1. INTRODUCTION TO CFD 1.1 What is computational fluid dynamics? 1.2 Basic principles of CFD 1.
3 Forms of the governing fluid-flow equations 1.4 The main discretisation methods Appendix Examples
1.1 What is Computational Fluid Dynamics? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of computers and numerical methods to solve problems involving fluid flow. CFD has been successfully applied in many areas of fluid mechanics. These include aerodynamics of cars and aircraft, hydrodynamics of ships, flow through pumps and turbines, combustion and heat transfer, chemical engineering. Applications in civil engineering include wind loading, vibration of structures, wind and wave energy, ventilation, fire and explosion hazards, dispersion of pollutants and effluent, wave loading on coastal and offshore structures, hydraulic structures such as weirs and spillways, sediment transport. More specialist CFD applications include ocean currents, weather forecasting, plasma physics, blood flow, heat dissipation from electronic circuitry. This range of applications is very broad and involves many different fluid phenomena. In particular, the CFD techniques used for high-speed aerodynamics (where compressibility is significant but viscous effects are often unimportant) are very different from those used to solve low-speed, frictional flows typical of mechanical and civil engineering. Although many elements of this course are generally applicable, the focus will be on simulating viscous, incompressible flow by the finite-volume method.
1.2 Basic Principles of CFD The approximation of a continuously-varying quantity in terms of values at a finite number of points is called discretisation. control-volume).3 Forms of the Governing Fluid-Flow Equations The equations governing fluid motion are based on fundamental physical principles: • mass: change of mass = 0 • momentum: change of momentum = force × time • energy: change of energy = work + heat Additional equations may apply for non-homogeneous fluids (e. …) are approximated by their values at a finite number of nodes.g. field variables ( .
.e. flow rates. The equations of motion are discretised (approximated in terms of values at nodes): control-volume or differential equations algebraic equations (continuous) (discrete) The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved to give values at the nodes. • differential forms. w.e. Solving: – discretisation of the governing equations.
The main stages in a CFD simulation are: Pre-processing: – formulation of the problem (governing equations and boundary conditions). v. – solution of the resulting algebraic equations. p. – construction of a computational mesh (set of nodes and control volumes). containing dissolved chemicals or imbedded particles). )
The fundamental simulation are: (1)
The flow field is discretised. When applied to a fluid continuum all these conservation equations may be expressed mathematically in equivalent: • integral (i. u. – analysis of results (calculation of derived quantities: forces. Post-processing: – visualisation (graphs and plots of the solution). . i...
momentum. instead of dealing with lots of different equations we can consider the numerical solution of a generic scalar-transport equation (Section 4). The finite-difference method is based on the direct approximation of a differential form of the governing equations. where it will also be shown that there are several different ways of writing these differential equations. irrespective of whether the physical quantity concerned is mass. the fluid-flow equations can also be written in equivalent differential forms. Mathematically.3.
1. These describe what is going on at a point rather than over a whole control volume. The finite-volume method. …) within a specified region of space (control volume).1.
RATE OF CHANGE + ADVECTION + DIFFUSION = SOURCE through boundary of V inside V inside V
The important point is that this is a single. they can be derived by making the control volumes infinitesimally small. chemical content.1 Integral (Control-Volume) Approach This considers changes to the total amount of some physical quantity (mass. energy. momentum. which is the subject of this course. This will be demonstrated in Section 2. diffusion – net transport by random (molecular or turbulent) motion. For an arbitrary control volume the balance of a physical quantity over an interval of time is change = amount in − amount out + amount created In fluid mechanics this is usually expressed in rate form by dividing by the time interval (and transferring the net amount passing through the boundary to the LHS of the equation): RATE OF CHANGE + NET FLUX = SOURCE (1) out of boundary inside V inside V The rate of transport across a surface or flux is composed of: advection – movement with the fluid flow.
. etc.3. generic equation. Thus. is based on approximating these control-volume equations. interfaces or other discontinuities.2 Differential Equations In regions without shocks.
