the wooden board & calculate the LUX level at different point (Approx
Results only due to some unavoidable problems).

Results
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 12
Calculating the Total Cost in a Residential and Commercial or Industrial Bill
OBJECTIVES
- You are given an Industrial or commercial Bill
- Calculate the total energy cost of the utility bill.
- Explain the terms used in the bill
- Perform Exercise in the end of the Lab Session

Theory
The rates of utility companies are based upon the following guidelines:
1. The amount of energy consumed [kWh]
2. The demand rate at which energy is consumed [kW]
3. The power factor of the load.

The amount of energy consumed is measured by Energy meter and the demand of the system
during the demand interval is measured by Demand meter.

What is The Difference Between Demand and Consumption?
Demand is how much power you require at a single point in time, measured in
kilowatts (kW).
Consumption is how much energy you use over a period of time, measured in
kilowatt-hours (kWh).
Example: assume ten lights are turned on each with a 100-watt bulb. To accomplish
this, you must draw - or demand - 1,000 watts, or 1 kW of electricity from the power
grid. If you leave all ten lights on for two hours, you would consume 2 kWh of
electricity.

Demand Measurement
Demand varies by customer and month. To record demand, a special meter tracks the
flow of electricity to a facility over a period of time, usually 30-minute intervals.
Over the course of a month, the 30-minute interval with the highest demand is
recorded and reflected on a monthly bill.
Minimum Charges means a charge to recover the costs for providing customer service to
consumers even if no energy is consumed during the month.
Fixed Charges means the part of sale rate in a two-part tariff to be recovered on the basis of
Billing Demand in kilowatt on monthly basis.
Variable Charge means the sale rate per kilowatt-hour (kWh) as a single rate or part of a
two-part tariff applicable to the actual kWh consumed by the consumer during a billing
period.
Maximum Demand where applicable , means the maximum of the demand obtained in any
month measured over successive periods each of 30 minutes duration.
Sanctioned Load where applicable means the installed load in kilowatt as applied for by the
consumer and allowed/authorized by the Company for usage by the consumer.
Power Factor shall be to the ratio of kWh to KVAh recorded during the month or the ratio of
kWh to the square root of sum of square of kWh and kVARh,.
Formulae to be used:
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
1. Energy Charges (Rs) = No. of Units x energy charges (Rs/kWh)
2. Fuel Adjustment Charges (Rs) = No. of Units x energy charges (Rs/kWh)
3. Fixed Charges (Rs)
If MXD>50% of connected load
then
Fix Charges (Rs) = Fix charges rates x MXD
If MXD<50% of connected load
then
Fix Charges (Rs) = Fix charges rates x 50% of connected load
4. Additional Surcharge
Additional Surcharge (Rs) = No. of Units x Additional surcharge (Rs/kWh)
5. Income Tax
Applicable on Taxable Amount
Taxable Amount = Energy Charges + Fuel Adjustment Charges + Additional Surcharge +
Fixed Charges + Electricty Duty + Meter Rent + P.f Penalty
6. Sales Tax
Sales Tax = some percent of Taxable amount (See Tarrifs)






























Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 13
Home Electrical Wiring
OBJECTIVE
To make connections in home electrical wiring from services main to different
distribution boards and electrical points for appliances in a room.
APPARATUS
- A large wooden board
- Kilo Watt-hour Meter
- Wires & Cables
- Switches & Sockets
- Bulbs& Fans
THEORY
Designing the home electrical wiring needs careful consideration because of safety. For wiring in
residential buildings or industrial buildings, wiring layout should be first prepared on the drawing
board. The number of light and power points in a building is determined not only by its size, but is
also a matter of individual preference especially in the case of residential buildings and as such the
owner should be consulted for this. The number of outlets should be adequate to ensure convenient
hooking up of the various electric operated gadgets & appliances. Minimum four outlets one per wall
should be provided in each room. Lamps & motors should normally be wires on different circuits.

EXERCISE
Make connection of the three phase watt hour meter with the service main and
distribute the three-phase incoming service main & neural wire to different
distribution boards & electrical points (for appliances) in different rooms of
the house.
Select cables for them.
Measure the total energy.
Also draw the circuit diagram on AUTOCAD using the standard symbols of
switch fan bulb etc.

Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering
EXPERIMENT 14
Earthing
OBJECTIVE
To measure Earthing Resistance and Soil resistivity.
APPARATUS
- Earth Resistance Tester
- Hammer
- Measuring Tape
THEORY
Earthing provides protection to personnel and equipment by ensuring operation of protective
control gear and isolation of the faulted circuit in the following cases.
Insulation puncture or failure
Breakdown of insulation between primary & secondary windings of a transformer.
Lighting stroke
Ensuring low earth resistance is important in earthing
process. In case where protection against the faulted list is
provided by mean of fuse or a circuit breaker, the total
resistance of the earth path must be low enough to enable the
operation of the protective device.
The earth electrode resistance depends upon the electrical
resistivity of the soil in which the electrode is installed,
which in turn is determined by the following factors:
1. Nature of soil
2. Extent of moisture
3. Presence of suitable salts dissolved in moisture.
TYPES OF EARTH ELECTRODES
- Rod & Pipe Electrodes
- Plate Electrodes
- Strip or Round Conductor Electrodes

Plate Electrodes:
Plate electrodes consist of copper, cast iron or steel plate.
The minimum thickness of plate is recommended as
For cast iron - 12mm
For GI or steel - 6.3mm
For Copper - 3.15mm
And size not less than 600mm x 600mm.
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

The approximate resistance to ground in a uniform soil can be expressed by
4 2
R
A
t
= O
where p = resistivity of soil, considered uniform in m.
A= area of each side of the plate in m
2

Rod & Pipe Electrodes:
This type of earthing is more suited for a soil possessing high resistivity and the electrode is
required to be longer & driven deeper into the soil to obtain a lower resistance to ground.
The diameter, thickness and length of the pipe is recommended as follows:
Cast iron (CI) pipes - 100mm (internal diameter), 2.5 to 3 m (long), 13mm
thick.
MS pipes - 38 to 50mm (internal diameter), 2.5 to 3 m (long),
13mm thick
Copper -13,16 or 19mm diameter, 1.22 to 2.44m long.
Electrical Power Distribution & Utilization Lab Manual
HITEC University Taxila Cantt Department of Electrical Engineering

In this case, the approximate resistance to ground in a uniform soil can be expressed by:
100 8
ln 1
2* *
l
R
l d

t
| |
= O
|
\ .

where
R= Resistance in
l = length of pipe in cm
d = internal diameter of pipe in cm
Resistivity of Soil:
Type of soil Average resistivity ( )
1. Wet organic soil 10
2. Moist Soil 100
3. Dry Soil 1000
4. Bed rock 10000
It has been found that the resistivity of the soil can be reduces by a chemical treatment with
the following salts.
Normal Salt (NaCl) and a mixture of salt & soft coke.
MgSO4
CuSO4