• general-purpose codes can be used for a wide variety of physical problems. The finite-volume method is popular in fluid mechanics because: • it rigorously enforces conservation.j-1
(ii) Finite-Volume Method Discretise the governing integral or control-volume equations. u i +1. The finite-element method is popular in solid mechanics (geotechnics.g. (4) The discretised equations are solved numerically.
Finite-difference and finite-element methods are covered in more detail in the Computational Mechanics course. e. etc. (1) A flow geometry is defined. structures) because: • it has considerable geometric flexibility.e. (3) The control-volume equations are discretised – i.
. net mass outflow = ( uA) e − ( uA) w + ( vA) n − ( vA) s = 0
vn ue vs
(iii) Finite-Element Method Express the solution as a weighted sum of shape functions S (x). e.g.j i. In the finite-volume method .. • it is directly relatable to physical quantities (mass flux.j+1
(i) Finite-Difference Method
i-1. This course will focus on the finite-volume method. approximated in terms of values at nodes – to form a set of algebraic equations.. j − u i −1..). (2) The flow domain is decomposed into a set of control volumes or cells called a computational mesh or grid. j −1 ∂u ∂v ≈ + 0 = + ∂x ∂y 2∆x 2∆y
i. e. for velocity: u (x) = ∑ u S (x) Substitute into some form of the governing equations and solve for the coefficients (aka degrees of freedom or weights) u .4 The Main Discretisation Methods
i. j +1 − vi .1.j i+1.g.j
Discretise the governing differential equations. • it is flexible in terms of both geometry and the variety of fluid phenomena. j vi .
if vertical acceleration is much smaller than g. (3) can be written p* ≡ p + gz = constant (4) p* is called the piezometric pressure. CFD 1–5 David Apsley
. density and temperature are connected by an equation of state. or. u3) velocity p pressure (p – patm is the gauge pressure. (in this course z is usually vertical) t time Field variables: u ≡ (u. x2. gravitational forces can be eliminated entirely from the equations by working with the piezometric pressure. pressure forces balance weight.g. Dynamics The equations governing fluid motion are based on the following fundamental principles: • mass: change of mass = 0 • momentum: change of momentum = force × time • energy: change of energy = work + heat and for non-homogeneous fluids: • conservation of individual constituents. Pressure. as an approximation. y. For a constant-density flow without a free surface. This can be written mathematically as dp =− g (3) p=− g z or dz The same equation also holds in a moving fluid if there is no vertical acceleration. ideal gas law: p = RT . w) or (u1. p* = p + gz is the piezometric pressure. m is the molar mass and T is the absolute temperature. x3) position. Notation Position/time: x ≡ (x. combining the effects of pressure and weight. If density is constant. Mechanical Principles Statics At rest. z) or (x1. e. u2.) T temperature φ concentration (amount per unit mass or per unit volume) Fluid properties: density dynamic viscosity ( ≡ / is the kinematic viscosity) diffusivity
A2. v.APPENDIX A1. R = R0 /m (5) where R0 is the universal gas constant.
calculate: (a) the initial concentration of gas in ppm by mass. What is the mass flux C across the surfaces S1 and S2?
Q2.5 m s–1 through an aperture of 6 m2. Neglect gravity and friction. (For air. Water (density 1000 kg m–3) flows at 2 m s–1 through a circular pipe of diameter 10 cm.)
Q4. The river is 5 m wide. density = 1. A burst pipe at a factory causes a chemical to seep into a river at a rate of 2. 2 m deep and flows at 0.20 kg m–3.Examples The following simple examples develop the notation and control-volume framework to be used in the rest of the course. A water jet strikes normal to a fixed plate (see left).5 kg hr–1. Assuming the laboratory air to be well-mixed and to be vented at a speed of 0. (b) the time taken to reach a safe concentration of 1 ppm. A fire in the Pariser hydraulics laboratory released 2 kg of a toxic gas into a room of dimensions 30 m × 8 m × 5 m.3 m s–1.
Q3. and compute the force F required to hold the plate fixed. What is the average concentration of the chemical (in kg m–3) downstream of the spill?